Mrs. Beeton

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tureen garlanded with ferns

SOUPS.
CHAPTER V.

GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING SOUPS.

88. Lean, juicy Beef, Mutton, and Veal, form the basis of all good soups; therefore it is advisable to procure those pieces which afford the richest succulence, and such as are fresh-killed. Stale meat renders them bad, and fat is not so well adapted for making them. The principal art in composing good rich soup, is so to proportion the several ingredients that the flavour of one shall not predominate over another, and that all the articles of which it is composed, shall form an agreeable whole. To accomplish this, care must be taken that the roots and herbs are perfectly well cleaned, and that the water is proportioned to the quantity of meat and other ingredients. Generally a quart of water may be allowed to a pound of meat for soups, and half the quantity for gravies. In making soups or gravies, gentle stewing or simmering is incomparably the best. It may be remarked, however, that a really good soup can never be made but in a well-closed vessel, although, perhaps, greater wholesomeness is obtained by an occasional exposure to the air. Soups will, in general, take from three to six hours doing, and are much better prepared the day before they are wanted. When the soup is cold, the fat may be much more easily and completely removed; and when it is poured off, care must be taken not to disturb the settlings at the bottom of the vessel, which are so fine that they will escape through a sieve. A tamis is 48 the best strainer, and if the soup is strained while it is hot, let the tamis or cloth be previously soaked in cold water. Clear soups must be perfectly transparent, and thickened soups about the consistence of cream. To thicken and give body to soups and gravies, potato-mucilage, arrow-root, bread-raspings, isinglass, flour and butter, barley, rice, or oatmeal, in a little water rubbed well together, are used. A piece of boiled beef pounded to a pulp, with a bit of butter and flour, and rubbed through a sieve, and gradually incorporated with the soup, will be found an excellent addition. When the soup appears to be too thin or too weak, the cover of the boiler should be taken off, and the contents allowed to boil till some of the watery parts have evaporated; or some of the thickening materials, above mentioned, should be added. When soups and gravies are kept from day to day in hot weather, they should be warmed up every day, and put into fresh scalded pans or tureens, and placed in a cool cellar. In temperate weather, every other day may be sufficient.

89. Various Herbs and Vegetables are required for the purpose of making soups and gravies. Of these the principal are,—Scotch barley, pearl barley, wheat flour, oatmeal, bread-raspings, pease, beans, rice, vermicelli, macaroni, isinglass, potato-mucilage, mushroom or mushroom ketchup, champignons, parsnips, carrots, beetroot, turnips, garlic, shalots, and onions. Sliced onions, fried with butter and flour till they are browned, and then rubbed through a sieve, are excellent to heighten the colour and flavour of brown soups and sauces, and form the basis of many of the fine relishes furnished by the cook. The older and drier the onion, the stronger will be its flavour. Leeks, cucumber, or burnet vinegar; celery or celery-seed pounded. The latter, though equally strong, does not impart the delicate sweetness of the fresh vegetable; and when used as a substitute, its flavour should be corrected by the addition of a bit of sugar. Cress-seed, parsley, common thyme, lemon thyme, orange thyme, knotted marjoram, sage, mint, winter savoury, and basil. As fresh green basil is seldom to be procured, and its fine flavour is soon lost, the best way of preserving the extract is by pouring wine on the fresh leaves.

90. For the Seasoning of Soups, bay-leaves, tomato, tarragon, chervil, burnet, allspice, cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, clove, mace, black and white pepper, essence of anchovy, lemon-peel, and juice, and Seville orange-juice, are all taken. The latter imparts a finer flavour than the lemon, and the acid is much milder. These materials, with wine, mushroom ketchup, Harvey’s sauce, tomato sauce, combined in various proportions, are, with other ingredients, manipulated into an almost endless variety of excellent soups and gravies. Soups, which are intended to constitute the principal part of a meal, certainly ought not to be flavoured like sauces, which are only designed to give a relish to some particular dish.

49 E

SOUP, BROTH, AND BOUILLON.

91. It has been asserted, that English cookery is, nationally speaking, far from being the best in the world. More than this, we have been frequently told by brilliant foreign writers, half philosophers, half chefs, that we are the worst cooks on the face of the earth, and that the proverb which alludes to the divine origin of food, and the precisely opposite origin of its preparers, is peculiarly applicable to us islanders. Not, however, to the inhabitants of the whole island; for, it is stated in a work which treats of culinary operations, north of the Tweed, that the “broth” of Scotland claims, for excellence and wholesomeness, a very close second place to the bouillon, or common soup of France. “Three hot meals of broth and meat, for about the price of ONE roasting joint,” our Scottish brothers and sisters get, they say; and we hasten to assent to what we think is now a very well-ascertained fact. We are glad to note, however, that soups of vegetables, fish, meat, and game, are now very frequently found in the homes of the English middle classes, as well as in the mansions of the wealthier and more aristocratic; and we take this to be one evidence, that we are on the right road to an improvement in our system of cookery. One great cause of many of the spoilt dishes and badly-cooked meats which are brought to our tables, arises, we think, and most will agree with us, from a non-acquaintance with “common, every-day things.” Entertaining this view, we intend to preface the chapters of this work with a simple scientific résumé of all those causes and circumstances which relate to the food we have to prepare, and the theory and chemistry of the various culinary operations. Accordingly, this is the proper place to treat of the quality of the flesh of animals, and describe some of the circumstances which influence it for good or bad. We will, therefore, commence with the circumstance of age, and examine how far this affects the quality of meat.

92. During the period between the Birth and Maturity of Animals, their flesh undergoes very considerable changes. For instance, when the animal is young, the fluids which the tissues of the muscles contain, possess a large proportion of what is called albumen. This albumen, which is also the chief component of the white of eggs, possesses the peculiarity of coagulating or hardening at a certain temperature, like the white of a boiled egg, into a soft, white fluid, no longer soluble, or capable of being dissolved in water. As animals grow older, this peculiar animal matter gradually decreases, in proportion to the other constituents of the juice of the flesh. Thus, the reason why veal, lamb, and young pork are white, and without gravy when cooked, is, that the large quantity of albumen they contain hardens, or becomes coagulated. On the other hand, the reason why beef and mutton 50 are brown, and have gravy, is, that the proportion of albumen they contain, is small, in comparison with their greater quantity of fluid which is soluble, and not coagulable.

93. The Quality of the Flesh of an Animal is considerably influenced by the nature of the food on which it has been fed; for the food supplies the material which produces the flesh. If the food be not suitable and good, the meat cannot be good either; just as the paper on which these words are printed, could not be good, if the rags from which it is made, were not of a fine quality. To the experienced in this matter, it is well known that the flesh of animals fed on farinaceous produce, such as corn, pulse, &c., is firm, well-flavoured, and also economical in the cooking; that the flesh of those fed on succulent and pulpy substances, such as roots, possesses these qualities in a somewhat less degree; whilst the flesh of those whose food contains fixed oil, as linseed, is greasy, high coloured, and gross in the fat, and if the food has been used in large quantities, possessed of a rank flavour.

94. It is indispensable to the Good Quality of Meat, that the animal should be perfectly healthy at the time of its slaughter. However slight the disease in an animal may be, inferiority in the quality of its flesh, as food, is certain to be produced. In most cases, indeed, as the flesh of diseased animals has a tendency to very rapid putrefaction, it becomes not only unwholesome, but absolutely poisonous, on account of the absorption of the virus of the unsound meat into the systems of those who partake of it. The external indications of good and bad meat will be described under its own particular head, but we may here premise that the lyer of all wholesome meat, when freshly killed, adheres firmly to the bone.

95. Another Circumstance greatly Affecting the Quality of Meat, is the animal’s treatment before it is slaughtered. This influences its value and wholesomeness in no inconsiderable degree. It will be easy to understand this, when we reflect on those leading principles by which the life of an animal is supported and maintained. These are, the digestion of its food, and the assimilation of that food into its substance. Nature, in effecting this process, first reduces the food in the stomach to a state of pulp, under the name of chyme, which passes into the intestines, and is there divided into two principles, each distinct from the other. One, a milk-white fluid,—the nutritive portion,—is absorbed by innumerable vessels which open upon the mucous membrane, or inner coat of the intestines. These vessels, or absorbents, discharge the fluid into a common duct, or road, along which it is conveyed to the large veins in the neighbourhood of the heart. Here it is mixed with the venous blood (which is black and impure) returning from every part of the body, and then it supplies the waste which is occasioned in the circulating stream by the arterial (or pure) blood having furnished matter for the substance of the animal. The blood of the animal having completed its course through all parts, and having had its waste recruited by the digested food, is now received 51 into the heart, and by the action of that organ it is urged through the lungs, there to receive its purification from the air which the animal inhales. Again returning to the heart, it is forced through the arteries, and thence distributed, by innumerable ramifications, called capillaries, bestowing to every part of the animal, life and nutriment. The other principle—the innutritive portion—passes from the intestines, and is thus got rid of. It will now be readily understood how flesh is affected for bad, if an animal is slaughtered when the circulation of its blood has been increased by over-driving, ill-usage, or other causes of excitement, to such a degree of rapidity as to be too great for the capillaries to perform their functions, and causing the blood to be congealed in its minuter vessels. Where this has been the case, the meat will be dark-coloured, and become rapidly putrid; so that self-interest and humanity alike dictate kind and gentle treatment of all animals destined to serve as food for man.

THE CHEMISTRY AND ECONOMY OF SOUP-MAKING.

96. Stock being the Basis of all meat soups, and, also, of all the principal sauces, it is essential to the success of these culinary operations, to know the most complete and economical method of extracting, from a certain quantity of meat, the best possible stock or broth. The theory and philosophy of this process we will, therefore, explain, and then proceed to show the practical course to be adopted.

97. As all Meat is principally composed of fibres, fat, gelatine, osmazome, and albumen, it is requisite to know that the FIBRES are inseparable, constituting almost all that remains of the meat after it has undergone a long boiling.

98. Fat is dissolved by boiling; but as it is contained in cells covered by a very fine membrane, which never dissolves, a portion of it always adheres to the fibres. The other portion rises to the surface of the stock, and is that which has escaped from the cells which were not whole, or which have burst by boiling.

99. Gelatine is soluble: it is the basis and the nutritious portion of the stock. When there is an abundance of it, it causes the stock, when cold, to become a jelly.

100. Osmazome is soluble even when cold, and is that part of the meat which gives flavour and perfume to the stock. The flesh of old animals contains more osmazome than that of young ones. Brown meats contain more than white, and the former make the stock more fragrant. By roasting meat, the osmazome appears to acquire higher properties; so, by putting the remains of roast meats into your stock-pot, you obtain a better flavour.

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101. Albumen is of the nature of the white of eggs; it can be dissolved in cold or tepid water, but coagulates when it is put into water not quite at the boiling-point. From this property in albumen, it is evident that if the meat is put into the stock-pot when the water boils, or after this is made to boil up quickly, the albumen, in both cases, hardens. In the first it rises to the surface, in the second it remains in the meat, but in both it prevents the gelatine and osmazome from dissolving; and hence a thin and tasteless stock will be obtained. It ought to be known, too, that the coagulation of the albumen in the meat, always takes place, more or less, according to the size of the piece, as the parts farthest from the surface always acquire that degree of heat which congeals it before entirely dissolving it.

102. Bones ought always to form a component part of the stock-pot. They are composed of an earthy substance,—to which they owe their solidity,—of gelatine, and a fatty fluid, something like marrow. Two ounces of them contain as much gelatine as one pound of meat; but in them, this is so incased in the earthy substance, that boiling water can dissolve only the surface of whole bones. By breaking them, however, you can dissolve more, because you multiply their surfaces; and by reducing them to powder or paste, you can dissolve them entirely; but you must not grind them dry. We have said (99) that gelatine forms the basis of stock; but this, though very nourishing, is entirely without taste; and to make the stock savoury, it must contain osmazome. Of this, bones do not contain a particle; and that is the reason why stock made entirely of them, is not liked; but when you add meat to the broken or pulverized bones, the osmazome contained in it makes the stock sufficiently savoury.

103. In concluding this part of our subject, the following condensed hints and directions should be attended to in the economy of soup-making:—

I. Beef makes the best Stock; veal stock has less colour and taste; whilst mutton sometimes gives it a tallowy smell, far from agreeable, unless the meat has been previously roasted or broiled. Fowls add very little to the flavour of stock, unless they be old and fat. Pigeons, when they are old, add the most flavour to it; and a rabbit or partridge is also a great improvement. From the freshest meat the best stock is obtained.

II. If the Meat be Boiled solely to make stock, it must be cut up into the smallest possible pieces; but, generally speaking, if it is desired to have good stock and a piece of savoury meat as well, it is necessary to put a rather large piece into the stock-pot, say sufficient for two or three days, during which time the stock will keep well in all weathers. Choose the freshest meat, and have it cut as thick as possible; for if it is a thin, flat piece, it will not look well, and will be very soon spoiled by the boiling.

III. Never wash Meat, as it deprives its surface of all its juices; separate 53 it from the bones, and tie it round with tape, so that its shape may be preserved, then put it into the stock-pot, and for each pound of meat, let there be one pint of water; press it down with the hand, to allow the air, which it contains, to escape, and which often raises it to the top of the water.

IV. Put the Stock-pot on a gentle fire, so that it may heat gradually. The albumen will first dissolve, afterwards coagulate; and as it is in this state lighter than the liquid, it will rise to the surface; bringing with it all its impurities. It is this which makes the scum. The rising of the hardened albumen has the same effect in clarifying stock as the white of eggs; and, as a rule, it may be said that the more scum there is, the clearer will be the stock. Always take care that the fire is very regular.

V. Remove the Scum when it rises thickly, and do not let the stock boil, because then one portion of the scum will be dissolved, and the other go to the bottom of the pot; thus rendering it very difficult to obtain a clear broth. If the fire is regular, it will not be necessary to add cold water in order to make the scum rise; but if the fire is too large at first, it will then be necessary to do so.

VI. When the Stock is well skimmed, and begins to boil, put in salt and vegetables, which may be two or three carrots, two turnips, one parsnip, a bunch of leeks and celery tied together. You can add, according to taste, a piece of cabbage, two or three cloves stuck in an onion, and a tomato. The latter gives a very agreeable flavour to the stock. If fried onion be added, it ought, according to the advice of a famous French chef, to be tied in a little bag: without this precaution, the colour of the stock is liable to be clouded.

VII. By this time we will now suppose that you have chopped the bones which were separated from the meat, and those which were left from the roast meat of the day before. Remember, as was before pointed out, that the more these are broken, the more gelatine you will have. The best way to break them up is to pound them roughly in an iron mortar, adding, from time to time, a little water, to prevent them getting heated. It is a great saving thus to make use of the bones of meat, which, in too many English families, we fear, are entirely wasted; for it is certain, as previously stated (No. 102), that two ounces of bone contain as much gelatine (which is the nutritive portion of stock) as one pound of meat. In their broken state tie them up in a bag, and put them in the stock-pot; adding the gristly parts of cold meat, and trimmings, which can be used for no other purpose. If, to make up the weight, you have received from the butcher a piece of mutton or veal, broil it slightly over a clear fire before putting it in the stock-pot, and be very careful that it does not contract the least taste of being smoked or burnt.

VIII. Add now the Vegetables, which, to a certain extent, will stop the boiling of the stock. Wait, therefore, till it simmers well up again, then 54 draw it to the side of the fire, and keep it gently simmering till it is served, preserving, as before said, your fire always the same. Cover the stock-pot well, to prevent evaporation; do not fill it up, even if you take out a little stock, unless the meat is exposed; in which case a little boiling water may be added, but only enough to cover it. After six hours’ slow and gentle simmering, the stock is done; and it should not be continued on the fire, longer than is necessary, or it will tend to insipidity.

Note.—It is on a good stock, or first good broth and sauce, that excellence in cookery depends. If the preparation of this basis of the culinary art is intrusted to negligent or ignorant persons, and the stock is not well skimmed, but indifferent results will be obtained. The stock will never be clear; and when it is obliged to be clarified, it is deteriorated both in quality and flavour. In the proper management of the stock-pot an immense deal of trouble is saved, inasmuch as one stock, in a small dinner, serves for all purposes. Above all things, the greatest economy, consistent with excellence, should be practised, and the price of everything which enters the kitchen correctly ascertained. The theory of this part of Household Management may appear trifling; but its practice is extensive, and therefore it requires the best attention.

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RECIPES.
CHAPTER VI.

FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SOUPS.

[It will be seen, by reference to the following Recipes, that an entirely original and most intelligible system has been pursued in explaining the preparation of each dish. We would recommend the young housekeeper, cook, or whoever may be engaged in the important task of “getting ready” the dinner, or other meal, to follow precisely the order in which the recipes are given. Thus, let them first place on their table all the Ingredients necessary; then the modus operandi, or MODE of preparation, will be easily managed. By a careful reading, too, of the recipes, there will not be the slightest difficulty in arranging a repast for any number of persons, and an accurate notion will be gained of the Time the cooking of each dish will occupy, of the periods at which it is Seasonable, as also of its Average Cost.

The addition of the natural history, and the description of the various properties of the edible articles in common use in every family, will be serviceable both in a practical and an educational point of view.

Speaking specially of the Recipes for Soups, it may be added, that by the employment of the Best, Medium, or Common Stock, the quality of the Soups and their cost may be proportionately increased or lessened.]

STOCKS FOR ALL KINDS OF SOUPS.

RICH STRONG STOCK.

104. Ingredients.—4 lbs. of shin of beef, 4 lbs. of knuckle of veal, ¾ lb. of good lean ham; any poultry trimmings; 3 small onions, 3 small carrots, 3 turnips (the latter should be omitted in summer, lest they ferment), 1 head of celery, a few chopped mushrooms, when obtainable; 1 tomato, a bunch of savoury herbs, not forgetting parsley; 1½ oz. of salt, 12 white peppercorns, 6 cloves, 3 small blades of mace, 4 quarts of water.

Mode.—Line a delicately clean stewpan with the ham cut in thin broad slices, carefully trimming off all its rusty fat; cut up the beef and veal in pieces about 3 inches square, and lay them on the ham; set it on the stove, and draw it down, and stir frequently. When 56 the meat is equally browned, put in the beef and veal bones, the poultry trimmings, and pour in the cold water. Skim well, and occasionally add a little cold water, to stop its boiling, until it becomes quite clear; then put in all the other ingredients, and simmer very slowly for 5 hours. Do not let it come to a brisk boil, that the stock be not wasted, and that its colour may be preserved. Strain, through a very fine hair sieve, or tammy, and it will be fit for use.

Time.—5 hours.

Average cost, 1s. 3d. per quart.

MEDIUM STOCK.

105. Ingredients.—4 lbs. of shin of beef, or 4 lbs. of knuckle of veal, or 2 lbs. of each; any bones, trimmings of poultry, or fresh meat, ½ a lb. of lean bacon or ham, 2 oz. of butter, 2 large onions, each stuck with 3 cloves; 1 turnip, 3 carrots, ½ a leek, 1 head of celery, 2 oz. of salt, ½ a teaspoonful of whole pepper, 1 large blade of mace, 1 small bunch of savoury herbs, 4 quarts and ½ pint of cold water.

Mode.—Cut up the meat and bacon or ham into pieces about 3 inches square; rub the butter on the bottom of the stewpan; put in ½ a pint of water, the meat, and all the other ingredients. Cover the stewpan, and place it on a sharp fire, occasionally stirring its contents. When the bottom of the pan becomes covered with a pale, jelly-like substance, add 4 quarts of cold water, and simmer very gently for 5 hours. As we have said before, do not let it boil quickly. Skim off every particle of grease whilst it is doing, and strain it through a fine hair sieve.

This is the basis of many of the soups afterwards mentioned, and will be found quite strong enough for ordinary purposes.

Time.—5½ hours.

Average cost, 9d. per quart.

ECONOMICAL STOCK.

106. Ingredients.—The liquor in which a joint of meat has been boiled, say 4 quarts; trimmings of fresh meat or poultry, shank-bones, &c., roast-beef bones, any pieces the larder may furnish; vegetables, spices, and the same seasoning as in the foregoing recipe.

Mode.—Let all the ingredients simmer gently for 6 hours, taking care to skim carefully at first. Strain it off, and put by for use.

Time.—6 hours.

Average cost, 3d. per quart.

WHITE STOCK.
(To be Used in the Preparation of White Soups.)

107. Ingredients.—4 lbs. of knuckle of veal, any poultry trimmings, 4 slices of lean ham, 1 carrot, 2 onions, 1 head of celery. 57 12 white peppercorns, 1 oz. of salt, 1 blade of mace, 1 oz. butter, 4 quarts of water.

Mode.—Cut up the veal, and put it with the bones and trimmings of poultry, and the ham, into the stewpan, which has been rubbed with the butter. Moisten with ½ a pint of water, and simmer till the gravy begins to flow. Then add the 4 quarts of water and the remainder of the ingredients; simmer for 5 hours. After skimming and straining it carefully through a very fine hair sieve, it will be ready for use.

Time.—5½ hours.

Average cost, 9d. per quart.

Note.—When stronger stock is desired, double the quantity of veal, or put in an old fowl. The liquor in which a young turkey has been boiled, is an excellent addition to all white stock or soups.

BROWNING FOR STOCK.

108. Ingredients.—2 oz. of powdered sugar, and ½ a pint of water.

Mode.—Place the sugar in a stewpan over a slow fire until it begins to melt, keeping it stirred with a wooden spoon until it becomes black, when add the water, and let it dissolve. Cork closely, and use a few drops when required.

Note.—In France, burnt onions are made use of for the purpose of browning. As a general rule, the process of browning is to be discouraged, as apt to impart a slightly unpleasant flavour to the stock, and, consequently, all soups made from it.

TO CLARIFY STOCK.

109. Ingredients.—The whites of 2 eggs, ½ pint of water, 2 quarts of stock.

Mode.—Supposing that by some accident the soup is not quite clear, and that its quantity is 2 quarts, take the whites of 2 eggs, carefully separated from their yolks, whisk them well together with the water, and add gradually the 2 quarts of boiling stock, still whisking. Place the soup on the fire, and when boiling and well skimmed, whisk the eggs with it till nearly boiling again; then draw it from the fire, and let it settle, until the whites of the eggs become separated. Pass through a fine cloth, and the soup should be clear.

Note.—The rule is, that all clear soups should be of a light straw-colour, and should not savour too strongly of the meat; and that all white or brown thick soups should have no more consistency than will enable them to adhere slightly to the spoon when hot. All purées should be somewhat thicker.

ALMOND SOUP.

110. Ingredients.—4 lbs. of lean beef or veal, ½ a scrag of 58 mutton, 1 oz. of vermicelli, 4 blades of mace, 6 cloves, ½ lb. of sweet almonds, the yolks of 6 eggs, 1 gill of thick cream, rather more than 2 quarts of water.

Mode.—Boil the beef, or veal, and the mutton, gently in water that will cover them, till the gravy is very strong, and the meat very tender; then strain off the gravy, and set it on the fire with the specified quantities of vermicelli, mace, and cloves, to 2 quarts. Let it boil till it has the flavour of the spices. Have ready the almonds, blanched and pounded very fine; the yolks of the eggs boiled hard; mixing the almonds, whilst pounding, with a little of the soup, lest the latter should grow oily. Pound them till they are a mere pulp, and keep adding to them, by degrees, a little soup until they are thoroughly mixed together. Let the soup be cool when mixing, and do it perfectly smooth. Strain it through a sieve, set it on the fire, stir frequently, and serve hot. Just before taking it up, add the cream.

Time.—3 hours.

Average cost per quart, 2s. 3d.

Seasonable all the year.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

picture of “ALMOND & BLOSSOM.”

ALMOND & BLOSSOM.

The Almond-Tree.—This tree is indigenous to the northern parts of Asia and Africa, but it is now cultivated in Europe, especially in the south of France, Italy, and Spain. It flowers in spring, and produces its fruit in August. Although there are two kinds of almonds, the sweet and the bitter, they are considered as only varieties of the same species. The best sweet almonds brought to England, are called the Syrian or Jordan, and come from Malaga; the inferior qualities are brought from Valentia and Italy. Bitter almonds come principally from Magadore. Anciently, the almond was much esteemed by the nations of the East. Jacob included it among the presents which he designed for Joseph. The Greeks called it the Greek or Thasian nut, and the Romans believed that by eating half a dozen of them, they were secured against drunkenness, however deeply they might imbibe. Almonds, however, are considered as very indigestible. The bitter contain, too, principles which produce two violent poisons,—prussic acid and a kind of volatile oil. It is consequently dangerous to eat them in large quantities. Almonds pounded together with a little sugar and water, however, produce a milk similar to that which is yielded by animals. Their oil is used for making fine soap, and their cake as a cosmetic.

APPLE SOUP.

111. Ingredients.—2 lbs. of good boiling apples, ¾ teaspoonful of white pepper, 6 cloves, cayenne or ginger to taste, 3 quarts of medium stock.

Mode.—Peel and quarter the apples, taking out their cores; put them into the stock, stew them gently till tender. Rub the whole through a strainer, add the seasoning, give it one boil up, and serve.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost per quart, 1s.

Seasonable from September to December.

Sufficient for 10 persons.

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picture of “APPLE AND BLOSSOM.”

APPLE AND BLOSSOM.

The Apple.—This useful fruit is mentioned in Holy Writ; and Homer describes it as valuable in his time. It was brought from the East by the Romans, who held it in the highest estimation. Indeed, some of the citizens of the “Eternal city” distinguished certain favourite apples by their names. Thus the Manlians were called after Manlius, the Claudians after Claudius, and the Appians after Appius. Others were designated after the country whence they were brought; as the Sidonians, the Epirotes, and the Greeks. The best varieties are natives of Asia, and have, by grafting them upon others, been introduced into Europe. The crab, found in our hedges, is the only variety indigenous to Britain; therefore, for the introduction of other kinds we are, no doubt, indebted to the Romans. In the time of the Saxon heptarchy, both Devon and Somerset were distinguished as the apple country; and there are still existing in Herefordshire some trees said to have been planted in the time of William the Conqueror. From that time to this, the varieties of this precious fruit have gone on increasing, and are now said to number upwards of 1,500. It is peculiar to the temperate zone, being found neither in Lapland, nor within the tropics. The best baking apples for early use are the Colvilles; the best for autumn are the rennets and pearmains; and the best for winter and spring are russets. The best table, or eating apples, are the Margarets for early use; the Kentish codlin and summer pearmain for summer; and for autumn, winter, or spring, the Dowton, golden and other pippins, as the ribstone, with small russets. As a food, the apple cannot be considered to rank high, as more than the half of it consists of water, and the rest of its properties are not the most nourishing. It is, however, a useful adjunct to other kinds of food, and, when cooked, is esteemed as slightly laxative.

ARTICHOKE (JERUSALEM) SOUP.
(A White Soup.)

112. Ingredients.—3 slices of lean bacon or ham, ½ a head of celery, 1 turnip, 1 onion, 3 oz. of butter, 4 lbs. of artichokes, 1 pint of boiling milk, or ½ pint of boiling cream, salt and cayenne to taste, 2 lumps of sugar, 2½ quarts of white stock.

Mode.—Put the bacon and vegetables, which should be cut into thin slices, into the stewpan with the butter. Braise these for ¼ of an hour, keeping them well stirred. Wash and pare the artichokes, and after cutting them into thin slices, add them, with a pint of stock, to the other ingredients. When these have gently stewed down to a smooth pulp, put in the remainder of the stock. Stir it well, adding the seasoning, and when it has simmered for five minutes, pass it through a strainer. Now pour it back into the stewpan, let it again simmer five minutes, taking care to skim it well, and stir it to the boiling milk or cream. Serve with small sippets of bread fried in butter.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost per quart, 1s. 2d.

Seasonable from June to October.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

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ASPARAGUS SOUP.
I.

113. Ingredients.—5 lbs. of lean beef, 3 slices of bacon, ½ pint of pale ale, a few leaves of white beet, spinach, 1 cabbage lettuce, a little mint, sorrel, and marjoram, a pint of asparagus-tops cut small, the crust of 1 French roll, seasoning to taste, 2 quarts of water.

Mode.—Put the beef, cut in pieces and rolled in flour, into a stewpan, with the bacon at the bottom; cover it close, and set it on a slow fire, stirring it now and then till the gravy is drawn. Put in the water and ale, and season to taste with pepper and salt, and let it stew gently for 2 hours; then strain the liquor, and take off the fat, and add the white beet, spinach, cabbage lettuce, and mint, sorrel, and sweet marjoram, pounded. Let these boil up in the liquor, then put in the asparagus-tops cut small, and allow them to boil till all is tender. Serve hot, with the French roll in the dish.

Time.—Altogether 3 hours.

Average cost per quart, 1s. 9d.

Seasonable from May to August.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

II.

picture of “ASPARAGUS.”

ASPARAGUS.

114. Ingredients.—1½ pint of split peas, a teacupful of gravy, 4 young onions, 1 lettuce cut small, ½ a head of celery, ½ a pint of asparagus cut small, ½ a pint of cream, 3 quarts of water: colour the soup with spinach juice.

Mode.—Boil the peas, and rub them through a sieve; add the gravy, and then stew by themselves the celery, onions, lettuce, and asparagus, with the water. After this, stew altogether, and add the colouring and cream, and serve.

Time.—Peas 2½ hours, vegetables 1 hour; altogether 4 hours.

Average cost per quart, 1s.

Asparagus.—The ancients called all the sprouts of young vegetables asparagus, whence the name, which is now limited to a particular species, embracing artichoke, alisander, asparagus, cardoon, rampion, and sea-kale. They are originally mostly wild seacoast plants; and, in this state, asparagus may still be found on the northern as well as southern shores of Britain. It is often vulgarly called, in London, sparrowqrass; and, in its cultivated form, hardly bears any resemblance to the original plant. Immense quantities of it are raised for the London market, at Mortlake and Deptford; but it belongs rather to the classes of luxurious than necessary food. It is light and easily digested, but is not very nutritious.

61
BAKED SOUP.

115. Ingredients.—1 lb. of any kind of meat, any trimmings or odd pieces; 2 onions, 2 carrots, 2 oz. of rice, 1 pint of split peas, pepper and salt to taste, 4 quarts of water.

Mode.—Cut the meat and vegetables in slices, add to them the rice and peas, season with pepper and salt. Put the whole in a jar, fill up with the water, cover very closely, and bake for 4 hours.

Time.—4 hours.

Average cost, 2½d. per quart.

Seasonable at any time.

Sufficient for 10 or 12 persons.

Note.—This will be found a very cheap and wholesome soup, and will be convenient in those cases where baking is more easily performed than boiling.

BARLEY SOUP.

picture of “BARLEY.”

BARLEY.

116. Ingredients.—2 lbs. of shin of beef, ¼ lb. of pearl barley, a large bunch of parsley, 4 onions, 6 potatoes, salt and pepper, 4 quarts of water.

Mode.—Put in all the ingredients, and simmer gently for 3 hours.

Time.—3 hours.

Average cost, 2½d. per quart.

Seasonable all the year, but more suitable for winter.

Barley.—This, in the order of cereal grasses, is, in Britain, the next plant to wheat in point of value, and exhibits several species and varieties. From what country it comes originally, is not known, but it was cultivated in the earliest ages of antiquity, as the Egyptians were afflicted with the loss of it in the ear, in the time of Moses. It was a favourite grain with the Athenians, but it was esteemed as an ignominious food by the Romans. Notwithstanding this, however, it was much used by them, as it was in former times by the English, and still is, in the Border counties, in Cornwall, and also in Wales. In other parts of England, it is used mostly for malting purposes. It is less nutritive than wheat; and in 100 parts, has of starch 79, gluten 6, saccharine matter 7, husk 8. It is, however, a lighter and less stimulating food than wheat, which renders a decoction of it well adapted for invalids whose digestion is weak.

BREAD SOUP.
(Economical.)

117. Ingredients.—1 lb. of bread crusts, 2 oz. butter, 1 quart of common stock.

Mode.—Boil the bread crusts in the stock with the butter; beat the whole with a spoon, and keep it boiling till the bread and stock are well mixed. Season with a little salt.

Time.—Half an hour.

Average cost per quart, 4d.

62

Seasonable at any time.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

Note.—This is a cheap recipe, and will be found useful where extreme economy is an object.

picture of “QUERN, OR GRINDING-MILL.”

QUERN, OR GRINDING-MILL.

Bread.—The origin of bread is involved in the obscurity of distant ages. The Greeks attributed its invention to Pan; but before they, themselves, had an existence, it was, no doubt, in use among the primitive nations of mankind. The Chaldeans and the Egyptians were acquainted with it, and Sarah, the companion of Abraham, mixed flour and water together, kneaded it, and covered it with ashes on the hearth. The Scriptures inform us that leavened bread was known to the Israelites, but it is not known when the art of fermenting it was discovered. It is said that the Romans learnt it during their wars with Perseus, king of Macedon, and that it was introduced to the “imperial city” about 200 years before the birth of Christ. With them it no doubt found its way into Britain; but after their departure from the island, it probably ceased to be used. We know that King Alfred allowed the unfermented cakes to burn in the neatherd’s cottage; and that, even in the sixteenth century, unfermented cakes, kneaded by the women, were the only kind of bread known to the inhabitants of Norway and Sweden. The Italians of this day consume the greater portion of their flour in the firm of polenta, or soft pudding, vermicelli, and macaroni; and, in the remoter districts of Scotland, much unfermented bread is still used. We give a cut of the quern grinding-mill, which, towards the end of the last century, was in use in that country, and which is thus described by Dr. Johnson in his “Journey to the Hebrides:”—“It consists of two stones about a foot and a half in diameter; the lower is a little convex, to which the concavity of the upper must be fitted. In the middle of the upper stone is a round hole, and on one side is a long handle. The grinder sheds the corn gradually into the hole with one hand, and works the handle round with the other. The corn slides down the convexity of the lower stone, and, by the motion of the upper, is ground in its passage.” Such a primitive piece of machinery, it may safely be said, has entirely disappeared from this country.—In other parts of this work, we shall have opportunities of speaking of bread and bread-making, which, from its great and general use in the nourishment of mankind, has emphatically been called the “staff of life.” The necessity, therefore, of having it both pure and good is of the first importance.

CABBAGE SOUP.

118. Ingredients.—1 large cabbage, 3 carrots, 2 onions, 4 or 5 slices of lean bacon, salt and pepper to taste, 2 quarts of medium stock No. 105.

Mode.—Scald the cabbage, cut it up and drain it. Line the stewpan with the bacon, put in the cabbage, carrots, and onions; moisten with skimmings from the stock, and simmer very gently, till the cabbage is tender; add the stock, stew softly for half an hour, and carefully skim off every particle of fat. Season and serve.

Time.—1½ hour.

Average cost, 1s. per quart.

Seasonable in winter.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

picture of “CABBAGE SEEDING.”

CABBAGE SEEDING.

The Cabbage.—It is remarkable, that although there is no country in the world now more plentifully supplied with fruits and vegetables than Great Britain, yet the greater number of these had no existence in it before the time of Henry VIII. Anderson, 63 writing under the date of 1548, says, “The English cultivated scarcely any vegetables before the last two centuries. At the commencement of the reign of Henry VIII. neither salad, nor carrots, nor cabbages, nor radishes, nor any other comestibles of a like nature, were grown in any part of the kingdom; they came from Holland and Flanders.” The original of all the cabbage tribe is the wild plant sea-colewort, which is to be found wasting whatever sweetness it may have on the desert air, on many of the cliffs of the south coast of England. In this state, it scarcely weighs more than half an ounce, yet, in a cultivated state, to what dimensions can it be made to grow! However greatly the whole of the tribe is esteemed among the moderns, by the ancients they were held in yet higher estimation. The Egyptians adored and raised altars to them, and the Greeks and Romans ascribed many of the most exalted virtues to them. Cato affirmed, that the cabbage cured all diseases, and declared, that it was to its use that the Romans were enabled to live in health and without the assistance of physicians for 600 years. It was introduced by that people into Germany, Gaul, and, no doubt, Britain; although, in this last, it may have been suffered to pass into desuetude for some centuries. The whole tribe is in general wholesome and nutritive, and forms a valuable adjunct to animal food.

SOUP A LA CANTATRICE.
(An Excellent Soup, very Beneficial for the Voice.)

119. Ingredients.—3 oz. of sago, ½ pint of cream, the yolks of 3 eggs, 1 lump of sugar, and seasoning to taste, 1 bay-leaf (if liked), 2 quarts of medium stock No. 105.

Mode.—Having washed the sago in boiling water, let it be gradually added to the nearly boiling stock. Simmer for ½ an hour, when it should be well dissolved. Beat up the yolks of the eggs, add to them the boiling cream; stir these quickly in the soup, and serve immediately. Do not let the soup boil, or the eggs will curdle.

Time.—40 minutes.

Average cost, 1s. 6d. per quart.

Seasonable all the year.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

Note.—This is a soup, the principal ingredients of which, sago and eggs, have always been deemed very beneficial to the chest and throat. In various quantities, and in different preparations, these have been partaken of by the principal singers of the day, including the celebrated Swedish Nightingale, Jenny Lind, and, as they have always avowed, with considerable advantage to the voice, in singing.

CARROT SOUP.
I.

120. Ingredients.—4 quarts of liquor in which a leg of mutton or beef has been boiled, a few beef-bones, 6 large carrots, 2 large onions, 1 turnip; seasoning of salt and pepper to taste; cayenne.

Mode.—Put the liquor, bones, onions, turnip, pepper, and salt, into a stewpan, and simmer for 3 hours. Scrape and cut the carrots thin, 64 strain the soup on them, and stew them till soft enough to pulp through a hair sieve or coarse cloth; then boil the pulp with the soup, which should be of the consistency of pea-soup. Add cayenne. Pulp only the red part of the carrot, and make this soup the day before it is wanted.

Time.—4½ hours.

Average cost per quart, 1½d.

Seasonable from October to March.

Sufficient for 10 persons.

II.

121. Ingredients.—2 lbs. of carrots, 3 oz. of butter, seasoning to taste of salt and cayenne, 2 quarts of stock or gravy soup.

Mode.—Scrape and cut out all specks from the carrots, wash, and wipe them dry, and then reduce them into quarter-inch slices. Put the butter into a large stewpan, and when it is melted, add 2 lbs. of the sliced carrots, and let them stew gently for an hour without browning. Add to them the soup, and allow them to simmer till tender,—say for nearly an hour. Press them through a strainer with the soup, and add salt and cayenne if required. Boil the whole gently for 5 minutes, skim well, and serve as hot as possible.

Time.—1¼ hour.

Average cost per quart, 1s. 1d.

picture of “TAZZA AND CARROT LEAVES.”

TAZZA AND CARROT LEAVES.

The Carrot.—There is a wild carrot which grows in England; but it is white and small, and not much esteemed. The garden carrot in general use, was introduced in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and was, at first, so highly esteemed, that the ladies wore leaves of it in their head-dresses. It is of great value in the culinary art, especially for soups and stews. It can be used also for beer instead of malt, and, in distillation, it yields a large quantity of spirit. The carrot is proportionably valuable as it has more of the red than the yellow part. There is a large red variety much used by the farmers for colouring butter. As a garden vegetable, it is what is called the orange-carrot that is usually cultivated. As a fattening food for cattle, it is excellent; but for man it is indigestible, on account of its fibrous matter. Of 1,000 parts, 95 consist of sugar, and 3 of starch.—The accompanying cut represents a pretty winter ornament, obtained by placing a cut from the top of the carrot-root in a shallow vessel of water, when the young leaves spring forth with a charming freshness and fullness.

CELERY SOUP.

122. Ingredients.—9 heads of celery, 1 teaspoonful of salt, nutmeg to taste, 1 lump of sugar, ½ pint of strong stock, a pint of cream, and 2 quarts of boiling water.

Mode.—Cut the celery into small pieces; throw it into the water, seasoned with the nutmeg, salt, and sugar. Boil it till sufficiently tender; pass it through a sieve, add the stock, and simmer it for half an hour. Now put in the cream, bring it to the boiling point, and serve immediately.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost, 1s. per quart.

65 F

Seasonable from September to March.

Sufficient for 10 persons.

Note.—This soup can be made brown, instead of white, by omitting the cream, and colouring it a little. When celery cannot be procured, half a drachm of the seed, finely pounded, will give a flavour to the soup, if put in a quarter of an hour before it is done. A little of the essence of celery will answer the same purpose.

Celery.—This plant is indigenous to Britain, and, in its wild state, grows by the side of ditches and along some parts of the seacoast. In this state it is called smallage, and, to some extent, is a dangerous narcotic. By cultivation, however, it has been brought to the fine flavour which the garden plant possesses. In the vicinity of Manchester it is raised to an enormous size. When our natural observation is assisted by the accurate results ascertained by the light of science, how infinitely does it enhance our delight in contemplating the products of nature! To know, for example, that the endless variety of colour which we see in plants is developed only by the rays of the sun, is to know a truism sublime by its very comprehensiveness. The cause of the whiteness of celery is nothing more than the want of light in its vegetation, and in order that this effect may be produced, the plant is almost wholly covered with earth; the tops of the leaves alone being suffered to appear above the ground.

CHANTILLY SOUP.

123. Ingredients.—1 quart of young green peas, a small bunch of parsley, 2 young onions, 2 quarts of medium stock No. 105.

Mode.—Boil the peas till quite tender, with the parsley and onions; then rub them through a sieve, and pour the stock to them. Do not let it boil after the peas are added, or you will spoil the colour. Serve very hot.

Time.—Half an hour.

Average cost, 1s. 6d. per quart.

Seasonable from June to the end of August.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

Note.—Cold peas pounded in a mortar, with a little stock added to them, make a very good soup in haste.

Parsley.—Among the Greeks, in the classic ages, a crown of parsley was awarded, both in the Nemæan and Isthmian games, and the voluptuous Anacreon pronounces this beautiful herb the emblem of joy and festivity. It has an elegant leaf, and is extensively used in the culinary art. When it was introduced to Britain is not known. There are several varieties,—the plain-leaved and the curled-leaved, celery-parsley, Hamburg parsley, and purslane. The curled is the best, and, from the form of its leaf, has a beautiful appearance on a dish as a garnish. Its flavour is, to many, very agreeable in soups; and although to rabbits, hares, and sheep it is a luxury, to parrots it is a poison. The celery-parsley is used as a celery, and the Hamburg is cultivated only for its roots, which are used as parsnips or carrots, to eat with meat. The purslane is a native of South America, and is not now much in use.

CHESTNUT (SPANISH) SOUP.

124. Ingredients.—¾ lb. of Spanish chestnuts, ¼ pint of cream; seasoning to taste of salt, cayenne, and mace; 1 quart of stock No. 105.

Mode.—Take the outer rind from the chestnuts, and put them into a large pan of warm water. As soon as this becomes too hot for the fingers to remain in it, take out the chestnuts, peel them quickly, and 66 immerse them in cold water, and wipe and weigh them. Now cover them with good stock, and stew them gently for rather more than ¾ of an hour, or until they break when touched with a fork; then drain, pound, and rub them through a fine sieve reversed; add sufficient stock, mace, cayenne, and salt, and stir it often until it boils, and put in the cream. The stock in which the chestnuts are boiled can be used for the soup, when its sweetness is not objected to, or it may, in part, be added to it; and the rule is, that ¾ lb. of chestnuts should be given to each quart of soup.

Time.—Rather more than 1 hour.

Average cost per quart, 1s. 6d.

Seasonable from October to February.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

picture of “CHESTNUT.”

CHESTNUT.

The Chestnut.—This fruit is said, by some, to have originally come from Sardis, in Lydia; and by others, from Castanea, a city of Thessaly, from which it takes its name. By the ancients it was much used as a food, and is still common in France and Italy, to which countries it is, by some, considered indigenous. In the southern part of the European continent, it is eaten both raw and roasted. The tree was introduced into Britain by the Romans; but it only flourishes in the warmer parts of the island, the fruit rarely arriving at maturity in Scotland. It attains a great age, as well as an immense size. As a food, it is the least oily and most farinaceous of all the nuts, and, therefore, the easiest of digestion. The tree called the horse chestnut is very different, although its fruit very much resembles that of the other. Its “nuts,” though eaten by horses and some other animals, are unsuitable for human food.

COCOA-NUT SOUP.

125. Ingredients.—6 oz. of grated cocoa-nut, 6 oz. of rice flour, ½ a teaspoonful of mace; seasoning to taste of cayenne and salt; ¼ of a pint of boiling cream, 3 quarts of medium stock No. 105.

Mode.—Take the dark rind from the cocoa-nut, and grate it down small on a clean grater; weigh it, and allow, for each quart of stock, 2 oz. of the cocoa-nut. Simmer it gently for 1 hour in the stock, which should then be strained closely from it, and thickened for table.

Time.—2¼ hours.

Average cost per quart, 1s. 3d.

Seasonable in Autumn.

Sufficient for 10 persons.

picture of “COCOA-NUT PALM.”

COCOA-NUT PALM.

picture of “NUT & BLOSSOM.”

NUT & BLOSSOM.

The Cocoa-Nut.—This is the fruit of one of the palms, than which it is questionable if there is any other species of tree marking, in itself, so abundantly, the goodness of Providence, in making provision for the wants of man. It grows wild in the Indian seas, and in the eastern parts of Asia; and thence it has been introduced into every part of the tropical regions. To the natives of those climates, its bark supplies the material for erecting their dwellings; its leaves, the means of roofing them; and the leaf-stalks, a kind of gauze for covering their windows, or protecting the baby in the cradle. It is also made into lanterns, masks to screen the face from the heat 67 of the sun, baskets, wicker-work, and even a kind of paper for writing on. Combs, brooms, torches, ropes, matting, and sailcloth are made of its fibres. With these, too, beds are made and cushions stuffed. Oars are supplied by the leaves; drinking-cups, spoons, and other domestic utensils by the shells of the nuts; milk by its juice, of which, also, a kind of honey and sugar are prepared. When fermented, it furnishes the means of intoxication; and when the fibres are burned, their ashes supply an alkali for making soap. The buds of the tree bear a striking resemblance to cabbage when boiled; but when they are cropped, the tree dies. In a fresh state, the kernel is eaten raw, and its juice is a most agreeable and refreshing beverage. When the nut is imported to this country, its fruit is, in general, comparatively dry, and is considered indigestible. The tree is one of the least productive of the palm tribe.

SOUP A LA CRECY.

126. Ingredients.—4 carrots, 2 sliced onions, 1 cut lettuce, and chervil; 2 oz. butter, 1 pint of lentils, the crumbs of 2 French rolls, half a teacupful of rice, 2 quarts of medium stock No. 105.

Mode.—Put the vegetables with the butter in the stewpan, and let them simmer 5 minutes; then add the lentils and 1 pint of the stock, and stew gently for half an hour. Now fill it up with the remainder of the stock, let it boil another hour, and put in the crumb of the rolls. When well soaked, rub all through a tammy. Have ready the rice boiled; pour the soup over this, and serve.

picture of “LENTIL.”

LENTIL.

Time.—1¾ hour.

Average cost, 1s. 2d. per quart.

Seasonable all the year.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

The Lentil.—This belongs to the legumious or pulse kind of vegetables, which rank next to the corn plants in their nutritive properties. The lentil is a variety of the bean tribe, but in England is not used as human food, although considered the best of all kinds for pigeons. On the Continent it is cultivated for soups, as well as for other preparations for the table; and among the presents which David received from Shobi, as recounted in the Scriptures, were beans, lentils, and parched pulse. Among the Egyptians it was extensively used, and among the Greeks, the Stoics had a maxim, which declared, that “a wise man acts always with reason, and prepares his own lentils.” Among the Romans it was not much esteemed, and from them the English may have inherited a prejudice against it, on account, it is said, of its rendering men indolent. It takes its name from lentus, ‘slow,’ and, according to Pliny, produces mildness and moderation of temper.

68
CUCUMBER SOUP (French Recipe).

127. Ingredients.—1 large cucumber, a piece of butter the size of a walnut, a little chervil and sorrel cut in large pieces, salt and pepper to taste, the yolks of 2 eggs, 1 gill of cream, 1 quart of medium stock No. 105.

Mode.—Pare the cucumber, quarter it, and take out the seeds; cut it in thin slices, put these on a plate with a little salt, to draw the water from them; drain, and put them in your stewpan, with the butter. When they are warmed through, without being browned, pour the stock on them. Add the sorrel, chervil, and seasoning, and boil for 40 minutes. Mix the well-beaten yolks of the eggs with the cream, which add at the moment of serving.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost, 1s. 2d. per quart.

Seasonable from June to September.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

The Cucumber.—The antiquity of this fruit is very great. In the sacred writings we find that the people of Israel regretted it, whilst sojourning in the desert; and at the present time, the cucumber, and other fruits of its class, form a large portion of the food of the Egyptian people. By the Eastern nations generally, as well as by the Greeks and Romans, it was greatly esteemed. Like the melon, it was originally brought from Asia by the Romans, and in the 14th century it was common in England, although, in the time of the wars of “the Roses,” it seems no longer to have been cultivated. It is a cold food, and of difficult digestion when eaten raw. As a preserved sweetmeat, however, it is esteemed one of the most agreeable.

EGG SOUP.

128. Ingredients.—A tablespoonful of flour, 4 eggs, 2 small blades of finely-pounded mace, 2 quarts of stock No. 105.

Mode.—Beat up the flour smoothly in a teaspoonful of cold stock, and put in the eggs; throw them into boiling stock, stirring all the time. Simmer for ¼ of an hour. Season and serve with a French roll in the tureen, or fried sippets of bread.

Time.—½ an hour.

Average cost, 11d. per quart.

Seasonable all the year.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

SOUP A LA FLAMANDE (Flemish).
I.

129. Ingredients.—1 turnip, 1 small carrot, ½ head of celery, 6 green onions shred very fine, 1 lettuce cut small, chervil, ¼ pint of asparagus cut small, ¼ pint of peas, 2 oz. butter, the yolks of 4 eggs, ½ pint of cream, salt to taste, 1 lump of sugar, 2 quarts of stock No. 105.

Mode.—Put the vegetables in the butter to stew gently for an hour with a teacupful of stock; then add the remainder of the stock, and 69 simmer for another hour. Now beat the yolks of the eggs well, mix with the cream (previously boiled), and strain through a hair sieve. Take the soup off the fire, put the eggs, &c. to it, and keep stirring it well. Bring it to a boil, but do not leave off stirring, or the eggs will curdle. Season with salt, and add the sugar.

Time.—2½ hours.

Average cost, 1s. 9d. per quart.

Seasonable from May to August.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

Chervil.—Although the roots of this plant are poisonous, its leaves are tender, and are used in salads. In antiquity it made a relishing dish, when prepared with oil, wine, and gravy. It is a native of various parts of Europe; and the species cultivated in the gardens of Paris, has beautifully frizzled leaves.

II.

130. Ingredients.—5 onions, 5 heads of celery, 10 moderate-sized potatoes, 3 oz. butter, ½ pint of water, ½ pint of cream, 2 quarts of stock No. 105.

Mode.—Slice the onions, celery, and potatoes, and put them with the butter and water into a stewpan, and simmer for an hour. Then fill up the stewpan with stock, and boil gently till the potatoes are done, which will be in about an hour. Rub all through a tammy, and add the cream (previously boiled). Do not let it boil after the cream is put in.

Time.—2½ hours.

Average cost, 1s. 4d. per quart.

Seasonable from September to May.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

Note.—This soup can be made with water instead of stock.

SOUP A LA JULIENNE.

131. Ingredients.—½ pint of carrots, ½ pint of turnips, ¼ pint of onions, 2 or 3 leeks, ½ head of celery, 1 lettuce, a little sorrel and chervil, if liked, 2 oz. of butter, 2 quarts of stock No. 105.

picture of “STRIPS OF VEGETABLES.”

STRIPS OF VEGETABLES.

Mode.—Cut the vegetables into strips of about 1¼ inch long, and be particular they are all the same size, or some will be hard whilst the others will be done to a pulp. Cut the lettuce, sorrel, and chervil into larger pieces; fry the carrots in the butter, and pour the stock boiling to them. When this is done, add all the other vegetables, and herbs, and stew gently for at least an hour. Skim off all the fat, pour the soup over thin slices of bread, cut round about the size of a shilling, and serve.

70

Time.—1½ hour.

Average cost, 1s. 3d. per quart.

Seasonable all the year.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

Note.—In summer, green peas, asparagus-tops, French beans, &c. can be added. When the vegetables are very strong, instead of frying them in butter at first, they should be blanched, and afterwards simmered in the stock.

Sorrel.—This is one of the spinaceous plants, which take their name from spinach, which is the chief among them. It is little used in English cookery, but a great deal in French, where it is employed for soups, sauces, and salads. In English meadows it is usually left to grow wild; but in France, where it is cultivated, its flavour is greatly improved.

KALE BROSE (a Scotch Recipe).

132. Ingredients.—Half an ox-head or cow-heel, a teacupful of toasted oatmeal, salt to taste, 2 handfuls of greens, 3 quarts of water.

Mode.—Make a broth of the ox-head or cow-heel, and boil it till oil floats on the top of the liquor, then boil the greens, shred, in it. Put the oatmeal, with a little salt, into a basin, and mix with it quickly a teacupful of the fat broth: it should not run into one doughy mass, but form knots. Stir it into the whole, give one boil, and serve very hot.

Time.—4 hours.

Average cost, 8d. per quart.

Seasonable all the year, but more suitable in winter.

Sufficient for 10 persons.

LEEK SOUP.
I.

133. Ingredients.—A sheep’s head, 3 quarts of water, 12 leeks cut small, pepper and salt to taste, oatmeal to thicken.

Mode.—Prepare the head, either by skinning or cleaning the skin very nicely; split it in two; take out the brains, and put it into boiling water; add the leeks and seasoning, and simmer very gently for 4 hours. Mix smoothly, with cold water, as much oatmeal as will make the soup tolerably thick; pour it into the soup; continue stirring till the whole is blended and well done, and serve.

Time.—4½ hours.

Average cost, 4d. per quart.

Seasonable in winter.

Sufficient for 10 persons.

II.
COMMONLY CALLED COCK-A-LEEKIE.

134. Ingredients.—A capon or large fowl (sometimes an old cock, from which the recipe takes its name, is used), which should be 71 trussed as for boiling; 2 or 3 bunches of fine leeks, 5 quarts of stock No. 105, pepper and salt to taste.

Mode.—Well wash the leeks (and, if old, scald them in boiling water for a few minutes), taking off the roots and part of the heads, and cut them into lengths of about an inch. Put the fowl into the stock, with, at first, one half of the leeks, and allow it to simmer gently. In half an hour add the remaining leeks, and then it may simmer for 3 or 4 hours longer. It should be carefully skimmed, and can be seasoned to taste. In serving, take out the fowl, and carve it neatly, placing the pieces in a tureen, and pouring over them the soup, which should be very thick of leeks (a purée of leeks the French would call it).

Time.—4 hours.

Average cost, 1s. 6d. per quart; or, with stock No. 106, 1s.

Seasonable in winter.

Sufficient for 10 persons.

Note.—Without the fowl, the above, which would then be merely called leek soup, is very good, and also economical. Cock-a-leekie was largely consumed at the Burns Centenary Festival at the Crystal Palace, Sydenham, in 1859.

picture of “LEEKS.”

LEEKS.

The Leek.—As in the case of the cucumber, this vegetable was bewailed by the Israelites in their journey through the desert. It is one of the alliaceous tribe, which consists of the onion, garlic, chive, shallot, and leek. These, as articles of food, are perhaps more widely diffused over the face of the earth than any other genus of edible plants. It is the national badge of the Welsh, and tradition ascribes its introduction to that part of Britain, to St. David. The origin of the wearing of the leek on St. David’s day, among that people, is thus given in “Beeton’s Dictionary of Universal Information:”—“It probably originated from the custom of Cymhortha, or the friendly aid, practised among farmers. In some districts of South Wales, all the neighbours of a small farmer were wont to appoint a day when they attended to plough his land, and the like; and, at such time, it was the custom for each to bring his portion of leeks with him for making the broth or soup.” (See St. David.) Others derive the origin of the custom from the battle of Cressy. The plant, when grown in Wales and Scotland, is sharper than it is in England, and its flavour is preferred by many to that of the onion in broth. It is very wholesome, and, to prevent its tainting the breath, should be well boiled.

MACARONI SOUP.

135. Ingredients.—3 oz. of macaroni, a piece of butter the size of a walnut, salt to taste, 2 quarts of clear stock No. 105.

Mode.—Throw the macaroni and butter into boiling water, with a pinch of salt, and simmer for ½ an hour. When it is tender, drain and cut it into thin rings or lengths, and drop it into the boiling stock. Stew gently for 15 minutes, and serve grated Parmesan cheese with it.

Time.—¾ hour.

Average cost, 1s. per quart.

Seasonable all the year.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

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picture of “MACARONI.”

MACARONI.

Macaroni.—This is the favourite food of Italy, where, especially among the Neapolitans, it may be regarded as the staff of life. “The crowd of London,” says Mr. Forsyth, “is a double line in quick motion; it is the crowd of business. The crowd of Naples consists in a general tide rolling up and down, and in the middle of this tide, a hundred eddies of men. You are stopped by a carpenter’s bench, you are lost among shoemakers’ stalls, and you dash among the pots of a macaroni stall.” This article of food is nothing more than a thick paste, made of the best wheaten flour, with a small quantity of water. When it has been well worked, it is put into a hollow cylindrical vessel, pierced with holes of the size of tobacco-pipes at the bottom. Through these holes the mass is forced by a powerful screw bearing on a piece of wood made exactly to fit the inside of the cylinder. Whilst issuing from the holes, it is partially baked by a fire placed below the cylinder, and is, at the same time, drawn away and hung over rods placed about the room, in order to dry. In a few days it is fit for use. As it is both wholesome and nutritious, it ought to be much more used by all classes in England than it is. It generally accompanies Parmesan cheese to the tables of the rich, but is also used for thickening soups and making puddings.

SOUP MAIGRE (i.e. without Meat).

136. Ingredients.—6 oz. butter, 6 onions sliced, 4 heads of celery, 2 lettuces, a small bunch of parsley, 2 handfuls of spinach, 3 pieces of bread-crust, 2 blades of mace, salt and pepper to taste, the yolks of 2 eggs, 3 teaspoonfuls of vinegar, 2 quarts of water.

Mode.—Melt the butter in a stewpan, and put in the onions to stew gently for 3 or 4 minutes; then add the celery, spinach, lettuces, and parsley, cut small. Stir the ingredients well for 10 minutes. Now put in the water, bread, seasoning, and mace. Boil gently for 1½ hour, and, at the moment of serving, beat in the yolks of the eggs and the vinegar, but do not let it boil, or the eggs will curdle.

Time.—2 hours.

Average cost, 6d. per quart.

Seasonable all the year.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

picture of “LETTUCE.”

LETTUCE.

The Lettuce.—This is one of the acetarious vegetables, which comprise a large class, chiefly used as pickles, salads, and other condiments. The lettuce has in all antiquity been distinguished as a kitchen-garden plant. It was, without preparation, eaten by the Hebrews with the Paschal lamb; the Greeks delighted in it, and the Romans, in the time of Domitian, had it prepared with eggs, and served in the first course at their tables, merely to excite their appetites. Its botanical name is Lactuca, so called from the milky juice it exudes when its stalks are cut. It possesses a narcotic virtue, noticed by ancient, physicians; and even in our day a lettuce supper is deemed conducive to repose. Its proper character, however, is that of a cooling summer vegetable, not very nutritive, but serving to correct, or as a diluent of animal food.

MILK SOUP (a Nice Dish for Children).

137. Ingredients.—2 quarts of milk, 1 saltspoonful of salt, 1 teaspoonful of powdered cinnamon, 3 teaspoonfuls of pounded sugar, or more if liked, 4 thin slices of bread, the yolks of 6 eggs.

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Mode.—Boil the milk with the salt, cinnamon, and sugar; lay the bread in a deep dish, pour over it a little of the milk, and keep it hot over a stove, without burning. Beat up the yolks of the eggs, add them to the milk, and stir it over the fire till it thickens. Do not let it curdle. Pour it upon the bread, and serve.

Time.—¾ of an hour.

Average cost, 8d. per quart.

Seasonable all the year.

Sufficient for 10 children.

ONION SOUP.

138. Ingredients.—6 large onions, 2 oz. of butter, salt and pepper to taste, 1 pint of cream, 1 quart of stock No. 105.

Mode.—Chop the onions, put them in the butter, stir them occasionally, but do not let them brown. When tender, put the stock to them, and season; strain the soup, and add the boiling cream.

Time.—1½ hour.

Average cost, 1s. per quart.

Seasonable in winter.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

CHEAP ONION SOUP.

139. Ingredients.—8 middling-sized onions, 3 oz. of butter, a tablespoonful of rice-flour, salt and pepper to taste, 1 teaspoonful of powdered sugar, thickening of butter and flour, 2 quarts of water.

picture of “ONION.”

ONION.

Mode.—Cut the onions small, put them in the stewpan with the butter, and fry them well; mix the rice-flour smoothly with the water, add the onions, seasoning, and sugar, and simmer till tender. Thicken with butter and flour, and serve.

Time.—2 hours.

Average cost, 4d. per quart.

Seasonable in winter.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

The Onion.—Like the cabbage, this plant was erected into an object of worship by the idolatrous Egyptians 2,000 years before the Christian era, and it still forms a favourite food in the country of these people, as well as in other parts of Africa. When it was first introduced to England, has not been ascertained; but it has long been in use, and esteemed as a favourite seasoning plant to various dishes. In warmer climates it is much milder in its flavour; and such as are grown in Spain and Portugal, are, comparatively speaking, very large, and are often eaten both in a boiled and roasted state. The Strasburg is the most esteemed; and, although all the species have highly nutritive properties, they impart such a disagreeable odour to the breath, that they are often rejected even where they are liked. Chewing a little raw parsley is said to remove this odour.

PAN KAIL.

140. Ingredients.—2 lbs. of cabbage, or Savoy greens; ¼ lb. of 74 butter or dripping, salt and pepper to taste, oatmeal for thickening, 2 quarts of water.

Mode.—Chop the cabbage very fine, thicken the water with oatmeal, put in the cabbage and butter, or dripping; season and simmer for 1½ hour. It can be made sooner by blanching and mashing the greens, adding any good liquor that a joint has been boiled in, and then further thicken with bread or pounded biscuit.

Time.—1½ hour.

Average cost, 1½d. per quart.

Seasonable all the year, but more suitable in winter.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

The Savoy.—This is a close-hearted wrinkle-leaved cabbage, sweet and tender, especially the middle leaves, and in season from November to spring. The yellow species bears hard weather without injury, whilst the dwarf kind are improved and rendered more tender by frost.

PARSNIP SOUP.

141. Ingredients.—1 lb. of sliced parsnips, 2 oz. of butter, salt and cayenne to taste, 1 quart of stock No. 106.

Mode.—Put the parsnips into the stewpan with the butter, which has been previously melted, and simmer them till quite tender. Then add nearly a pint of stock, and boil together for half an hour. Pass all through a fine strainer, and put to it the remainder of the stock. Season, boil, and serve immediately.

Time.—2 hours.

Average cost, 6d. per quart.

Seasonable from October to April.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

The Parsnip.—This is a biennial plant, with a root like a carrot, which, in nutritive and saccharine matter, it nearly equals. It is a native of Britain, and, in its wild state, may be found, in many parts, growing by the road-sides. It is also to be found, generally distributed over Europe; and, in Catholic countries, is mostly used with salt fish, in Lent. In Scotland it forms an excellent dish, when beat up with butter and potatoes; it is, also, excellent when fried. In Ireland it is found to yield, in conjunction with the hop, a pleasant beverage; and it contains as much spirit as the carrot, and makes an excellent wine. Its proportion of nutritive matter is 99 parts in 1,000; 9 being mucilage and 90 sugar.

PEA SOUP (GREEN).

142. Ingredients.—3 pints of green peas, ¼ lb. of butter, 2 or three thin slices of ham, 6 onions sliced, 4 shredded lettuces, the crumb of 2 French rolls, 2 handfuls of spinach, 1 lump of sugar, 2 quarts of common stock.

Mode.—Put the butter, ham, 1 quart of the peas, onions, and lettuces, to a pint of stock, and simmer for an hour; then add the remainder of the stock, with the crumb of the French rolls, and boil for another hour. Now boil the spinach, and squeeze it very dry. Rub the soup through a sieve, and the spinach with it, to colour it. 75 Have ready a pint of young peas boiled; add them to the soup, put in the sugar, give one boil, and serve. If necessary, add salt.

Time.—2½ hours.

Average cost, 1s. 9d. per quart.

Seasonable from June to the end of August.

Sufficient for 10 persons.

Note.—It will be well to add, if the peas are not quite young, a little sugar. Where economy is essential, water may be used instead of stock for this soup, boiling in it likewise the pea-shells; but use a double quantity of vegetables.

WINTER PEA SOUP (YELLOW).

143. Ingredients.—1 quart of split peas, 2 lbs. of shin of beef, trimmings of meat or poultry, a slice of bacon, 2 large carrots, 2 turnips, 5 large onions, 1 head of celery, seasoning to taste, 2 quarts of soft water, any bones left from roast meat, 2 quarts of common stock, or liquor in which a joint of meat has been boiled.

Mode.—Put the peas to soak over-night in soft water, and float off such as rise to the top. Boil them in the water till tender enough to pulp; then add the ingredients mentioned above, and simmer for 2 hours, stirring it occasionally. Pass the whole through a sieve, skim well, season, and serve with toasted bread cut in dice.

Time.—4 hours.

Average cost, 6d. per quart.

Seasonable all the year round, but more suitable for cold weather.

Sufficient for 12 persons.

picture of “PEA.”

PEA.

The Pea.—It is supposed that the common gray pea, found wild in Greece, and other parts of the Levant, is the original of the common garden pea, and of all the domestic varieties belonging to it. The gray, or field pea, called bisallie by the French, is less subject to run into varieties than the garden kinds, and is considered by some, perhaps on that account, to be the wild plant, retaining still a large proportion of its original habit. From the tendency of all other varieties “to run away” and become different to what they originally were, it is very difficult to determine the races to which they belong. The pea was well known to the Romans, and, probably, was introduced to Britain at an early period; for we find peas mentioned by Lydgate, a poet of the 15th century, as being hawked in London. They seem, however, for a considerable time, to have fallen out of use; for, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, Fuller tells us they were brought from Holland, and were accounted “fit dainties for ladies, they came so far and cost so dear.” There are some varieties of peas which have no lining in their pods, which are eaten cooked in the same way as kidney-beans. They are called sugar pease, and the best variety is the large crooked sugar, which is also very good, used in the common way, as a culinary vegetable. There is also a white sort, which readily splits when subjected to the action of millstones set wide apart, so as not to grind them. These are used largely for soups, and especially for sea-stores. From the quantity of farinaceous and saccharine matter contained in the pea, it is highly nutritious as an article of food.

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PEA SOUP (inexpensive).

144. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of onions, ¼ lb. of carrots, 2 oz. of celery, ¾ lb. of split peas, a little mint, shred fine; 1 tablespoonful of coarse brown sugar, salt and pepper to taste, 4 quarts of water, or liquor in which a joint of meat has been boiled.

Mode.—Fry the vegetables for 10 minutes in a little butter or dripping, previously cutting them up in small pieces; pour the water on them, and when boiling add the peas. Let them simmer for nearly 3 hours, or until the peas are thoroughly done. Add the sugar, seasoning, and mint; boil for ¼ of an hour, and serve.

Time.—3½ hours.

Average cost, 1½d. per quart.

Seasonable in winter.

Sufficient for 12 persons.

POTATO SOUP.
I.

145. Ingredients.—4 lbs. of mealy potatoes, boiled or steamed very dry, pepper and salt to taste, 2 quarts of stock No. 105.

Mode.—When the potatoes are boiled, mash them smoothly, that no lumps remain, and gradually put them to the boiling stock; pass it through a sieve, season, and simmer for 5 minutes. Skim well, and serve with fried bread.

Time.—½ hour.

Average cost, 10d. per quart.

Seasonable from September to March.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

II.

146. Ingredients.—1 lb. of shin of beef, 1 lb. of potatoes, 1 onion, ½ a pint of peas, 2 oz. of rice, 2 heads of celery, pepper and salt to taste, 3 quarts of water.

Mode.—Cut the beef into thin slices, chop the potatoes and onion, and put them in a stewpan with the water, peas, and rice. Stew gently till the gravy is drawn from the meat; strain it off, take out the beef, and pulp the other ingredients through a coarse sieve. Put the pulp back in the soup, cut up the celery in it, and simmer till this is tender. Season, and serve with fried bread cut into it.

Time.—3 hours.

Average cost, 4d. per quart.

Seasonable from September to March.

Sufficient for 12 persons.

III.
(Very Economical.)

147. Ingredients.—4 middle-sized potatoes well pared, a thick 77 slice of bread, 6 leeks peeled and cut into thin slices as far as the white extends upwards from the roots, a teacupful of rice, a teaspoonful of salt, and half that of pepper, and 2 quarts of water.

Mode.—The water must be completely boiling before anything is put into it; then add the whole of the ingredients at once, with the exception of the rice, the salt, and the pepper. Cover, and let these come to a brisk boil; put in the others, and let the whole boil slowly for an hour, or till all the ingredients are thoroughly done, and their several juices extracted and mixed.

picture of “POTATOES.”

POTATOES.

Time.—2½ hours.

Average cost, 3d. per quart.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

Seasonable in winter.

The Potato.—Humboldt doubted whether this root was a native of South America; but it has been found growing wild both in Chili and Buenos Ayres. It was first brought to Spain from the neighbourhood of Quito, in the early part of the sixteenth century, first to England from Virginia, in 1586, and first planted by Sir Walter Raleigh, on his estate of Youghal, near Cork, in Ireland. Thence it was brought and planted in Lancashire, in England, and was at first recommended to be eaten as a delicate dish, and not as common food. This was in 1587. Nutritious Properties.—Of a thousand parts of the potato, Sir H. Davy found about a fourth nutritive; say, 200 mucilage or starch, 20 sugar, and 30 gluten.

PRINCE OF WALES’S SOUP.

148. Ingredients.—12 turnips, 1 lump of sugar, 2 spoonfuls of strong veal stock, salt and white pepper to taste, 2 quarts of very bright stock, No. 105.

Mode.—Peel the turnips, and with a cutter cut them in balls as round as possible, but very small. Put them in the stock, which must be very bright, and simmer till tender. Add the veal stock and seasoning. Have little pieces of bread cut round, about the size of a shilling; moisten them with stock; put them into a tureen and pour the soup over without shaking, for fear of crumbling the bread, which would spoil the appearance of the soup, and make it look thick.

Time.—2 hours.

Seasonable in the winter.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

The Prince of Wales.—This soup was invented by a philanthropic friend of the Editress, to be distributed among the poor of a considerable village, when the Prince of Wales attained his majority, on the 9th November, 1859. Accompanying this fact, the following notice, which appears in “Beeton’s Dictionary of Universal Information,” may appropriately be introduced, premising that British princes attain their majority in their 18th year, whilst mortals of ordinary rank do not arrive at that period till their 21st.—“Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, and heir to the British throne, merits a place in this work on account of the high responsibilities which he is, in all probability, destined to fulfil as sovereign of the British empire. On the 10th of November, 1858, he was gazetted as having been invested with the rank of a colonel in the army. Speaking of this circum­stance, the Times said,—‘The significance of this event is, that it marks the period when the heir to the British throne is about to take rank among 78 men, and to enter formally upon a career, which every loyal subject of the queen will pray may be a long and a happy one, for his own sake and for the sake of the vast empire which, in the course of nature, he will one day be called to govern. The best wish that we can offer for the young prince is, that in his own path he may ever keep before him the bright example of his royal mother, and show himself worthy of her name.’ There are few in these realms who will not give a fervent response to these sentiments. B. November 9th, 1841.”

POTAGE PRINTANIER, OR SPRING SOUP.

149. Ingredients.—½ a pint of green peas, if in season, a little chervil, 2 shredded lettuces, 2 onions, a very small bunch of parsley, 2 oz. of butter, the yolks of 3 eggs, 1 pint of water, seasoning to taste, 2 quarts of stock No. 105.

Mode.—Put in a very clean stewpan the chervil, lettuces, onions, parsley, and butter, to 1 pint of water, and let them simmer till tender. Season with salt and pepper; when done, strain off the vegetables, and put two-thirds of the liquor they were boiled in to the stock. Beat up the yolks of the eggs with the other third, give it a toss over the fire, and at the moment of serving, add this, with the vegetables which you strained off, to the soup.

Time.—¾ of an hour.

Average cost, 1s. per quart.

Seasonable from May to October.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

RICE SOUP.
I.

picture of “EARS OF RICE.”

EARS OF RICE.

150. Ingredients.—4 oz. of Patna rice, salt, cayenne, and mace, 2 quarts of white stock.

Mode.—Throw the rice into boiling water, and let it remain 5 minutes; then pour it into a sieve, and allow it to drain well. Now add it to the stock boiling, and allow it to stew till it is quite tender; season to taste. Serve quickly.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost, 1s. 3d. per quart.

Seasonable all the year.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

Rice.—This is a plant of Indian origin, and has formed the principal food of the Indian and Chinese people from the most remote antiquity. Both Pliny and Dioscorides class it with the cereals, though Galen places it among the vegetables. Be this as it may, however, it was imported to Greece, from India, about 286 years before Christ, and by the ancients it was esteemed both nutritious and fattening. There are three kinds of rice,—the Hill rice, the Patna, and the Carolina, of the United States. Of these, only the two latter are imported to this country, and the Carolina is considered the best, as it is the dearest. The nourishing properties of rice are greatly inferior to those of wheat; but it is both a light and a wholesome food. In combination with other foods, its nutritive qualities are greatly increased: but from its having little stimulating power, it is apt, when taken in large quantities alone, to lie long on the stomach.

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II.

151. Ingredients.—6 oz. of rice, the yolks of 4 eggs, ½ a pint of cream, rather more than 2 quarts of stock No. 105.

Mode.—Boil the rice in the stock, and rub half of it through a tammy; put the stock in the stew pan, add all the rice, and simmer gently for 5 minutes. Beat the yolks of the eggs, mix them with the cream (previously boiled), and strain through a hair sieve; take the soup off the fire, add the eggs and cream, stirring frequently. Heat it gradually, stirring all the time; but do not let it boil, or the eggs will curdle.

Time.—2 hours.

Average cost, 1s. 4d. per quart.

Seasonable all the year.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

SAGO SOUP.

152. Ingredients.—5 oz. of sago, 2 quarts of stock No. 105.

Mode.—Wash the sago in boiling water, and add it, by degrees, to the boiling stock, and simmer till the sago is entirely dissolved, and forms a sort of jelly.

Time.—Nearly an hour.

Average cost, 10d. per quart.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

Seasonable all the year.

picture of “SAGO PALM.”

SAGO PALM.

Note.—The yolks of 2 eggs, beaten up with a little cream, previously boiled, and added at the moment of serving, much improves this soup.

Sago.—The farinaceous food of this name constitutes the pith of the Sago tree (the Sagus farinifera of Linnæus), which grows spontaneously in the East Indies and in the archipelago of the Indian Ocean. There it forms the principal farinaceous diet of the inhabitants. In order to procure it, the tree is felled and sawn in pieces. The pith is then taken out, and put in receptacles of cold water, where it is stirred until the flour separates from the filaments, and sinks to the bottom, where it is suffered to remain until the water is poured off, when it is taken out and spread on wicker frames to dry. To give it the round granular form in which we find it come to this country, it is passed through a colander, then rubbed into little balls, and dried. The tree is not fit for felling until it has attained a growth of seven years, when a single trunk will yield 600 lbs. weight; and, as an acre of ground will grow 430 of these trees, a large return of flour is the result. The best quality has a slightly reddish hue, and easily dissolves to a jelly, in hot water. As a restorative diet, it is much used.

SEMOLINA SOUP.

153. Ingredients.—5 oz. of semolina, 2 quarts of boiling stock, No. 105, or 106.

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Mode.—Drop the semolina into the boiling stock, and keep stirring, to prevent its burning. Simmer gently for half an hour, and serve.

Time.—½ an hour.

Average cost, 10d. per quart, or 4d.

Seasonable all the year.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

Semolina.—This is the heart of the grano duro wheat of Italy, which is imported for the purpose of making the best vermicelli. It has a coarse appearance, and may be purchased at the Italian warehouses. It is also called soojce; and semoletta is another name for a finer sort.

SOUP A LA SOLFERINO (Sardinian Recipe).

154. Ingredients.—4 eggs, ½ pint of cream, 2 oz. of fresh butter, salt and pepper to taste, a little flour to thicken, 2 quarts of bouillon, No. 105.

Mode.—Beat the eggs, put them into a stewpan, and add the cream, butter, and seasoning; stir in as much flour as will bring it to the consistency of dough; make it into balls, either round or egg-shaped, and fry them in butter; put them in the tureen, and pour the boiling bouillon over them.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost, 1s. 3d. per quart.

Seasonable all the year.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

Note.—This recipe was communicated to the Editress by an English gentleman, who was present at the battle of Solferino, on June 24, 1859, and who was requested by some of Victor Emmanuel’s troops, on the day before the battle, to partake of a portion of their potage. He willingly enough consented, and found that these clever campaigners had made a most palatable dish from very easily-procured materials. In sending the recipe for insertion in this work, he has, however, Anglicized, and somewhat, he thinks, improved it.

SPINACH SOUP (French Recipe).

picture of “SPINACH.”

SPINACH.

155. Ingredients.—As much spinach as, when boiled, will half fill a vegetable-dish, 2 quarts of very clear medium stock, No. 105.

Mode.—Make the cooked spinach into balls the size of an egg, and slip them into the soup-tureen. This is a very elegant soup, the green of the spinach forming a pretty contrast to the brown gravy.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost, 1s. per quart.

Seasonable from October to June.

Spinach.—This plant was unknown by the ancients, although it was cultivated in the monastic gardens of the continent in the middle of the 11th century. Some say, that it was originally brought from Spain; but there is a wild species growing in England, and cultivated in Lincolnshire, in preference to the other. There are three varieties in use; the round-leaved, the triangular-leaved, and 81 G Flanders spinach, known by its large leaves. They all form a useful ingredient in soup; but the leaves are sometimes boiled alone mashed, and eaten as greens.

TAPIOCA SOUP.

156. Ingredients.—5 oz. of tapioca, 2 quarts of stock No. 105 or 106.

Mode.—Put the tapioca into cold stock, and bring it gradually to a boil. Simmer gently till tender, and serve.

Time.—Rather more than 1 hour.

Average cost, 1s. or 6d. per quart.

Seasonable all the year.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

Tapioca.—This excellent farinaceous food is the produce of the pith of the cassava-tree, and is made in the East Indies, and also in Brazil. It is, by washing, procured as a starch from the tree, then dried, either in the sun or on plates of hot iron, and afterwards broken into grains, in which form it is imported into this country. Its nutritive properties are large, and as a food for persons of delicate digestion, or for children, it is in great estimation. “No amylaceous substance,” says Dr. Christison, “is so much relished by infants about the time of weaning; and in them it is less apt to become sour during digestion than any other farinaceous food, even arrowroot not excepted.”

TURNIP SOUP.

157. Ingredients.—3 oz. of butter, 9 good-sized turnips, 4 onions, 2 quarts of stock No. 106, seasoning to taste.

picture of “TURNIP.”

TURNIP.

Mode.—Melt the butter in the stewpan, but do not let it boil; wash, drain, and slice the turnips and onions very thin; put them in the butter, with a teacupful of stock, and stew very gently for an hour. Then add the remainder of the stock, and simmer another hour. Rub it through a tammy, put it back into the stewpan, but do not let it boil. Serve very hot.

Time.—2½ hours.

Average cost, 8d. per quart.

Seasonable from October to March.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

Note.—By adding a little cream, this soup will be much improved.

The Turnip.—Although turnips grow wild in England, they are not the original of the cultivated vegetable made use of in this country. In ancient times they were grown for cattle by the Romans, and in Germany and the Low Countries they have from time immemorial been raised for the same purpose. In their cultivated state, they are generally supposed to have been introduced to England from Hanover, in the time of George I.; but this has been doubted, as George II. caused a description of the Norfolk system to be sent to his Hanoverian subjects, for their enlightenment in the art of turnip culture. As a culinary vegetable, it is excellent, whether eaten alone, mashed, or mixed with soups and stews. Its nutritious matter, however, is small, being only 42 parts in 1,000.

VEGETABLE-MARROW SOUP.

picture of “VEGETABLE MARROW.”

VEGETABLE MARROW.

158. Ingredients.—4 young vegetable marrows, or more, if very small, ½ pint of cream, salt and white pepper to taste, 2 quarts of white stock, No. 107.

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Mode.—Pare and slice the marrows, and put them in the stock boiling. When done almost to a mash, press them through a sieve, and at the moment of serving, add the boiling cream and seasoning.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost, 1s. 2d. per quart.

Seasonable in summer.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

The Vegetable Marrow.—This is a variety of the gourd family, brought from Persia by an East-India ship, and only recently introduced to Britain. It is already cultivated to a considerable extent, and, by many, is highly esteemed when fried with butter. It is, however, dressed in different ways, either by stewing or boiling, and, besides, made into pies.

VEGETABLE SOUP.
I.

159. Ingredients.—7 oz. of carrot, 10 oz. of parsnip, 10 oz. of potato, cut into thin slices; 1¼ oz. of butter, 5 teaspoonfuls of flour, a teaspoonful of made mustard, salt and pepper to taste, the yolks of 2 eggs, rather more than 2 quarts of water.

Mode.—Boil the vegetables in the water 2½ hours; stir them often, and if the water boils away too quickly, add more, as there should be 2 quarts of soup when done. Mix up in a basin the butter and flour, mustard, salt, and pepper, with a teacupful of cold water; stir in the soup, and boil 10 minutes. Have ready the yolks of the eggs in the tureen; pour on, stir well, and serve.

Time.—3 hours.

Average cost, 4d. per quart.

Seasonable in winter.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

II.

160. Ingredients.—Equal quantities of onions, carrots, turnips; ¼ lb. of butter, a crust of toasted bread, 1 head of celery, a faggot of herbs, salt and pepper to taste, 1 teaspoonful of powdered sugar, 2 quarts of common stock or boiling water. Allow ¾ lb. of vegetables to 2 quarts of stock, No. 105.

Mode.—Cut up the onions, carrots, and turnips; wash and drain them well, and put them in the stew pan with the butter and powdered sugar. Toss the whole over a sharp fire for 10 minutes, but do not let them brown, or you will spoil the flavour of the soup. When done, pour the stock or boiling water on them; add the bread, celery, herbs, and seasoning; stew for 3 hours; skim well and strain it off. 83 When ready to serve, add a little sliced carrot, celery, and turnip, and flavour with a spoonful of Harvey’s sauce, or a little ketchup.

Time.—3½ hours.

Average cost, 6d. per quart.

Seasonable all the year.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

III.
(Good and Cheap, made without Meat.)

161. Ingredients.—6 potatoes, 4 turnips, or 2 if very large; 2 carrots, 2 onions; if obtainable, 2 mushrooms; 1 head of celery, 1 large slice of bread, 1 small saltspoonful of salt, ¼ saltspoonful of ground black pepper, 2 teaspoonfuls of Harvey’s sauce, 6 quarts of water.

Mode.—Peel the vegetables, and cut them up into small pieces; toast the bread rather brown, and put all into a stewpan with the water and seasoning. Simmer gently for 3 hours, or until all is reduced to a pulp, and pass it through a sieve in the same way as pea-soup, which it should resemble in consistence; but it should be a dark brown colour. Warm it up again when required; put in the Harvey’s sauce, and, if necessary, add to the flavouring.

Time.—3 hours, or rather more.

Average cost, 1d. per quart.

Seasonable at any time.

Sufficient for 16 persons.

Note.—This recipe was forwarded to the Editress by a lady in the county of Durham, by whom it was strongly recommended.

VERMICELLI SOUP.
I.

162. Ingredients.—1½ lb. of bacon, stuck with cloves; ½ oz. of butter, worked up in flour; 1 small fowl, trussed for boiling; 2 oz. of vermicelli, 2 quarts of white stock, No. 107.

picture of “VERMICELLI.”

VERMICELLI.

Mode.—Put the stock, bacon, butter, and fowl into the stewpan, and stew for ¾ of an hour. Take the vermicelli, add it to a little of the stock, and set it on the fire, till it is quite tender. When the soup is ready, take out the fowl and bacon, and put the bacon on a dish. Skim the soup as clean as possible; pour it, with the vermicelli, over the fowl. Cut some bread thin, put in the soup, and serve.

Time.—2 hours.

Average cost, exclusive of the fowl and bacon, 10d. per quart.

Seasonable in winter.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

Vermicelli.—This is a preparation of Italian origin, and made in the same way as macaroni, only the yolks of eggs, sugar, saffron, and cheese, are added to the paste.

84
II.

163. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of vermicelli, 2 quarts of clear gravy stock, No. 169.

Mode.—Put the vermicelli in the soup, boiling; simmer very gently for ½ an hour, and stir frequently.

Time.—½ an hour.

Average cost, 1s. 3d. per quart.

Seasonable all the year.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

WHITE SOUP.

164. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of sweet almonds, ¼ lb. of cold veal or poultry, a thick slice of stale bread, a piece of fresh lemon-peel, 1 blade of mace, pounded, ¾ pint of cream, the yolks of 2 hard-boiled eggs, 2 quarts of white stock, No. 107.

Mode.—Reduce the almonds in a mortar to a paste, with a spoonful of water, and add to them the meat, which should be previously pounded with the bread. Beat all together, and add the lemon-peel, very finely chopped, and the mace. Pour the boiling stock on the whole, and simmer for an hour. Rub the eggs in the cream, put in the soup, bring it to a boil, and serve immediately.

Time.—1½ hour.

Average cost, 1s. 6d. per quart.

Seasonable all the year.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

Note.—A more economical white soup may be made by using common veal stock, and thickening with rice, flour, and milk. Vermicelli should be served with it.

Average cost, 5d. per quart.

USEFUL SOUP FOR BENEVOLENT PURPOSES.

165. Ingredients.—An ox-cheek, any pieces of trimmings of beef, which may be bought very cheaply (say 4 lbs.), a few bones, any pot-liquor the larder may furnish, ¼ peck of onions, 6 leeks, a large bunch of herbs, ½ lb. of celery (the outside pieces, or green tops, do very very well); ½ lb. of carrots, ½ lb. of turnips, ½ lb. of coarse brown sugar, ½ a pint of beer, 4 lbs. of common rice, or pearl barley; ½ lb. of salt, 1 oz. of black pepper, a few raspings, 10 gallons of water.

Mode.—Cut up the meat in small pieces, break the bones, put them in a copper, with the 10 gallons of water, and stew for ½ an hour. Cut up the vegetables, put them in with the sugar and beer, and boil for 4 hours. Two hours before the soup is wanted, add the rice and raspings, and keep stirring till it is well mixed in the soup, which simmer gently. If the liquor reduces too much, fill up with water.

85

Time.—6½ hours.

Average cost, 1½d. per quart.

Note.—The above recipe was used in the winter of 1858 by the Editress, who made, each week, in her copper, 8 or 9 gallons of this soup, for distribution amongst about a dozen families of the village near which she lives. The cost, as will be seen, was not great; but she has reason to believe that it was very much liked, and gave to the members of those families, a dish of warm, comforting food, in place of the cold meat and piece of bread which form, with too many cottagers, their usual meal, when, with a little more knowledge of the “cooking” art, they might have, for less expense, a warm dish every day.

MEAT, POULTRY, AND GAME SOUPS.

BRILLA SOUP.

166. Ingredients.—4 lbs. of shin of beef, 3 carrots, 2 turnips, a large sprig of thyme, 2 onions, 1 head of celery, salt and pepper to taste, 4 quarts water.

Mode.—Take the beef, cut off all the meat from the bone, in nice square pieces, and boil the bone for 4 hours. Strain the liquor, let it cool, and take off the fat; then put the pieces of meat in the cold liquor; cut small the carrots, turnips, and celery; chop the onions, add them with the thyme and seasoning, and simmer till the meat is tender. If not brown enough, colour it with browning.

Time.—6 hours.

Average cost, 5d. per quart.

Seasonable all the year.

Sufficient for 10 persons.

Thyme.—This sweet herb was known to the Romans, who made use of it in culinary preparations, as well as in aromatic liqueurs. There are two species of it growing wild in Britain, but the garden thyme is a native of the south of Europe, and is more delicate in its perfume than the others. Its young leaves give an agreeable flavour to soups and sauces; they are also used in stuffings.

CALF’S-HEAD SOUP.

167. Ingredients.—½ a calf’s head, 1 onion stuck with cloves, a very small bunch of sweet herbs, 2 blades of mace, salt and white pepper to taste, 6 oz. of rice-flour, 3 tablespoonfuls of ketchup, 3 quarts of white stock, No. 107, or pot-liquor, or water.

Mode.—Rub the head with salt, soak it for 6 hours, and clean it thoroughly; put it in the stewpan, and cover it with the stock, or pot-liquor, or water, adding the onion and sweet herbs. When well skimmed and boiled for 1½ hour, take out the head, and skim and 86 strain the soup. Mix the rice-flour with the ketchup, thicken the soup with it, and simmer for 5 minutes. Now cut up the head into pieces about two inches long, and simmer them in the soup till the meat and fat are quite tender. Season with white pepper and mace finely pounded, and serve very hot. When the calf’s head is taken out of the soup, cover it up, or it will discolour.

Time.—2½ hours.

Average cost, 1s. 9d. per quart, with stock No. 107.

Seasonable from May to October.

Sufficient for 10 persons.

Note.—Force-meat balls can be added, and the soup may be flavoured with a little lemon-juice, or a glass of sherry or Madeira. The bones from the head may be stewed down again, with a few fresh vegetables, and it will make a very good common stock.

GIBLET SOUP.

168. Ingredients.—3 sets of goose or duck giblets, 2 lbs. of shin of beef, a few bones, 1 ox-tail, 2 mutton-shanks, 2 large onions, 2 carrots, 1 large faggot of herbs, salt and pepper to taste, ¼ pint of cream, 1 oz. of butter mixed with a dessert-spoonful of flour, 3 quarts of water.

Mode.—Scald the giblets, cut the gizzards in 8 pieces, and put them in a stewpan with the beef, bones, ox-tail, mutton-shanks, onions, herbs, pepper, and salt; add the 3 quarts of water, and simmer till the giblets are tender, taking care to skim well. When the giblets are done, take them out, put them in your tureen, strain the soup through a sieve, add the cream and butter, mixed with a dessert-spoonful of flour, boil it up a few minutes, and pour it over the giblets. It can be flavoured with port wine and a little mushroom ketchup, instead of cream. Add salt to taste.

Time.—3 hours.

Average cost, 9d. per quart.

Seasonable all the year.

Sufficient for 10 persons.

GRAVY SOUP.

169. Ingredients.—6 lbs. of shin of beef, a knuckle of veal weighing 5 lbs., a few pieces or trimmings, 2 slices of nicely-flavoured lean ham; ¼ lb. of butter, 2 onions, 2 carrots, 1 turnip, nearly a head of celery, 1 blade of mace, 6 cloves, a bunch of savoury herbs, with endive, seasoning of salt and pepper to taste, 3 lumps of sugar, 5 quarts of boiling soft water. It can be flavoured with ketchup, Leamington sauce (see Sauces), Harvey’s sauce, and a little soy.

picture of “ENDIVE.”

ENDIVE.

Mode.—Slightly brown the meat and ham in the butter, but do not 87 let them burn. When this is done, pour to it the water, and as the scum rises, take it off; when no more appears, add all the other ingredients, and let the soup simmer slowly by the fire for 6 hours without stirring it any more from the bottom; take it off, and let it settle; skim off all the fat you can, and pass it through a tammy. When perfectly cold, you can remove all the fat, and leave the sediment untouched, which serves very nicely for thick gravies, hashes, &c.

Time.—7 hours.

Average cost, 1s. per quart.

Seasonable all the year.

Sufficient for 14 persons.

Endive.—This plant belongs to the acetarious tribe of vegetables, and is supposed to have originally come from China and Japan. It was known to the ancients; but was not introduced to England till about the middle of the 16th century. It is consumed in large quantities by the French, and in London,—in the neighbourhood of which it is grown in abundance;—it is greatly used as a winter salad, as well as in soups and stews.

HARE SOUP.
I.

170. Ingredients.—A hare fresh-killed, 1 lb. of lean gravy-beef, a slice of ham, 1 carrot, 2 onions, a faggot of savoury herbs, ¼ oz. of whole black pepper, a little browned flour, ¼ pint of port wine, the crumb of two French rolls, salt and cayenne to taste, 3 quarts of water.

Mode.—Skin and paunch the hare, saving the liver and as much blood as possible. Cut it in pieces, and put it in a stewpan with all the ingredients, and simmer gently for 8 hours. This soup should be made the day before it is wanted. Strain through a sieve, put the best parts of the hare in the soup, and serve.

OR,
II.

Proceed as above; but, instead of putting the joints of the hare in the soup, pick the meat from the bones, pound it in a mortar, and add it, with the crumb of two French rolls, to the soup. Rub all through a sieve; heat slowly, but do not let it boil. Send it to table immediately.

Time.—8 hours.

Average cost, 1s. 9d. per quart.

Seasonable from September to February.

Sufficient for 10 persons.

88

picture of “HARE.”

HARE.

The common Hare.—This little animal is found throughout Europe, and, indeed, in most of the northern parts of the world; and as it is destitute of natural weapons of defence, Providence has endowed it with an extraordinary amount of the passion of fear. As if to awaken the vigilance of this passion, too, He has furnished it with long and tubular ears, in order that it may catch the remotest sounds; and with full, prominent eyes, which enable it to see, at once and the same time, both before and behind it. The hare feeds in the evenings, and sleeps, in its form, during the day; and, as it generally lies on the ground, its feet, both below and above, are protected with a thick covering of hair. Its flesh, though esteemed by the Romans, was forbidden by the Druids and by the earlier Britons. It is now, though very dark and dry, and devoid of fat, much esteemed by Europeans, on account of the peculiarity of its flavour. In purchasing this animal, it ought to be remembered that both hares and rabbits, when old, have their claws rugged and blunt, their haunches thick, and their ears dry and tough. The ears of a young hare easily tear, and it has a narrow cleft in the lip; whilst its claws are both smooth and sharp.

HESSIAN SOUP.

171. Ingredients.—Half an ox’s head, 1 pint of split peas, 8 carrots, 6 turnips, 6 potatoes, 6 onions, 1 head of celery, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, pepper and salt to taste, 2 blades of mace, a little allspice, 4 cloves, the crumb of a French roll, 6 quarts of water.

Mode.—Clean the head, rub it with salt and water, and soak it for 5 hours in warm water. Simmer it in the water till tender, put it into a pan and let it cool; skim off all the fat; take out the head, and add the vegetables cut up small, and the peas which have been previously soaked; simmer them without the meat, till they are done enough to pulp through a sieve. Add the seasoning, with pieces of the meat cut up; give one boil, and serve.

Time.—4 hours.

Average cost, 6d. per quart.

Seasonable in winter.

Sufficient for 16 persons.

Note.—An excellent hash or ragoût can be made by cutting up the nicest parts of the head, thickening and seasoning more highly a little of the soup, and adding a glass of port wine and 2 tablespoonfuls of ketchup.

MOCK TURTLE.
I.

172. Ingredients.—½ a calf’s head, ¼ lb. of butter, ¼ lb. of lean ham, 2 tablespoonfuls of minced parsley, a little minced lemon thyme, sweet marjoram, basil, 2 onions, a few chopped mushrooms (when obtainable), 2 shallots, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, ¼ bottle of Madeira or sherry, force-meat balls, cayenne, salt and mace to taste, the juice of 1 lemon and 1 Seville orange, 1 dessert-spoonful of pounded sugar, 3 quarts of best stock, No. 104.

89

Mode.—Scald the head with the skin on, remove the brain, tie the head up in a cloth, and let it boil for 1 hour. Then take the meat from the bones, cut it into small square pieces, and throw them into cold water. Now take the meat, put it into a stewpan, and cover with stock; let it boil gently for an hour, or rather more, if not quite tender, and set it on one side. Melt the butter in another stewpan, and add the ham, cut small, with the herbs, parsley, onions, shallots, mushrooms, and nearly a pint of stock; let these simmer slowly for 2 hours, and then dredge in as much flour as will dry up the butter. Fill up with the remainder of the stock, add the wine, let it stew gently for 10 minutes, rub it through a tammy, and put it to the calf’s head; season with cayenne, and, if required, a little salt; add the juice of the orange and lemon; and when liked, ¼ teaspoonful of pounded mace, and the sugar. Put in the force-meat balls, simmer 5 minutes, and serve very hot.

Time.—4½ hours.

Average cost, 3s. 6d. per quart, or 2s. 6d. without wine or force-meat balls.

Seasonable in winter.

Sufficient for 10 persons.

Note.—The bones of the head should be well stewed in the liquor it was first boiled in, and will make good white stock, flavoured with vegetables, &c.

II.
(More Economical.)

173. Ingredients.—A knuckle of veal weighing 5 or 6 lbs., 2 cow-heels, 2 large onions stuck with cloves, 1 bunch of sweet herbs, 3 blades of mace, salt to taste, 12 peppercorns, 1 glass of sherry, 24 force-meat balls, a little lemon-juice, 4 quarts of water.

Mode.—Put all the ingredients, except the force-meat balls and lemon-juice, in an earthen jar, and stew for 6 hours. Do not open it till cold. When wanted for use, skim off all the fat, and strain carefully; place it on the fire, cut up the meat into inch-and-a-half squares, put it, with the force-meat balls and lemon-juice, into the soup, and serve. It can be flavoured with a tablespoonful of anchovy, or Harvey’s sauce.

Time.—6 hours.

Average cost, 1s. 4d. per quart.

Seasonable in winter.

Sufficient for 10 persons.

The Calf.—The flesh of this animal is called veal, and when young, that is, under two months old, yields a large quantity of soluble extract, and is, therefore, much employed for soups and broths. The Essex farmers have obtained a celebrity for fattening calves better than any others in England, where they are plentifully supplied with milk, a thing impossible to be done in the immediate neighbourhood of London.

90

Marjoram.—There are several species of this plant; but that which is preferred for cookery is a native of Portugal, and is called sweet or knotted marjoram. When its leaves are dried, they have an agreeable aromatic flavour; and hence are used for soups, stuffings, &c.

Basil.—This is a native of the East Indies, and is highly aromatic, having a perfume greatly resembling that of cloves. It is not much employed in English cookery, but is a favourite with French cooks, by whom its leaves are used in soups and salads.

MULLAGATAWNY SOUP.

174. Ingredients.—2 tablespoonfuls of curry powder, 6 onions, 1 clove of garlic, 1 oz. of pounded almonds, a little lemon-pickle, or mango-juice, to taste; 1 fowl or rabbit, 4 slices of lean bacon; 2 quarts of medium stock, or, if wanted very good, best stock.

Mode.—Slice and fry the onions of a nice colour; line the stewpan with the bacon; cut up the rabbit or fowl into small joints, and slightly brown them; put in the fried onions, the garlic, and stock, and simmer gently till the meat is tender; skim very carefully, and when the meat is done, rub the curry powder to a smooth batter; add it to the soup with the almonds, which must be first pounded with a little of the stock. Put in seasoning and lemon-pickle or mango-juice to taste, and serve boiled rice with it.

picture of “CORIANDER.”

CORIANDER.

Time.—2 hours.

Average cost, 1s. 6d. per quart, with, stock No. 105.

Seasonable in winter.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

Note.—This soup can also be made with breast of veal, or calf’s head. Vegetable Mullagatawny is made with veal stock, by boiling and pulping chopped vegetable marrow, cucumbers, onions, and tomatoes, and seasoning with curry powder and cayenne. Nice pieces of meat, good curry powder, and strong stock, are necessary to make this soup good.

Coriander.—This plant, which largely enters into the composition of curry powder with turmeric, originally comes from the East; but it has long been cultivated in England, especially in Essex, where it is reared for the use of confectioners and druggists. In private gardens, it is cultivated for the sake of its tender leaves, which are highly aromatic, and are employed in soups and salads. Its seeds are used in large quantities for the purposes of distillation.

A GOOD MUTTON SOUP.

175. Ingredients.—A neck of mutton about 5 or 6 lbs., 3 carrots, 3 turnips, 2 onions, a large bunch of sweet herbs, including parsley, salt and pepper to taste; a little sherry, if liked; 3 quarts of water.

Mode.—Lay the ingredients in a covered pan before the fire, and let them remain there the whole day, stirring occasionally. The next day put the whole into a stewpan, and place it on a brisk fire. When it commences to boil, take the pan off the fire, and put it on one side to 91 simmer until the meat is done. When ready for use, take out the meat, dish it up with carrots and turnips, and send it to table; strain the soup, let it cool, skim off all the fat, season and thicken it with a tablespoonful, or rather more, of arrowroot; flavour with a little sherry, simmer for 5 minutes, and serve.

Time.—15 hours.

Average cost, including the meat, 1s. 3d. per quart.

Seasonable at any time.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

The Sheep.—This animal formed the principal riches of the patriarchs, in the days of old, and, no doubt, multiplied, until its species were spread over the greater part of Western Asia; but at what period it was introduced to Britain is not known. It is now found in almost every part of the globe, although, as a domestic animal, it depends almost entirely upon man for its support. Its value, however, amply repays him for whatever care and kindness he may bestow upon it; for, like the ox, there is scarcely a part of it that he cannot convert to some useful purpose. The fleece, which serves it for a covering, is appropriated by man, to serve the same end to himself, whilst its skin is also applied to various purposes in civilized life. Its entrails are used as strings for musical instruments, and its bones are calcined, and employed as tests in the trade of the refiner. Its milk, being thicker than that of the cow, yields a greater quantity of butter and cheese, and its flesh is among the most wholesome and nutritive that can be eaten. Thomson has beautifully described the appearance of the sheep, when bound to undergo the operation of being shorn of its wool.

“Behold, where bound, and of its robe bereft

By needy man, that all-depending lord,

How meek, how patient, the mild creature lies!

What softness in his melancholy thee,

What dumb complaining innocence appears!”

OX-CHEEK SOUP.

176. Ingredients.—An ox-cheek, 2 oz. of butter, 3 or 4 slices of lean ham or bacon, 1 parsnip, 3 carrots, 2 onions, 3 heads of celery, 3 blades of mace, 4 cloves, a faggot of savoury herbs, 1 bay-leaf, a teaspoonful of salt, half that of pepper, 1 head of celery, browning, the crust of a French roll, 5 quarts of water.

Mode.—Lay the ham in the bottom of the stewpan, with the butter; break the bones of the cheek, wash it clean, and put it on the ham. Cut the vegetables small, add them to the other ingredients, and set the whole over a slow fire for ¼ of an hour. Now put in the water, and simmer gently till it is reduced to 4 quarts; take out the fleshy part of the cheek, and strain the soup into a clean stewpan; thicken with flour, put in a head of sliced celery, and simmer till the celery is tender. If not a good colour, use a little browning. Cut the meat into small square pieces, pour the soup over, and serve with the crust of a French roll in the tureen. A glass of sherry much improves this soup.

Time.—3 to 4 hours.

Average cost, 8d. per quart.

Seasonable in winter.

Sufficient for 12 persons.

92

The Ox.—Of the quadrupedal animals, the flesh of those that feed upon herbs is the most wholesome and nutritious for human food. In the early ages, the ox was used as a religious sacrifice, and, in the eyes of the Egyptians was deemed so sacred as to be worthy of exaltation to represent Taurus, one of the twelve signs of the zodiac. To this day, the Hindoos venerate the cow, whose flesh is forbidden to be eaten, and whose fat, supposed to have been employed to grease the cartridges of the Indian army, was one of the proximate causes of the great Sepoy rebellion of 1857. There are no animals of greater use to man than the tribe to which the ox belongs. There is hardly a part of them that does not enter into some of the arts and purposes of civilized life. Of their horns are made combs, knife-handles, boxes, spoons, and drinking-cups. They are also made into transparent plates for lanterns; an invention ascribed, in England, to King Alfred. Glue is made from their gristles, cartilages, and portions of their hides. Their bones often form a substitute for ivory; their skins, when calves, are manufactured into vellum; their blood is the basis of Prussian blue; their sinews furnish fine and strong threads, used by saddlers; their hair enters into various manufactures; their tallow is made into candles; their flesh is eaten, and the utility of the milk and cream of the cow is well known.

OX-TAIL SOUP.

177. Ingredients.—2 ox-tails, 2 slices of ham, 1 oz. of butter, 2 carrots, 2 turnips, 3 onions, 1 leek, 1 head of celery, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, 1 bay-leaf, 12 whole peppercorns, 4 cloves, a tablespoonful of salt, 2 tablespoonfuls of ketchup, ½ glass of port wine, 3 quarts of water.

Mode.—Cut up the tails, separating them at the joints; wash them, and put them in a stewpan, with the butter. Cut the vegetables in slices, and add them, with the peppercorns and herbs. Put in ½ pint of water, and stir it over a sharp fire till the juices are drawn. Fill up the stewpan with the water, and, when boiling, add the salt. Skim well, and simmer very gently for 4 hours, or until the tails are tender. Take them out, skim and strain the soup, thicken with flour, and flavour with the ketchup and port wine. Put back the tails, simmer for 5 minutes, and serve.

Time.—4½ hours.

Average cost, 1s. 3d. per quart.

Seasonable in winter.

Sufficient for 10 persons.

PARTRIDGE SOUP.

178. Ingredients.—2 partridges, 3 slices of lean ham, 2 shred onions, 1 head of celery, 1 large carrot, and 1 turnip cut into any fanciful shapes, 1 small lump of sugar, 2 oz. of butter, salt and pepper to taste, 2 quarts of stock No. 105, or common, No. 106.

Mode.—Cut the partridges into pieces, and braise them in the butter and ham until quite tender; then take out the legs, wings, and breast, and set them by. Keep the backs and other trimmings in the braise, and add the onions and celery; any remains of cold game can be put in, and 3 pints of stock. Simmer slowly for 1 hour, strain it, and skim the fat off as clean as possible; put in the pieces that were taken out, give it one boil, and skim again to have it quite clear, 93 and add the sugar and seasoning. Now simmer the cut carrot and turnip in 1 pint of stock; when quite tender, put them to the partridges, and serve.

Time.—2 hours.

Average cost, 2s. or 1s. 6d. per quart.

Seasonable from September to February.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

Note.—The meat of the partridges may be pounded with the crumb of a French roll, and worked with the soup through a sieve. Serve with stewed celery cut in slices, and put in the tureen.

The Partridge.—This is a timorous bird, being easily taken. It became known to the Greeks and Romans, whose tables it helped to furnish with food. Formerly, the Red was scarce in Italy, but its place was supplied by the White, which, at considerable expense, was frequently procured from the Alps. The Athenians trained this bird for fighting, and Severus used to lighten the cares of royalty by witnessing the spirit of its combats. The Greeks esteemed its leg most highly, and rejected the other portions as unfashionable to be eaten. The Romans, however, ventured a little further, and ate the breast, whilst we consider the bird as wholly palatable. It is an inhabitant of all the temperate countries of Europe, but, on account of the geniality of the climate, it abounds most in the Ukraine.

PHEASANT SOUP.

179. Ingredients.—2 pheasants, ¼ lb. of butter, 2 slices of ham, 2 large onions sliced, ½ head of celery, the crumb of two French rolls, the yolks of 2 eggs boiled hard, salt and cayenne to taste, a little pounded mace, if liked; 3 quarts of stock No. 105.

Mode.—Cut up the pheasants, flour and braise them in the butter and ham till they are of a nice brown, but not burnt. Put them in a stewpan, with the onions, celery, and seasoning, and simmer for 2 hours. Strain the soup; pound the breasts with the crumb of the roll previously soaked, and the yolks of the eggs; put it to the soup, give one boil, and serve.

Time.—2½ hours.

Average cost, 2s. 10d. per quart, or, if made with fragments of cold game, 1s.

Seasonable from October to February.

Sufficient for 10 persons.

Note.—Fragments, pieces and bones of cold game, may be used to great advantage in this soup, and then 1 pheasant will suffice.

PORTABLE SOUP.

180. Ingredients.—2 knuckles of veal, 3 shins of beef, 1 large faggot of herbs, 2 bay-leaves, 2 heads of celery, 3 onions, 3 carrots, blades of mace, 6 cloves, a teaspoonful of salt, sufficient water to cover all the ingredients.

Mode.—Take the marrow from the bones; put all the ingredients in a stock-pot, and simmer slowly for 12 hours, or more, if the meat be not done to rags; strain it off, and put it in a very cool place; 94 take off all the fat, reduce the liquor in a shallow pan, by setting it over a sharp fire, but be particular that it does not burn; boil it fast and uncovered for 8 hours, and keep it stirred. Put it into a deep dish, and set it by for a day. Have ready a stewpan of boiling water, place the dish in it, and keep it boiling; stir occasionally, and when the soup is thick and ropy, it is done. Form it into little cakes by pouring a small quantity on to the bottom of cups or basins; when cold, turn them out on a flannel to dry. Keep them from the air in tin canisters.

Average cost of this quantity, 16s.

Note.—Soup can be made in 5 minutes with this, by dissolving a small piece, about the size of a walnut, in a pint of warm water, and simmering for 2 minutes. Vermicelli, macaroni, or other Italian pastes, may be added.

The Laurel, or Bay.—The leaves of this tree frequently enter into the recipes of cookery; but they ought not to be used without the greatest caution, and not at all, unless the cook is perfectly aware of their effects. It ought to be known, that there are two kinds of bay-trees,—the Classic laurel, whose leaves are comparatively harmless, and the Cherry-laurel, which is the one whose leaves are employed in cookery. They have a kernel-like flavour, and are used in blanc-mange, puddings, custards, &c.; but, when acted upon by water, they develop prussic acid, and, therefore, but a small number of the leaves should be used at a time.

RABBIT SOUP.

181. Ingredients.—2 large rabbits, or 3 small ones; a faggot of savoury herbs, ½ head of celery, 2 carrots, 1 onion, 1 blade of mace, salt and white pepper to taste, a little pounded mace, ½ pint of cream, the yolks of 2 eggs boiled hard, the crumb of a French roll, nearly 3 quarts of water.

Mode.—Make the soup with the legs and shoulders of the rabbit, and keep the nice pieces for a dish or entrée. Put them into warm water, and draw the blood; when quite clean, put them in a stewpan, with a faggot of herbs, and a teacupful, or rather more, of veal stock or water. Simmer slowly till done through, and add the 3 quarts of water, and boil for an hour. Take out the rabbit, pick the meat from the bones, covering it up to keep it white; put the bones back in the liquor, add the vegetables, and simmer for 2 hours; skim and strain, and let it cool. Now pound the meat in a mortar, with the yolks of the eggs, and the crumb of the roll previously soaked; rub it through a tammy, and gradually add it to the strained liquor, and simmer for 15 minutes. Mix arrowroot or rice-flour with the cream (say 2 dessert-spoonfuls), and stir in the soup; bring it to a boil, and serve. This soup must be very white, and instead of thickening it with arrowroot or rice-flour, vermicelli or pearl barley can be boiled in a little stock, and put in 5 minutes before serving.

95

Time.—Nearly 4 hours.

Average cost, 1s. per quart.

Seasonable from September to March.

Sufficient for 10 persons.

REGENCY SOUP.

182. Ingredients.—Any bones and remains of any cold game, such as of pheasants, partridges, &c.; 2 carrots, 2 small onions, 1 head of celery, 1 turnip, ¼ lb. of pearl barley, the yolks of 3 eggs boiled hard, ¼ pint of cream, salt to taste, 2 quarts of stock No. 105, or common stock, No. 106.

Mode.—Place the bones or remains of game in the stewpan, with the vegetables sliced; pour over the stock, and simmer for 2 hours; skim off all the fat, and strain it. Wash the barley, and boil it in 2 or 3 waters before putting it to the soup; finish simmering in the soup, and when the barley is done, take out half, and pound the other half with the yolks of the eggs. When you have finished pounding, rub it through a clean tammy, add the cream, and salt if necessary; give one boil, and serve very hot, putting in the barley that was taken out first.

Time.—2½ hours.

Average cost, 1s. per quart, if made with medium stock, or 6d. per quart, with common stock.

Seasonable from September to March.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

SOUP A LA REINE.
I.

183. Ingredients.—1 large fowl, 1 oz. of sweet almonds, the crumb of 1½ French roll, ½ pint of cream, salt to taste, 1 small lump of sugar, 2 quarts of good white veal stock, No. 107.

Mode.—Boil the fowl gently in the stock till quite tender, which will be in about an hour, or rather more; take out the fowl, pull the meat from the bones, and put it into a mortar with the almonds, and pound very fine. When beaten enough, put the meat back in the stock, with the crumb of the rolls, and let it simmer for an hour; rub it through a tammy, add the sugar, ½ pint of cream that has boiled, and, if you prefer, cut the crust of the roll into small round pieces, and pour the soup over it, when you serve.

Time.—2 hours, or rather more.

Average cost, 2s. 7d. per quart.

Seasonable all the year.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

Note.—All white soups should be warmed in a vessel placed in another of boiling water. (See Bain Marie, No. 87.)

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II.
(Economical.)

184. Ingredients.—Any remains of roast chickens, ½ teacupful of rice, salt and pepper to taste, 1 quart of stock No. 106.

Mode.—Take all the white meat and pound it with the rice, which has been slightly cooked, but not much. When it is all well pounded, dilute with the stock, and pass through a sieve. This soup should neither be too clear nor too thick.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost, 4d. per quart.

Seasonable all the year.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

Note.—If stock is not at hand, put the chicken-bones in water, with an onion, carrot, a few sweet herbs, a blade of mace, pepper and salt, and stew for 3 hours.

STEW SOUP OF SALT MEAT.

185. Ingredients.—Any pieces of salt beef or pork, say 2 lbs.; 4 carrots, 4 parsnips, 4 turnips, 4 potatoes, 1 cabbage, 2 oz. of oatmeal or ground rice, seasoning of salt and pepper, 2 quarts of water.

Mode.—Cut up the meat small, add the water, and let it simmer for 2¾ hours. Now add the vegetables, cut in thin small slices; season, and boil for 1 hour. Thicken with the oatmeal, and serve.

Time.—Nearly 2 hours.

Average cost, 2d. per quart.

Seasonable in winter.

Sufficient for 6 persons.

Note.—If rice is used instead of oatmeal, put it in with the vegetables.

STEW SOUP.
I.

186. Ingredients.—2 lbs. of beef, 5 onions, 5 turnips, ¾ lb. of rice, a large bunch of parsley, a few sweet herbs, pepper and salt, 2 quarts of water.

Mode.—Cut the beef up in small pieces, add the other ingredients, and boil gently for 2½ hours. Oatmeal or potatoes would be a great improvement.

Time.—2½ hours.

Average cost, 1½d. per quart.

Seasonable in winter.

Sufficient for 6 persons.

II.

187. Ingredients.—½ lb. of beef, mutton, or pork; ½ pint of split 97 H peas, 4 turnips, 8 potatoes, 2 onions, 2 oz. of oatmeal or 3 oz. of rice, 2 quarts of water.

Mode.—Cut the meat in small pieces, as also the vegetables, and add them, with the peas, to the water. Boil gently for 3 hours; thicken with the oatmeal, boil for another ¼ hour, stirring all the time, and season with pepper and salt.

Time.—3¼ hours.

Average cost, 4d. per quart.

Seasonable in winter.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

Note.—This soup may be made of the liquor in which tripe has been boiled, by adding vegetables, seasoning, rice, &c.

TURKEY SOUP (a Seasonable Dish at Christmas).

188. Ingredients.—2 quarts of medium stock, No. 105, the remains of a cold roast turkey, 2 oz. of rice-flour or arrowroot, salt and pepper to taste, 1 tablespoonful of Harvey’s sauce or mushroom ketchup.

Mode.—Cut up the turkey in small pieces, and put it in the stock; let it simmer slowly until the bones are quite clean. Take the bones out, and work the soup through a sieve; when cool, skim well. Mix the rice-flour or arrowroot to a batter with a little of the soup; add it with the seasoning and sauce, or ketchup. Give one boil, and serve.

Time.—4 hours.

Average cost, 10d. per quart.

Seasonable at Christmas.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

Note.—Instead of thickening this soup, vermicelli or macaroni may be served in it.

The Turkey.—The common turkey is a native of North America, and was thence introduced to England, in the reign of Henry VIII. According to Tusser’s “Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry,” about the year 1585 it began to form a dish at our rural Christmas feasts.

“Beef, mutton, and pork, shred pies of the best,

Pig, veal, goose, and capon, and turkey well dress’d,

Cheese, apples, and nuts, jolly carols to hear,

As then in the country is counted good cheer.”

It is one of the most difficult birds to rear, of any that we have; yet, in its wild state, is found in great abundance in the forests of Canada, where, it might have been imagined that the severity of the climate would be unfavourable to its ever becoming plentiful. They are very fond of the seeds of nettles, and the seeds of the foxglove poison them.

TURTLE SOUP (founded on M. Ude’s Recipe).

189. Ingredients.—A turtle, 6 slices of ham, 2 knuckles of veal, large bunch of sweet herbs, 3 bay-leaves, parsley, green onions, 1 onion, 6 cloves, 4 blades of mace, ¼ lb. of fresh butter, 1 bottle of Madeira, 1 lump of sugar. For the Quenelles à Tortue, 1 lb. of veal, 1 lb. of bread crumbs, milk, 7 eggs, cayenne, salt, spices, chopped parsley, the juice of 2 lemons.

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Mode.—To make this soup with less difficulty, cut off the head of the turtle the preceding day. In the morning open the turtle by leaning heavily with a knife on the shell of the animal’s back, whilst you cut this off all round. Turn it upright on its end, that all the water, &c. may run out, when the flesh should be cut off along the spine, with the knife sloping towards the bones, for fear of touching the gall, which sometimes might escape the eye. When all the flesh about the members is obtained, wash these clean, and let them drain. Have ready, on the fire, a large vessel full of boiling water, into which put the shells; and when you perceive that they come easily off, take them out of the water, and prick them all, with those of the back, belly, fins, head, &c. Boil the back and belly till the bones can be taken off, without, however, allowing the softer parts to be sufficiently done, as they will be boiled again in the soup. When these latter come off easily, lay them on earthen dishes singly, for fear they should stick together, and put them to cool. Keep the liquor in which you have blanched the softer parts, and let the bones stew thoroughly in it, as this liquor must be used to moisten all the sauces.

All the flesh of the interior parts, the four legs and head, must be drawn down in the following manner:—Lay the slices of ham on the bottom of a very large stewpan, over them the knuckles of veal, according to the size of the turtle; then the inside flesh of the turtle, and over the whole the members. Now moisten with the water in which you are boiling the shell, and draw it down thoroughly. It may now be ascertained if it be thoroughly done by thrusting a knife into the fleshy part of the meat. If no blood appears, it is time to moisten it again with the liquor in which the bones, &c. have been boiling. Put in a large bunch of all such sweet herbs as are used in the cooking of a turtle,—sweet basil, sweet marjoram, lemon thyme, winter savory, 2 or 3 bay-leaves, common thyme, a handful of parsley and green onions, and a large onion stuck with 6 cloves. Let the whole be thoroughly done. With respect to the members, probe them, to see whether they are done, and if so, drain and send them to the larder, as they are to make their appearance only when the soup is absolutely completed. When the flesh is also completely done, strain it through a silk sieve, and make a very thin white roux; for turtle soup must not be much thickened. When the flour is sufficiently done on a slow fire, and has a good colour, moisten it with the liquor, keeping it over the fire till it boils. Ascertain that the sauce is neither too thick nor too thin; then draw the stewpan on the side of the stove, to skim off the white scum, and all the fat and oil that rise to the surface of the sauce. By this time all the softer parts will be sufficiently cold; when they must be cut to about 99 the size of one or two inches square, and thrown into the soup, which must now be left to simmer gently. When done, skim off all the fat and froth. Take all the leaves of the herbs from the stock,—sweet basil, sweet marjoram, lemon thyme, winter savory, 2 or 3 bay-leaves, common thyme, a handful of parsley and green onions, and a large onion cut in four pieces, with a few blades of mace. Put these in a stewpan, with about ¼ lb. of fresh butter, and let it simmer on a slow fire till quite melted, when pour in 1 bottle of good Madeira, adding a small bit of sugar, and let it boil gently for 1 hour. When done, rub it through a tammy, and add it to the soup. Let this boil, till no white scum rises; then take with a skimmer all the bits of turtle out of the sauce, and put them in a clean stewpan: when you have all out, pour the soup over the bits of turtle, through a tammy, and proceed as follows:—

Quenelles a Tortue.—Make some quenelles à tortue, which being substitutes for eggs, do not require to be very delicate. Take out the fleshy part of a leg of veal, about 1 lb., scrape off all the meat, without leaving any sinews or fat, and soak in milk about the same quantity of crumbs of bread. When the bread is well soaked, squeeze it, and put it into a mortar, with the veal, a small quantity of calf’s udder, a little butter, the yolks of 4 eggs, boiled hard, a little cayenne pepper, salt, and spices, and pound the whole very fine; then thicken the mixture with 2 whole eggs, and the yolk of another. Next try this farce or stuffing in boiling-hot water, to ascertain its consistency: if it is too thin, add the yolk of an egg. When the farce is perfected, take half of it, and put into it some chopped parsley. Let the whole cool, in order to roll it of the size of the yolk of an egg; poach it in salt and boiling water, and when very hard, drain on a sieve, and put it into the turtle. Before you send up, squeeze the juice of 2 or 3 lemons, with a little cayenne pepper, and pour that into the soup. The fins may be served as a plat d’entrée with a little turtle sauce; if not, on the following day you may warm the turtle au bain marie, and serve the members entire, with a matelote sauce, garnished with mushrooms, cocks’ combs, quenelles, &c. When either lemon-juice or cayenne pepper has been introduced, no boiling must take place.

Note.—It is necessary to observe, that the turtle prepared a day before it is used, is generally preferable, the flavour being more uniform. Be particular, when you dress a very large turtle, to preserve the green fat (be cautious not to study a very brown colour,—the natural green of the fish is preferred by every epicure and true connoisseur) in a separate stewpan, and likewise when the turtle is entirely done, to have as many tureens as you mean to serve each 100 time. You cannot put the whole in a large vessel, for many reasons: first, it will be long in cooling; secondly, when you take some out, it will break all the rest into rags. If you warm in a bain marie, the turtle will always retain the same taste; but if you boil it often, it becomes strong, and loses the delicacy of its flavour.

The Cost of Turtle Soup.—This is the most expensive soup brought to table. It is sold by the quart,—one guinea being the standard price for that quantity. The price of live turtle ranges from 8d. to 2s. per lb., according to supply and demand. When live turtle is dear, many cooks use the tinned turtle, which is killed when caught, and preserved by being put in hermetically-sealed canisters, and so sent over to England. The cost of a tin, containing 2 quarts, or 4 lbs., is about £2, and for a small one, containing the green fat, 7s. 6d. From these about 6 quarts of good soup may be made.

picture of “THE TURTLE.”

THE TURTLE.

The Green Turtle.—This reptile is found in large numbers on the coasts of all the islands and continents within the tropics, in both the old and new worlds. Their length is often five feet and upwards, and they range in weight from 50 to 500 or 600 lbs. As turtles find a constant supply of food on the coasts which they frequent, they are not of a quarrelsome disposition, as the submarine meadows in which they pasture, yield plenty for them all. Like other species of amphibia, too, they have the power of living many months without food; so that they live harmlessly and peaceably together, notwith­standing that they seem to have no common bond of association, but merely assemble in the same places as if entirely by accident. England is mostly supplied with them from the West Indies, whence they are brought alive and in tolerable health. The green turtle is highly prized on account of the delicious quality of its flesh, the fat of the upper and lower shields of the animal being esteemed the richest and most delicate parts. The soup, however, is apt to disagree with weak stomachs. As an article of luxury, the turtle has only come into fashion within the last 100 years, and some hundreds of tureens of turtle soup are served annually at the lord mayor’s dinner in Guildhall.

A GOOD FAMILY SOUP.

190. Ingredients.—Remains of a cold tongue, 2 lbs. of shin of beef, any cold pieces of meat or beef-bones, 2 turnips, 2 carrots, 2 onions, 1 parsnip, 1 head of celery, 4 quarts of water, ½ teacupful of rice; salt and pepper to taste.

Mode.—Put all the ingredients in a stewpan, and simmer gently for 4 hours, or until all the goodness is drawn from the meat. Strain off the soup, and let it stand to get cold. The kernels and soft parts of the tongue must be saved. When the soup is wanted for use, skim off all the fat, put in the kernels and soft parts of the tongue, slice in a small quantity of fresh carrot, turnip, and onion; stew till the vegetables are tender, and serve with toasted bread.

Time.—5 hours.

Average cost, 3d. per quart.

Seasonable at any time.

Sufficient for 12 persons.

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HODGE-PODGE.

191. Ingredients.—2 lbs. of shin of beef, 3 quarts of water, 1 pint of table-beer, 2 onions, 2 carrots, 2 turnips, 1 head of celery; pepper and salt to taste; thickening of butter and flour.

Mode.—Put the meat, beer, and water in a stewpan; simmer for a few minutes, and skim carefully. Add the vegetables and seasoning; stew gently till the meat is tender. Thicken with the butter and flour, and serve with turnips and carrots, or spinach and celery.

Time.—3 hours, or rather more.

Average cost, 3d. per quart.

Seasonable at any time.

Sufficient for 12 persons.

Table Beer.—This is nothing more than a weak ale, and is not made so much with a view to strength, as to transparency of colour and an agreeable bitterness of taste. It is, or ought to be, manufactured by the London professional brewers, from the best pale malt, or amber and malt. Six barrels are usually drawn from one quarter of malt, with which are mixed 4 or 5 lbs. of hops. As a beverage, it is agreeable when fresh; but it is not adapted to keep long.

FISH SOUPS.

FISH STOCK.

192. Ingredients.—2 lbs. of beef or veal (these can be omitted), any kind of white fish trimmings, of fish which are to be dressed for table, 2 onions, the rind of ½ a lemon, a bunch of sweet herbs, 2 carrots, 2 quarts of water.

Mode.—Cut up the fish, and put it, with the other ingredients, into the water. Simmer for 2 hours; skim the liquor carefully, and strain it. When a richer stock is wanted, fry the vegetables and fish before adding the water.

Time.—2 hours.

Average cost, with meat, 10d. per quart; without, 3d.

Note.—Do not make fish stock long before it is wanted, as it soon turns sour.

CRAYFISH SOUP.

193. Ingredients.—50 crayfish, ¼ lb. of butter, 6 anchovies, the crumb of 1 French roll, a little lobster-spawn, seasoning to taste, 2 quarts of medium stock, No. 105, or fish stock, No. 192.

picture of “CRAYFISH.”

CRAYFISH.

Mode.—Shell the crayfish, and put the fish between two plates until they are wanted; pound the shells in a mortar, with the butter and anchovies; when well beaten, add a pint of stock, and simmer for ¾ of an hour. Strain it through a hair sieve, put the remainder of the 102 stock to it, with the crumb of the rolls; give it one boil, and rub it through a tammy, with the lobster-spawn. Put in the fish, but do not let the soup boil, after it has been rubbed through the tammy. If necessary, add seasoning.

Time.—1½ hour.

Average cost, 2s. 3d. or 1s. 9d. per quart.

Seasonable from January to July.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

The Crayfish.—This is one of those fishes that were highly esteemed by the ancients. The Greeks preferred it when brought from Alexandria, and the Romans ate it boiled with cumin, and seasoned with pepper and other condiments. A recipe tells us, that crayfish can be preserved several days in baskets with fresh grass, such as the nettle, or in a bucket with about three-eighths of an inch of water. More water would kill them, because the large quantity of air they require necessitates the water in which they are kept, to be continually renewed.

EEL SOUP.

194. Ingredients.—3 lbs. of eels, 1 onion, 2 oz. of butter, 3 blades of mace, 1 bunch of sweet herbs, ¼ oz. of peppercorns, salt to taste, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, ¼ pint of cream, 2 quarts of water.

Mode.—Wash the eels, cut them into thin slices, and put them in the stewpan with the butter; let them simmer for a few minutes, then pour the water to them, and add the onion, cut in thin slices, the herbs, mace, and seasoning. Simmer till the eels are tender, but do not break the fish. Take them out carefully, mix the flour smoothly to a batter with the cream, bring it to a boil, pour over the eels, and serve.

Time.—1 hour, or rather more.

Average cost, 10d. per quart.

Seasonable from June to March.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

Note.—This soup may be flavoured differently by omitting the cream, and adding a little ketchup or Harvey’s sauce.

LOBSTER SOUP.

195. Ingredients.—3 large lobsters, or 6 small ones; the crumb of a French roll, 2 anchovies, 1 onion, 1 small bunch of sweet herbs, 1 strip of lemon-peel, 2 oz. of butter, a little nutmeg, 1 teaspoonful of flour, 1 pint of cream, 1 pint of milk; forcemeat balls, mace, salt and pepper to taste, bread crumbs, 1 egg, 2 quarts of water.

Mode.—Pick the meat from the lobsters, and beat the fins, chine, and small claws in a mortar, previously taking away the brown fin and the bag in the head. Put it in a stewpan, with the crumb of the 103 roll, anchovies, onions, herbs, lemon-peel, and the water; simmer gently till all the goodness is extracted, and strain it off. Pound the spawn in a mortar, with the butter, nutmeg, and flour, and mix with it the cream and milk. Give one boil up, at the same time adding the tails cut in pieces. Make the forcemeat balls with the remainder of the lobster, seasoned with mace, pepper, and salt, adding a little flour, and a few bread crumbs; moisten them with the egg, heat them in the soup, and serve.

Time.—2 hours, or rather more.

Average cost, 3s. 6d. per quart.

Seasonable from April to October.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

OYSTER SOUP.
I.

196. Ingredients.—6 dozen of oysters, 2 quarts of white stock, ½ pint of cream, 2 oz. of butter, 1½ oz. of flour; salt, cayenne, and mace to taste.

Mode.—Scald the oysters in their own liquor; take them out, beard them, and put them in a tureen. Take a pint of the stock, put in the beards and the liquor, which must be carefully strained, and simmer for ½ an hour. Take it off the fire, strain it again, and add the remainder of the stock with the seasoning and mace. Bring it to a boil, add the thickening of butter and flour, simmer for 5 minutes, stir in the boiling cream, pour it over the oysters, and serve.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost, 2s. 8d. per quart.

Seasonable from September to April.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

Note.—This soup can be made less rich by using milk instead of cream, and thickening with arrowroot instead of butter and flour.

II.

197. Ingredients.—2 quarts of good mutton broth, 6 dozen oysters, 2 oz. butter, 1 oz. of flour.

Mode.—Beard the oysters, and scald them in their own liquor; then add it, well strained, to the broth; thicken with the butter and flour, and simmer for ¼ of an hour. Put in the oysters, stir well, but do not let it boil, and serve very hot.

Time.—¾ hour.

Average cost, 2s. per quart.

Seasonable from September to April.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

Season of Oysters.—From April and May to the end of July, oysters are said to be sick; but by the end of August they become healthy, having recovered from the effects 104 of spawning. When they are not in season, the males have a black, and the females a milky substance in the gill. From some lines of Oppian, it would appear that the ancients were ignorant that the oyster is generally found adhering to rocks. The starfish is one of the most deadly enemies of these bivalves. The poet says:—

The prickly star creeps on with full deceit

To force the oyster from his close retreat.

When gaping lids their widen’d void display,

The watchful star thrusts in a pointed ray,

Of all its treasures spoils the rifled case,

And empty shells the sandy hillock grace.

PRAWN SOUP.

198. Ingredients.—2 quarts of fish stock or water, 2 pints of prawns, the crumbs of a French roll, anchovy sauce or mushroom ketchup to taste, 1 blade of mace, ½ pint of vinegar, a little lemon-juice.

Mode.—Pick out the tails of the prawns, put the bodies in a stewpan with 1 blade of mace, ½ pint of vinegar, and the same quantity of water; stew them for ¼ hour, and strain off the liquor. Put the fish stock or water into a stewpan; add the strained liquor, pound the prawns with the crumb of a roll moistened with a little of the soup, rub them through a tammy, and mix them by degrees with the soup; add ketchup or anchovy sauce to taste, with a little lemon-juice. When it is well cooked, put in a few picked prawns; let them get thoroughly hot, and serve. If not thick enough, put in a little butter and flour.

picture of “THE PRAWN.”

THE PRAWN.

Time.—hour.

Average cost, 1s. 1d. per quart, if made with water.

Seasonable at any time.

Sufficient for 8 persons.

Note.—This can be thickened with tomatoes, and vermicelli served in it, which makes it a very tasteful soup.

The Prawn.—This little fish bears a striking resemblance to the shrimp, but is neither so common nor so small. It is to be found on most of the sandy shores of Europe. The Isle of Wight is famous for shrimps, where they are potted; but both the prawns and the shrimps vended in London, are too much salted for the excellence of their natural flavour to be preserved. They are extremely lively little animals, as seen in their native retreats.

105

pile of fishes on a riverbank

FISH.
CHAPTER VII.

THE NATURAL HISTORY OF FISHES.

199. In Natural History, Fishes form the fourth class in the system of Linnæus, and are described as having long under-jaws, eggs without white, organs of sense, fins for supporters, bodies covered with concave scales, gills to supply the place of lungs for respiration, and water for the natural element of their existence. Had mankind no other knowledge of animals than of such as inhabit the land and breathe their own atmosphere, they would listen with incredulous wonder, if told that there were other kinds of beings which existed only in the waters, and which would die almost as soon as they were taken from them. However strongly these facts might be attested, they would hardly believe them, without the operation of their own senses, as they would recollect the effect produced on their own bodies when immersed in water, and the impossibility of their sustaining life in it for any lengthened period of time. Experience, however, has taught them, that the “great deep” is crowded with inhabitants of various sizes, and of vastly different constructions, with modes of life entirely distinct from those which belong to the animals of the land, and with peculiarities of design, equally wonderful with those of any other works which have come from the hand of the Creator. The history of these races, however, must remain for ever, more or less, in a state of darkness, since the depths in which they live, are beyond the power of human exploration, and since the illimitable expansion of their domain places them almost entirely out of the roach of human accessibility.

106

200. In Studying the Conformation of Fishes, we naturally conclude that they are, in every respect, well adapted to the element in which they have their existence. Their shape has a striking resemblance to the lower part of a ship; and there is no doubt that the form of the fish originally suggested the form of the ship. The body is in general slender, gradually diminishing towards each of its extremities, and flattened on each of its sides. This is precisely the form of the lower part of the hull of a ship; and it enables both the animal and the vessel, with comparative ease, to penetrate and divide the resisting medium for which they have been adapted. The velocity of a ship, however, in sailing before the wind, is by no means to be compared to that of a fish. It is well known that the largest fishes will, with the greatest ease, overtake a ship in full sail, play round it without effort, and shoot ahead of it at pleasure. This arises from their great flexibility, which, to compete with mocks the labours of art, and enables them to migrate thousands of miles in a season, without the slightest indications of languor or fatigue.

201. The principal Instruments employed by Fishes to accelerate their motion, are their air-bladder, fins, and tail. By means of the air-bladder they enlarge or diminish the specific gravity of their bodies. When they wish to sink, they compress the muscles of the abdomen, and eject the air contained in it; by which, their weight, compared with that of the water, is increased, and they consequently descend. On the other hand, when they wish to rise, they relax the compression of the abdominal muscles, when the air-bladder fills and distends, and the body immediately ascends to the surface. How simply, yet how wonderfully, has the Supreme Being adapted certain means to the attainment of certain ends! Those fishes which are destitute of the air-bladder are heavy in the water, and have no great “alacrity” in rising. The larger proportion of them remain at the bottom, unless they are so formed as to be able to strike their native element downwards with sufficient force to enable them to ascend. When the air-bladder of a fish is burst, its power of ascending to the surface has for ever passed away. From a knowledge of this fact, the fishermen of cod are enabled to preserve them alive for a considerable time in their well-boats. The means they adopt to accomplish this, is to perforate the sound, or air-bladder, with a needle, which disengages the air, when the fishes immediately descend to the bottom of the well, into which they are thrown. Without this operation, it would be impossible to keep the cod under water whilst they had life. In swimming, the fins enable fishes to preserve their upright position, especially those of the belly, which act like two feet. Without those, they would swim with their bellies upward, as it is in their backs that the centre of gravity lies. In ascending and descending, these are likewise of great assistance, as they contract and expand accordingly. The tail is an instrument of great muscular force, and largely assists the fish in all its motions. In some instances it acts like the rudder of a ship, and enables it to turn sideways; and when moved from side to side with a quick vibratory motion, fishes are made, in the same manner as the “screw” propeller makes 107 a steamship, to dart forward with a celerity proportioned to the muscular force with which it is employed.

202. The Bodies of Fishes are mostly covered with a kind of horny scales; but some are almost entirely without them, or have them so minute as to be almost invisible; as is the case with the eel. The object of these is to preserve them from injury by the pressure of the water, or the sudden contact with pebbles, rocks, or sea-weeds. Others, again, are enveloped in a fatty, oleaginous substance, also intended as a defence against the friction of the water; and those in which the scales are small, are supplied with a larger quantity of slimy matter.

203. The Respiration of Fishes is effected by means of those comb-like organs which are placed on each side of the neck, and which are called gills. It is curious to watch the process of breathing as it is performed by the finny tribes. It seems to be so continuous, that it might almost pass for an illustration of the vexed problem which conceals the secret of perpetual motion. In performing it, they fill their mouths with water, which they drive backwards with a force so great as to open the large flap, to allow it to escape behind. In this operation all, or a great portion, of the air contained in the water, is left among the feather-like processes of the gills, and is carried into the body, there to perform its part in the animal economy. In proof of this, it has been ascertained that, if the water in which fishes are put, is, by any means, denuded of its air, they immediately seek the surface, and begin to gasp for it. Hence, distilled water is to them what a vacuum made by an air-pump, is to most other animals. For this reason, when a fishpond, or other aqueous receptacle in which fishes are kept, is entirely frozen over, it is necessary to make holes in the ice, not so especially for the purpose of feeding them, as for that of giving them air to breathe.

204. The Positions of the Teeth of Fishes are well calculated to excite our amazement; for, in some cases, these are situated in the jaws, sometimes on the tongue or palate, and sometimes even in the throat. They are in general sharp-pointed and immovable; but in the carp they are obtuse, and in the pike so easily moved as to seem to have no deeper hold than such as the mere skin can afford. In the herring, the tongue is set with teeth, to enable it the better, it is supposed, to retain its food.

205. Although Naturalists have divided Fishes into two great tribes, the osseous and the cartilaginous, yet the distinction is not very precise; for the first have a great deal of cartilage, and the second, at any rate, a portion of calcareous matter in their bones. It may, therefore, be said that the bones of fishes form a kind of intermediate substance between true bones and cartilages. The backbone extends through the whole length of the body, and consists of vertebræ, strong and thick towards the head, but weaker and more slender as it approaches the tail. Each species has a determinate number of vertebræ, 108 which are increased in size in proportion with the body. The ribs are attached to the processes of the vertebræ, and inclose the breast and abdomen. Some kinds, as the rays, have no ribs; whilst others, as the sturgeon and eel, have very short ones. Between the pointed processes of the vertebræ are situated the bones which support the dorsal (back) and the anal (below the tail) fins, which are connected with the processes by a ligament. At the breast are the sternum or breastbone, clavicles or collar-bones, and the scapulæ or shoulder-blades, on which the pectoral or breast fins are placed. The bones which support the ventral or belly fins are called the ossa pelvis. Besides these principal bones, there are often other smaller ones, placed between the muscles to assist their motion.

206. Some of the Organs of Sense in Fishes are supposed to be possessed by them in a high degree, and others much more imperfectly. Of the latter kind are the senses of touch and taste, which are believed to be very slightly developed. On the other hand, those of hearing, seeing, and smelling, are ascertained to be acute, but the first in a lesser degree than both the second and third. Their possession of an auditory organ was long doubted, and even denied by some physiologists; but it has been found placed on the sides of the skull, or in the cavity which contains the brain. It occupies a position entirely distinct and detached from the skull, and, in this respect, differs in the local disposition of the same sense in birds and quadrupeds. In some fishes, as in those of the ray kind, the organ is wholly encompassed by those parts which contain the cavity of the skull; whilst in the cod and salmon kind it is in the part within the skull. Its structure is, in every way, much more simple than that of the same sense in those animals which live entirely in the air; but there is no doubt that they have the adaptation suitable to their condition. In some genera, as in the rays, the external orifice or ear is very small, and is placed in the upper surface of the head; whilst in others there is no visible external orifice whatever. However perfect the sight of fishes may be, experience has shown that this sense is of much less use to them than that of smelling, in searching for their food. The optic nerves in fishes have this peculiarity,—that they are not confounded with one another in their middle progress between their origin and their orbit. The one passes over the other without any communication; so that the nerve which comes from the left side of the brain goes distinctly to the right eye, and that which comes from the right goes distinctly to the left. In the greater part of them, the eye is covered with the same transparent skin that covers the rest of the head. The object of this arrangement, perhaps, is to defend it from the action of the water, as there are no eyelids. The globe in front is somewhat depressed, and is furnished behind with a muscle, which serves to lengthen or flatten it, according to the necessities of the animal. The crystalline humour, which in quadrupeds is flattened, is, in fishes, nearly globular. The organ of smelling in fishes is large, and is endued, at its entry, with a dilating and contracting power, which is employed as the wants of the animal may require. It is mostly by the acuteness of their smell that fishes are enabled to discover their food; for their tongue is not 109 designed for nice sensation, being of too firm a cartilaginous substance for this purpose.

207. With respect to the Food of Fishes, this is almost universally found in their own element. They are mostly carnivorous, though they seize upon almost anything that comes in their way: they even devour their own offspring, and manifest a particular predilection for all living creatures. Those, to which Nature has meted out mouths of the greatest capacity, would seem to pursue everything with life, and frequently engage in fierce conflicts with their prey. The animal with the largest mouth is usually the victor; and he has no sooner conquered his foe than he devours him. Innumerable shoals of one species pursue those of another, with a ferocity which draws them from the pole to the equator, through all the varying temperatures and depths of their boundless domain. In these pursuits a scene of universal violence is the result; and many species must have become extinct, had not Nature accurately proportioned the means of escape, the production, and the numbers, to the extent and variety of the danger to which they are exposed. Hence the smaller species are not only more numerous, but more productive than the larger; whilst their instinct leads them in search of food and safety near the shores, where, from the shallowness of the waters, many of their foes are unable to follow them.

208. The Fecundity of Fishes has been the wonder of every natural philosopher whose attention has been attracted to the subject. They are in general oviparous, or egg-producing; but there are a few, such as the eel and the blenny, which are viviparous, or produce their young alive. The males have the milt and the females the roe; but some individuals, as the sturgeon and the cod tribes, are said to contain both. The greater number deposit their spawn in the sand or gravel; but some of those which dwell in the depths of the ocean attach their eggs to sea-weeds. In every instance, however, their fruitfulness far surpasses that of any other race of animals. According to Lewenhoeck, the cod annually spawns upwards of nine millions of eggs, contained in a single roe. The flounder produces one million; the mackerel above five hundred thousand; a herring of a moderate size at least ten thousand; a carp fourteen inches in length, according to Petit, contained two hundred and sixty-two thousand two hundred and twenty-four; a perch deposited three hundred and eighty thousand six hundred and forty; and a female sturgeon seven millions six hundred and fifty-three thousand two hundred. The viviparous species are by no means so prolific; yet the blenny brings forth two or three hundred at a time, which commence sporting together round their parent the moment they have come into existence.

209. In reference to the Longevity of Fishes, it is affirmed to surpass that of all other created beings; and it is supposed they are, to a great extent, exempted from the diseases to which the flesh of other animals is heir. In place of suffering from the rigidity of age, which is the cause of the natural 110 decay of those that “live and move and have their being” on the land, their bodies continue to grow with each succeeding supply of food, and the conduits of life to perform their functions unimpaired. The age of fishes has not been properly ascertained, although it is believed that the most minute of the species has a longer lease of life than man. The mode in which they die has been noted by the Rev. Mr. White, the eminent naturalist of Selbourne. As soon as the fish sickens, the head sinks lower and lower, till the animal, as it were, stands upon it. After this, as it becomes weaker, it loses its poise, till the tail turns over, when it comes to the surface, and floats with its belly upwards. The reason for its floating in this manner is on account of the body being no longer balanced by the fins of the belly, and the broad muscular back preponderating, by its own gravity, over the belly, from this latter being a cavity, and consequently lighter.

210. Fishes are either Solitary or Gregarious, and some of them migrate to great distances, and into certain rivers, to deposit their spawn. Of sea-fishes, the cod, herring, mackerel, and many others, assemble in immense shoals, and migrate through different tracts of the ocean; but, whether considered in their solitary or gregarious capacity, they are alike wonderful to all who look through Nature up to Nature’s God, and consider, with due humility, yet exalted admiration, the sublime variety, beauty, power, and grandeur of His productions, as manifested in the Creation.

FISH AS AN ARTICLE OF HUMAN FOOD.

211. As the Nutritive Properties of Fish are deemed inferior to those of what is called butchers’ meat, it would appear, from all we can learn, that, in all ages, it has held only a secondary place in the estimation of those who have considered the science of gastronomy as a large element in the happiness of mankind. Among the Jews of old it was very little used, although it seems not to have been entirely interdicted, as Moses prohibited only the use of such as had neither scales nor fins. The Egyptians, however, made fish an article of diet, notwithstanding that it was rejected by their priests. Egypt, however, is not a country favourable to the production of fish, although we read of the people, when hungry, eating it raw; of epicures among them having dried it in the sun; and of its being salted and preserved, to serve as a repast on days of great solemnity.

The modern Egyptians are, in general, extremely temperate in regard to food. Even the richest among them take little pride, and, perhaps, experience as little delight, in the luxuries of the table. Their dishes mostly consist of pilaus, soups, and stews, prepared principally of onions, cucumbers, and other cold vegetables, mixed with a little meat cut into small pieces. On special occasions, however, a whole sheep is placed on the festive board; but during several of the hottest months of the year, the richest restrict themselves entirely to a vegetable diet. The poor are contented with a little oil or sour milk, in which they may dip their bread.

212. Passing from Africa to Europe, we come amongst a people who 111 have, almost from time immemorial, occupied a high place in the estimation of every civilized country; yet the Greeks, in their earlier ages, made very little use of fish as an article of diet. In the eyes of the heroes of Homer it had little favour; for Menelaus complained that “hunger pressed their digestive organs,” and they had been obliged to live upon fish. Subsequently, however, fish became one of the principal articles of diet amongst the Hellenes; and both Aristophanes and Athenæus allude to it, and even satirize their countrymen for their excessive partiality to the turbot and mullet.

So infatuated were many of the Greek gastronomes with the love of fish, that some of them would have preferred death from indigestion to the relinquishment of the precious dainties with which a few of the species supplied them. Philoxenes of Cythera was one of these. On being informed by his physician that he was going to die of indigestion, on account of the quantity he was consuming of a delicious fish, “Be it so,” he calmly observed; “but before I die, let me finish the remainder.”

213. The Geographical Situation of Greece was highly favourable for the devel­opment of a taste for the piscatory tribes; and the skill of the Greek cooks was so great, that they could impart every variety of relish to the dish they were called upon to prepare. Athenæus has transmitted to posterity some very important precepts upon their ingenuity in seasoning with salt, oil, and aromatics.

At the present day the food of the Greeks, through the combined influence of poverty and the long fasts which their religion imposes upon them, is, to a large extent, composed of fish, accompanied with vegetables and fruit. Caviare, prepared from the roes of sturgeons, is the national ragout, which, like all other fish dishes, they season with aromatic herbs. Snails dressed in garlic are also a favourite dish.

214. As the Romans, in a great measure, took their taste in the fine arts from the Greeks, so did they, in some measure, their piscine appetites. The eel-pout and the lotas’s liver were the favourite fish dishes of the Roman epicures; whilst the red mullet was esteemed as one of the most delicate fishes that could be brought to the table.

With all the elegance, taste, and refinement of Roman luxury, it was sometimes promoted or accompanied by acts of great barbarity. In proof of this, the mention of the red mullet, suggests the mode in which it was sometimes treated for the, to us, horrible entertainment of the fashionable in Roman circles. It may be premised, that as England has, Rome, in her palmy days, had, her fops, who had, no doubt, through the medium of their cooks, discovered that when the scales of the red mullet were removed, the flesh presented a fine pink-colour. Having discovered this, it was further observed that at the death of the animal, this colour passed through a succession of beautiful shades, and, in order that these might be witnessed and enjoyed in their fullest perfection, the poor mullet was served alive in a glass vessel.

215. The love of Fish among the ancient Romans rose to a real mania. Apicius offered a prize to any one who could invent a new brine compounded of the liver of red mullets; and Lucullus had a canal cut through a mountain, in the neighbourhood of Naples, that fish might be the more easily transported to the gardens of his villa. Hortensius, the orator, wept over the death of a turbot which he had fed with his own hands; and the daughter of Druses adorned one that she had, with rings of gold. These were, surely, instances of misplaced affection; but there is no accounting for tastes. It was but the 112 other day that we read in the “Times” of a wealthy living English hermit, who delights in the companionship of rats!

The modern Romans are merged in the general name of Italians, who, with the exception of macaroni, have no specially characteristic article of food.

216. From Rome to Gaul is, considering the means of modern locomotion, no great way; but the ancient sumptuary laws of that kingdom give us little information regarding the ichthyophagous propensities of its inhabitants. Louis XII. engaged six fishmongers to furnish his board with fresh-water animals, and Francis I. had twenty-two, whilst Henry the Great extended his requirements a little further, and had twenty-four. In the time of Louis XIV. the cooks had attained to such a degree of perfection in their art, that they could convert the form and flesh of the trout, pike, or carp, into the very shape and flavour of the most delicious game.

The French long enjoyed a European reputation for their skill and refinement in the preparing of food. In place of plain joints, French cookery delights in the marvels of what are called made dishes, ragouts, stews, and fricassees, in which no trace of the original materials of which they are compounded is to be found.

217. From Gaul we cross to Britain, where it has been asserted, by, at least, one authority, that the ancient inhabitants ate no fish. However this may be, we know that the British shores, particularly those of the North Sea, have always been well supplied with the best kinds of fish, which we may treasonably infer was not unknown to the inhabitants, or likely to be lost upon them for the lack of knowledge as to how they tasted. By the time of Edward II., fish had, in England, become a dainty, especially the sturgeon, which was permitted to appear on no table but that of the king. In the fourteenth century, a decree of King John informs us that the people ate both seals and porpoises; whilst in the days of the Troubadours, whales were fished for and caught in the Mediterranean Sea, for the purpose of being used as human food.

Whatever checks the ancient British may have had upon their piscatory appetites, there are happily none of any great consequence upon the modern, who delight in wholesome food of every kind. Their taste is, perhaps, too much inclined to that which is accounted solid and substantial; but they really eat more moderately, even of animal food, than either the French or the Germans. Roast beef, or other viands cooked in the plainest manner, are, with them, a sufficient luxury; yet they delight in living well, whilst it is easy to prove how largely their affections are developed by even the prospect of a substantial cheer. In proof of this we will just observe, that if a great dinner is to be celebrated, it is not uncommon for the appointed stewards and committee to meet and have a preliminary dinner among themselves, in order to arrange the great one, and after that, to have another dinner to discharge the bill which the great one cost. This enjoyable disposition we take to form a very large item in the aggregate happiness of the nation.

218. The general Use of Fish, as an article of human food among civilized nations, we have thus sufficiently shown, and will conclude this portion of our subject with the following hints, which ought to be remembered by all those who are fond of occasionally varying their dietary with a piscine dish:—

I. Fish shortly before they spawn are, in general, best in condition. When the spawning is just over, they are out of season, and unfit for human food.

Full-page color plate 1

A. Dish of Filleted Soles. B. Boiled Salmon. C. Cod’s Head and Shoulders.

plate closeup plate closeup plate closeup 113 I

II. When fish is out of season, it has a transparent, bluish tinge, however much it may be boiled; when it is in season, its muscles are firm, and boil white and curdy.

III. As food for invalids, white fish, such as the ling, cod, haddock, coal-fish, and whiting, are the best; flat fish, as soles, skate, turbot, and flounders, are also good.

IV. Salmon, mackerel, herrings, and trout soon spoil or decompose after they are killed; therefore, to be in perfection, they should be prepared for the table on the day they are caught. With flat fish, this is not of such consequence, as they will keep longer. The turbot, for example, is improved by being kept a day or two.

GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR DRESSING FISH.

219. In Dressing Fish, of any kind, the first point to be attended to, is to see that it be perfectly clean. It is a common error to wash it too much; as by doing so the flavour is diminished. If the fish is to be boiled, a little salt and vinegar should be put into the water, to give it firmness, alter it is cleaned. Cod-fish, whiting, and haddock, are far better if a little salted, and kept a day; and if the weather be not very hot, they will be good for two days.

220. When Fish is Cheap and Plentiful, and a larger quantity is purchased than is immediately wanted, the overplus of such as will bear it should be potted, or pickled, or salted, and hung up; or it may be fried, that it may serve for stewing the next day. Fresh-water fish, having frequently a muddy smell and taste, should be soaked in strong salt and water, after it has been well cleaned. If of a sufficient size, it may be scalded in salt and water, and afterwards dried and dressed.

221. Fish should be put into Cold Water, and set on the fire to do very gently, or the outside will break before the inner part is done. Unless the fishes are small, they should never be put into warm water; nor should water, either hot or cold, be poured on to the fish, as it is liable to break the skin: if it should be necessary to add a little water whilst the fish is cooking, it ought to be poured in gently at the side of the vessel. The fish-plate may be drawn up, to see if the fish be ready, which may be known by its easily separating from the bone. It should then be immediately taken out of the water, or it will become woolly. The fish-plate should be set crossways over the kettle, to keep hot for serving, and a clean cloth over the fish, to prevent its losing its colour.

222. In Garnishing Fish, great attention is required, and plenty of parsley, 114 horseradish, and lemon should be used. If fried parsley be used, it must be washed and picked, and thrown into fresh water. When the lard or dripping boils, throw the parsley into it immediately from the water, and instantly it will be green and crisp, and must be taken up with a slice. When well done, and with very good sauce, fish is more appreciated than almost any other dish. The liver and roe, in some instances, should be placed on the dish, in order that they may be distributed in the course of serving; but to each recipe will be appended the proper mode of serving and garnishing.

223. If Fish is to be Fried or Broiled, it must be dried in a nice soft cloth, after it is well cleaned and washed. If for frying, brush it over with egg, and sprinkle it with some fine crumbs of bread. If done a second time with the egg and bread, the fish will look so much the better. If required to be very nice, a sheet of white blotting-paper must be placed to receive it, that it may be free from all grease. It must also be of a beautiful colour, and all the crumbs appear distinct. Butter gives a bad colour; lard and clarified dripping are most frequently used; but oil is the best, if the expense be no objection. The fish should be put into the lard when boiling, and there should be a sufficiency of this to cover it.

224. When Fish is Broiled, it must be seasoned, floured, and laid on a very clean gridiron, which, when hot, should be rubbed with a bit of suet, to prevent the fish from sticking. It must be broiled over a very clear fire, that it may not taste smoky; and not too near, that it may not be scorched.

225. In choosing Fish, it is well to remember that it is possible it may be fresh, and yet not good. Under the head of each particular fish in this work, are appended rules for its choice and the months when it is in season. Nothing can be of greater consequence to a cook than to have the fish good; as if this important course in a dinner does not give satisfaction, it is rarely that the repast goes off well.

large pot with lid

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RECIPES.
CHAPTER VIII.

FISH.

[Nothing is more difficult than to give the average prices of Fish, inasmuch as a few hours of bad weather at sea will, in the space of one day, cause such a difference in its supply, that the same fish—a turbot for instance—which may be bought to-day for six or seven shillings, will, to-morrow, be, in the London markets, worth, perhaps, almost as many pounds. The average costs, therefore, which will be found appended to each recipe, must be understood as about the average price for the different kinds of fish, when the market is supplied upon an average, and when the various sorts are of an average size and quality.

General Rule in Choosing Fish.A proof of freshness and goodness in most fishes, is their being covered with scales; for, if deficient in this respect, it is a sign of their being stale, or having been ill-used.]

FRIED ANCHOVIES.

226. Ingredients.—1 tablespoonful of oil, ½ a glass of white wine, sufficient flour to thicken; 12 anchovies.

Mode.—Mix the oil and wine together, with sufficient flour to make them into a thickish paste; cleanse the anchovies, wipe them, dip them in the paste, and fry of a nice brown colour.

Time.—½ hour.

Average cost for this quantity, 9d.

Seasonable all the year.

Sufficient for 2 persons.

picture of “THE ANCHOVY.”

THE ANCHOVY.

The Anchovy.—In his book of “British Fishes,” Mr. Yarrell states that “the anchovy is a common fish in the Mediterranean, from Greece to Gibraltar, and was well known to the Greeks and Romans, by whom the liquor prepared from it, called garum, was in great estimation. Its extreme range is extended into the Black Sea. The fishing for them is carried on during the night, and lights are used with the nets. The anchovy is common on the coasts of Portugal, Spain, and France. It occurs, I have no doubt, at the Channel Islands, and has been taken on the Hampshire coast, and in the Bristol Channel.” Other fish, of inferior quality, but resembling the real Gorgona anchovy, are frequently sold for it, and passed off as genuine.

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ANCHOVY BUTTER OR PASTE.

227. Ingredients.—2 dozen anchovies, ½ lb. of fresh butter.

Mode.—Wash the anchovies thoroughly; bone and dry them, and pound them in a mortar to a paste. Mix the butter gradually with them, and rub the whole through a sieve. Put it by in small pots for use, and carefully exclude the air with a bladder, as it soon changes the colour of anchovies, besides spoiling them.

Average cost for this quantity, 2s.

POTTED ANCHOVIES.

Potted Anchovies are made in the same way, by adding pounded mace, cayenne, and nutmeg to taste.

ANCHOVY TOAST.

228. Ingredients.—Toast 2 or 3 slices of bread, or, if wanted very savoury, fry them in clarified butter, and spread on them the paste, No. 227. Made mustard, or a few grains of cayenne, may be added to the paste before laying it on the toast.

Anchovy Paste.—“When some delicate zest,” says a work just issued on the adulterations of trade, “is required to make the plain English breakfast more palatable, many people are in the habit of indulging in what they imagine to be anchovies. These fish are preserved in a kind of pickling-bottle, carefully corked down, and surrounded by a red-looking liquor, resembling in appearance diluted clay. The price is moderate, one shilling only being demanded for the luxury. When these anchovies are what is termed potted, it implies that the fish have been pounded into the consistency of a paste, and then placed in flat pots, somewhat similar in shape to those used for pomatum. This paste is usually eaten spread upon toast, and is said to form an excellent bonne bouche, which enables gentlemen at wine-parties to enjoy their port with redoubled gusto. Unfortunately, in six cases out of ten, the only portion of these preserved delicacies, that contains anything indicative of anchovies, is the paper label pasted on the bottle or pot, on which the word itself is printed. . . . All the samples of anchovy paste, analyzed by different medical men, have been found to be highly and vividly coloured with very large quantities of bole Armenian.” The anchovy itself, when imported, is of a dark dead colour, and it is to make it a bright “handsome-looking sauce” that this red earth is used.

BARBEL.

229. Ingredients.—½ pint of port wine, a saltspoonful of salt, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 2 sliced onions, a faggot of sweet herbs, nutmeg and mace to taste, the juice of a lemon, 2 anchovies; 1 or 2 barbels, according to size.

Mode.—Boil the barbels in salt and water till done; pour off some of the water, and, to the remainder, put the ingredients mentioned above. Simmer gently for ½ hour, or rather more, and strain. Put in the fish; heat it gradually; but do not let it boil, or it will be broken.

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picture of “THE BARBEL.”

THE BARBEL.

Time.—Altogether 1 hour.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

Seasonable from September to November.

The Barbel.—This fish takes its name from the barbs or wattels at its mouth; and, in England, is esteemed as one of the worst of the fresh-water fish. It was, however, formerly, if not now, a favourite with the Jews, excellent cookers of fish. Others would boil with it a piece of bacon, that it might have a relish. It is to be met with from two to three or four feet long, and is said to live to a great age. From Putney upwards, in the Thames, some are found of large size; but they are valued only as affording sport to the brethren of the angle.

BRILL.

230. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of salt to each gallon of water; a little vinegar.

Mode.—Clean the brill, cut off the fins, and rub it over with a little lemon-juice, to preserve its whiteness. Set the fish in sufficient cold water to cover it; throw in salt, in the above proportions, and a little vinegar, and bring it gradually to boil; simmer very gently till the fish is done, which will be in about 10 minutes; but the time for boiling, of course, depends entirely on the size of the fish. Serve it on a hot napkin, and garnish with cut lemon, parsley, horseradish, and a little lobster coral sprinkled over the fish. Send lobster or shrimp sauce and plain melted butter to table with it.

picture of “THE BRILL.”

THE BRILL.

Time.—After the water boils, a small brill, 10 minutes; a large brill, 15 to 20 minutes.

Average cost, from 4s. to 8s.

Seasonable from August to April.

The Brill.—This fish resembles the sole, but is broader, and when large, is esteemed by many in a scarcely less degree than the turbot, whilst it is much cheaper. It is a fine fish, and is abundant in the London market.

To Choose Brill.—The flesh of this fish, like that of turbot, should be of a yellowish tint, and should be chosen on account of its thickness. If the flesh has a bluish tint, it is not good.

CODFISH.

231. Cod may be boiled whole; but a large head and shoulders are quite sufficient for a dish, and contain all that is usually helped, because, when the thick part is done, the tail is insipid and overdone. The latter, cut in slices, makes a very good dish for frying; or it may 118 be salted down and served with egg sauce and parsnips. Cod, when boiled quite fresh, is watery; salting a little, renders it firmer.

picture of “THE COD.”

THE COD.

The Cod Tribe.—The Jugular, characterized by bony gills, and ventral fins before the pectoral ones, commences the second of the Linnæan orders of fishes, and is a numerous tribe, inhabiting only the depths of the ocean, and seldom visiting the fresh waters. They have a smooth head, and the gill membrane has seven rays. The body is oblong, and covered with deciduous scales. The fins are all inclosed in skin, whilst their rays are unarmed. The ventral fins are slender, and terminate in a point. Their habits are gregarious, and they feed on smaller fish and other marine animals.

color plate “Cod’s Head and Shoulders.”

C. Cod’s Head and Shoulders.

COD’S HEAD AND SHOULDERS.

232. Ingredients.—Sufficient water to cover the fish; 5 oz. of salt to each gallon of water.

Mode.—Cleanse the fish thoroughly, and rub a little salt over the thick part and inside of the fish, 1 or 2 hours before dressing it, as this very much improves the flavour. Lay it in the fish-kettle, with sufficient cold water to cover it. Be very particular not to pour the water on the fish, as it is liable to break it, and only keep it just simmering. If the water should boil away, add a little by pouring it in at the side of the kettle, and not on the fish. Add salt in the above proportion, and bring it gradually to a boil. Skim very carefully, draw it to the side of the fire, and let it gently simmer till done. Take it out and drain it; serve on a hot napkin, and garnish with cut lemon, horseradish, the roe and liver. (See Coloured Plate C.)

Time.—According to size, ½ an hour, more or less.

Average cost, from 3s. to 6s.

Sufficient for 6 or 8 persons.

Seasonable from November to March.

Note.—Oyster sauce and plain melted butter should be served with this.

To Choose Cod.—The cod should be chosen for the table when it is plump and round near the tail, when the hollow behind the head is deep, and when the sides are undulated as if they were ribbed. The glutinous parts about the head lose their delicate flavour, after the fish has been twenty-four hours out of the water. The great point by which the cod should be judged is the firmness of its flesh; and, although the cod is not firm when it is alive, its quality may be arrived at by pressing the finger into the flesh. If this rises immediately, the fish is good; if not, it is stale. Another sign of its goodness is, if the fish, when it is cut, exhibits a bronze appearance, like the silver side of a round of beef. When this is the case, the flesh will be firm when cooked. Stiffness in a cod, or in any other fish, is a sure sign of freshness, though not always of quality. Sometimes, codfish, though exhibiting signs 119 of rough usage, will eat much better than those with red gills, so strongly recommended by many cookery-books. This appearance is generally caused by the fish having been knocked about at sea, in the well-boats, in which they are conveyed from the fishing-grounds to market.

SALT COD, COMMONLY CALLED “SALT-FISH.”

233. Ingredients.—Sufficient water to coyer the fish.

Mode.—Wash the fish, and lay it all night in water, with a ¼ pint of vinegar. When thoroughly soaked, take it out, see that it is perfectly clean, and put it in the fish-kettle with sufficient cold water to cover it. Heat it gradually, but do not let it boil much, or the fish will be hard. Skim well, and when done, drain the fish and put it on a napkin garnished with hard-boiled eggs cut in rings.

Time.—About 1 hour.

Average cost, 6d. per lb.

Seasonable in the spring.

Sufficient for each person, ¼ lb.

Note.—Serve with egg sauce and parsnips. This is an especial dish on Ash-Wednesday.

Preserving Cod.—Immediately as the cod are caught, their heads are cut off. They are then opened, cleaned, and salted, when they are stowed away in the hold of the vessel, in beds of five or six yards square, head to tail, with a layer of salt to each layer of fish. When they have lain in this state three or four days, in order that the water may drain from them, they are shifted into a different part of the vessel, and again salted. Here they remain till the vessel is loaded, when they are sometimes cut into thick pieces and packed in barrels for the greater convenience of carriage.

COD SOUNDS

Should be well soaked in salt and water, and thoroughly washed before dressing them. They are considered a great delicacy, and may either be broiled, fried, or boiled: if they are boiled, mix a little milk with the water.

COD SOUNDS, EN POULE.

234. Ingredients.—For forcemeat, 12 chopped oysters, 3 chopped anchovies, ¼ lb. of bread crumbs, 1 oz. of butter, 2 eggs; seasoning of salt, pepper, nutmeg, and mace to taste; 4 cod sounds.

Mode.—Make the forcemeat by mixing the ingredients well together. Wash the sounds, and boil them in milk and water for ½ an hour; take them out and let them cool. Cover each with a layer of forcemeat, roll them up in a nice form, and skewer them. Rub over with lard, dredge with flour, and cook them gently before the fire in a Dutch oven.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost, 6d. per lb.

120

Seasonable from November to March.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

The Sounds in Codfish.—These are the air or swimming bladders, by means of which the fishes are enabled to ascend or descend in the water. In the Newfoundland fishery they are taken out previous to incipient putrefaction, washed from their slime and salted for exportation. The tongues are also cured and packed up in barrels; whilst, from the livers, considerable quantities of oil are extracted, this oil having been found possessed of the most nourishing properties, and particularly beneficial in cases of pulmonary affections.

COD PIE.
(Economical.)
I.

235. Ingredients.—Any remains of cold cod, 12 oysters, sufficient melted butter to moisten it; mashed potatoes enough to fill up the dish.

Mode.—Flake the fish from the bone, and carefully take away all the skin. Lay it in a pie-dish, pour over the melted butter and oysters (or oyster sauce, if there is any left), and cover with mashed potatoes. Bake for ½ an hour, and send to table of a nice brown colour.

Time.—½ hour.

Seasonable from November to March.

II.

236. Ingredients.—2 slices of cod; pepper and salt to taste; ½ a teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, 1 large blade of pounded mace, 2 oz. of butter, ½ pint of stock No. 107, a paste crust (see Pastry). For sauce, 1 tablespoonful of stock, ¼ pint of cream or milk, thickening of flour or butter; lemon-peel chopped very fine to taste; 12 oysters.

Mode.—Lay the cod in salt for 4 hours, then wash it and place it in a dish; season, and add the butter and stock; cover with the crust, and bake for 1 hour, or rather more. Now make the sauce, by mixing the ingredients named above; give it one boil, and pour it into the pie by a hole made at the top of the crust, which can easily be covered by a small piece of pastry cut and baked in any fanciful shape—such as a leaf, or otherwise.

Time.—1½ hour.

Average cost, with fresh fish, 2s. 6d.

Seasonable from November to March.

Sufficient for 6 persons.

Note.—The remains of cold fish may be used for this pie.

CURRIED COD.

237. Ingredients.—2 slices of large cod, or the remains of any cold fish; 3 oz. of butter, 1 onion sliced, a teacupful of white stock, thickening 121 of butter and flour, 1 small teaspoonful of curry-powder, ¼ pint of cream, salt and cayenne to taste.

Mode.—Flake the fish, and fry it of a nice brown colour with the butter and onions; put this in a stewpan, add the stock and thickening, and simmer for 10 minutes. Stir the curry-powder into the cream; put it, with the seasoning, to the other ingredients; give one boil, and serve.

Time.—¾ hour.

Average cost, with fresh fish, 3s.

Seasonable from November to March.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

The Food of the Cod.—This chiefly consists of the smaller species of the scaly tribes, shell-fish, crabs, and worms. Their voracity is very great, and they will bite at any small body they see moved by the water, even stones and pebbles, which are frequently found in their stomachs. They sometimes attain a great size, but their usual weight is from 14 to 40 lbs.

COD A LA CREME.

238. Ingredients.—1 large slice of cod, 1 oz. of butter, 1 chopped shalot, a little minced parsley, ¼ teacupful of white stock, ¼ pint of milk or cream, flour to thicken, cayenne and lemon-juice to taste, ¼ teaspoonful of powdered sugar.

Mode.—Boil the cod, and while hot, break it into flakes; put the butter, shalot, parsley, and stock into a stewpan, and let them boil for 5 minutes. Stir in sufficient flour to thicken, and pour to it the milk or cream. Simmer for 10 minutes, add the cayenne and sugar, and, when liked, a little lemon-juice. Put the fish in the sauce to warm gradually, but do not let it boil. Serve in a dish garnished with croûtons.

Time.—Rather more than ½ hour.

Average cost, with cream, 2s.

Seasonable from November to March.

Sufficient for 3 persons.

Note.—The remains of fish from the preceding day answer very well for this dish.

COD A LA BECHAMEL.

239. Ingredients.—Any remains of cold cod, 4 tablespoonfuls of béchamel (see Sauces), 2 oz. butter; seasoning to taste of pepper and salt; fried bread, a few bread crumbs.

Mode.—Flake the cod carefully, leaving out all skin and bone; put the béchamel in a stewpan with the butter, and stir it over the fire till the latter is melted; add seasoning, put in the fish, and mix it well with the sauce. Make a border of fried bread round the dish, lay in the fish, sprinkle over with bread crumbs, and baste with 122 butter. Brown either before the fire or with a salamander, and garnish with toasted bread cut in fanciful shapes.

Time.—½ hour.

Average cost, exclusive of the fish, 6d.

The Habitat of the Cod.—This fish is found only in the seas of the northern parts of the world, between the latitudes of 45° and 66°. Its great rendezvous are the sandbanks of Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, and New England. These places are its favourite resorts; for there it is able to obtain great quantities of worms, a food peculiarly grateful to it. Another cause of its attachment to these places has been said to be on account of the vicinity to the Polar seas, where it returns to spawn. Few are taken north of Iceland, and the shoals never reach so far south as the Straits of Gibraltar. Many are taken on the coasts of Norway, in the Baltic, and off the Orkneys, which, prior to the discovery of Newfoundland, formed one of the principal fisheries. The London market is supplied by those taken between the Dogger Bank, the Well Bank, and Cromer, on the east coast of England.

COD A LA MAITRE D’HOTEL.

240. Ingredients.—2 slices of cod, ¼ lb. of butter, a little chopped shalot and parsley; pepper to taste, ¼ teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, or rather less, when the flavour is not liked; the juice of ¼ lemon.

Mode.—Boil the cod, and either leave it whole, or, what is still better, flake it from the bone, and take off the skin. Put it into a stewpan with the butter, parsley, shalot, pepper, and nutmeg. Melt the butter gradually, and be very careful that it does not become like oil. When all is well mixed and thoroughly hot, add the lemon-juice, and serve.

Time.—½ hour.

Average cost, 2s. 6d.; with remains of cold fish, 5d.

Seasonable from November to March.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

Note.—Cod that has been left will do for this.

The Season for Fishing Cod.—The best season for catching cod is from the beginning of February to the end of April; and although each fisherman engaged in taking them, catches no more than one at a time, an expert hand will sometimes take four hundred in a day. The employment is excessively fatiguing, from the weight of the fish as well as from the coldness of the climate.

COD A L’ITALIENNE.

241. Ingredients.—2 slices of crimped cod, 1 shalot, 1 slice of ham minced very fine, ½ pint of white stock, No. 107; when liked, ½ teacupful of cream; salt to taste; a few drops of garlic vinegar, a little lemon juice, ½ teaspoonful of powdered sugar.

Mode.—Chop the shalots, mince the ham very fine, pour on the stock, and simmer for 15 minutes. If the colour should not be good, add cream in the above proportion, and strain it through a fine sieve; season it, and put in the vinegar, lemon-juice, and sugar. Now boil the cod, take out the middle bone, and skin it; put it on the dish without breaking, and pour the sauce over it.

123

Time.—¾ hour.

Average cost, 3s. 6d., with fresh fish.

Seasonable from November to March.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

The Fecundity of the Cod.—In our preceding remarks on the natural history of fishes, we have spoken of the amazing fruitfulness of this fish; but in this we see one more instance of the wise provision which Nature has made for supplying the wants of man. So extensive has been the consumption of this fish, that it is surprising that it has not long ago become extinct; which would certainly have been the case, had it not been for its wonderful powers of reproduction. “So early as 1368,” says Dr. Cloquet, “the inhabitants of Amsterdam had dispatched fishermen to the coast of Sweden; and in the first quarter of 1792, from the ports of France only, 210 vessels went out to the cod-fisheries. Every year, however, upwards of 10,000 vessels, of all nations, are employed in this trade, and bring into the commercial world more than 40,000,000 of salted and dried cod. If we add to this immense number, the havoc made among the legions of cod by the larger scaly tribes of the great deep, and take into account the destruction to which the young are exposed by sea-fowls and other inhabitants of the seas, besides the myriads of their eggs destroyed by accident, it becomes a miracle to find that such mighty multitudes of them are still in existence, and ready to continue the exhaustless supply. Yet it ceases to excite our wonder when we remember that the female can every year give birth to more than 9,000,000 at a time.”

BAKED CARP.

242. Ingredients.—1 carp, forcemeat, bread crumbs, 1 oz. butter, ½ pint of stock No. 105, ½ pint of port wine, 6 anchovies, 2 onions sliced, 1 bay-leaf, a faggot of sweet herbs, flour to thicken, the juice of 1 lemon; cayenne and salt to taste; ½ teaspoonful of powdered sugar.

Mode.—Stuff the carp with a delicate forcemeat, after thoroughly cleansing it, and sew it up, to prevent the stuffing from falling out. Rub it over with an egg, and sprinkle it with bread crumbs, lay it in a deep earthen dish, and drop the butter, oiled, over the bread crumbs. Add the stock, onions, bay-leaf, herbs, wine, and anchovies, and bake for 1 hour. Put 1 oz. of butter into a stewpan, melt it, and dredge in sufficient flour to dry it up; put in the strained liquor from the carp, stir frequently, and when it has boiled, add the lemon-juice and seasoning. Serve the carp on a dish garnished with parsley and cut lemon, and the sauce in a boat.

picture of “THE CARP.”

THE CARP.

Time.—1¼ hour.

Average cost. Seldom bought.

Seasonable from March to October.

Sufficient for 1 or 2 persons.

The Carp.—This species of fish inhabit the fresh waters, where they feed on worms, insects, aquatic plants, small fish, clay, or mould. Some of them are migratory. They have very small mouths and no teeth, and the gill membrane has three rays. The body is smooth, and generally whitish. The carp both grows and increases very fast, and is accounted the most valuable of all fish for the stocking of ponds. It has been pronounced the queen of river-fish, and was first introduced to this country about three hundred years ago. Of its sound, or air-bladder, a kind of glue is made, and a green paint of its gall.

124
STEWED CARP.

243. Ingredients.—1 carp, salt, stock No. 105, 2 onions, 6 cloves, 12 peppercorns, 1 blade of mace, ¼ pint of port wine, the juice of ½ lemon, cayenne and salt to taste, a faggot of savoury herbs.

Mode.—Scale the fish, clean it nicely, and, if very large, divide it; lay it in the stewpan, after having rubbed a little salt on it, and put in sufficient stock to cover it; add the herbs, onions, and spices, and stew gently for 1 hour, or rather more, should it be very large. Dish up the fish with great care, strain the liquor, and add to it the port wine, lemon-juice, and cayenne; give one boil, pour it over the fish, and serve.

Time.—1¼ hour.

Average cost. Seldom bought.

Seasonable from March to October.

Sufficient for 1 or 2 persons.

Note.—This fish can be boiled plain, and served with parsley and butter. Chub and Char may be cooked in the same manner as the above, as also Dace and Roach.

The Age of Carp.—This fish has been found to live 150 years. The pond in the garden of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, contained one that had lived there 70 years, and Gesner mentions an instance of one 100 years old. They are, besides, capable of being tamed. Dr. Smith, in his “Tour on the Continent,” says, in reference to the prince of Condé’s seat at Chantilly, “The most pleasing things about it were the immense shoals of very large carp, silvered over with age, like silver-fish, and perfectly tame; so that, when any passengers approached their watery habitation, they used to come to the shore in such numbers as to heave each other out of the water, begging for bread, of which a quantity was always kept at hand, on purpose to feed them. They would even allow themselves to be handled.”

picture of “THE CHUB.”

THE CHUB.

picture of “THE CHAR.”

THE CHAR.

The Chub.—This fish takes its name from its head, not only in England, but in other countries. It is a river-fish, and resembles the carp, but is somewhat longer. Its flesh is not in much esteem, being coarse, and, when out of season, full of small hairy bones. The head and throat are the best parts. The roe is also good.

The Char.—This is one of the most delicious of fish, being esteemed by some superior to the salmon. It is an inhabitant of the deep lakes of mountainous countries. Its flesh is rich and red, and full of fat. The largest and best kind is found in the lakes of Westmoreland, and, as it is considered a rarity, it is often potted and preserved.

The Dace, or Dare.—This fish is gregarious, and is seldom above ten inches long: although, according to Linnæus, it grows a foot and a half in length. Its haunts are in deep water, near piles of bridges, where the stream is gentle, over gravelly, sandy, or clayey bottoms; deep holes that are shaded, water-lily leaves, and under the foam caused by an eddy. In the warm months they are to be found in shoals on the shallows near to streams. They are in season about the end of April, and gradually improve till 125 February, when they attain their highest condition. In that month, when just taken, scotched (crimped), and broiled, they are said to be more palatable than a fresh herring.

picture of “THE DACE.”

THE DACE.

picture of “THE ROACH.”

THE ROACH.

The Roach.—This fish is found throughout Europe, and the western parts of Asia, in deep still rivers, of which it is an inhabitant. It is rarely more than a pound and a half in weight, and is in season from September till March. It is plentiful in England, and the finest are caught in the Thames. The proverb, “as sound as a roach,” is derived from the French name of this fish being roche, which also means rock.

color plate “Dressed Crab.”

I. Dressed Crab.

TO DRESS CRAB.

244. Ingredients.—1 crab, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 1 ditto of oil; salt, white pepper, and cayenne, to taste.

Mode.—Empty the shells, and thoroughly mix the meat with the above ingredients, and put it in the large shell. Garnish with slices of cut lemon and parsley. The quantity of oil may be increased when it is much liked. (See Coloured Plate I.)

Average cost, from 10d. to 2s.

Seasonable all the year; but not so good in May, June, and July.

Sufficient for 3 persons.

To Choose Crab.—The middle-sized crab is the best; and the crab, like the lobster, should be judged by its weight; for if light, it is watery.

HOT CRAB.

245. Ingredients.—1 crab, nutmeg, salt and pepper to taste, 3 oz. of butter, ¼ lb. of bread crumbs, 3 tablespoonfuls of vinegar.

Mode.—After having boiled the crab, pick the meat out from the shells, and mix with it the nutmeg and seasoning. Cut up the butter in small pieces, and add the bread crumbs and vinegar. Mix altogether, put the whole in the large shell, and brown before the fire or with a salamander.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost, from 10d. to 2s.

Seasonable all the year; but not so good in May, June, and July.

Sufficient for 3 persons.

picture of “THE CRAB.”

THE CRAB.

The Crab Tribe.—The whole of this tribe of animals have the body covered with a hard and strong shell, and they live chiefly in the sea. Some, however, inhabit fresh 126 waters, and a few live upon land. They feed variously, on aquatic or marine plants, small fish, molluscs, or dead bodies. The black-clawed species is found on the rocky coasts of both Europe and India, and is the same that is introduced to our tables, being much more highly esteemed as a food than many others of the tribe. The most remarkable feature in their history, is the changing of their shells, and the reproduction of their broken claws. The former occurs once a year, usually between Christmas and Easter, when the crabs retire to cavities in the rocks, or conceal themselves under great stones. Fishermen say that they will live confined in a pot or basket for several months together, without any other food than what is collected from the sea-water; and that, even in this situation, they will not decrease in weight. The hermit crab is another of the species, and has the peculiarity of taking possession of the deserted shell of some other animal, as it has none of its own. This circumstance was known to the ancients, and is alluded to in the following lines from Oppian:—

The hermit fish, unarm’d by Nature, left

Helpless and weak, grow strong by harmless theft.

Fearful they stroll, and look with panting wish

For the cast crust of some new-cover’d fish;

Or such as empty lie, and deck the shore,

Whose first and rightful owners are no more.

They make glad seizure of the vacant room,

And count the borrow’d shell their native home;

Screw their soft limbs to fit the winding case,

And boldly herd with the crustaceous race.

CRAYFISH.

246. Crayfish should be thrown into boiling; water, to which has been added a good seasoning of salt and a little vinegar. When done, which will be in ¼ hour, take them out and drain them. Let them cool, arrange them on a napkin, and garnish with plenty of double parsley.

Note.—This fish is frequently used for garnishing boiled turkey, boiled fowl, calf’s head, turbot, and all kinds of boiled fish.

POTTED CRAYFISH.

247. Ingredients.—100 crayfish; pounded mace, pepper and salt to taste, 2 oz. butter.

Mode.—Boil the fish in salt and water; pick out all the meat and pound it in a mortar to a paste. Whilst pounding, add the butter gradually, and mix in the spice and seasoning. Put it in small pots, and pour over it clarified butter, carefully excluding the air.

Time.—15 minutes to boil the crayfish.

Average cost, 2s. 9d.

Seasonable all the year.

JOHN DORY.

248. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of salt to each gallon of water.

Mode.—This fish, which is esteemed by most people a great delicacy, is dressed in the same way as a turbot, which it resembles in 127 firmness, but not in richness. Cleanse it thoroughly and cut off the fins; lay it in a fish-kettle, cover with cold water, and add salt in the above proportion. Bring it gradually to a boil, and simmer gently for ¼ hour, or rather longer, should the fish be very large. Serve on a hot napkin, and garnish with cut lemon and parsley. Lobster, anchovy, or shrimp sauce, and plain melted butter, should be sent to table with it.

picture of “THE JOHN DORY.”

THE JOHN DORY.

Time.—After the water boils, ¼ to ½ hour, according to size.

Average cost, 3s. to 5s.

Seasonable all the year, but best from September to January.

Note.—Small John Dories are very good, baked.

The Doru, or John Dory.—This fish is of a yellowish golden colour, and is, in general, rare, although it is sometimes taken in abundance on the Devon and Cornish coasts. It is highly esteemed for the table, and its flesh, when dressed, is of a beautiful clear white. When fresh caught, it is tough, and, being a ground fish, it is not the worse for being kept two, or even three days before it is cooked.

BOILED EELS.

249. Ingredients.—4 small eels, sufficient water to cover them; a large bunch of parsley.

Mode.—Choose small eels for boiling; put them in a stewpan with the parsley, and just sufficient water to cover them; simmer till tender. Take them out, pour a little parsley and butter over them, and serve some in a tureen.

picture of “THE EEL.”

THE EEL.

Time.—½ hour.

Average cost, 6d. per lb.

Seasonable from June to March.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

The Eel Tribe.—The Apodal, or bony-gilled and ventral-finned fish, of which the eel forms the first Linnæan tribe, in their general aspect and manners, approach, in some instances, very nearly to serpents. They have a smooth head and slippery skin, are in general naked, or covered with such small, soft, and distant scales, as are scarcely visible. Their bodies are long and slender, and they are supposed to subsist entirely on animal substances. There are about nine species of them, mostly found in the seas. One of them frequents our fresh waters, and three of the others occasionally pay a visit to our shores.

STEWED EELS.
I.

250. Ingredients.—2 lbs. of eels, 1 pint of rich strong stock, 128 No. 104, 1 onion, 3 cloves, a piece of lemon-peel, 1 glass of port or Madeira, 3 tablespoonfuls of cream; thickening of flour; cayenne and lemon-juice to taste.

Mode.—Wash and skin the eels, and cut them into pieces about 3 inches long; pepper and salt them, and lay them in a stewpan; pour over the stock, add the onion stuck with cloves, the lemon-peel, and the wine. Stew gently for ½ hour, or rather more, and lift them carefully on a dish, which keep hot. Strain the gravy, stir to the cream sufficient flour to thicken; mix altogether, boil for 2 minutes, and add the cayenne and lemon-juice; pour over the eels and serve.

Time.—¾ hour.

Average cost for this quantity, 2s. 3d.

Seasonable from June to March.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

The Common Eel.—This fish is known frequently to quit its native element, and to set off on a wandering expedition in the night, or just about the close of day, over the meadows, in search of snails and other prey. It also, sometimes, betakes itself to isolated ponds, apparently for no other pleasure than that which may be supposed to be found in a change of habitation. This, of course, accounts for eels being found in waters which were never suspected to contain them. This rambling disposition in the eel has been long known to naturalists, and, from the following lines, it seems to have been known to the ancients:—

“Thus the mail’d tortoise, and the wand’ring eel,

Oft to the neighbouring beach will silent steal.”

II.

251. Ingredients.—2 lbs. of middling-sized eels, 1 pint of medium stock, No. 105, ¼ pint of port wine; salt, cayenne, and mace to taste; 1 teaspoonful of essence of anchovy, the juice of ½ a lemon.

Mode.—Skin, wash, and clean the eels thoroughly; cut them into pieces 3 inches long, and put them into strong salt and water for 1 hour; dry them well with a cloth, and fry them brown. Put the stock on with the heads and tails of the eels, and simmer for ½ hour; strain it, and add all the other ingredients. Put in the eels, and stew gently for ½ hour, when serve.

Time.—2 hours.

Average cost, 1s. 9d..

Seasonable from June to March.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

FRIED EELS.

252. Ingredients.—1 lb. of eels, 1 egg, a few bread crumbs, hot lard.

Mode.—Wash the eels, cut them into pieces 3 inches long, trim and wipe them very dry; dredge with flour, rub them over with egg, and cover with bread crumbs; fry of a nice brown in hot lard. If the 129 K eels are small, curl them round, instead of cutting them up. Garnish with fried parsley.

Time.—20 minutes, or rather less.

Average cost, 6d. per lb.

Seasonable from June to March.

Note.—Garfish may be dressed like eels, and either broiled or baked.

The Productiveness of the Eel.—“Having occasion,” says Dr. Anderson, in the Bee, “to be once on a visit to a friend’s house on Dee-side, in Aberdeenshire, I frequently delighted to walk by the banks of the river. I, one day, observed something like a black string moving along the edge of the water, where it was quite shallow. Upon closer inspection, I discovered that this was a shoal of young eels, so closely joined together as to appear, on a superficial view, one continued body, moving briskly up against the stream. To avoid the retardment they experienced from the force of the current, they kept close along the water’s edge the whole of the way, following all the bendings and sinuosities of the river. Where they were embayed, and in still water, the shoal dilated in breadth, so as to be sometimes nearly a foot broad; but when they turned a cape, where the current was strong, they were forced to occupy less space and press close to the shore, struggling very hard till they passed it. This shoal continued to move on, night and day without interruption for several weeks. Their progress might be at the rate of about a mile an hour. It was easy to catch the animals, though they were very active and nimble. They were eels perfectly well formed in every respect, but not exceeding two inches in length. I conceive that the shoal did not contain, on an average, less than from twelve to twenty in breadth; so that the number that passed, on the whole, must have been very great. Whence they came or whither they went, I know not; but the place where I saw this, was six miles from the sea.”

EEL PIE.

253. Ingredients.—1 lb. of eels, a little chopped parsley, 1 shalot; grated nutmeg; pepper and salt to taste; the juice of ½ a lemon, small quantity of forcemeat, ¼ pint of béchamel (see Sauces); puff paste.

Mode.—Skin and wash the eels, cut them into pieces 2 inches long, and line the bottom of the pie-dish with forcemeat. Put in the eels, and sprinkle them with the parsley, shalots, nutmeg, seasoning, and lemon-juice, and cover with puff-paste. Bake for 1 hour, or rather more; make the béchamel hot, and pour it into the pie.

Time.—Rather more than 1 hour.

Seasonable from August to March.

COLLARED EEL.

254. Ingredients.—1 large eel; pepper and salt to taste; 2 blades of mace, 2 cloves, a little allspice very finely pounded, 6 leaves of sage, and a small bunch of herbs minced very small.

Mode.—Bone the eel and skin it; split it, and sprinkle it over with the ingredients, taking care that the spices are very finely pounded, and the herbs chopped very small. Roll it up and bind with a broad piece of tape, and boil it in water, mixed with a little salt and vinegar, till tender. It may either be served whole or cut in slices; 130 and when cold, the eel should be kept in the liquor it was boiled in, but with a little more vinegar put to it.

Time.—2 hours.

Average cost, 6d. per lb.

Seasonable from August to March.

Haunts of the Eel.—These are usually in mud, among weeds, under roots or stumps of trees, or in holes in the banks or the bottoms of rivers. Here they often grow to an enormous size, sometimes weighing as much as fifteen or sixteen pounds. They seldom come forth from their hiding-places except in the night; and, in winter, bury themselves deep in the mud, on account of their great susceptibility of cold.

EELS A LA TARTARE.

255. Ingredients.—2 lbs. of eels, 1 carrot, 1 onion, a little flour, 1 glass of sherry; salt, pepper, and nutmeg to taste; bread crumbs, 1 egg, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar.

Mode.—Rub the butter on the bottom of the stewpan; cut up the carrot and onion, and stir them over the fire for 5 minutes; dredge in a little flour, add the wine and seasoning, and boil for ½ an hour. Skin and wash the eels, cut them into pieces, put them to the other ingredients, and simmer till tender. When they are done, take them out, let them get cold, cover them with egg and bread crumbs, and fry them of a nice brown. Put them on a dish, pour sauce piquante over, and serve them hot.

Time.—1½ hour.

Average cost, 1s. 8d., exclusive of the sauce piquante.

Seasonable from August to March.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Voracity of the Eel.—We find in a note upon Isaac Walton, by Sir John Hawkins, that he knew of eels, when kept in ponds, frequently destroying ducks. From a canal near his house at Twickenham he himself missed many young ducks; and on draining, in order to clean it, great numbers of large eels were caught in the mud. When some of these were opened, there were found in their stomachs the undigested heads of the quacking tribe which had become their victims.

EELS EN MATELOTE.

256. Ingredients.—5 or 6 young onions, a few mushrooms, when obtainable; salt, pepper, and nutmeg to taste; 1 laurel-leaf, ½ pint of port wine, ½ pint of medium stock, No. 105; butter and flour to thicken; 2 lbs. of eels.

Mode.—Rub the stewpan with butter, dredge in a little flour, add the onions cut very small, slightly brown them, and put in all the other ingredients. Wash, and cut up the eels into pieces 3 inches long; put them in the stewpan, and simmer for ½ hour. Make round the dish, a border of croûtons, or pieces of toasted bread; arrange the eels in a pyramid in the centre, and pour over the sauce. Serve very hot.

Time.—¾ hour.

Average cost, 1s. 9d. for this quantity.

Seasonable from August to March.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

131

Tenacity of Life in the Eel.—There is no fish so tenacious of life as this. After it is skinned and cut in pieces, the parts will continue to move for a considerable time, and no fish will live so long out of water.

picture of “THE LAMPREY.”

THE LAMPREY.

The Lamprey.—With the Romans, this fish occupied a respectable rank among the piscine tribes, and in Britain it has at various periods stood high in public favour. It was the cause of the death of Henry I. of England, who ate so much of them, that it brought on an attack of indigestion, which carried him off. It is an inhabitant of the sea, ascending rivers, principally about the end of winter, and, after passing a few months in fresh water, returning again to its oceanic residence. It is most in season in March, April, and May, but is, by some, regarded as an unwholesome food, although looked on by others as a great delicacy. They are dressed as eels.

FISH AND OYSTER PIE.

257. Ingredients.—Any remains of cold fish, such as cod or haddock; 2 dozen oysters, pepper and salt to taste, bread crumbs sufficient for the quantity of fish; ½ teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley.

Mode.—Clear the fish from the bones, and put a layer of it in a pie-dish, which sprinkle with pepper and salt; then a layer of bread crumbs, oysters, nutmeg, and chopped parsley. Repeat this till the dish is quite full. You may form a covering either of bread crumbs, which should be browned, or puff-paste, which should be cut into long strips, and laid in cross-bars over the fish, with a line of the paste first laid round the edge. Before putting on the top, pour in some made melted butter, or a little thin white sauce, and the oyster-liquor, and bake.

Time.—If made of cooked fish, ¼ hour; if made of fresh fish and puff-paste, ¾ hour.

Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Seasonable from September to April.

Note.—A nice little dish may be made by flaking any cold fish, adding a few oysters, seasoning with pepper and salt, and covering with mashed potatoes; ¼ hour will bake it.

FISH CAKE.

258. Ingredients.—The remains of any cold fish, 1 onion, 1 faggot of sweet herbs; salt and pepper to taste, 1 pint of water, equal quantities of bread crumbs and cold potatoes, ½ teaspoonful of parsley, 1 egg, bread crumbs.

Mode.—Pick the meat from the bones of the fish, which latter put, with the head and fins, into a stewpan with the water; add pepper and salt, the onion and herbs, and stew slowly for gravy about 2 hours; chop the fish fine, and mix it well with bread crumbs and cold 132 potatoes, adding the parsley and seasoning; make the whole into a cake with the white of an egg, brush it over with egg, cover with bread crumbs, and fry of a light brown; strain the gravy, pour it over, and stew gently for ¼ hour, stirring it carefully once or twice. Serve hot, and garnish with slices of lemon and parsley.

Time.—½ hour, after the gravy is made.

BOILED FLOUNDERS.

259. Ingredients.—Sufficient water to cover the flounders, salt in the proportion of 6 oz. to each gallon, a little vinegar.

Mode.—Put on a kettle with enough water to cover the flounders, lay in the fish, add salt and vinegar in the above proportions, and when it boils, simmer very gently for 5 minutes. They must not boil fast, or they will break. Serve with plain melted butter, or parsley and butter.

picture of “FLOUNDERS.”

FLOUNDERS.

Time.—After the water boils, 5 minutes.

Average cost, 3d. each.

Seasonable from August to November.

The Flounder.—This comes under the tribe usually denominated Flat-fish, and is generally held in the smallest estimation of any among them. It is an inhabitant of both the seas and the rivers, while it thrives in ponds. On the English coasts it is very abundant, and the London market consumes it in large quantities. It is considered easy of digestion, and the Thames flounder is esteemed a delicate fish.

FRIED FLOUNDERS.

260. Ingredients.—Flounders, egg, and bread crumbs; boiling lard.

Mode.—Cleanse the fish, and, two hours before they are wanted, rub them inside and out with salt, to render them firm; wash and wipe them very dry, dip them into egg, and sprinkle over with bread crumbs; fry them in boiling lard, dish on a hot napkin, and garnish with crisped parsley.

Time.—From 5 to 10 minutes, according to size.

Average cost, 3d. each.

Seasonable from August to November.

Sufficient, 1 for each person.

GUDGEONS.

261. Ingredients.—Egg and bread crumbs sufficient for the quantity of fish; hot lard.

Mode.—Do not scrape off the scales, but take out the gills and 133 inside, and cleanse thoroughly; wipe them dry, flour and dip them into egg, and sprinkle over with bread crumbs. Fry of a nice brown.

picture of “THE GUDGEON.”

THE GUDGEON.

Time.—3 or 4 minutes.

Average cost. Seldom bought.

Seasonable from March to July.

Sufficient, 3 for each person.

The Gudgeon.—This is a fresh-water fish, belonging to the carp genus, and is found in placid streams and lakes. It was highly esteemed by the Greeks, and was, at the beginning of supper, served fried at Rome. It abounds both in France, and Germany; and is both excellent and numerous in some of the rivers of England. Its flesh is firm, well-flavoured, and easily digested.

GURNET, or GURNARD.

262. Ingredients.—1 gurnet, 6 oz. of salt to each gallon of water.

Mode.—Cleanse the fish thoroughly, and cut off the fins; have ready some boiling water, with salt in the above proportion; put the fish in, and simmer very gently for ½ hour. Parsley and butter, or anchovy sauce, should be served with it.

picture of “THE GURNET.”

THE GURNET.

Time.—½ hour.

Average cost. Seldom bought.

Seasonable from October to March, but in perfection in October.

Sufficient, a middling sized one for 2 persons.

Note.—This fish is frequently stuffed with forcemeat and baked.

The Gurnet.—“If I be not ashamed of my soldiers, I am a souced gurnet,” says Falstaff; which shows that this fish has been long known in England. It is very common on the British coasts, and is an excellent fish as food.

BAKED HADDOCKS.

263. Ingredients.—A nice forcemeat (see Forcemeats), butter to taste, egg and bread crumbs.

Mode.—Scale and clean the fish, without cutting it open much; put in a nice delicate forcemeat, and sew up the slit. Brush it over with egg, sprinkle over bread crumbs, and baste frequently with butter. Garnish with parsley and cut lemon, and serve with a nice brown gravy, plain melted butter, or anchovy sauce. The egg and bread crumbs can be omitted, and pieces of butter placed over the fish.

Time.—Large haddock, ¾ hour; moderate size, ¼ hour.

Seasonable from August to February.

Average cost, from 9d. upwards.

134

picture of “THE HADDOCK.”

THE HADDOCK.

Note.—Haddocks may be filleted, rubbed over with egg and bread crumbs, and fried a nice brown; garnish with crisped parsley.

The Haddock.—This fish migrates in immense shoals, and arrives on the Yorkshire coast about the middle of winter. It is an inhabitant of the northern seas of Europe, but does not enter the Baltic, and is not known in the Mediterranean. On each side of the body, just beyond the gills, it has a dark spot, which superstition asserts to be the impressions of the finger and thumb of St. Peter, when taking the tribute money out of a fish of this species.

BOILED HADDOCK.

264. Ingredients.—Sufficient water to cover the fish; ¼ lb. of salt to each gallon of water.

Mode.—Scrape the fish, take out the inside, wash it thoroughly, and lay it in a kettle, with enough water to cover it, and salt in the above proportion. Simmer gently from 15 to 20 minutes, or rather more, should the fish be very large. For small haddocks, fasten the tails in their mouths, and put them into boiling water. 10 to 15 minutes will cook them. Serve with plain melted butter, or anchovy sauce.

Time.—Large haddock, ½ hour; small, ¼ hour, or rather less.

Average cost, from 9d. upwards.

Seasonable from August to February.

Weight of the Haddock.—The haddock seldom grows to any great size. In general, they do not weigh more than two or three pounds, or exceed ten or twelve inches in size. Such are esteemed very delicate eating; but they have been caught three feet long, when their flesh is coarse.

DRIED HADDOCK.
I.

265. Dried haddock should be gradually warmed through, either before or over a nice clear fire. Rub a little piece of butter over, just before sending it to table.

II.

266. Ingredients.—1 large thick haddock, 2 bay-leaves, 1 small bunch of savoury herbs, not forgetting parsley, a little butter and pepper; boiling water.

Mode.—Cut up the haddock into square pieces, make a basin hot by means of hot water, which pour out. Lay in the fish, with the bay-leaves and herbs; cover with boiling water; put a plate over to keep in the steam, and let it remain for 10 minutes. Take out the slices, put them in a hot dish, rub over with butter and pepper, and serve.

Time.—10 minutes.

Seasonable at any time, but best in winter.

135

The Finnan Haddock.—This is the common haddock cured and dried, and takes its name from the fishing-village of Findhorn, near Aberdeen, in Scotland, where the art has long attained to perfection. The haddocks are there hung up for a day or two in the smoke of peat, when they are ready for cooking, and are esteemed, by the Scotch, a great delicacy. In London, an imitation of them is made by washing the fish over with pyroligneous acid, and hanging it up in a dry place for a few days.

RED HERRINGS, or YARMOUTH BLOATERS.

267. The best way to cook these is to make incisions in the skin across the fish, because they do not then require to be so long on the fire, and will be far better, than when cut open. The hard roe makes a nice relish by pounding it in a mortar, with a little anchovy, and spreading it on toast. If very dry, soak in warm water 1 hour before dressing.

The Red Herring.Red herrings lie twenty-four hours in the brine, when they are taken out and hung up in a smoking-house formed to receive them. A brushwood fire is then kindled beneath them, and when they are sufficiently smoked and dried, they are put into barrels for carriage.

BAKED WHITE HERRINGS.

268. Ingredients.—12 herrings, 4 bay-leaves, 12 cloves, 12 allspice, 2 small blades of mace, cayenne pepper and salt to taste, sufficient vinegar to fill up the dish.

Mode.—Take the herrings, cut off the heads, and gut them. Put them in a pie-dish, heads and tails alternately, and, between each layer, sprinkle over the above ingredients. Cover the fish with the vinegar, and bake for ½ hour, but do not use it till quite cold. The herrings may be cut down the front, the backbone taken out, and closed again. Sprats done in this way are very delicious.

Time.—½ an hour.

Average cost, 1d. each.

To Choose the Herring.—The more scales this fish has, the surer the sign of its freshness. It should also have a bright and silvery look; but if red about the head, it is a sign that it has been dead for some time.

picture of “THE HERRING.”

THE HERRING.

The Herring.—The herring tribe are found in the greatest abundance in the highest northern latitudes, where they find a quiet retreat, and security from their numerous enemies. Here they multiply beyond expression, and, in shoals, come forth from their icy region to visit other portions of the great deep. In June they are found about Shetland, whence they proceed down to the Orkneys, where they divide, and surround the islands of Great Britain and Ireland. The principal British herring-fisheries are off the Scotch and Norfolk coasts; and the fishing is always carried on by means of nets, which are usually laid at night; for, if stretched by day, they are supposed to frighten the fish away. The moment the herring is taken out of the water it dies. Hence the origin of the common saying, “dead as a herring.”

KEGEREE.

269. Ingredients.—Any cold fish, 1 teacupful of boiled rice, 1 oz. of butter, 1 teaspoonful of mustard, 2 soft-boiled eggs, salt and cayenne to taste.

136

Mode.—Pick the fish carefully from the bones, mix with the other ingredients, and serve very hot. The quantities may be varied according to the amount of fish used.

Time.—¼ hour after the rice is boiled.

Average cost, 5d., exclusive of the fish.

TO BOIL LOBSTERS.

270. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of salt to each gallon of water.

Mode.—Buy the lobsters alive, and choose those that are heavy and full of motion, which is an indication of their freshness. When the shell is incrusted, it is a sign they are old: medium-sized lobsters are the best. Have ready a stewpan of boiling water, salted in the above proportion; put in the lobster, and keep it boiling quickly from 20 minutes to ¾ hour, according to its size, and do not forget to skim well. If it boils too long, the meat becomes thready, and if not done enough, the spawn is not red: this must be obviated by great attention. Rub the shell over with a little butter or sweet oil, which wipe off again.

Time.—Small lobster, 20 minutes to ½ hour; large ditto, ½ to ¾ hour.

Average cost, medium size, 1s. 6d. to 2s. 6d.

Seasonable all the year, but best from March to October.

To Choose Lobsters.—This shell-fish, if it has been cooked alive, as it ought to have been, will have a stiffness in the tail, which, if gently raised, will return with a spring. Care, however, must be taken in thus proving it; for if the tail is pulled straight out, it will not return; when the fish might be pronounced inferior, which, in reality, may not be the case. In order to be good, lobsters should be weighty for their bulk; if light, they will be watery; and those of the medium size, are always the best. Small-sized lobsters are cheapest, and answer very well for sauce. In boiling lobsters, the appearance of the shell will be much improved by rubbing over it a little butter or salad-oil on being immediately taken from the pot.

picture of “THE LOBSTER.”

THE LOBSTER.

The Lobster.—This is one of the crab tribe, and is found on most of the rocky coasts of Great Britain. Some are caught with the hand, but the larger number in pots, which serve all the purposes of a trap, being made of osiers, and baited with garbage. They are shaped like a wire mousetrap; so that when the lobsters once enter them, they cannot get out again. They are fastened to a cord and sunk in the sea, and their place marked by a buoy. The fish is very prolific, and deposits its eggs in the sand, where they are soon hatched. On the coast of Norway, they are very abundant, and it is from there that the English metropolis is mostly supplied. They are rather indigestible, and, as a food, not so nutritive as they are generally supposed to be.

HOT LOBSTER.

271. Ingredients.—1 lobster, 2 oz. of butter, grated nutmeg; salt, pepper, and pounded mace, to taste; bread crumbs, 2 eggs.

137

Mode.—Pound the meat of the lobster to a smooth paste with the butter and seasoning, and add a few bread crumbs. Beat the eggs, and make the whole mixture into the form of a lobster; pound the spawn, and sprinkle over it. Bake ¼ hour, and just before serving, lay over it the tail and body shell, with the small claws underneath, to resemble a lobster.

Time.—¼ hour.

Average cost, 2s. 6d.

Seasonable at any time.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

LOBSTER SALAD.

272. Ingredients.—1 hen lobster, lettuces, endive, small salad (whatever is in season), a little chopped beetroot, 2 hard-boiled eggs, a few slices of cucumber. For dressing, equal quantities of oil and vinegar, 1 teaspoonful of made mustard, the yolks of 2 eggs; cayenne and salt to taste; ¼ teaspoonful of anchovy sauce. These ingredients should be mixed perfectly smooth, and form a creamy-looking sauce.

Mode.—Wash the salad, and thoroughly dry it by shaking it in a cloth. Cut up the lettuces and endive, pour the dressing on them, and lightly throw in the small salad. Mix all well together with the pickings from the body of the lobster; pick the meat from the shell, cut it up into nice square pieces, put half in the salad, the other half reserve for garnishing. Separate the yolks from the whites of 2 hard-boiled eggs; chop the whites very fine, and rub the yolks through a sieve, and afterwards the coral from the inside. Arrange the salad lightly on a glass dish, and garnish, first with a row of sliced cucumber, then with the pieces of lobster, the yolks and whites of the eggs, coral, and beetroot placed alternately, and arranged in small separate bunches, so that the colours contrast nicely.

Average cost, 3s. 6d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from April to October; may be had all the year, but salad is scarce and expensive in winter.

Note.—A few crayfish make a pretty garnishing to lobster salad.

The Shell of the Lobster.—Like the others of its tribe, the lobster annually casts its shell. Previously to its throwing off the old one, it appears sick, languid, and restless, but in the course of a few days it is entirely invested in its new coat of armour. Whilst it is in a defenceless state, however, it seeks some lonely place, where it may lie undisturbed, and escape the horrid fate of being devoured by some of its own species who have the advantage of still being encased in their mail.

LOBSTER (a la Mode Francaise).

273. Ingredients.—1 lobster, 4 tablespoonfuls of white stock, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, pounded mace, and cayenne to taste; bread crumbs.

138

Mode.—Pick the meat from the shell, and cut it up into small square pieces; put the stock, cream, and seasoning into a stewpan, add the lobster, and let it simmer gently for 6 minutes. Serve it in the shell, which must be nicely cleaned, and have a border of puff-paste; cover it with bread crumbs, place small pieces of butter over, and brown before the fire, or with a salamander.

Time.—¼ hour.

Average cost, 2s. 6d.

Seasonable at any time.

Celerity of the Lobster.—In its element, the lobster is able to run with great speed upon its legs, or small claws, and, if alarmed, to spring, tail foremost, to a considerable distance, “even,” it is said, “with the swiftness of a bird flying.” Fishermen have seen some of them pass about thirty feet with a wonderful degree of swiftness. When frightened, they will take their spring, and, like a chamois of the Alps, plant themselves upon the very spot upon which they designed to hold themselves.

LOBSTER CURRY (an Entree).

274. Ingredients.—1 lobster, 2 onions, 1 oz. butter, 1 tablespoonful of curry-powder, ½ pint of medium stock, No. 105, the juice of ½ lemon.

Mode.—Pick the meat from the shell, and cut it into nice square pieces; fry the onions of a pale brown in the butter, stir in the curry-powder and stock, and simmer till it thickens, when put in the lobster; stew the whole slowly for ½ hour, and stir occasionally; and just before sending to table, put in the lemon-juice. Serve boiled rice with it, the same as for other curries.

Time.—Altogether, ¾ hour.

Average cost, 3s.

Seasonable at any time.

LOBSTER CUTLETS (an Entree).

275. Ingredients.—1 large hen lobster, 1 oz. fresh butter, ½ saltspoonful of salt, pounded mace, grated nutmeg, cayenne and white pepper to taste, egg, and bread crumbs.

Mode.—Pick the meat from the shell, and pound it in a mortar with the butter, and gradually add the mace and seasoning, well mixing the ingredients; beat all to a smooth paste, and add a little of the spawn; divide the mixture into pieces of an equal size, and shape them like cutlets. They should not be very thick. Brush them over with egg, and sprinkle with bread crumbs, and stick a short piece of the small claw in the top of each; fry them of a nice brown in boiling lard, and drain them before the fire, on a sieve reversed; arrange them nicely on a dish, and pour béchamel in the middle, but not over the cutlets.

Time.—About 8 minutes after the cutlets are made.

Average cost for this dish, 2s. 9d.

Seasonable all the year.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

139

Ancient mode of Cooking the Lobster.—When this fish was to be served for the table, among the ancients, it was opened lengthwise, and filled with a gravy composed of coriander and pepper. It was then put on the gridiron and slowly cooked, whilst it was being basted with the same kind of gravy with which the flesh had become impregnated.

TO DRESS LOBSTERS.

color plate “Dressed Lobsters.”

H. Dressed Lobsters.

276. When the lobster is boiled, rub it over with a little salad-oil, which wipe off again; separate the body from the tail, break off the great claws, and crack them at the joints, without injuring the meat; split the tail in halves, and arrange all neatly in a dish, with the body upright in the middle, and garnish with parsley. (See Coloured Plate, H.)

LOBSTER PATTIES (an Entree).

277. Ingredients.—Minced lobster, 4 tablespoonfuls of béchamel, 6 drops of anchovy sauce, lemon-juice, cayenne to taste.

Mode.—Line the patty-pans with puff-paste, and put into each a small piece of bread; cover with paste, brush over with egg, and bake of a light colour. Take as much lobster as is required, mince the meat very fine, and add the above ingredients; stir it over the fire for 5 minutes; remove the lids of the patty-cases, take out the bread, fill with the mixture, and replace the covers.

Seasonable at any time.

Local Attachment of the Lobster.—It is said that the attachment of this animal is strong to some particular parts of the sea, a circumstance celebrated in the following lines:—

“Nought like their home the constant lobsters prize.

And foreign shores and seas unknown despise.

Though cruel hands the banish’d wretch expel,

And force the captive from his native cell,

He will, if freed, return with anxious care,

Find the known rock, and to his home repair;

No novel customs learns in different seas,

But wonted food and home-taught manners please.”

POTTED LOBSTER.

278. Ingredients.—2 lobsters; seasoning to taste, of nutmeg, pounded mace, white pepper, and salt; ¼ lb. of butter, 3 or 4 bay-leaves.

Mode.—Take out the meat carefully from the shell, but do not cut it up. Put some butter at the bottom of a dish, lay in the lobster as evenly as possible, with the bay-leaves and seasoning between. Cover with butter, and bake for ¾ hour in a gentle oven. When done, drain the whole on a sieve, and lay the pieces in potting-jars, with the seasoning about them. When cold, pour over it clarified butter, and, if very highly seasoned, it will keep some time.

Time.—¾ hour.

Average cost for this quantity, 4s. 4d.

Seasonable at any time.

Note.—Potted lobster may be used cold, or as a fricassee with cream sauce.

140

How the Lobster Feeds.—The pincers of the lobster’s large claws are furnished with nobs, and those of the other, are always serrated. With the former, it keeps firm hold of the stalks of submarine plants, and with the latter, it cuts and minces its food with great dexterity. The knobbed, or numb claw, as it is called by fishermen, is sometimes on the right and sometimes on the left, indifferently.

BAKED MACKEREL.

279. Ingredients.—4 middling-sized mackerel, a nice delicate forcemeat (see Forcemeats), 3 oz. of butter; pepper and salt to taste.

Mode.—Clean the fish, take out the roes, and fill up with forcemeat, and sew up the slit. Flour, and put them in a dish, heads and tails alternately, with the roes; and, between each layer, put some little pieces of butter, and pepper and salt. Bake for ½ an hour, and either serve with plain melted butter or a maître d’hôtel sauce.

Time.—½ hour.

Average cost for this quantity, 1s. 10d.

Seasonable from April to July.

Sufficient for 6 persons.

Note.—Baked mackerel may be dressed in the same way as baked herrings (see No. 268), and may also be stewed in wine.

Weight of the Mackerel.—The greatest weight of this fish seldom exceeds 2 lbs., whilst their ordinary length runs between 14 and 20 inches. They die almost immediately after they are taken from their element, and, for a short time, exhibit a phosphoric light.

color plate “Boiled Mackerel.”

F. Boiled Mackerel.

BOILED MACKEREL.

280. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of salt to each gallon of water.

Mode.—Cleanse the inside of the fish thoroughly, and lay it in the kettle with sufficient water to cover it with salt as above; bring it gradually to boil, skim well, and simmer gently till done; dish them on a hot napkin, heads and tails alternately, and garnish with fennel. Fennel sauce and plain melted butter are the usual accompaniments to boiled mackerel; but caper or anchovy sauce is sometimes served with it. (See Coloured Plate, F.)

Time.—After the water boils, 10 minutes; for large mackerel, allow more time.

Average cost, from 4d.

Seasonable from April to July.

Note.—When variety is desired, fillet the mackerel, boil it, and pour over parsley and butter; send some of this, besides, in a tureen.

Full-page color plate 2

D. Dish of Fried Whiting. E. Boiled Brill or Turbot. F. Boiled Mackerel.

plate closeup plate closeup plate closeup
BROILED MACKEREL.

281. Ingredients.—Pepper and salt to taste, a small quantity of oil.

Mode.—Mackerel should never be washed when intended to be broiled, but merely wiped very clean and dry, after taking out the gills and insides. Open the back, and put in a little pepper, salt, and 141 oil; broil it over a clear fire, turn it over on both sides, and also on the back. When sufficiently cooked, the flesh can be detached from the bone, which will be in about 15 minutes for a small mackerel. Chop a little parsley, work it up in the butter, with pepper and salt to taste, and a squeeze of lemon-juice, and put it in the back. Serve before the butter is quite melted, with a maître d’hôtel sauce in a tureen.

Time.—Small mackerel 15 minutes.

Average cost, from 4d.

Seasonable from April to July.

picture of “THE MACKEREL.”

THE MACKEREL.

The Mackerel.—This is not only one of the most elegantly-formed, but one of the most beautifully-coloured fishes, when taken out of the sea, that we have. Death, in some degree, impairs the vivid splendour of its colours; but it does not entirely obliterate them. It visits the shores of Great Britain in countless shoals, appearing about March, off the Land’s End; in the bays of Devonshire, about April; off Brighton in the beginning of May; and on the coast of Suffolk about the beginning of June. In the Orkneys they are seen till August; but the greatest fishery is on the west coasts of England.

To Choose Mackerel.—In choosing this fish, purchasers should, to a great extent, be regulated by the brightness of its appearance. If it have a transparent, silvery hue, the flesh is good; but if it be red about the head, it is stale.

FILLETS OF MACKEREL.

282. Ingredients.—2 large mackerel, 1 oz. butter, 1 small bunch of chopped herbs, 3 tablespoonfuls of medium stock, No. 105, 3 tablespoonfuls of béchamel (see Sauces); salt, cayenne, and lemon-juice to taste.

Mode.—Clean the fish, and fillet it; scald the herbs, chop them fine, and put them with the butter and stock into a stewpan. Lay in the mackerel, and simmer very gently for 10 minutes; take them out, and put them on a hot dish. Dredge in a little flour, add the other ingredients, give one boil, and pour it over the mackerel.

Time.—20 minutes.

Average cost for this quantity, 1s. 6d.

Seasonable from April to July.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

Note.—Fillets of mackerel may be covered with egg and bread crumbs, and fried of a nice brown. Serve with maître d’hôtel sauce and plain melted butter.

The Voracity of the Mackerel.—The voracity of this fish is very great, and, from their immense numbers, they are bold in attacking objects of which they might, otherwise, be expected to have a wholesome dread. Pontoppidan relates an anecdote of a sailor belonging to a ship lying in one of the harbours on the coast of Norway, who, having gone into the sea to bathe, was suddenly missed by his companions; in the course of a few minutes, however, he was seen on the surface, with great numbers of mackerel clinging to him by their mouths. His comrades hastened in a boat to his assistance; but when they had struck the fishes from him and got him up, they found he was so severely bitten, that he shortly afterwards expired.

142
PICKLED MACKEREL.

283. Ingredients.—12 peppercorns, 2 bay-leaves, ½ pint of vinegar, 4 mackerel.

Mode.—Boil the mackerel as in the recipe No. 282, and lay them in a dish; take half the liquor they were boiled in; add as much vinegar, peppercorns, and bay-leaves; boil for 10 minutes, and when cold, pour over the fish.

Time.—½ hour.

Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Mackerel Garum.—This brine, so greatly esteemed by the ancients, was manufactured from various kinds of fishes. When mackerel was employed, a few of them were placed in a small vase, with a large quantity of salt, which was well stirred, and then left to settle for some hours. On the following day, this was put into an earthen pot, which was uncovered, and placed in a situation to get the rays of the sun. At the end of two or three months, it was hermetically sealed, after having had added to it a quantity of old wine, equal to one third of the mixture.

GREY MULLET.

284. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of salt to each gallon of water.

picture of “THE GREY MULLET.”

THE GREY MULLET.

Mode.—If the fish be very large, it should be laid in cold water, and gradually brought to a boil; if small, put it in boiling water, salted in the above proportion. Serve with anchovy sauce and plain melted butter.

Time.—According to size, ¼ to ¾ hour.

Average cost, 8d. per lb.

Seasonable from July to October.

The Grey Mullet.—This is quite a different fish from the red mullet, is abundant on the sandy coasts of Great Britain, and ascends rivers for miles. On the south coast it is very plentiful, and is considered a fine fish. It improves more than any other salt-water fish when kept in ponds.

RED MULLET.

285. Ingredients.—Oiled paper, thickening of butter and flour, ½ teaspoonful of anchovy sauce, 1 glass of sherry; cayenne and salt to taste.

Mode.—Clean the fish, take out the gills, but leave the inside, fold in oiled paper, and bake them gently. When done, take the liquor that flows from the fish, add a thickening of butter kneaded with flour; put in the other ingredients, and let it boil for 2 minutes. Serve the sauce in a tureen, and the fish, either with or without the paper cases.

Time.—About 25 minutes.

Average cost, 1s. each.

Seasonable at any time, but more plentiful in summer.

Note.—Red mullet may be broiled, and should be folded in oiled paper, the 143 same as in the preceding recipe, and seasoned with pepper and salt. They may be served without sauce; but if any is required, use melted butter, Italian or anchovy sauce. They should never be plain boiled.

picture of “THE STRIPED RED MULLET.”

THE STRIPED RED MULLET.

The Striped Red Mullet.—This fish was very highly esteemed by the ancients, especially by the Romans, who gave the most extravagant prices for it. Those of 2 lbs. weight were valued at about £15 each; those of 4 lbs. at £60, and, in the reign of Tiberius, three of them were sold for £209. To witness the changing loveliness of their colour during their dying agonies, was one of the principal reasons that such a high price was paid for one of these fishes. It frequents our Cornish and Sussex coasts, and is in high request, the flesh being firm, white, and well flavoured.

FRIED OYSTERS.

286. Ingredients.—3 dozen oysters, 2 oz. butter, 1 tablespoonful of ketchup, a little chopped lemon-peel, ½ teaspoonful of chopped parsley.

Mode.—Boil the oysters for 1 minute in their own liquor, and drain them; fry them with the butter, ketchup, lemon-peel, and parsley; lay them on a dish, and garnish with fried potatoes, toasted sippets, and parsley. This is a delicious delicacy, and is a favourite Italian dish.

Time.—5 minutes.

Average cost for this quantity, 1s. 9d.

Seasonable from September to April.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

picture of “THE EDIBLE OYSTER.”

THE EDIBLE OYSTER.

The Edible Oyster.—This shell-fish is almost universally distributed near the shores of seas in all latitudes, and they especially abound on the coasts of France and Britain. The coasts most celebrated, in England, for them, are those of Essex and Suffolk. Here they are dredged up by means of a net with an iron scraper at the mouth, that is dragged by a rope from a boat over the beds. As soon as taken from their native beds, they are stored in pits, formed for the purpose, furnished with sluices, through which, at the spring tides, the water is suffered to flow. This water, being stagnant, soon becomes green in warm weather; and, in a few days afterwards, the oysters acquire the same tinge, which increases their value in the market. They do not, however, attain their perfection and become fit for sale till the end of six or eight weeks. Oysters are not considered proper for the table till they are about a year and a half old; so that the brood of one spring are not to be taken for sale, till, at least, the September twelvemonth afterwards.

color plate “Scalloped Oysters.”

G. Scalloped Oysters.

SCALLOPED OYSTERS.
I.

287. Ingredients.—Oysters, say 1 pint, 1 oz. butter, flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of white stock, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream; pepper and salt to taste; bread crumbs, oiled butter.

Mode.—Scald the oysters in their own liquor, take them out, beard 144 them, and strain the liquor free from grit. Put 1 oz. of butter into a stewpan; when melted, dredge in sufficient flour to dry it up; add the stock, cream, and strained liquor, and give one boil. Put in the oysters and seasoning; let them gradually heat through, but not boil. Have ready the scallop-shells buttered; lay in the oysters, and as much of the liquid as they will hold; cover them over with bread crumbs, over which drop a little oiled butter. Brown them in the oven, or before the fire, and serve quickly, and very hot.

Time.—Altogether, ¼ hour.

Average cost for this quantity, 3s. 6d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

II.

Prepare the oysters as in the preceding recipe, and put them in a scallop-shell or saucer, and between each layer sprinkle over a few bread crumbs, pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg; place small pieces of butter over, and bake before the fire in a Dutch oven. Put sufficient bread crumbs on the top to make a smooth surface, as the oysters should not be seen.

Time.—About ¼ hour.

Average cost, 3s. 2d.

Seasonable from September to April.

STEWED OYSTERS.

288. Ingredients.—1 pint of oysters, 1 oz. of butter, flour, ⅓ pint of cream; cayenne and salt to taste; 1 blade of pounded mace.

Mode.—Scald the oysters in their own liquor, take them out, beard them, and strain the liquor; put the butter into a stewpan, dredge in sufficient flour to dry it up, add the oyster-liquor and mace, and stir it over a sharp fire with a wooden spoon; when it comes to a boil, add the cream, oysters, and seasoning. Let all simmer for 1 or 2 minutes, but not longer, or the oysters would harden. Serve on a hot dish, and garnish with croûtons, or toasted sippets of bread. A small piece of lemon-peel boiled with the oyster-liquor, and taken out before the cream is added, will be found an improvement.

Time.—Altogether 15 minutes.

Average cost for this quantity, 3s. 6d.

Seasonable from September to April.

Sufficient for 6 persons.

The Oyster and the Scallop.—The oyster is described as a bivalve shell-fish, having the valves generally unequal. The hinge is without teeth, but furnished with a somewhat oval cavity, and mostly with lateral transverse grooves. From a similarity in the structure of the hinge, oysters and scallops have been classified as one tribe; but they differ very essentially both in their external appearance and their habits. Oysters adhere to rocks, or, as in two or three species, to roots of trees on the shore; while the scallops are always detached, and usually lurk in the sand.

MODERN MODE OF SERVING DISHES.

Full-page color plate 3

G. Scalloped Oysters. H. Dressed Lobsters. I. Dressed Crab.

plate closeup plate closeup plate closeup 145 L
OYSTER PATTIES (an Entree).

289. Ingredients.—2 dozen oysters, 2 oz. butter, 3 tablespoonfuls of cream, a little lemon-juice, 1 blade of pounded mace; cayenne to taste.

Mode.—Scald the oysters in their own liquor, beard them, and cut each one into 3 pieces. Put the butter into a stewpan, dredge in sufficient flour to dry it up; add the strained oyster-liquor with the other ingredients; put in the oysters, and let them heat gradually, but not boil fast. Make the patty-cases as directed for lobster patties, No. 277: fill with the oyster mixture, and replace the covers.

Time.—2 minutes for the oysters to simmer in the mixture.

Average cost, exclusive of the patty-cases, 1s. 4d.

Seasonable from September to April.

The Oyster Fishery.—The oyster fishery in Britain is esteemed of so much importance, that it is regulated by a Court of Admiralty. In the month of May, the fishermen are allowed to take the oysters, in order to separate the spawn from the cultch, the latter of which is thrown in again, to preserve the bed for the future. After this month, it is felony to carry away the cultch, and otherwise punishable to take any oyster, between the shells of which, when closed, a shilling will rattle.

TO KEEP OYSTERS.

290. Put them in a tub, and cover them with salt and water. Let them remain for 12 hours, when they are to be taken out, and allowed to stand for another 12 hours without water. If left without water every alternate 12 hours, they will be much better than if constantly kept in it. Never put the same water twice to them.

OYSTERS FRIED IN BATTER.

291. Ingredients.—½ pint of oysters, 2 eggs, ½ pint of milk, sufficient flour to make the batter; pepper and salt to taste; when liked, a little nutmeg; hot lard.

Mode.—Scald the oysters in their own liquor, beard them, and lay them on a cloth, to drain thoroughly. Break the eggs into a basin, mix the flour with them, add the milk gradually, with nutmeg and seasoning, and put the oysters in the batter. Make some lard hot in a deep frying-pan, put in the oysters, one at a time; when done, take them up with a sharp-pointed skewer, and dish them on a napkin. Fried oysters are frequently used for garnishing boiled fish, and then a few bread crumbs should be added to the flour.

Time.—5 or 6 minutes.

Average cost for this quantity, 1s. 10d.

Seasonable from September to April.

Sufficient for 3 persons.

146

Excellence of the English Oyster.—The French assert that the English oysters, which are esteemed the best in Europe, were originally procured from Cancalle Bay, near St. Malo; but they assign no proof for this. It is a fact, however, that the oysters eaten in ancient Rome were nourished in the channel which then parted the Isle of Thanet from England, and which has since been filled up, and converted into meadows.

BOILED PERCH.

292. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of salt to each gallon of water.

Mode.—Scale the fish, take out the gills and clean it thoroughly; lay it in boiling water, salted as above, and simmer gently for 10 minutes. If the fish is very large, longer time must be allowed. Garnish with parsley, and serve with plain melted butter, or Dutch sauce. Perch do not preserve so good a flavour when stewed as when dressed in any other way.

Time.—Middling-sized perch, ¼ hour.

Seasonable from September to November.

Note.—Tench may be boiled the same way, and served with the same sauces.

picture of “THE PERCH.”

THE PERCH.

The Perch.—This is one of the best, as it is one of the most common, of our fresh-water fishes, and is found in nearly all the lakes and rivers in Britain and Ireland, as well as through the whole of Europe within the temperate zone. It is extremely voracious, and it has the peculiarity of being gregarious, which is contrary to the nature of all fresh-water fishes of prey. The best season to angle for it is from the beginning of May to the middle of July. Large numbers of this fish are bred in the Hampton Court and Bushy Park ponds, all of which are well supplied with running water and with plenty of food; yet they rarely attain a large size. In the Regent’s Park they are also very numerous; but are seldom heavier than three quarters of a pound.

FRIED PERCH.

293. Ingredients.—Egg and bread crumbs, hot lard.

Mode.—Scale and clean the fish, brush it over with egg, and cover with bread crumbs. Have ready some boiling lard; put the fish in, and fry a nice brown. Serve with plain melted butter or anchovy sauce.

Time.—10 minutes.

Seasonable from September to November.

Note.—Fry tench in the same way.

PERCH STEWED WITH WINE.

294. Ingredients.—Equal quantities of stock No. 105 and sherry, 1 bay-leaf, 1 clove of garlic, a small bunch of parsley, 2 cloves, salt to taste; thickening of butter and flour, pepper, grated nutmeg, a teaspoonful of anchovy sauce.

Mode.—Scale the fish and take out the gills, and clean them 147 thoroughly; lay them in a stewpan with sufficient stock and sherry just to cover them. Put in the bay-leaf, garlic, parsley, cloves, and salt, and simmer till tender. When done, take out the fish, strain the liquor, add a thickening of butter and flour, the pepper, nutmeg, and the anchovy sauce, and stir it over the fire until somewhat reduced, when pour over the fish, and serve.

Time.—About 20 minutes.

Seasonable from September to November.

BOILED PIKE.

295. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of salt to each gallon of water; a little vinegar.

Mode.—Scale and clean the pike, and fasten the tail in its mouth by means of a skewer. Lay it in cold water, and when it boils, throw in the salt and vinegar. The time for boiling depends, of course, on the size of the fish; but a middling-sized pike will take about ½ an hour. Serve with Dutch or anchovy sauce, and plain melted butter.

Time.—According to size, ½ to 1 hour.

Average cost. Seldom bought.

Seasonable from September to March.

picture of “THE PIKE.”

THE PIKE.

The Pike.—This fish is, on account of its voracity, termed the fresh-water shark, and is abundant in most of the European lakes, especially those of the northern parts. It grows to an immense size, some attaining to the measure of eight feet, in Lapland and Russia. The smaller lakes, of this country and Ireland, vary in the kinds of fish they produce; some affording trout, others pike; and so on. Where these happen to be together, however, the trout soon becomes extinct. “Within a short distance of Castlebar,” says a writer on sports, “there is a small bog-lake called Derreens. Ten years ago it was celebrated for its numerous well-sized trouts. Accidentally pike effected a passage into the lake from the Minola river, and now the trouts are extinct, or, at least, none of them are caught or seen. Previous to the intrusion of the pikes, half a dozen trouts would be killed in an evening in Derreens, whose collective weight often amounted to twenty pounds.” As an eating fish, the pike is in general dry.

BAKED PIKE.

296. Ingredients.—1 or 2 pike, a nice delicate stuffing (see Forcemeats), 1 egg, bread crumbs, ¼ lb. butter.

Mode.—Scale the fish, take out the gills, wash, and wipe it thoroughly dry; stuff it with forcemeat, sew it up, and fasten the tail in the mouth by means of a skewer; brush it over with egg, sprinkle with bread crumbs, and baste with butter, before putting it in the oven, which must be well heated. When the pike is of a nice brown colour, cover it with buttered paper, as the outside would become too dry. If 2 are dressed, a little variety may be made by making one of 148 them green with a little chopped parsley mixed with the bread crumbs. Serve anchovy or Dutch sauce, and plain melted butter with it.

Time.—According to size, 1 hour, more or less.

Average cost.—Seldom bought.

Seasonable from September to March.

Note.—Pike à la génévese may be stewed in the same manner as salmon à la génévese.

FRIED PLAICE.

297.Ingredients.—Hot lard, or clarified dripping; egg and bread crumbs.

Mode.—This fish is fried in the same manner as soles. Wash and wipe them thoroughly dry, and let them remain in a cloth until it is time to dress them. Brush them over with egg, and cover with bread crumbs mixed with a little flour. Fry of a nice brown in hot dripping or lard, and garnish with fried parsley and cut lemon. Send them to table with shrimp-sauce and plain melted butter.

Time.—About 5 minutes.

Average cost, 3d. each.

Seasonable from May to November.

Sufficient, 4 plaice for 4 persons.

Note.—Plaice may be boiled plain, and served with melted butter. Garnish with parsley and cut lemon.

STEWED PLAICE.

298. Ingredients.—4 or 5 plaice, 2 onions, ½ oz. ground ginger, 1 pint of lemon-juice, ¼ pint water, 6 eggs; cayenne to taste.

Mode.—Cut the fish into pieces about 2 inches wide, salt them, and let them remain ¼ hour. Slice and fry the onions a light brown; put them in a stewpan, on the top of which put the fish without washing, and add the ginger, lemon-juice, and water. Cook slowly for ½ hour, and do not let the fish boil, or it will break. Take it out, and when the liquor is cool, add 6 well-beaten eggs; simmer till it thickens, when pour over the fish, and serve.

picture of “THE PLAICE.”

THE PLAICE.

Time.—¾ hour.

Average cost for this quantity, 1s. 9d.

Seasonable from May to November.

Sufficient for 4 persons; according to size.

The Plaice.—This fish is found both in the Baltic and the Mediterranean, and is also abundant on the coast of England. It keeps well, and, like all ground-fish, is very tenacious of life. Its flesh is inferior to that of the sole, and, as it is a low-priced fish, it is generally bought by the poor. The best brought to the London market are called Dowers plaice, from their being caught in the Dowers, or flats, between Hastings and Folkstone.

149
TO BOIL PRAWNS OR SHRIMPS.

299. Ingredients.—¼ lb. salt to each gallon of water.

Mode.—Prawns should be very red, and have no spawn under the tail; much depends on their freshness and the way in which they are cooked. Throw them into boiling water, salted as above, and keep them boiling for about 7 or 8 minutes. Shrimps should be done in the same way; but less time must be allowed. It may easily be known when they are done by their changing colour. Care should be taken that they are not over-boiled, as they then become tasteless and indigestible.

Time.—Prawns, about 8 minutes; shrimps, about 5 minutes.

Average cost, prawns, 2s. per lb.; shrimps, 6d. per pint.

Seasonable all the year.

TO DRESS PRAWNS.

300. Cover a dish with a large cup reversed, and over that lay a small white napkin. Arrange the prawns on it in the form of a pyramid, and garnish with plenty of parsley.

color plate “Boiled Salmon.”

B. Boiled Salmon.

BOILED SALMON.

301. Ingredients.—6 oz. of salt to each gallon of water,—sufficient water to cover the fish.

Mode.—Scale and clean the fish, and be particular that no blood is left inside; lay it in the fish-kettle with sufficient cold water to cover it, adding salt in the above proportion. Bring it quickly to a boil, take off all the scum, and let it simmer gently till the fish is done, which will be when the meat separates easily from the bone. Experience alone can teach the cook to fix the time for boiling fish; but it is especially to be remembered, that it should never be underdressed, as then nothing is more unwholesome. Neither let it remain in the kettle after it is sufficiently cooked, as that would render it insipid, watery, and colourless. Drain it, and if not wanted for a few minutes, keep it warm by means of warm cloths laid over it. Serve on a hot napkin, garnish with cut lemon and parsley, and send lobster or shrimp sauce, and plain melted butter to table with it. A dish of dressed cucumber usually accompanies this fish.

Time.—8 minutes to each lb. for large thick salmon; 6 minutes for thin fish.

Average cost, in full season, 1s. 3d. per lb.

Seasonable from April to August.

Sufficient, ½ lb., or rather less, for each person.

150

Note.—Cut lemon should be put on the table with this fish; and a little of the juice squeezed over it is considered by many persons a most agreeable addition. Boiled peas are also, by some connoisseurs, considered especially adapted to be served with salmon.

To Choose Salmon.—To be good, the belly should be firm and thick, which may readily be ascertained by feeling it with the thumb and finger. The circumstance of this fish having red gills, though given as a standing rule in most cookery-books, as a sign of its goodness, is not at all to be relied on, as this quality can be easily given them by art.

SALMON AND CAPER SAUCE.

302. Ingredients.—2 slices of salmon, ¼ lb. butter, ½ teaspoonful of chopped parsley, 1 shalot; salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg to taste.

Mode.—Lay the salmon in a baking-dish, place pieces of butter over it, and add the other ingredients, rubbing a little of the seasoning into the fish; baste it frequently; when done, take it out and drain for a minute or two; lay it in a dish, pour caper sauce over it, and serve. Salmon dressed in this way, with tomato sauce, is very delicious.

Time.—About ¾ hour.

Average cost, 1s. 3d. per lb.

Seasonable from April to August.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

The Migratory Habits of the Salmon.—The instinct with which the salmon revisits its native river, is one of the most curious circumstances in its natural history. As the swallow returns annually to its nest, so it returns to the same spot to deposit its ova. This fact would seem to have been repeatedly proved. M. De Lande fastened a copper ring round a salmon’s tail, and found that, for three successive seasons, it returned to the same place. Dr. Bloch states that gold and silver rings have been attached by eastern princes to salmon, to prove that a communication existed between the Persian Gulf and the Caspian and Northern Seas, and that the experiment succeeded.

COLLARED SALMON.

303. Ingredients.—A piece of salmon, say 3 lbs., a high seasoning of salt, pounded mace, and pepper; water and vinegar, 3 bay-leaves.

Mode.—Split the fish; scale, bone, and wash it thoroughly clean; wipe it, and rub in the seasoning inside and out; roll it up, and bind firmly; lay it in a kettle, cover it with vinegar and water (⅓ vinegar, in proportion to the water); add the bay-leaves and a good seasoning of salt and whole pepper, and simmer till done. Do not remove the lid. Serve with melted butter or anchovy sauce. For preserving the collared fish, boil up the liquor in which it was cooked, and add a little more vinegar. Pour over when cold.

Time.—¾ hour, or rather more.

Habitat of the Salmon.—The salmon is styled by Walton the “king of fresh-water fish,” and is found distributed over the north of Europe and Asia, from Britain to 151 Kamschatka, but is never found in warm latitudes, nor has it ever been caught even so far south as the Mediterranean. It lives in fresh as well as in salt waters, depositing its spawn in the former, hundreds of miles from the mouths of some of those rivers to which it has been known to resort. In 1859, great efforts were made to introduce this fish into the Australian colonies; and it is believed that the attempt, after many difficulties, which were very skilfully overcome, has been successful.

CRIMPED SALMON.

304. Salmon is frequently dressed in this way at many fashionable tables, but must be very fresh, and cut into slices 2 or 3 inches thick. Lay these in cold salt and water for 1 hour; have ready some boiling water, salted, as in recipe No. 301, and well skimmed; put in the fish, and simmer gently for ¼ hour, or rather more; should it be very thick, garnish the same as boiled salmon, and serve with the same sauces.

picture of “THE SALMON.”

THE SALMON.

Time.—¼ hour, more or less, according to size.

Note.—Never use vinegar with salmon, as it spoils the taste and colour of the fish.

The Salmon Tribe.—This is the Abdominal fish, forming the fourth of the orders of Linnæus. They are distinguished from other fishes by having two dorsal fins, of which the hindmost is fleshy and without rays. They have teeth both on the tongue and in the jaws, whilst the body is covered with round and minutely striated scales.

CURRIED SALMON.

305. Ingredients.—Any remains of boiled salmon, ¾ pint of strong or medium stock (No. 105), 1 onion, 1 tablespoonful of curry-powder, 1 teaspoonful of Harvey’s sauce, 1 teaspoonful of anchovy sauce, 1 oz. of butter, the juice of ½ lemon, cayenne and salt to taste.

Mode.—Cut up the onions into small pieces, and fry them of a pale brown in the butter; add all the ingredients but the salmon, and simmer gently till the onion is tender, occasionally stirring the contents; cut the salmon into small square pieces, carefully take away all skin and bone, lay it in the stewpan, and let it gradually heat through; but do not allow it to boil long.

Time.—¾ hour.

Average cost, exclusive of the cold fish, 9d.

Growth of the Salmon.—At the latter end of the year—some as soon as November—salmon begin to press up the rivers as far as they can reach, in order to deposit their spawn, which they do in the sand or gravel, about eighteen inches deep. Here it lies buried till the spring, when, about the latter end of March, it begins to exclude the young, which gradually increase to four or five inches in length, and are then termed smelts or smouts. About the beginning of May, the river seems to be alive with them, and there is no forming an idea of their numbers without having seen them. A seasonable flood, however, comes, and hurries them to the “great deep;” whence, about the middle of June, they commence their return to the river again. By this time they are twelve or sixteen inches long, and progressively increase, both in number and size, till about the end of July, when 152 they have become large enough to be denominated grilse. Early in August they become fewer in numbers, but of greater size, having advanced to a weight of from six to nine pounds. This rapidity of growth appears surprising, and realizes the remark of Walton, that “the salmlet becomes a salmon in as short a time as a gosling becomes a goose.” Recent writers have, however, thrown considerable doubts on this quick growth of the salmon.

SALMON CUTLETS.

306. Cut the slices 1 inch thick, and season them with pepper and salt; butter a sheet of white paper, lay each slice on a separate piece, with their ends twisted; broil gently over a clear fire, and serve with anchovy or caper sauce. When higher seasoning is required, add a few chopped herbs and a little spice.

Time.—5 to 10 minutes.

SALMON A LA GENEVESE.

307. Ingredients.—2 slices of salmon, 2 chopped shalots, a little parsley, a small bunch of herbs, 2 bay-leaves, 2 carrots, pounded mace, pepper and salt to taste, 4 tablespoonfuls of Madeira, ½ pint of white stock (No. 107), thickening of butter and flour, 1 teaspoonful of essence of anchovies, the juice of 1 lemon, cayenne and salt to taste.

Mode.—Rub the bottom of a stewpan over with butter, and put in the shalots, herbs, bay-leaves, carrots, mace, and seasoning; stir them for 10 minutes over a clear fire, and add the Madeira or sherry; simmer gently for ½ hour, and strain through a sieve over the fish, which stew in this gravy. As soon as the fish is sufficiently cooked, take away all the liquor, except a little to keep the salmon moist, and put it into another stewpan; add the stock, thicken with butter and flour, and put in the anchovies, lemon-juice, cayenne, and salt; lay the salmon on a hot dish, pour over it part of the sauce, and serve the remainder in a tureen.

Time.—1¼ hour.

Average cost for this quantity, 3s. 6d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

PICKLED SALMON.

308. Ingredients.—Salmon, ½ oz. of whole pepper, ½ oz. of whole allspice, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 2 bay-leaves, equal quantities of vinegar and the liquor in which the fish was boiled.

Mode.—After the fish comes from table, lay it in a nice dish with a cover to it, as it should be excluded from the air, and take away the bone; boil the liquor and vinegar with the other ingredients for 10 minutes, and let it stand to get cold; pour it over the salmon, and in 12 hours this will be fit for the table.

Time, 10 minutes.

153

To Cure Salmon.—This process consists in splitting the fish, rubbing it with salt, and then putting it into pickle in tubs provided for the purpose. Here it is kept for about six weeks, when it is taken out, pressed and packed in casks, with layers of salt.

POTTED SALMON.

309. Ingredients.—Salmon; pounded mace, cloves, and pepper to taste; 3 bay-leaves, ¼ lb. butter.

Mode.—Skin the salmon, and clean it thoroughly by wiping with a cloth (water would spoil it); cut it into square pieces, which rub with salt; let them remain till thoroughly drained, then lay them in a dish with the other ingredients, and bake. When quite done, drain them from the gravy, press into pots for use, and, when cold, pour over it clarified butter.

Time.—½ hour.

An Aversion in the Salmon.—The salmon is said to have an aversion to anything red; hence, fishermen engaged in catching it do not wear jackets or caps of that colour. Pontoppidan also says, that it has an abhorrence of carrion, and if any happens to be thrown into the places it haunts, it immediately forsakes them. The remedy adopted for this in Norway, is to throw into the polluted water a lighted torch. As food, salmon, when in perfection, is one of the most delicious and nutritive of our fish.

BAKED SEA-BREAM.

310. Ingredients.—1 bream. Seasoning to taste of salt, pepper, and cayenne; ¼ lb. of butter.

Mode.—Well wash the bream, but do not remove the scales, and wipe away all moisture with a nice dry cloth. Season it inside and out with salt, pepper, and cayenne, and lay it in a baking-dish. Place the butter, in small pieces, upon the fish, and bake for rather more than an hour. To stuff this fish before baking, will be found a great improvement.

picture of “THE SEA-BREAM.”

THE SEA-BREAM.

Time.—Rather more than ½ an hour.

Seasonable in summer.

Note.—This fish may be broiled over a nice clear fire, and served with a good brown gravy or white sauce, or it may be stewed in wine.

The Sea-Bream.—This is an abundant fish in Cornwall, and it is frequently found in the fish-market of Hastings during the summer months, but it is not in much esteem.

MR. YARRELL’S RECIPE.

“When thoroughly cleansed, the fish should be wiped dry, but none of the scales should be taken off. In this state it should be broiled, turning it often, and if the skin cracks, flour it a little to keep the outer case entire. When on table, the whole skin and scales turn off without difficulty, and the muscle beneath, saturated in its own natural juices, which the outside overing has retained will be of good flavour.”

154
TO DRESS SHAD.

311. Ingredients.—1 shad, oil, pepper, and salt.

picture of “THE SHAD.”

THE SHAD.

Mode.—Scale, empty and wash the fish carefully, and make two or three incisions across the back. Season it with pepper and salt, and let it remain in oil for ½ hour. Broil it on both sides over a clear fire, and serve with caper sauce. This fish is much esteemed by the French, and by them is considered excellent.

Time.—Nearly 1 hour.

Average cost.—Seldom bought.

Seasonable from April to June.

The Shad.—This is a salt-water fish, but is held in little esteem. It enters our rivers to spawn in May, and great numbers of them are taken opposite the Isle of Dogs, in the Thames.

POTTED SHRIMPS.

312. Ingredients.—1 pint of shelled shrimps, ¼ lb. of fresh butter, 1 blade of pounded mace, cayenne to taste; when liked, a little nutmeg.

Mode.—Have ready a pint of picked shrimps, and put them, with the other ingredients, into a stewpan; let them heat gradually in the butter, but do not let it boil. Pour into small pots, and when cold, cover with melted butter, and carefully exclude the air.

Time.—¼ hour to soak in the butter.

Average cost for this quantity, 1s. 3d.

BUTTERED PRAWNS OR SHRIMPS.

313. Ingredients.—1 pint of picked prawns or shrimps, ¾ pint of stock No. 104, thickening of butter and flour; salt, cayenne, and nutmeg to taste.

picture of “THE SHRIMP.”

THE SHRIMP.

Mode.—Pick the prawns or shrimps, and put them in a stewpan with the stock; add a thickening of butter and flour; season, and simmer gently for 3 minutes. Serve on a dish garnished with fried bread or toasted sippets. Cream sauce may be substituted for the gravy.

Time.—3 minutes.

Average cost for this quantity, 1s. 4d.

The Shrimp.—This shell-fish is smaller than the prawn, and is greatly relished in London as a delicacy. It inhabits most of the sandy shores of Europe, and the Isle of Wight is especially famous for them.

155
BOILED SKATE.

314. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of salt to each gallon of water.

Mode.—Cleanse and skin the skate, lay it in a fish-kettle, with sufficient water to cover it, salted in the above proportion. Let it simmer very gently till done; then dish it on a hot napkin, and serve with shrimp, lobster, or caper sauce.

Time.—According to size, from ½ to 1 hour.

Average cost, 4d. per lb.

Seasonable from August to April.

CRIMPED SKATE.

315. Ingredients.—½ lb. of salt to each gallon of water.

Mode.—Clean, skin, and cut the fish into slices, which roll and tie round with string. Have ready some water highly salted, put in the fish, and boil till it is done. Drain well, remove the string, dish on a hot napkin, and serve with the same sauces as above. Skate should never be eaten out of season, as it is liable to produce diarrhœa and other diseases. It may be dished without a napkin, and the sauce poured over.

Time.—About 20 minutes.

Average cost, 4d. per lb.

Seasonable from August to April.

picture of “THORNBACK SKATE.”

THORNBACK SKATE.

To choose Skate.—This fish should be chosen for its firmness, breadth, and thickness, and should have a creamy appearance. When crimped, it should not be kept longer than a day or two, as all kinds of crimped fish soon become sour.

The Skate.—This is one of the ray tribe, and is extremely abundant and cheap in the fishing towns of England. The flesh is white, thick, and nourishing; but, we suppose, from its being so plentiful, it is esteemed less than it ought to be on account of its nutritive properties, and the ease with which it is digested. It is much improved by crimping; in which state it is usually sold in London. The Thornback differs from the true skate by having large spines in its back, of which the other is destitute. It is taken in great abundance during the spring and summer months, but its flesh is not so good as it is in November. It is, in regard to quality, inferior to that of the true skate.

SKATE WITH CAPER SAUCE (a la Francaise)

316. Ingredients.—2 or 3 slices of skate, ½ pint of vinegar, 2 oz. of salt, ½ teaspoonful of pepper, 1 sliced onion, a small bunch of parsley, 2 bay-leaves, 2 or 3 sprigs of thyme, sufficient water to cover the fish.

Mode.—Put in a fish-kettle all the above ingredients, and simmer the skate in them till tender. When it is done, skin it neatly, and 156 pour over it some of the liquor in which it has been boiling. Drain it, put it on a hot dish, pour over it caper sauce, and send some of the latter to table in a tureen.

Time.—½ hour.

Average cost, 4d. per lb.

Seasonable from August to April.

Note.—Skate may also be served with onion sauce, or parsley and butter.

SMALL SKATE FRIED.

317. Ingredients.—Skate, sufficient vinegar to cover them, salt and pepper to taste, 1 sliced onion, a small bunch of parsley, the juice of ½ lemon, hot dripping.

Mode.—Cleanse the skate, lay them in a dish, with sufficient vinegar to cover them; add the salt, pepper, onion, parsley, and lemon-juice, and let the fish remain in this pickle for 1½ hour. Then drain them well, flour them, and fry of a nice brown, in hot dripping. They may be served either with or without sauce. Skate is not good if dressed too fresh, unless it is crimped; it should, therefore, be kept for a day, but not long enough to produce a disagreeable smell.

Time.—10 minutes.

Average cost, 4d. per lb.

Seasonable from August to April.

Other species of Skate.—Besides the true skate, there are several other species found in our seas. These are known as the white skate, the long-nosed skate, and the Homelyn ray, which are of inferior quality, though often crimped, and sold for true skate.

TO BAKE SMELTS.

318. Ingredients.—12 smelts, bread crumbs, ¼ lb. of fresh butter, 2 blades of pounded mace; salt and cayenne to taste.

Mode.—Wash, and dry the fish thoroughly in a cloth, and arrange them nicely in a flat baking-dish. Cover them with fine bread crumbs, and place little pieces of butter all over them. Season and bake for 15 minutes. Just before serving, add a squeeze of lemon-juice, and garnish with fried parsley and cut lemon.

Time.—¼ hour.

Average cost, 2s. per dozen.

Seasonable from October to May.

Sufficient for 6 persons.

To Choose Smelts.—When good, this fish is of a fine silvery appearance, and when alive, their backs are of a dark brown shade, which, after death, fades to a light fawn. They ought to have a refreshing fragrance, resembling that of a cucumber.

The Odour of the Smelt.—This peculiarity in the smelt has been compared, by some, to the fragrance of a cucumber, and by others, to that of a violet. It is a very elegant fish, and formerly abounded in the Thames. The Atharine, or sand smelt, is sometimes sold for the true one; but it is an inferior fish, being drier in the quality of its flesh. On the south coast of England, where the true smelt is rare, it is plentiful.

157
TO FRY SMELTS.

319. Ingredients.—Egg and bread crumbs, a little flour; boiling lard.

Mode.—Smelts should be very fresh, and not washed more than is necessary to clean them. Dry them in a cloth, lightly flour, dip them in egg, and sprinkle over with very fine bread crumbs, and put them into boiling lard. Fry of a nice pale brown, and be careful not to take off the light roughness of the crumbs, or their beauty will be spoiled. Dry them before the fire on a drainer, and serve with plain melted butter. This fish is often used as a garnishing.

picture of “THE SMELT.”

THE SMELT.

Time.—5 minutes.

Average cost, 2s. per dozen.

Seasonable from October to May.

The Smelt.—This is a delicate little fish, and is in high esteem. Mr. Yarrell asserts that the true smelt is entirely confined to the western and eastern coasts of Britain. It very rarely ventures far from the shore, and is plentiful in November, December, and January.

BAKED SOLES.

320. Ingredients.—2 soles, ¼ lb. of butter, egg, and bread crumbs, minced parsley, 1 glass of sherry, lemon-juice; cayenne and salt to taste.

Mode.—Clean, skin, and well wash the fish, and dry them thoroughly in a cloth. Brush them over with egg, sprinkle with bread crumbs mixed with a little minced parsley, lay them in a large flat baking-dish, white side uppermost; or if it will not hold the two soles, they may each be laid on a dish by itself; but they must not be put one on the top of the other. Melt the butter, and pour it over the whole, and bake for 20 minutes. Take a portion of the gravy that flows from the fish, add the wine, lemon-juice, and seasoning, give it one boil, skim, pour it under the fish, and serve.

picture of “THE SOLE.”

THE SOLE.

Time.—20 minutes.

Average cost, 1s. to 2s. per pair.

Seasonable at any time.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

To choose Soles.—This fish should be both thick and firm. If the skin is difficult to be taken off, and the flesh looks grey, it is good.

The Sole.—This ranks next to the turbot in point of excellence, among our flat fish. It is abundant on the British coasts, but those of the western shores are much superior in size to those taken on the northern. The finest are caught in Torbay, and frequently weigh 8 or 10 lbs. per pair. Its flesh being firm, white, and delicate, is greatly esteemed.

158
BOILED SOLES.

321. Ingredients.—¼ lb. salt to each gallon of water.

Mode.—Cleanse and wash the fish carefully, cut off the fins, but do not skin it. Lay it in a fish-kettle, with sufficient cold water to cover it, salted in the above proportion. Let it gradually come to a boil, and keep it simmering for a few minutes, according to the size of the fish. Dish it on a hot napkin after well draining it, and garnish with parsley and cut lemon. Shrimp, or lobster sauce, and plain melted butter, are usually sent to table with this dish.

Time.—After the water boils, 7 minutes for a middling-sized sole.

Average cost, 1s. to 2s. per pair.

Seasonable at any time.

Sufficient,—1 middling-sized sole for 2 persons.

SOLE OR COD PIE.

322. Ingredients.—The remains of cold boiled sole or cod, seasoning to taste of pepper, salt, and pounded mace, 1 dozen oysters to each lb. of fish, 3 tablespoonfuls of white stock, 1 teacupful of cream thickened with flour, puff paste.

Mode.—Clear the fish from the bones, lay it in a pie-dish, and between each layer put a few oysters and a little seasoning; add the stock, and, when liked, a small quantity of butter; cover with puff paste, and bake for ½ hour. Boil the cream with sufficient flour to thicken it; pour in the pie, and serve.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost for this quantity, 10d.

Seasonable at any time.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

SOLES WITH CREAM SAUCE.

323. Ingredients.—2 soles; salt, cayenne, and pounded mace to taste; the juice of ½ lemon, salt and water, ½ pint of cream.

Mode.—Skin, wash, and fillet the soles, and divide each fillet in 2 pieces; lay them in cold salt and water, which bring gradually to a boil. When the water boils, take out the fish, lay it in a delicately clean stewpan, and cover with the cream. Add the seasoning, simmer very gently for ten minutes, and, just before serving, put in the lemon-juice. The fillets may be rolled, and secured by means of a skewer; but this is not so economical a way of dressing them, as double the quantity of cream is required.

Time.—10 minutes in the cream.

159

Average cost, from 1s. to 2s. per pair.

Seasonable at any time.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

This will be found a most delicate and delicious dish.

The Sole a favourite with the Ancient Greeks.—This fish was much sought after by the ancient Greeks on account of its light and nourishing qualities. The brill, the flounder, the diamond and Dutch plaice, which, with the sole, were known under the general name of passeres, were all equally esteemed, and had generally the same qualities attributed to them.

FILLETED SOLES A L’ITALIENNE.

324. Ingredients.—2 soles; salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg to taste; egg and bread crumbs, butter, the juice of 1 lemon.

Mode.—Skin, and carefully wash the soles, separate the meat from the bone, and divide each fillet in two pieces. Brush them over with white of egg, sprinkle with bread crumbs and seasoning, and put them in a baking-dish. Place small pieces of butter over the whole, and bake for ½ hour. When they are nearly done, squeeze the juice of a lemon over them, and serve on a dish, with Italian sauce (see Sauces) poured over.

Time.—½ hour.

Average cost, from 1s. to 2s. per pair.

Seasonable at any time.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Whiting may be dressed in the same manner, and will be found very delicious.

The Flavour of the Sole.—This, as a matter of course, greatly depends on the nature of the ground and bait upon which the animal feeds. Its natural food are small crabs and shell-fish. Its colour also depends on the colour of the ground where it feeds; for if this be white, then the sole is called the white, or lemon sole; but if the bottom be muddy, then it is called the black sole. Small-sized soles, caught in shallow water on the coasts, are the best in flavour.

FRICASSEED SOLES.

325. Ingredients.—2 middling-sized soles, 1 small one, ½ teaspoonful of chopped lemon-peel, 1 teaspoonful of chopped parsley, a little grated bread; salt, pepper, and nutmeg to taste; 1 egg, 2 oz. butter, ½ pint of good gravy, 2 tablespoonfuls of port wine, cayenne and lemon-juice to taste.

Mode.—Fry the soles of a nice brown, as directed in recipe No. 327, and drain them well from fat. Take all the meat from the small sole, chop it fine, and mix with it the lemon-peel, parsley, bread, and seasoning; work altogether, with the yolk of an egg and the butter; make this into small balls, and fry them. Thicken the gravy with a dessert-spoonful of flour, add the port wine, cayenne, and lemon-juice; 160 lay in the 2 soles and balls; let them simmer gently for 5 minutes; serve hot, and garnish with cut lemon.

Time.—10 minutes to fry the soles.

Average cost for this quantity, 3s.

Seasonable at any time.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

How Soles are caught.—The instrument usually employed is a trawl net, which is shaped like a pocket, of from sixty to eighty feet long, and open at the mouth from thirty-two to forty feet, and three deep. This is dragged along the ground by the vessel, and on the art of the fisherman in its employment, in a great measure depends the quality of the fish he catches. If, for example, he drags the net too quickly, all that are caught are swept rapidly to the end of the net, where they are smothered, and sometimes destroyed. A medium has to be observed, in order that as few as possible escape being caught in the net, and as many as possible preserved alive in it.

color plate “Dish of Filleted Soles.”

A. Dish of Filleted Soles.

FRIED FILLETED SOLES.

326. Soles for filleting should be large, as the flesh can be more easily separated from the bones, and there is less waste. Skin and wash the fish, and raise the meat carefully from the bones, and divide it into nice handsome pieces. The more usual way is to roll the fillets, after dividing each one in two pieces, and either bind them round with twine, or run a small skewer through them. Brush over with egg, and cover with bread crumbs; fry them as directed in the foregoing recipe, and garnish with fried parsley and cut lemon. When a pretty dish is desired, this is by far the most elegant mode of dressing soles, as they look much better than when fried whole. (See Coloured Plate A.) Instead of rolling the fillets, they may be cut into square pieces, and arranged in the shape of a pyramid on the dish.

Time.—About 10 minutes.

Average cost, from 1s. to 2s. per pair.

Seasonable at any time.

Sufficient,—2 large soles for 6 persons.

FRIED SOLES.

327. Ingredients.—2 middling-sized soles, hot lard or clarified dripping, egg, and bread crumbs.

Mode.—Skin and carefully wash the soles, and cut off the fins, wipe them very dry, and let them remain in the cloth until it is time to dress them. Have ready some fine bread crumbs and beaten egg; dredge the soles with a little flour, brush them over with egg, and cover with bread crumbs. Put them in a deep pan, with plenty of clarified dripping or lard (when the expense is not objected to, oil is still better) heated, so that it may neither scorch the fish nor make them sodden. When they are sufficiently cooked on one side, turn them carefully, and brown them on the other: they may be considered ready when a thick smoke rises. Lift them out carefully, and lay 161 M them before the fire on a reversed sieve and soft paper, to absorb the fat. Particular attention should be paid to this, as nothing is more disagreeable than greasy fish: this may be always avoided by dressing them in good time, and allowing a few minutes for them to get thoroughly crisp, and free from greasy moisture. Dish them on a hot napkin, garnish with cut lemon and fried parsley, and send them to table with shrimp sauce and plain melted butter.

Time.—10 minutes for large soles; less time for small ones.

Average cost, from 1s. to 2s. per pair.

Seasonable at any time.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

SOLES WITH MUSHROOMS.

328. Ingredients.—1 pint of milk, 1 pint of water, 1 oz. butter, 1 oz. salt, a little lemon-juice, 2 middling-sized soles.

Mode.—Cleanse the soles, but do not skin them, and lay them in a fish-kettle, with the milk, water, butter, salt, and lemon-juice. Bring them gradually to boil, and let them simmer very gently till done, which will be in about 7 minutes. Take them up, drain them well on a cloth, put them on a hot dish, and pour over them a good mushroom sauce. (See Sauces.)

Time.—After the water boils, 7 minutes.

Seasonable at any time.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

SPRATS.

329. Sprats should be cooked very fresh, which can be ascertained by their bright and sparkling eyes. Wipe them dry; fasten them in rows by a skewer run through the eyes; dredge with flour, and broil them on a gridiron over a nice clear fire. The gridiron should be rubbed with suet. Serve very hot.

Time.—3 or 4 minutes.

Average cost, 1d. per lb.

Seasonable from November to March.

To Choose Sprats.—Choose these from their silvery appearance, as the brighter they are, so are they the fresher.

SPRATS FRIED IN BATTER.

330. Ingredients.—2 eggs, flour, bread crumbs; seasoning of salt and pepper to taste.

Mode.—Wipe the sprats, and dip them in a batter made of the above ingredients. Fry of a nice brown, serve very hot, and garnish with fried parsley.

Sprats may be baked like herrings. (See No. 268.)

162
DRIED SPRATS.

331. Dried sprats should be put into a basin, and boiling water poured over them; they may then be skinned and served, and this will be found a much better way than boiling them.

picture of “THE SPRAT.”

THE SPRAT.

The Sprat.—This migratory fish is rarely found longer than four or five inches, and visits the shores of Britain after the herring and other kinds of fish have taken their departure from them. On the coasts of Suffolk, Essex, and Kent, they are very abundant, and from 400 to 500 boats are employed in catching them during the winter season. Besides plentifully supplying the London market, they are frequently sold at sixpence a bushel to farmers for manuring purposes. They enter the Thames about the beginning of November, and leave it in March. At Yarmouth and Gravesend they are cured like red herrings.

BAKED STURGEON.

332. Ingredients.—1 small sturgeon, salt and pepper to taste, 1 small bunch of herbs, the juice of ½ lemon, ¼ lb. of butter, 1 pint of white wine.

Mode.—Cleanse the fish thoroughly, skin it, and split it along the belly without separating it; have ready a large baking-dish, in which lay the fish, sprinkle over the seasoning and herbs very finely minced, and moisten it with the lemon-juice and wine. Place the butter in small pieces over the whole of the fish, put it in the oven, and baste frequently; brown it nicely, and serve with its own gravy.

Time.—Nearly 1 hour.

Average cost, 1s. to 1s. 6d. per lb.

Seasonable from August to March.

picture of “THE STURGEON.”

THE STURGEON.

The Sturgeon.—This fish commences the sixth of the Linnæan order, and all the species are large, seldom measuring, when full-grown, less than three or four feet in length. Its flesh is reckoned extremely delicious, and, in the time of the emperor Severus, was so highly valued by the ancients, that it was brought to table by servants crowned with coronets, and preceded by a band of music. It is an inhabitant of the Baltic, the Mediterranean, the Caspian, and the Black Sea, and of the Danube, the Volga, the Don, and other large rivers. It is abundant in the rivers of North America, and is occasionally taken in the Thames, as well as in the Eske and the Eden. It is one of those fishes considered as royal property. It is from its roe that caviare, a favourite food of the Russians, is prepared. Its flesh is delicate, firm, and white, but is rare in the London market, where it sells for 1s. or 1s. 6d. per lb.

The Sterlet is a smaller species of sturgeon, found in the Caspian Sea and some Russian rivers. It also is greatly prized on account of the delicacy of its flesh.

ROAST STURGEON.

333. Ingredients.—Veal stuffing, buttered paper, the tail-end of a sturgeon.

Mode.—Cleanse the fish, bone and skin it; make a nice veal stuffing 163 (see Forcemeats), and fill it with the part where the bones came from; roll it in buttered paper, bind it up firmly with tape, like a fillet of veal, and roast it in a Dutch oven before a clear fire. Serve with good brown gravy, or plain melted butter.

Time.—About 1 hour.

Average cost, 1s. to 1s. 6d. per lb.

Seasonable from August to March.

Note.—Sturgeon may be plain-boiled, and served with Dutch sauce. The fish is very firm, and requires long boiling.

Estimate of the Sturgeon by the Ancients.—By the ancients, the flesh of this fish was compared to the ambrosia of the immortals. The poet Martial passes a high eulogium upon it, and assigns it a place on the luxurious tables of the Palatine Mount. If we may credit a modern traveller in China, the people of that country generally entirely abstain from it, and the sovereign of the Celestial Empire confines it to his own kitchen, or dispenses it to only a few of his greatest favourites.

MATELOT OF TENCH.

334. Ingredients.—½ pint of stock No. 105, ½ pint of port wine, 1 dozen button onions, a few mushrooms, a faggot of herbs, 2 blades of mace, 1 oz. of butter, 1 teaspoonful of minced parsley, thyme, a shalot, 2 anchovies, 1 teacupful of stock No. 105, flour, 1 dozen oysters, the juice of ½ lemon; the number of tench, according to size.

Mode.—Scale and clean the tench, cut them into pieces, and lay them in a stewpan; add the stock, wine, onions, mushrooms, herbs, and mace, and simmer gently for ½ hour. Put into another stewpan all the remaining ingredients but the oysters and lemon-juice, and boil slowly for 10 minutes, when add the strained liquor from the tench, and keep stirring it over the fire until somewhat reduced. Rub it through a sieve, pour it over the tench with the oysters, which must be previously scalded in their own liquor, squeeze in the lemon-juice, and serve. Garnish with croûtons.

picture of “THE TENCH.”

THE TENCH.

Time.—¾ hour.

Seasonable from October to June.

The Tench.—This fish is generally found in foul and weedy waters, and in such places as are well supplied with rushes. They thrive best in standing waters, and are more numerous in pools and ponds than in rivers. Those taken in the latter, however, are preferable for the table. It does not often exceed four or five pounds in weight, and is in England esteemed as a delicious and wholesome food. As, however, they are sometimes found in waters where the mud is excessively fetid, their flavour, if cooked immediately on being caught, is often very unpleasant; but if they are transferred into clear water, they soon recover from the obnoxious taint.

TENCH STEWED WITH WINE.

335. Ingredients.—½ pint of stock No. 105, ½ pint of Madeira or 164 sherry, salt and pepper to taste, 1 bay-leaf, thickening of butter and flour.

Mode.—Clean and crimp the tench; carefully lay it in a stewpan with the stock, wine, salt and pepper, and bay-leaf; let it stew gently for ½ hour; then take it out, put it on a dish, and keep hot. Strain the liquor, and thicken it with butter and flour kneaded together, and stew for 5 minutes. If not perfectly smooth, squeeze it through a tammy, add a very little cayenne, and pour over the fish. Garnish with balls of veal forcemeat.

Time.—Rather more than ½ hour.

Seasonable from October to June.

A singular quality in the Tench.—It is said that the tench is possessed of such healing properties among the finny tribes, that even the voracious pike spares it on this account.

The pike, fell tyrant of the liquid plain,

With ravenous waste devours his fellow train;

Yet howsoe’er with raging famine pined,

The tench he spares, a medicinal kind;

For when by wounds distress’d, or sore disease,

He courts the salutary fish for ease;

Close to his scales the land physician glides,

And sweats a healing balsam from his sides.

In our estimation, however, this self-denial in the pike may be attributed to a less poetical cause; namely, from the mud-loving disposition of the tench, it is enabled keep itself so completely concealed at the bottom of its aqueous haunts, that it remains secure from the attacks of its predatory neighbour.

STEWED TROUT.

336. Ingredients.—2 middling-sized trout, ½ onion cut in thin slices, a little parsley, 2 cloves, 1 blade of mace, 2 bay-leaves, a little thyme, salt and pepper to taste, 1 pint of medium stock No. 103, 1 glass of port wine, thickening of butter and flour.

Mode.—Wash the fish very clean, and wipe it quite dry. Lay it in a stewpan, with all the ingredients but the butter and flour, and simmer gently for ½ hour, or rather more, should not the fish be quite done. Take it out, strain the gravy, add the thickening, and stir it over a sharp fire for 5 minutes; pour it over the trout, and serve.

Time.—According to size, ½ hour or more.

Average cost.—Seldom bought.

Seasonable from May to September, and fatter from the middle to the end of August than at any other time.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

Trout may be served with anchovy or caper sauce, baked in buttered paper, or fried whole like smelts. Trout dressed à la Génévese is extremely delicate; for this proceed the same as with salmon, No. 307.

165

picture of “THE TROUT.”

THE TROUT.

The Trout.—This fish, though esteemed by the moderns for its delicacy, was little regarded by the ancients. Although it abounded in the lakes of the Roman empire, it is generally mentioned by writers only on account of the beauty of its colours. About the end of September, they quit the deep water to which they had retired during the hot weather, for the purpose of spawning. This they always do on a gravelly bottom, or where gravel and sand are mixed among stones, towards the end or by the sides of streams. At this period they become black about the head and body, and become soft and unwholesome. They are never good when they are large with roe; but there are in all trout rivers some barren female fish, which continue good throughout the winter. In the common trout, the stomach is uncommonly strong and muscular, shell-fish forming a portion of the food of the animal; and it takes into its stomach gravel or small stones in order to assist in comminuting it.

color plate “Boiled Brill or Turbot.”

E. Boiled Brill or Turbot.

BOILED TURBOT.

337. Ingredients.—6 oz. of salt to each gallon of water.

Mode.—Choose a middling-sized turbot; for they are invariably the most valuable: if very large, the meat will be tough and thready. Three or four hours before dressing, soak the fish in salt and water to take off the slime; then thoroughly cleanse it, and with a knife make an incision down the middle of the back, to prevent the skin of the belly from cracking. Rub it over with lemon, and be particular not to cut off the fins. Lay the fish in a very clean turbot-kettle, with sufficient cold water to cover it, and salt in the above proportion. Let it gradually come to a boil, and skim very carefully; keep it gently simmering, and on no account let it boil fast, as the fish would have a very unsightly appearance. When the meat separates easily from the bone, it is done; then take it out, let it drain well, and dish it on a hot napkin. Rub a little lobster spawn through a sieve, sprinkle it over the fish, and garnish with tufts of parsley and cut lemon. Lobster or shrimp sauce, and plain melted butter, should be sent to table with it. (See Coloured Plate E.)

Time.—After the water boils, about ½ hour for a large turbot; middling size, about 20 minutes.

Average cost,—large turbot, from 10s. to 12s.; middling size, from 12s. to 15s.

Seasonable at any time.

Sufficient, 1 middling-sized turbot for 8 persons.

Note.—An amusing anecdote is related, by Miss Edgeworth, of a bishop, who, descending to his kitchen to superintend the dressing of a turbot, and discovering that his cook had stupidly cut off the fins, immediately commenced sewing them on again with his own episcopal fingers. This dignitary knew the value of a turbot’s gelatinous appendages.

166
GARNISH FOR TURBOT OR OTHER LARGE FISH.

338. Take the crumb of a stale loaf, cut it into small pyramids with flat tops, and in the top of each pyramid, put rather more than a tablespoonful of white of egg beaten to a stiff froth. Over this, sprinkle finely-chopped parsley and fine raspings of a dark colour. Arrange these on the napkin round the fish, one green and one brown alternately.

picture of “THE TURBOT.”

THE TURBOT.

To Choose Turbot.—See that it is thick, and of a yellowish white; for if of a bluish tint, it is not good.

The Turbot.—This is the most esteemed of all our flat fish. The northern parts of the English coast, and some places off the coast of Holland, produce turbot in great abundance, and in greater excellence than any other parts of the world. The London market is chiefly supplied by Dutch fishermen, who bring to it nearly 90,000 a year. The flesh is firm, white, rich, and gelatinous, and is the better for being kept a day or two previous to cooking it. In many parts of the country, turbot and halibut are indiscriminately sold for each other. They are, however, perfectly distinct; the upper parts of the former being marked with large, unequal, and obtuse tubercles, while those of the other are quite smooth, and covered with oblong soft scales, which firmly adhere to the body.

picture of “TURBOT-KETTLE.”

TURBOT-KETTLE.

Fish-kettles are made in an oblong form, and have two handles, with a movable bottom, pierced full of holes, on which the fish is laid, and on which it may be lifted from the water, by means of two long handles attached to each side of the movable bottom. This is to prevent the liability of breaking the fish, as it would necessarily be if it were cooked in a common saucepan. In the list of Messrs. Richard and John Slack (see 71), the price of two of these is set down at 10s. The turbot-kettle, as will be seen by our cut, is made differently from ordinary fish-kettles, it being less deep, whilst it is wider, and more pointed at the sides; thus exactly answering to the shape of the fish which it is intended should be boiled in it. It may be obtained from the same manufacturers, and its price is £1.

BAKED FILLETS OF TURBOT.

339. Ingredients.—The remains of cold turbot, lobster sauce left from the preceding day, egg, and bread crumbs; cayenne and salt to taste; minced parsley, nutmeg, lemon-juice.

Mode.—After having cleared the fish from all skin and bone, divide it into square pieces of an equal size; brush them over with egg, sprinkle with bread crumbs mixed with a little minced parsley and seasoning. Lay the fillets in a baking-dish, with sufficient butter to haste with. Bake for ¼ hour, and do not forget to keep them well moistened with the butter. Put a little lemon-juice and grated nutmeg to the cold lobster sauce; make it hot, and pour over the fish, 167 which must be well drained, from the butter. Garnish with parsley and cut lemon.

Time.—Altogether, ½ hour.

Seasonable at any time.

Note.—Cold turbot thus warmed in the remains of lobster sauce will be found much nicer than putting the fish again in water.

FILLETS OF TURBOT A L’ITALIENNE.

340. Ingredients.—The remains of cold turbot, Italian sauce. (See Sauces.)

Mode.—Clear the fish carefully from the bone, and take away all skin, which gives an unpleasant flavour to the sauce. Make the sauce hot, lay in the fish to warm through, but do not let it boil. Garnish with croûtons.

Time.—5 minutes.

Seasonable all the year.

The ancient Romans’ Estimate of Turbot.—As this luxurious people compared soles to partridges, and sturgeons to peacocks, so they found a resemblance to the turbot in the pheasant. In the time of Domitian, it is said one was taken of such dimensions as to require, in the imperial kitchen, a new stove to be erected, and a new dish to be made for it, in order that it might be cooked and served whole: not even imperial Rome could furnish a stove or a dish large enough for the monstrous animal. Where it was caught, we are not aware; but the turbot of the Adriatic Sea held a high rank in the “Eternal City.”

TUBBOT A LA CREME.

341. Ingredients.—The remains of cold turbot. For sauce, 2 oz. of butter, 4 tablespoonfuls of cream; salt, cayenne, and pounded mace to taste.

Mode.—Clear away all skin and bone from the flesh of the turbot, which should be done when it comes from table, as it causes less waste when trimmed hot. Cut the flesh into nice square pieces, as equally as possible; put into a stewpan the butter, let it melt, and add the cream and seasoning; let it just simmer for one minute, but not boil. Lay in the fish to warm, and serve it garnished with croûtons or a paste border.

Time.—10 minutes.

Seasonable at any time.

Note.—The remains of cold salmon may be dressed in this way, and the above mixture may be served in a vol-au-vent.

TURBOT AU GRATIN.

342. Ingredients.—Remains of cold turbot, béchamel (see Sauces), bread crumbs, butter.

168

Mode.—Cut the flesh of the turbot into small dice, carefully freeing it from all skin and bone. Put them into a stewpan, and moisten with 4 or 5 tablespoonfuls of béchamel. Let it get thoroughly hot, but do not allow it to boil. Spread the mixture on a dish, cover with finely-grated bread crumbs, and place small pieces of butter over the top. Brown it in the oven, or with a salamander.

Time.—Altogether, ½ hour.

Seasonable at any time.

BOILED WHITING.

343. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of salt to each gallon of water.

Mode.—Cleanse the fish, but do not skin them; lay them in a fish-kettle, with sufficient cold water to cover them, and salt in the above proportion. Bring them gradually to a boil, and simmer gently for about 5 minutes, or rather more should the fish be very large. Dish them on a hot napkin, and garnish with tufts of parsley. Serve with anchovy or caper sauce, and plain melted butter.

Time.—After the water boils, 5 minutes.

Average cost for small whitings, 4d. each.

Seasonable all the year, but best from October to March.

Sufficient, 1 small whiting for each person.

To Choose Whiting.—Choose for the firmness of its flesh and the silvery hue of its appearance.

picture of “THE WHITING.”

THE WHITING.

The Whiting.—This fish forms a light, tender, and delicate food, easy of digestion. It appears in our seas in the spring, within three miles of the shores, where it arrives in large shoals to deposit its spawn. It is caught by line, and is usually between ten and twelve inches long, and seldom exceeding a pound and a half in weight. On the edge of the Dogger Bank, however, it has been caught so heavy as to weigh from three to seven or eight pounds. When less than six inches long, it is not allowed to be caught.

BROILED WHITING.

344. Ingredients.—Salt and water, flour.

Mode.—Wash the whiting in salt and water, wipe them thoroughly, and let them remain in the cloth to absorb all moisture. Flour them well, and broil over a very clear fire. Serve with maître d’hôtel sauce, or plain melted butter (see Sauces). Be careful to preserve the liver, as by some it is considered very delicate.

Time.—5 minutes for a small whiting.

Average cost, 4d. each.

Seasonable all the year, but best from October to March.

Sufficient, 1 small whiting for each person.

Buckhorn.—Whitings caught in Cornwall are salted and dried, and in winter taken to the markets, and sold under the singular name of “Buckhorn.”

169

color plate “Dish of Fried Whiting.”

D. Dish of Fried Whiting.

FRIED WHITING.

345. Ingredients.—Egg and bread crumbs, a little flour, hot lard or clarified dripping.

Mode.—Take off the skin, clean, and thoroughly wipe the fish free from all moisture, as this is most essential, in order that the egg and bread crumbs may properly adhere. Fasten the tail in the mouth by means of a small skewer, brush the fish over with egg, dredge with a little flour, and cover with bread crumbs. Fry them in hot lard or clarified dripping of a nice colour, and serve them on a napkin, garnished with fried parsley. (See Coloured Plate D.) Send them to table with shrimp sauce and plain melted butter.

Time.—About 6 minutes.

Average cost, 4d. each.

Seasonable all the year, but best from October to March.

Sufficient, 1 small whiting for each person.

Note.—Large whitings may be filleted, rolled, and served as fried filleted soles (see Coloured Plate A). Small fried whitings are frequently used for garnishing large boiled fish, such as turbot, cod, &c.

WHITING AU GRATIN, or BAKED WHITING.

346. Ingredients.—4 whiting, butter, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, a few chopped mushrooms when obtainable; pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg to taste; butter, 2 glasses of sherry or Madeira, bread crumbs.

Mode.—Grease the bottom of a baking-dish with butter, and over it, strew some minced parsley and mushrooms. Scale, empty, and wash the whitings, and wipe them thoroughly dry, carefully preserving the livers. Lay them in the dish, sprinkle them with bread crumbs and seasoning, adding a little grated nutmeg, and also a little more minced parsley and mushrooms. Place small pieces of butter over the whiting, moisten with the wine, and bake for 20 minutes in a hot oven. If there should be too much sauce, reduce it by boiling over a sharp fire for a few minutes, and pour under the fish. Serve with a cut lemon, and no other sauce.

Time.—20 minutes.

Average cost, 4d. each.

Seasonable all the year, but best from October to March.

Sufficient,—This quantity for 4 or 5 persons.

WHITING AUX FINES HERBES.

347. Ingredients.—1 bunch of sweet herbs chopped very fine; butter.

Mode.—Clean and skin the fish, fasten the tails in the mouths, and 170 lay them in a baking-dish. Mince the herbs very fine, strew them over the fish, and place small pieces of butter over; cover with another dish, and let them simmer in a Dutch oven for ¼ hour or 20 minutes. Turn the fish once or twice, and serve with the sauce poured over.

Time.—¼ hour or 20 minutes.

Average cost, 4d. each.

Seasonable all the year, but best from October to March.

Sufficient, 1 small whiting for each person.

The Whiting Pout, and Pollack.—About the mouth of the Thames, and generally all round the English coasts, as well as in the northern seas, the pout is plentiful. It bears a striking resemblance to the whiting, and is esteemed as an excellent fish.—The pollack is also taken all round our coasts, and likewise bears a striking resemblance to the whiting; indeed, it is sometimes mistaken by the inexperienced for that fish; its flesh being considered by many equally delicate.

TO DRESS WHITEBAIT.

348. Ingredients.—A little flour, hot lard, seasoning of salt.

Mode.—This fish should be put into iced water as soon as bought, unless they are cooked immediately. Drain them from the water in a colander, and have ready a nice clean dry cloth, over which put 2 good handfuls of flour. Toss in the whitebait, shake them lightly in the cloth, and put them in a wicker sieve to take away the superfluous flour. Throw them into a pan of boiling lard, very few at a time, and let them fry till of a whitey-brown colour. Directly they are done, they must be taken out, and laid before the fire for a minute or two on a sieve reversed, covered with blotting-paper to absorb the fat. Dish them on a hot napkin, arrange the fish very high in the centre, and sprinkle a little salt over the whole.

Time.—3 minutes.

Seasonable from April to August.

picture of “WHITEBAIT.”

WHITEBAIT.

Whitebait.—This highly-esteemed little fish appears in innumerable multitudes in the river Thames, near Greenwich and Blackwall, during the mouth of July, when it forms, served with lemon and brown bread and butter, a tempting dish to vast numbers of Londoners, who flock to the various taverns of these places, in order to gratify their appetites. The fish has been supposed to be the fry of the shad, the sprat, the smelt, or the bleak. Mr. Yarrell, however, maintains that it is a species in itself, distinct from every other fish. When fried with flour, it is esteemed a great delicacy. The ministers of the Crown have had a custom, for many years, of having a “whitebait dinner” just before the close of the session. It is invariably the precursor of the prorogation of Parliament, and the repast is provided by the proprietor of the “Trafalgar,” Greenwich.

FISH PIE, WITH TENCH AND EELS.

349. Ingredients.—2 tench, 2 eels, 2 onions, a faggot of herbs, 4 blades of mace, 3 anchovies, 1 pint of water, pepper and salt to taste, 171 1 teaspoonful of chopped parsley, the yolks of 6 hard-boiled eggs, puff paste.

Mode.—Clean and bone the tench, skin and bone the eels, and cut them into pieces 2 inches long, and leave the sides of the tench whole. Put the bones into a stewpan with the onions, herbs, mace, anchovies, water, and seasoning, and let them simmer gently for 1 hour. Strain it off, put it to cool, and skim off all the fat. Lay the tench and eels in a pie-dish, and between each layer put seasoning, chopped parsley, and hard-boiled eggs; pour in part of the strained liquor, cover in with puff paste, and bake for ½ hour or rather more. The oven should be rather quick, and when done, heat the remainder of the liquor, which pour into the pie.

Time.—½ hour to bake, or rather more if the oven is slow.

FISH SCALLOP.
I.

350. Ingredients.—Remains of cold fish of any sort, ½ pint of cream, ½ tablespoonful of anchovy sauce, ½ teaspoonful of made mustard, ditto of walnut ketchup, pepper and salt to taste (the above quantities are for ½ lb. of fish when picked); bread crumbs.

Mode.—Put all the ingredients into a stewpan, carefully picking the fish from the bones; set it on the fire, let it remain till nearly hot, occasionally stir the contents, but do not allow it to boil. When done, put the fish into a deep dish or scallop shell, with a good quantity of bread crumbs; place small pieces of butter on the top, set in a Dutch oven before the fire to brown, or use a salamander.

Time.—¼ hour.

Average cost, exclusive of the cold fish, 10d.

II.

351. Ingredients.—Any cold fish, 1 egg, milk, 1 large blade of pounded mace, 1 tablespoonful of flour, 1 teaspoonful of anchovy sauce, pepper and salt to taste, bread crumbs, butter.

Mode.—Pick the fish carefully from the bones, and moisten with milk and the egg; add the other ingredients, and place in a deep dish or scallop shells; cover with bread crumbs, butter the top, and brown before the fire; when quite hot, serve.

Time.—20 minutes.

Average cost, exclusive of the cold fish, 4d.

WATER SOUCHY.

352. Perch, tench, soles, eels, and flounders are considered the best fish for this dish. For the souchy, put some water into a stewpan with 172 a bunch of chopped parsley, some roots, and sufficient salt to make it brackish. Let these simmer for 1 hour, and then stew the fish in this water. When they are done, take them out to drain, have ready some finely-chopped parsley, and a few roots cut into slices of about one inch thick and an inch in length. Put the fish in a tureen or deep dish, strain the liquor over them, and add the minced parsley and roots. Serve with brown bread and butter.

353. Supply of Fish to the London Market.—From Mr. Mayhew’s work on “London Labour and the London Poor,” and other sources, we are enabled to give the following table of the total annual supply of fish to the London market:—

Description of Fish. Number of Fish. Weight of
Fish in lbs.
WET FISH.
Salmon and Salmon-Trout (29,000 boxes, 14 fish per box) 406,000 . . . 3,480,000
Turbot, from 2 to 16 lbs. each 800,000 . . . 5,600,000
Live Cod, averaging 10 lbs. each 400,000 . . . 4,000,000
Soles, averaging ¼ lb. each 97,520,000 . . . 26,880,000
Brill and Mullet, averaging 3 lbs. each 1,220,000 . . . 3,366,000
Whiting, averaging 6 oz. each 17,920,000 . . . 6,720,000
Haddock, averaging 2 lbs. each 2,470,000 . . . 4,940,000
Plaice, averaging 1 lb. each 33,600,000 . . . 33,600,000
Mackerel, averaging 1 lb. each 23,520,000 . . . 23,520,000
Fresh herrings (250,000 barrels, 700 fish per barrel) 175,000,000 . . . 42,000,000
Ditto, in bulk 1,050,000,000 . . . 252,000,000
Sprats . . . 4,000,000
Eels (from Holland principally) England & Ireland 9,797,760 . . . 1,632,960
Flounders 259,200 . . . 43,200
Dabs 270,000 . . . 48,750
DRY FISH.
Barrelled Cod (15,000 barrels, 40 fish per barrel) 750,000 . . . 4,200,000
Dried Salt Cod, 5 lbs. each 1,600,000 . . . 8,000,000
Smoked Haddock (65,000 barrels, 300 fish per barrel) 19,500,000 . . . 10,920,000
Bloaters, 265,000 baskets (150 fish per basket) 147,000,000 . . . 10,600,000
Red Herrings, 100,000 barrels (500 fish per barrel) 60,009,000 . . . 14,000,000
Dried Sprats, 9,600 large bundles (30 fish per bundle) 288,000 . . . 9,600
SHELL FISH.
Oysters 495,896,000
Lobsters, averaging 1 lb. each 1,200,000 . . . 1,200,000
Crabs, averaging 1 lb. each 600,000 . . . 600,000
Shrimps, 324 to a pint 498,428,648
Whelks, 227 to a half-bushel 4,943,200
Mussels, 1,000 to ditto 50,400,000
Cockles, 2,000 to ditto 67,392,000
Periwinkles, 4,000 to ditto 304,000,000

The whole of the above may be, in round numbers, reckoned to amount to the enormous number of 3,000,000,000 fish, with a weight of 300,000 tons.

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ADDENDUM AND ANECDOTE.

It will be seen, from the number and variety of the recipes which we have been enabled to give under the head of Fish, that there exists in the salt ocean, and fresh-water rivers, an abundance of aliment, which the present state of gastronomic art enables the cook to introduce to the table in the most agreeable forms, and oftentimes at a very moderate cost.

Less nutritious as a food than the flesh of animals, more succulent than vegetables, fish may be termed a middle dish, suited to all temperaments and constitutions; and one which those who are recovering from illness may partake of with safety and advantage.

As to which is the best fish, there has been much discussion. The old Latin proverb, however, de gustibus non disputandum, and the more modern Spanish one, sobre los gustos no hai disputa, declare, with equal force, that where taste is concerned, no decision can be arrived at. Each person’s palate may be differently affected—pleased or displeased; and there is no standard by which to judge why a red mullet, a sole, or a turbot, should be better or worse than a salmon, trout, pike, or a tiny tench.

Fish, as we have explained, is less nourishing than meat; for it is lighter in weight, size for size, and contains no ozmazome (see No. 100). Shell-fish, oysters particularly, furnish but little nutriment; and this is the reason why so many of the latter can be eaten without injury to the system.

In Brillat Savarin’s* clever and amusing volume, “The Physiology of Taste,” he says, that towards the end of the eighteenth century it was a most common thing for a well-arranged entertainment in Paris to commence with oysters, and that many guests were not contented without swallowing twelve dozen. Being anxious to know the weight of this advanced-guard, he ascertained that a dozen oysters, fluid included, weighed 4 ounces,—thus, the twelve dozen would weigh about 3 lbs.; and there can be no doubt, that the same persons who made no worse a dinner on account of having partaken of the oysters, would have been completely satisfied if they had eaten the same weight of chicken or mutton. An anecdote, perfectly well authenticated, is narrated of a French gentleman (M. Laperte), residing at Versailles, who was extravagantly fond of oysters, declaring he never had enough. Savarin resolved to procure him the satisfaction, and gave him an invitation to dinner, which was duly accepted. The guest arrived, and his host kept company with him in swallowing the delicious bivalves up to the tenth dozen, when, exhausted, 174 he gave up, and let M. Laperte go on alone. This gentleman managed to eat thirty-two dozen within an hour, and would doubtless have got through more, but the person who opened them is described as not being very skilful. In the interim Savarin was idle, and at length, tired with his painful state of inaction, he said to Laperte, whilst the latter was still in full career, “Mon cher, you will not eat as many oysters to-day as you meant; let as dine.” They dined, and the insatiable oyster-eater acted at the repast as if he had fasted for a week.

* Brillat Savarin was a French lawyer and judge of considerable eminence and great talents, and wrote, under the above title, a book on gastronomy, full of instructive information, enlivened with a fund of pleasantly-told anecdote.

FISH CARVING.

GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR CARVING FISH.

In Carving Fish, care should be taken to help it in perfect flakes, as, if these are broken, the beauty of the fish is lost. The carver should be acquainted, too, with the choicest parts and morsels; and to give each guest an equal share of these titbits should be his maxim. Steel knives and forks should on no account be used in helping fish, as these are liable to impart to it a very disagreeable flavour. Where silver fish-carvers are considered too dear to be bought, good electro-plated ones answer very well, and are inexpensive. The prices set down for them by Messrs. Slack, of the Strand, are from a guinea upwards.

COD’S HEAD AND SHOULDERS.
(For recipe, see No. 232; and for mode of serving, Coloured Plate C.)

carving diagram for cod

First run the knife along the centre of the side of the fish, namely, from d to b, down to the bone; then carve it in unbroken slices downwards from d to e, or upwards from d to c, as shown in the engraving. The carver should ask the guests if they would like a portion of the roe and liver.

Note.—Of this fish, the parts about the backbone and shoulders are the firmest, and most esteemed by connoisseurs. The sound, which lines the fish beneath the backbone, is considered a delicacy, as are also the gelatinous parts about the head and neck.

175
SALMON.
(For recipe, see No. 301; and for mode of dressing, Coloured Plate B.)

carving diagram for midsection of salmon

First run the knife quite down to the bone, along the side of the fish, from a to b, and also from c to d. Then help the thick part lengthwise, that is, in the direction of the lines from a to b; and the thin part breadthwise, that is, in the direction of the lines from e to f, as shown in the engraving. A slice of the thick part should always he accompanied by a smaller piece of the thin from the belly, where lies the fat of the fish.

Note.—Many persons, in carving salmon, make the mistake of slicing the thick part of this fish in the opposite direction to that we have stated; and thus, by the breaking of the flakes, the beauty of its appearance is destroyed.

BOILED OR FRIED SOLE.
(For recipes, see Nos. 321 and 327.)

The usual way of helping this fish is to cut it quite through, bone and all, distributing it in nice and not too large pieces. A moderately-sized sole will be sufficient for three slices; namely, the head, middle, and tail. The guests should be asked which of these they prefer. A small one will only give two slices. If the sole is very large, the upper side may be raised from the bone, and then divided into pieces; and the under side afterwards served in the same way.

In helping Filleted Soles, one fillet is given to each person. (For mode of serving, see Coloured Plate A.)

TURBOT.
(For recipe, see No. 337; and for mode of serving, Coloured Plate E.)

First run the fish-slice down the thickest part of the fish, quite through to the bone, from a to b, and then cut handsome and regular slices in the direction of the lines downwards, from c to e, and upwards from c to d, as shown in the engraving. When the carver has removed all the meat from the upper side of the fish, the backbone should be raised, put on one side of the dish, and the under side helped as the upper.

176

A Brill and John Dory are carved in the same manner as a Turbot.

carving diagram for whole turbot

Note.—The thick parts of the middle of the back are the best slices in a turbot; and the rich gelatinous skin covering the fish, as well as a little of the thick part of the fins, are dainty morsels, and should be placed on each plate.

WHITING, &c.

Whiting, pike, haddock, and other fish, when of a sufficiently large size, may be carved in the same manner as salmon. When small, they may be cut through, bone and all, and helped in nice pieces, a middling-sized whiting serving for two slices.

Note.—The thick part of the Eel is reckoned the best; and this holds good of all flat fish.

The tail of the Lobster is the prime part, and next to that the claws.

picture of “FISH-CARVERS.”

FISH-CARVERS.

177 N

bottles and sauceboats on a decorated shelf

SAUCES, PICKLES, GRAVIES, AND FORCEMEATS.
CHAPTER IX.

GENERAL REMARKS.

354. An Anecdote is told of the prince de Soubise, who, intending to give an entertainment, asked for the bill of fare. His chef came, presenting a list adorned with vignettes, and the first article of which, that met the prince’s eye, was “fifty hams.” “Bertrand,” said the prince, “I think you must be extravagant; Fifty hams! do you intend to feast my whole regiment?” “No, Prince, there will be but one on the table, and the surplus I need for my Espagnole, blondes, garnitures, &c.” “Bertrand, you are robbing me: this item will not do.” “Monseigneur,” said the artiste, “you do not appreciate me. Give me the order, and I will put those fifty hams in a crystal flask no longer than my thumb.” The prince smiled, and the hams were passed. This was all very well for the prince de Soubise; but as we do not write for princes and nobles alone, but that our British sisters may make the best dishes out of the least expensive ingredients, we will also pass the hams, and give a few general directions concerning Sauces, &c.

355. The Preparation and Appearance of Sauces and Gravies are of the highest consequence, and in nothing does the talent and taste of the cook more display itself. Their special adaptability to the various viands they are to accompany cannot be too much studied, in order that they may harmonize and blend with them as perfectly, so to speak, as does a pianoforte accompaniment with the voice of the singer.

356. The General Basis of most Gravies and some sauces is the same stock as that used for soups (see Nos. 104, 105, 106, and 107); and, by the 178 employment of these, with, perhaps, an additional slice of ham, a little spice, a few herbs, and a slight flavouring from some cold sauce or ketchup, very nice gravies may be made for a very small expenditure. A milt (either of a bullock or sheep), the shank-end of mutton that has already been dressed, and the necks and feet of poultry, may all be advantageously used for gravy, where much is not required. It may, then, be established as a rule, that there exists no necessity for good gravies to be expensive, and that there is no occasion, as many would have the world believe, to buy ever so many pounds of fresh meat, in order to furnish an ever so little quantity of gravy.

357. Brown Sauces, generally speaking, should scarcely be so thick as white sauces; and it is well to bear in mind, that all those which are intended to mask the various dishes of poultry or meat, should be of a sufficient consistency to slightly adhere to the fowls or joints over which they are poured. For browning and thickening sauces, &c., browned flour may be properly employed.

358. Sauces should possess a decided character; and whether sharp or sweet, savoury or plain, they should carry out their names in a distinct manner, although, of course, not so much flavoured as to make them too piquant on the one hand, or too mawkish on the other.

359. Gravies and Sauces should be sent to table very hot; and there is all the more necessity for the cook to see to this point, as, from their being usually served in small quantities, they are more liable to cool quickly than if they were in a larger body. Those sauces, of which cream or eggs form a component part, should be well stirred, as soon as these ingredients are added to them, and must never be allowed to boil; as, in that case, they would instantly curdle.

360. Although Pickles may be purchased at shops at as low a rate as they can usually be made for at home, or perhaps even for less, yet we would advise all housewives, who have sufficient time and convenience, to prepare their own. The only general rules, perhaps, worth stating here,—as in the recipes all necessary details will be explained, are, that the vegetables and fruits used should be sound, and not over ripe, and that the very best vinegar should be employed.

361. For Forcemeats, special attention is necessary. The points which cooks should, in this branch of cookery, more particularly observe, are the thorough chopping of the suet, the complete mincing of the herbs, the careful grating of the bread-crumbs, and the perfect mixing of the whole. These are the three principal ingredients of forcemeats, and they can scarcely be cut too small, as nothing like a lump or fibre should be anywhere perceptible. To conclude, the flavour of no one spice or herb should be permitted to predominate.

179

RECIPES.
CHAPTER X.

Sauces, Pickles, Gravies, and Forcemeats.

ANCHOVY SAUCE FOR FISH.

362. Ingredients.—4 anchovies, 1 oz. of butter, ½ pint of melted butter, cayenne to taste.

Mode.—Bone the anchovies, and pound them in a mortar to a paste, with 1 oz. of butter. Make the melted butter hot, stir in the pounded anchovies and cayenne; simmer for 3 or 4 minutes; and if liked, add a squeeze of lemon-juice. A more general and expeditious way of making this sauce is to stir in 1½ tablespoonfuls of anchovy essence to ½ pint of melted butter, and to add seasoning to taste. Boil the whole up for 1 minute, and serve hot.

picture of “THE CAPSICUM.”

THE CAPSICUM.

Time.—5 minutes.

Average cost, 5d. for ½ pint.

Sufficient, this quantity, for a brill, small turbot, 3 or 4 soles, &c.

Anchovy Butter (see. No. 227).

Cayenne.—This is the most acrid and stimulating spice with which we are acquainted. It is a powder prepared from several varieties of the capsicum annual East-India plants, of which there are three so far naturalized in this country as to be able to grow in the open air: these are the Guinea, the Cherry, and the Bell pepper. All the pods of these are extremely pungent to the taste, and in the green state are used by us as a pickle. When ripe, they are ground into cayenne pepper, and sold as a condiment. The best of this, however, is made in the West Indies, from what is called the Bird pepper, on account of hens and turkeys being extremely partial to it. It is imported ready for use. Of the capsicum species of plants there are five; but the principal are,—1. Capsicum annuum, the common long-podded capsicum, which is cultivated in our gardens, and of which there are two varieties, one with red, and another with yellow fruit. 2. Capsicum baccatum, or bird pepper, which rises with a shrubby stalk four or five feet high, with its berries growing at the division of the branches: this is small, oval-shaped, and of a bright-red colour, from which, as we have said, the best cayenne is made. 3. Capsicum grossum, the bell-pepper: the fruit of this is red, and is the only kind fit for pickling.

180
APPLE SAUCE FOR GEESE, PORK, &c.

363. Ingredients.—6 good-sized apples, sifted sugar to taste, a piece of butter the size of a walnut, water.

Mode.—Pare, core, and quarter the apples, and throw them into cold water to preserve their whiteness. Put them in a saucepan, with sufficient water to moisten them, and boil till soft enough to pulp. Heat them up, adding sugar to taste, and a small piece of butter. This quantity is sufficient for a good-sized tureen.

Time.—According to the apples, about ¾ hour.

Average cost, 4d.

Sufficient, this quantity, for a goose or couple of ducks.

BROWN APPLE SAUCE.

364. Ingredients.—6 good-sized apples, ½ pint of brown gravy, cayenne to taste.

Mode.—Put the gravy in a stewpan, and add the apples, after having pared, cored, and quartered them. Let them simmer gently till tender; beat them to a pulp, and season with cayenne. This sauce is preferred by many to the preceding.

Time.—According to the apples, about ¾ hour.

Average cost, 6d.

ASPARAGUS SAUCE.

365. Ingredients.—1 bunch of green asparagus, salt, 1 oz. of fresh butter, 1 small bunch of parsley, 3 or 4 green onions, 1 large lump of sugar, 4 tablespoonfuls of sauce tournée.

Mode.—Break the asparagus in the tender part, wash well, and put them into boiling salt and water to render them green. When they are tender, take them out, and put them into cold water; drain them on a cloth till all moisture is absorbed from them. Put the butter in a stewpan, with the parsley and onions; lay in the asparagus, and fry the whole over a sharp fire for 5 minutes. Add salt, the sugar and sauce tournée, and simmer for another 5 minutes. Rub all through a tammy, and if not a very good colour, use a little spinach green. This sauce should be rather sweet.

Time.—Altogether 40 minutes.

Average cost for this quantity, 1s. 4d.

ASPIC, or ORNAMENTAL SAVOURY JELLY.

366. Ingredients.—4 lbs. of knuckle of veal, 1 cow-heel, 3 or 4 slices of ham, any poultry trimmings, 2 carrots, 1 onion, 1 faggot of 181 savoury herbs, 1 glass of sherry, 3 quarts of water; seasoning to taste of salt and whole white pepper; 3 eggs.

Mode.—Lay the ham on the bottom of a stewpan, cut up the veal and cow-heel into small pieces, and lay them on the ham; add the poultry trimmings, vegetables, herbs, sherry, and water, and let the whole simmer very gently for 4 hours, carefully taking away all scum that may rise to the surface; strain through a fine sieve, and pour into an earthen pan to get cold. Have ready a clean stewpan, put in the jelly, and be particular to leave the sediment behind, or it will not be clear. Add the whites of 3 eggs, with salt and pepper, to clarify; keep stirring over the fire, till the whole becomes very white; then draw it to the side, and let it stand till clear. When this is the case, strain it through a cloth or jelly-bag, and use it for moulding poultry, &c. (See Explanation of French Terms, page 44.) Tarragon vinegar may be added to give an additional flavour.

Time.—Altogether 4½ hours.

Average cost for this quantity, 4s.

White Pepper.—This is the produce of the same plant as that which produces the black pepper, from which it is manufactured by steeping this in lime and water, and rubbing it between the hands till the coats come off. The best berries only will bear this operation; hence the superior qualities of white pepper fetch a higher price than those of the other. It is less acrid than the black, and is much prized among the Chinese. It is sometimes adulterated with rice-flour, as the black is with burnt bread. The berries of the pepper-plant grow in spikes of from twenty to thirty, and are, when ripe, of a bright-red colour. After being gathered, which is done when they are green, they are spread out in the sun, where they dry and become black and shrivelled, when they are ready for being prepared for the market.

BECHAMEL, or FRENCH WHITE SAUCE.

367. Ingredients.—1 small bunch of parsley, 2 cloves, ½ bay-leaf, 1 small faggot of savoury herbs, salt to taste; 3 or 4 mushrooms, when obtainable; 2 pints of white stock, 1 pint of cream, 1 tablespoonful of arrowroot.

Mode.—Put the stock into a stewpan, with the parsley, cloves, bay-leaf, herbs, and mushrooms; add a seasoning of salt, but no pepper, as that would give the sauce a dusty appearance, and should be avoided. When it has boiled long enough to extract the flavour of the herbs, &c., strain it, and boil it up quickly again, until it is nearly half-reduced. Now mix the arrowroot smoothly with the cream, and let it simmer very gently for 5 minutes over a slow fire; pour to it the reduced stock, and continue to simmer slowly for 10 minutes, if the sauce be thick. If, on the contrary, it be too thin, it must be stirred aver a sharp fire till it thickens. This is the foundation of many kinds of sauces, especially white sauces. Always make it thick, as you can easily thin it with cream, milk, or white stock.

picture of “THE CLOVE.”

THE CLOVE.

182

Time.—Altogether, 2 hours.

Average cost, 1s. per pint.

The Clove.—The clove-tree is a native of the Molucca Islands, particularly Amboyna, and attains the height of a laurel-tree, and no verdure is ever seen under it. From the extremities of the branches quantities of flowers grow, first white; then they become green, and next red and hard, when they have arrived at their clove state. When they become dry, they assume a yellowish hue, which subsequently changes into a dark brown. As an aromatic, the clove is highly stimulating, and yields an abundance of oil. There are several varieties of the clove; the best is called the royal clove, which is scarce, and which is blacker and smaller than the other kinds. It is a curious fact, that the flowers, when fully developed, are quite inodorous, and that the real fruit is not in the least aromatic. The form is that of a nail, having a globular head, formed of the four petals of the corolla, and four leaves of the calyx not expanded, with a nearly cylindrical germen, scarcely an inch in length, situate below.

BECHAMEL MAIGRE, or WITHOUT MEAT.

368. Ingredients.—2 onions, 1 blade of mace, mushroom trimmings, a small bunch of parsley, 1 oz. of butter, flour, ½ pint of water, 1 pint of milk, salt, the juice of ½ lemon, 2 eggs.

Mode.—Put in a stewpan the milk, and ½ pint of water, with the onions, mace, mushrooms, parsley, and salt. Let these simmer gently for 20 minutes. In the mean time, rub on a plate 1 oz. of flour and butter; put it to the liquor, and stir it well till it boils up; then place it by the side of the fire, and continue stirring until it is perfectly smooth. Now strain it through a sieve into a basin, after which put it back in the stewpan, and add the lemon-juice. Beat up the yolks of the eggs with about 4 dessert­spoonfuls of milk; strain this to the sauce, keep stirring it over the fire, but do not let it boil, lest it curdle.

Time.—Altogether, ¾ hour.

Average cost, 5d. per pint.

This is a good sauce to pour over boiled fowls when they are a bad colour.

PICKLED BEETROOT.

369. Ingredients.—Sufficient vinegar to cover the beets, 2 oz. of whole pepper, 2 oz. of allspice to each gallon of vinegar.

Mode.—Wash the beets free from dirt, and be very careful not to prick the outside skin, or they would lose their beautiful colour. Put them into boiling water, let them simmer gently, and when about three parts done, which will be in 1½ hour, take them out and let them cool. Boil the vinegar with pepper and allspice, in the above proportion, for ten minutes, and when cold, pour it on the beets, which must be peeled and cut into slices about ½ inch thick. 183 Cover with bladder to exclude the air, and in a week they will be fit for use.

Average cost, 3s. per gallon.

picture of “BLACK PEPPER.”

BLACK PEPPER.

Black Pepper.—This well-known aromatic spice is the fruit of a species of climbing vine, and is a native of the East Indies, and is extensively cultivated in Malabar and the eastern islands of Borneo, Sumatra, and Java, and others in the same latitude. It was formerly confined to these countries, but it has now been introduced to Cayenne. It is generally employed as a condiment; but it should never be forgotten, that, even in small quantities, it produces detrimental effects on inflammatory constitutions. Dr. Paris, in his work on Diet, says, “Foreign spices were not intended by Nature for the inhabitants of temperate climes; they are heating, and highly stimulant. I am, however, not anxious to give more weight to this objection than it deserves. Man is no longer the child of Nature, nor the passive inhabitant of any particular region. He ranges over every part of the globe, and elicits nourishment from the productions of every climate. Nature is very kind in favouring the growth of those productions which are most likely to answer our local wants. Those climates, for instance, which engender endemic diseases, are, in general, congenial to the growth of plants that operate as antidotes to them. But if we go to the East for tea, there is no reason why we should not go to the West for sugar. The dyspeptic invalid, however, should be cautious in their use; they may afford temporary benefit, at the expense of permanent mischief. It has been well said, that the best quality of spices is to stimulate the appetite, and their worst to destroy, by insensible degrees, the tone of the stomach. The intrinsic goodness of meats should always be suspected when they require spicy seasonings to compensate for their natural want of sapidity.” The quality of pepper is known by rubbing it between the hands: that which withstands this operation is good, that which is reduced to powder by it is bad. The quantity of pepper imported into Europe is very great.

BENTON SAUCE (to serve with Hot or Cold Roast Beef).

370. Ingredients.—1 tablespoonful of scraped horseradish, 1 teaspoonful of made mustard, 1 teaspoonful of pounded sugar, 4 tablespoonfuls of vinegar.

Mode.—Grate or scrape the horseradish very fine, and mix it with the other ingredients, which must be all well blended together; serve in a tureen. With cold meat, this sauce is a very good substitute for pickles.

Average cost for this quantity, 2d.

BREAD SAUCE
(to serve with Roast Turkey, Fowl, Game, &c.).
I.

371. Ingredients.—1 pint of milk, ¾ lb. of the crumb of a stale loaf, 1 onion; pounded mace, cayenne, and salt to taste; 1 oz. of butter.

Mode.—Peel and quarter the onion, and simmer it in the milk till perfectly tender. Break the bread, which should be stale, into small pieces, carefully picking out any hard outside pieces; put it in a very 184 clean saucepan, strain the milk over it, cover it up, and let it remain for an hour to soak. Now beat it up with a fork very smoothly, add a seasoning of pounded mace, cayenne, and salt, with 1 oz. of butter; give the whole one boil, and serve. To enrich this sauce, a small quantity of cream may be added just before sending it to table.

picture of “MACE.”

MACE.

Time.—Altogether, 1¾ hour.

Average cost for this quantity, 4d.

Sufficient to serve with a turkey, pair of fowls, or brace of partridges.

Mace.—This is the membrane which surrounds the shell of the nutmeg. Its general qualities are the same as those of the nutmeg, producing an agreeable aromatic odour, with a hot and acrid taste. It is of an oleaginous nature, is yellowish in its hue, and is used largely as a condiment. In “Beeton’s Dictionary” we find that the four largest of the Banda Islands produce 150,000 lbs. of it annually, which, with nutmegs, are their principal articles of export.

II.

372. Ingredients.—Giblets of poultry, ¾ lb. of the crumb of a stale loaf, 1 onion, 12 whole peppers, 1 blade of mace, salt to taste, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream or melted butter, 1 pint of water.

Mode.—Put the giblets, with the head, neck, legs, &c., into a stewpan; add the onion, pepper, mace, salt, and rather more than 1 pint of water. Let this simmer for an hour, when strain the liquor over the bread, which should be previously grated or broken into small pieces. Cover up the saucepan, and leave it for an hour by the side of the fire; then beat the sauce up with a fork until no lumps remain, and the whole is nice and smooth. Let it boil for 3 or 4 minutes; keep stirring it until it is rather thick; when add 3 tablespoonfuls of good melted butter or cream, and serve very hot.

Time.—2¼ hours.

Average cost, 6d.

BROWNING FOR GRAVIES AND SAUCES.

373. The browning for soups (see No. 108) answers equally well for sauces and gravies, when it is absolutely necessary to colour them in this manner; but where they can be made to look brown by using ketchup, wine, browned flour, tomatoes, or any colour sauce, it is far preferable. As, however, in cooking, so much depends on appearance, perhaps it would be as well for the inexperienced cook to use the artificial means (No. 108). When no browning is at hand, and you wish to heighten the colour of your gravy, dissolve a lump of sugar in an iron spoon over a sharp fire; when it is in a liquid state, drop it into the sauce or gravy quite hot. Care, however, must be taken not to put in too much, as it would impart a very disagreeable flavour.

185
BEURRE NOIR, or BROWNED BUTTER (a French Sauce).

374. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of butter, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, 3 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, salt and pepper to taste.

Mode.—Put the butter into a fryingpan over a nice clear fire, and when it smokes, throw in the parsley, and add the vinegar and seasoning. Let the whole simmer for a minute or two, when it is ready to serve. This is a very good sauce for skate.

Time.—¼ hour.

CLARIFIED BUTTER.

375. Put the butter in a basin before the fire, and when it melts, stir it round once or twice, and let it settle. Do not strain it unless absolutely necessary, as it causes so much waste. Pour it gently off into a clean dry jar, carefully leaving all sediment behind. Let it cool, and carefully exclude the air by means of a bladder, or piece of wash-leather, tied over. If the butter is salt, it may be washed before melting, when it is to be used for sweet dishes.

MELTED BUTTER.
I.

376. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of butter, a dessert­spoonful of flour, 1 wineglassful of water, salt to taste.

Mode.—Cut the butter up into small pieces, put it in a saucepan, dredge over the flour, and add the water and a seasoning of salt; stir it one way constantly till the whole of the ingredients are melted and thoroughly blended. Let it just boil, when it is ready to serve. If the butter is to be melted with cream, use the same quantity as of water, but omit the flour; keep stirring it, but do not allow it to boil.

Time.—1 minute to simmer.

Average cost for this quantity, 4d.

II.
(More Economical.)

377. Ingredients.—2 oz. of butter, 1 dessert­spoonful of flour, salt to taste, ½ pint of water.

Mode.—Mix the flour and water to a smooth batter, which put into a saucepan. Add the butter and a seasoning of salt, keep stirring one way till all the ingredients are melted and perfectly smooth; let the whole boil for a minute or two, and serve.

Time.—2 minutes to simmer.

Average cost for this quantity; 2d.

186
MELTED BUTTED (the French Sauce Blanche).

378. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of fresh butter, 1 tablespoonful of flour, salt to taste, ½ gill of water, ½ spoonful of white vinegar, a very little grated nutmeg.

picture of “THE NUTMEG.”

THE NUTMEG.

Mode.—Mix the flour and water to a smooth batter, carefully rubbing down with the back of a spoon any lumps that may appear. Put it in a saucepan with all the other ingredients, and let it thicken on the fire, but do not allow it to boil, lest it should taste of the flour.

Time.—1 minute to simmer.

Average cost, 5d. for this quantity.

Nutmeg.—This is a native of the Moluccas, and was long kept from being spread in other places by the monopolizing spirit of the Dutch, who endeavoured to keep it wholly to themselves by eradicating it from every other island. We find it stated in “Beeton’s Dictionary of Universal Information,” under the article “Banda Islands,” that the four largest are appropriated to the cultivation of nutmegs, of which about 500,000 lbs. are annually produced. The plant, through the enterprise of the British, has now found its way into Penang and Bencoolen, where it flourishes and produces well. It has also been tried to be naturalized in the West Indies, and it bears fruit all the year round. There are two kinds of nutmeg,—one wild, and long and oval-shaped, the other cultivated, and nearly round. The best is firm and hard, and has a strong aromatic odour, with a hot and acrid taste. It ought to be used with caution by those who are of paralytic or apoplectic habits.

THICKENED BUTTER.

379. Ingredients.—¼ pint of melted butter, No. 376, the yolks of 2 eggs, a little lemon-juice.

Mode.—Make the butter quite hot, and be careful not to colour it. Well whisk the yolks of the eggs, pour them to the butter, beating them all the while. Make the sauce hot over the fire, but do not let it boil; add a squeeze of lemon-juice.

MELTED BUTTED MADE WITH MILK.

380. Ingredients.—1 teaspoonful of flour, 2 oz. butter, ⅓ pint of milk, a few grains of salt.

Mode.—Mix the butter and flour smoothly together on a plate, put it into a lined saucepan, and pour in the milk. Keep stirring it one way over a sharp fire; let it boil quickly for a minute or two, and it is ready to serve. This is a very good foundation for onion, lobster, or oyster sauce: using milk instead of water makes it look so much whiter and more delicate.

Time.—Altogether, 10 minutes.

Average cost for this quantity, 3d.

187
CAMP VINEGAR.

381. Ingredients.—1 head of garlic, ½ oz. cayenne, 2 teaspoonfuls of soy, 2 ditto walnut ketchup, 1 pint of vinegar, cochineal to colour.

Mode.—Slice the garlic, and put it, with all the above ingredients, into a clean bottle. Let it stand to infuse for a month, when strain it off quite clear, and it will be fit for use. Keep it in small bottles well sealed, to exclude the air.

Average cost for this quantity, 8d.

CAPER SAUCE FOR BOILED MUTTON.

382. Ingredients.—½ pint of melted butter (No. 376), 3 tablespoonfuls of capers or nasturtiums, 1 tablespoonful of their liquor.

Mode.—Chop the capers twice or thrice, and add them, with their liquor, to ½ pint of melted butter, made very smoothly; keep stirring well; let the sauce just simmer, and serve in a tureen. Pickled nasturtium-pods are fine-flavoured, and by many are eaten in preference to capers. They make an excellent sauce.

Time.—2 minutes to simmer.

Average cost for this quantity, 8d.

Sufficient to serve with a leg of mutton.

CAPER SAUCE FOR FISH.

picture of “THE CAPER.”

THE CAPER.

383. Ingredients.—½ pint of melted butter No. 376, 3 dessert­spoonfuls of capers, 1 dessert­spoonful of their liquor, a small piece of glaze, if at hand (this may be dispensed with), ¼ teaspoonful of salt, ditto of pepper, 1 tablespoonful of anchovy essence.

Mode.—Cut the capers across once or twice, but do not chop them fine; put them in a saucepan with ½ pint of good melted butter, and add all the other ingredients. Keep stirring the whole until it just simmers, when it is ready to serve.

Time.—1 minute to simmer.

Average cost for this quantity, 5d.

Sufficient to serve with a skate, or 2 or 3 slices of salmon.

Capers.—These are the unopened buds of a low trailing shrub, which grows wild among the crevices of the rocks of Greece, as well as in northern Africa; the plant, however, has come to be cultivated in the south of Europe. After being pickled in vinegar and salt, they are imported from Sicily, Italy, and the south of France. The best are from Toulon.

188
A SUBSTITUTE FOR CAPER SAUCE.

384. Ingredients.—½ pint of melted butter, No. 376, 2 tablespoonfuls of cut parsley, ½ teaspoonful of salt, 1 tablespoonful of vinegar.

Mode.—Boil the parsley slowly to let it become a bad colour; cut, but do not chop it fine. Add it to ½ pint of smoothly-made melted butter, with salt and vinegar in the above proportions. Boil up and serve.

Time.—2 minutes to simmer.

Average cost for this quantity, 3d.

PICKLED CAPSICUMS.

385. Ingredients.—Vinegar, ¼ oz. of pounded mace, and ¼ oz. of grated nutmeg, to each quart; brine.

Mode.—Gather the pods with the stalks on, before they turn red; slit them down the side with a small-pointed knife, and remove the seeds only; put them in a strong brine for 3 days, changing it every morning; then take them out, lay them on a cloth, with another one over them, until they are perfectly free from moisture. Boil sufficient vinegar to cover them, with mace and nutmeg in the above proportions; put the pods in a jar, pour over the vinegar when cold, and exclude them from the air by means of a wet bladder tied over.

CAYENNE VINEGAR, or ESSENCE OF CAYENNE.

386. Ingredients.—½ oz. of cayenne pepper, ½ pint of strong spirit, or 1 pint of vinegar.

Mode.—Put the vinegar, or spirit, into a bottle, with the above proportion of cayenne, and let it steep for a month, when strain off and bottle for use. This is excellent seasoning for soups or sauces, but must be used very sparingly.

CELERY SAUCE, FOR BOILED TURKEY, POULTRY, &c.

387. Ingredients.—6 heads of celery, 1 pint of white stock, No. 107, 2 blades of mace, 1 small bunch of savoury herbs; thickening of butter and flour, or arrowroot, ½ pint of cream, lemon-juice.

Mode.—Boil the celery in salt and water, until tender, and cut it into pieces 2 inches long. Put the stock into a stewpan with the mace and herbs, and let it simmer for ½ hour to extract their flavour. Then strain the liquor, add the celery and a thickening of butter kneaded with flour, or, what is still better, with arrowroot; just before serving, put in the cream, boil it up and squeeze in a little lemon-juice. If necessary, add a seasoning of salt and white pepper.

picture of “ARROWROOT.”

ARROWROOT.

189

Time.—25 minutes to boil the celery.

Average cost, 1s. 3d.

Sufficient, this quantity, for a boiled turkey.

This sauce may be made brown by using gravy instead of white stock, and flavouring it with mushroom ketchup or Harvey’s sauce.

Arrowroot.—This nutritions fecula is obtained from the roots of a plant which is cultivated in both the East and West Indies. When the roots are about a year old, they are dug up, and, after being well washed, are beaten to a pulp, which is afterwards, by means of water, separated from the fibrous part. After being passed through a sieve, once more washed, and then suffered to settle, the sediment is dried in the sun, when it has become arrowroot. The best is obtained from the West Indies, but a large quantity of what is sold in London is adulterated with potato-starch. As a means of knowing arrowroot when it is good, it may be as well to state, that the genuine article, when formed into a jelly, will remain firm for three or four days, whilst the adulterated will become as thin as milk in the course of twelve hours.

CELERY SAUCE (a More Simple Recipe).

388. Ingredients.—4 heads of celery, ½ pint of melted butter, made with milk (No. 380), 1 blade of pounded mace; salt and white pepper to taste.

Mode.—Wash the celery, boil it in salt and water till tender, and cut it into pieces 2 inches long; make ½ pint melted butter by recipe No. 380; put in the celery, pounded mace, and seasoning; simmer for three minutes, when the sauce will be ready to serve.

Time.—25 minutes to boil the celery.

Average cost, 6d.

Sufficient, this quantity, for a boiled fowl.

CELERY VINEGAR.

389. Ingredients.—¼ oz. of celery-seed, 1 pint of vinegar.

Mode.—Crush the seed by pounding it in a mortar; boil the vinegar, and when cold, pour it to the seed; let it infuse for a fortnight, when strain and bottle off for use. This is frequently used in salads.

CHESTNUT SAUCE FOR FOWLS OR TURKEY.

390. Ingredients.—½ lb. of chestnuts, ½ pint of white stock, 2 strips of lemon-peel, cayenne to taste, ¼ pint of cream or milk.

Mode.—Peel off the outside skin of the chestnuts, and put them into boiling water for a few minutes; take off the thin inside peel, and put them into a saucepan, with the white stock and lemon-peel, and let them simmer for 1½ hour, or until the chestnuts are quite tender. Rub the whole through a hair-sieve with a wooden spoon; add seasoning and the cream; let it just simmer, but not boil, and 190 keep stirring all the time. Serve very hot, and quickly. If milk is used instead of cream, a very small quantity of thickening may be required: that, of course, the cook will determine.

Time.—Altogether nearly two hours.

Average cost, 8d.

Sufficient, this quantity, for a turkey.

BROWN CHESTNUT SAUCE.

391. Ingredients.—½ lb. of chestnuts, ½ pint of stock No. 105, 2 lumps of sugar, 4 tablespoonfuls of Spanish sauce (see Sauces).

Mode.—Prepare the chestnuts as in the foregoing recipe, by scalding and peeling them; put them in a stewpan with the stock and sugar, and simmer them till tender. When done, add Spanish sauce in the above proportion, and rub the whole through a tammy. Keep this sauce rather liquid, as it is liable to thicken.

Time.—1½ hour to simmer the chestnuts.

Average cost, 8d.

BENGAL RECIPE FOR MAKING MANGO CHETNEY.

392. Ingredients.—1½ lbs. of moist sugar, ¾ lb. of salt, ¼ lb. of garlic, ¼ lb. of onions, ¾ lb. of powdered ginger, ¼ lb. of dried chilies, ¾ lb. of mustard-seed, ¾ lb. of stoned raisins, 2 bottles of best vinegar, 30 large unripe sour apples.

picture of “GARLIC.”

GARLIC.

Mode.—The sugar must be made into syrup; the garlic, onions, and ginger be finely pounded in a mortar; the mustard-seed be washed in cold vinegar, and dried in the sun; the apples be peeled, cored, and sliced, and boiled in a bottle and a half of the vinegar. When all this is done, and the apples are quite cold, put them into a large pan, and gradually mix the whole of the rest of the ingredients, including the remaining half-bottle of vinegar. It must be well stirred until the whole is thoroughly blended, and then put into bottles for use. Tie a piece of wet bladder over the mouths of the bottles, after they are well corked. This chetney is very superior to any which can be bought, and one trial will prove it to be delicious.

Note.—This recipe was given by a native to an English lady, who had long been a resident in India, and who, since her return to her native country, has become quite celebrated amongst her friends for the excellence of this Eastern relish.

Garlic.—The smell of this plant is generally considered offensive, and it is the most acrimonious in its taste of the whole of the alliaceous tribe. In 1548 it was introduced to England from the shores of the Mediterranean, where it is abundant, and in Sicily it grows naturally. It was in greater repute with our ancestors than it is with ourselves, although it is still used as a seasoning herb. On the continent, especially in Italy, it is much used, and the French consider it an essential in many made dishes.

191
CHILI VINEGAR.

393. Ingredients.—50 fresh red English chilies, 1 pint of vinegar.

Mode.—Pound or cut the chilies in half, and infuse them in the vinegar for a fortnight, when it will be fit for use. This will be found an agreeable relish to fish, as many people cannot eat it without the addition of an acid and cayenne pepper.

CHRISTOPHER NORTH’S SAUCE FOR MEAT OR GAME.

394. Ingredients.—1 glass of port wine, 2 tablespoonfuls of Harvey’s sauce, 1 dessert­spoonful of mushroom ketchup, ditto of pounded white sugar, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, ½ teaspoonful of cayenne pepper, ditto of salt.

Mode.—Mix all the ingredients thoroughly together, and heat the sauce gradually, by placing the vessel in which it is made in a saucepan of boiling water. Do not allow it to boil, and serve directly it is ready. This sauce, if bottled immediately, will keep good for a fortnight, and will be found excellent.

CONSOMME, or WHITE STOCK FOR MANY SAUCES.

395. Consommé is made precisely in the same manner as stock No. 107, and, for ordinary purposes, will be found quite good enough. When, however, a stronger stock is desired, either put in half the quantity of water, or double that of the meat. This is a very good foundation for all white sauces.

CRAB SAUCE FOR FISH (equal to Lobster Sauce).

396. Ingredients.—1 crab; salt, pounded mace, and cayenne to taste; ½ pint of melted butter made with milk (see No. 380).

Mode.—Choose a nice fresh crab, pick all the meat away from the shell, and cut it into small square pieces. Make ½ pint of melted butter by recipe No. 380, put in the fish and seasoning; let it gradually warm through, and simmer for 2 minutes. It should not boil.

Average cost, 1s. 2d.

CREAM SAUCE FOR FISH OR WHITE DISHES.

397. Ingredients.—⅓ pint of cream, 2 oz. of butter, 1 teaspoonful of flour, salt and cayenne to taste; when liked, a small quantity of pounded mace or lemon-juice.

Mode.—Put the butter in a very clean saucepan, dredge in the flour, and keep shaking round till the butter is melted. Add the seasoning and cream, and stir the whole till it boils; let it just simmer 192 for 5 minutes, when add either pounded mace or lemon-juice to taste, to give it a flavour.

Time.—5 minutes to simmer.

Average cost for this quantity, 7d.

This sauce may be flavoured with very finely-shredded shalot.

CUCUMBER SAUCE.

398. Ingredients.—3 or 4 cucumbers, 2 oz. of butter, 6 tablespoonfuls of brown gravy.

Mode.—Peel the cucumbers, quarter them, and take out the seeds; cut them into small pieces; put them in a cloth, and rub them well, to take out the water which hangs about them. Put the butter in a saucepan, add the cucumbers, and shake them over a sharp fire until they are of a good colour. Then pour over it the gravy, mix this with the cucumbers, and simmer gently for 10 minutes, when it will be ready to serve.

Time.—Altogether, ½ hour.

PICKLED CUCUMBERS.

picture of “LONG PEPPER.”

LONG PEPPER.

399. Ingredients.—1 oz. of whole pepper, 1 oz. of bruised ginger; sufficient vinegar to cover the cucumbers.

Mode.—Cut the cucumbers in thick slices, sprinkle salt over them, and let them remain for 24 hours. The next day, drain them well for 6 hours, put them into a jar, pour boiling vinegar over them, and keep them in a warm place. In a short time, boil up the vinegar again, add pepper and ginger in the above proportion, and instantly cover them up. Tie them down with bladder, and in a few days they will be fit for use.

Long Pepper.—This is the produce of a different plant from that which produces the black, it consisting of the half-ripe flower-heads of what naturalists call Piper longum and chaba. It is the growth, however, of the same countries; indeed, all the spices are the produce of tropical climates only. Originally, the most valuable of these were found in the Spice Islands, or Moluccas, of the Indian Ocean, and were highly prized by the nations of antiquity. The Romans indulged in them to a most extravagant degree. The long pepper is less aromatic than the black, but its oil is more pungent.

CUCUMBER SAUCE, WHITE.

400. Ingredients.—3 or four cucumbers, ½ pint of white stock, No. 107, cayenne and salt to taste, the yolks of 3 eggs.

Mode.—Cut the cucumbers into small pieces, after peeling them 193 O and taking out the seeds. Put them in a stewpan with the white stock and seasoning; simmer gently till the cucumbers are tender, which will be in about ¼ hour. Then add the yolks of the eggs well beaten; stir them to the sauce, but do not allow it to boil, and serve very hot.

Time.—Altogether, ½ hour.

CUCUMBER VINEGAR (a very nice Addition to Salads).

401. Ingredients.—10 large cucumbers, or 12 smaller ones, 1 quart of vinegar, 2 onions, 2 shalots, 1 tablespoonful of salt, 2 tablespoonfuls of pepper, ¼ teaspoonful of cayenne.

Mode.—Pare and slice the cucumbers, put them in a stone jar or wide-mouthed bottle, with the vinegar; slice the onions and shalots, and add them, with all the other ingredients, to the cucumbers. Let it stand 4 or 5 days, boil it all up, and when cold, strain the liquor through a piece of muslin, and store it away in small bottles well sealed. This vinegar is a very nice addition to gravies, hashes, &c., as well as a great improvement to salads, or to eat with cold meat.

GERMAN METHOD OF KEEPING CUCUMBERS FOR WINTER USE.

picture of “THE CUCUMBER.”

THE CUCUMBER.

402. Ingredients.—Cucumbers, salt.

Mode.—Pare and slice the cucumbers (as for the table), sprinkle well with salt, and let them remain for 24 hours; strain off the liquor, pack in jars, a thick layer of cucumbers and salt alternately; tie down closely, and, when wanted for use, take out the quantity required. Now wash them well in fresh water, and dress as usual with pepper, vinegar, and oil.

The Cucumber.—Though the melon is far superior in point of flavour to this fruit, yet it is allied to the cucumber, which is known to naturalists as Cucumis sativus. The modern Egyptians, as did their forefathers, still eat it, and others of its class. Cucumbers were observed, too, by Bishop Heber, beyond the Ganges, in India; and Burckhardt noticed them in Palestine. (See No. 127.)

AN EXCELLENT WAY OF PRESERVING CUCUMBERS.

403. Ingredients.—Salt and water; 1 lb. of lump sugar, the rind of 1 lemon, 1 oz. of ginger, cucumbers.

Mode.—Choose the greenest cucumbers, and those that are most free from seeds; put them in strong salt and water, with a cabbage-leaf 194 to keep them down; tie a paper over them, and put them in a warm place till they are yellow; then wash them and set them over the fire in fresh water, with a very little salt, and another cabbage-leaf over them; cover very closely, but take care they do not boil. If they are not a fine green, change the water again, cover them as before, and make them hot. When they are a good colour, take them off the fire and let them cool; cut them in quarters, take out the seeds and pulp, and put them into cold water. Let them remain for 2 days, changing the water twice each day, to draw out the salt. Put the sugar, with ½ pint of water, in a saucepan over the fire; remove the scum as it rises, and add the lemon-peel and ginger with the outside scraped off; when the syrup is tolerably thick, take it off the fire, and when cold, wipe the cucumbers dry, and put them in. Boil the syrup once in 2 or 3 days for 3 weeks; strengthen it if required, and let it be quite cold before the cucumbers are put in. Great attention must be paid to the directions in the commencement of this recipe, as, if these are not properly carried out, the result will be far from satisfactory.

Seasonable.—This recipe should be used in June, July, or August.

picture of “SALT-MINE AT NORTHWICH.”

SALT-MINE AT NORTHWICH.

Common Salt.—By this we mean salt used for cooking purposes, which is found in great abundance both on land and in the waters of the ocean. Sea or salt water, as it is often called, contains, it has been discovered, about three per cent. of salt on an average. Solid rocks of salt are also found in various parts of the world, and the county of Chester contains many of these mines, and it is from there that much of our salt comes. Some springs are so highly impregnated with salt, as to have received the name of “brine” springs, and are supposed to have become so by passing through the salt rocks below ground, and thus dissolving a portion of this mineral substance. We here give an engraving of a salt-mine at Northwich, Cheshire, where both salt-mines and brine-springs are exceedingly productive, and are believed to have been wrought so far back as during the occupation of Britain by the Romans.

CUSTARD SAUCE FOR SWEET PUDDINGS OR TARTS.

404. Ingredients.—1 pint of milk, 2 eggs, 3 oz. of pounded sugar, 1 tablespoonful of brandy.

Mode.—Put the milk in a very clean saucepan, and let it boil. Beat the eggs, stir to them the milk and pounded sugar, and put the mixture into a jug. Place the jug in a saucepan of boiling water; keep stirring well until it thickens, but do not allow it to boil, or it 195 will curdle. Serve the sauce in a tureen, stir in the brandy, and grate a little nutmeg over the top. This sauce may be made very much nicer by using cream instead of milk; but the above recipe will be found quite good enough for ordinary purposes.

Average cost, 6d. per pint.

Sufficient, this quantity, for 2 fruit tarts, or 1 pudding.

DUTCH SAUCE FOR FISH.

405. Ingredients.—½ teaspoonful of flour, 2 oz. of butter, 4 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, the yolks of 2 eggs, the juice of ½ lemon; salt to taste.

Mode.—Put all the ingredients, except the lemon-juice, into a stewpan; set it over the fire, and keep continually stirring. When it is sufficiently thick, take it off, as it should not boil. If, however, it happens to curdle, strain the sauce through a tammy, add the lemon-juice, and serve. Tarragon vinegar may be used instead of plain, and, by many, is considered far preferable.

picture of “THE LEMON.”

THE LEMON.

Average cost, 6d.

Note.—This sauce may be poured hot over salad, and left to get quite cold, when it should be thick, smooth, and somewhat stiff. Excellent salads may be made of hard eggs, or the remains of salt fish flaked nicely from the bone, by pouring over a little of the above mixture when hot, and allowing it to cool.

The Lemon.—This fruit is a native of Asia, and is mentioned by Virgil as an antidote to poison. It is hardier than the orange, and, as one of the citron tribe, was brought into Europe by the Arabians. The lemon was first cultivated in England in the beginning of the 17th century, and is now often to be found in our greenhouses. The kind commonly sold, however, is imported from Portugal, Spain, and the Azores. Some also come from St. Helena; but those from Spain are esteemed the best, Its juice is now an essential for culinary purposes; but as an antiscorbutic its value is still greater. This juice, which is called citric acid, may be preserved in bottles for a considerable time, by covering it with a thin stratum of oil. Shrub is made from it with rum and sugar.

GREEN DUTCH SAUCE, or HOLLANDAISE VERTE.

406. Ingredients.—6 tablespoonfuls of Béchamel, No. 367, seasoning to taste of salt and cayenne, a little parsley-green to colour, the juice of ½ a lemon.

Mode.—Put the Béchamel into a saucepan with the seasoning, and bring it to a boil. Make a green colouring by pounding some parsley in a mortar, and squeezing all the juice from it. Let this just simmer, 196 when add it to the sauce. A moment before serving, put in the lemon-juice, but not before; for otherwise the sauce would turn yellow, and its appearance be thus spoiled.

Average cost, 4d.

Béchamel Sauce.—This sauce takes its name from a Monsieur Béchamel, a rich French financier, who, according to some authorities, invented it; whilst others affirm he only patronized it. Be this as it may, it is one of the most pleasant sauces which come to table, and should be most carefully and intelligently prepared. It is frequently used, as in the above recipe, as a principal ingredient and basis for other sauces.

TO PICKLE EGGS.

407. Ingredients.—16 eggs, 1 quart of vinegar, ½ oz. of black pepper, ½ oz. of Jamaica pepper, ½ oz. of ginger.

picture of “GINGER.”

GINGER.

Mode.—Boil the eggs for 12 minutes, then dip them into cold water, and take off the shells. Put the vinegar, with the pepper and ginger, into a stewpan, and let it simmer for 10 minutes. Now place the eggs in a jar, pour over them the vinegar, &c., boiling hot, and, when cold, tie them down with bladder to exclude the air. This pickle will be ready for use in a month.

Average cost, for this quantity, 1s. 9d.

Seasonable.—This should be made about Easter, as at this time eggs are plentiful and cheap. A store of pickled eggs will be found very useful and ornamental in serving with many first and second course dishes.

Ginger.—The ginger-plant, known to naturalists as Zingiber officinale, is a native of the East and West Indies. It grows somewhat like the lily of the valley, but its height is about three feet. In Jamaica it flowers about August or September, fading about the end of the year. The fleshy creeping roots, which form the ginger of commerce, are in a proper state to be dug when the stalks are entirely withered. This operation is usually performed in January and February; and when the roots are taken out of the earth, each one is picked, scraped, separately washed, and afterwards very carefully dried. Ginger is generally considered as less pungent and heating to the system than might be expected from its effects on the organs of taste, and it is frequently used, with considerable effect, as an anti-spasmodic and carminative.

EGG BALLS FOR SOUPS AND MADE DISHES.

408. Ingredients.—8 eggs, a little flour; seasoning to taste of salt.

Mode.—Boil 6 eggs for 20 minutes, strip off the shells, take the yolks and pound them in a mortar. Beat the yolks of the other 2 eggs; add them, with a little flour and salt, to those pounded; mix all well together, and roll into balls. Boil them before they are put into the soup or other dish they may be intended for.

197

Time.—20 minutes to boil the eggs.

Average cost, for this quantity, 8d.

Sufficient, 2 dozen halls for 1 tureen of soup.

EGG SAUCE FOR SALT FISH.

409. Ingredients.—4 eggs, ½ pint of melted butter, No. 376; when liked, a very little lemon-juice.

Mode.—Boil the eggs until quite hard, which will be in about 20 minutes, and put them into cold water for ½ hour. Strip off the shells, chop the eggs into small pieces, not, however, too fine. Make the melted butter very smoothly, by recipe No. 376, and, when boiling, stir in the eggs, and serve very hot. Lemon-juice may be added at pleasure.

Time.—20 minutes to boil the eggs.

Average cost, 8d.

Sufficient.—This quantity for 3 or 4 lbs. of fish.

Note.—When a thicker sauce is required, use one or two more eggs to the same quantity of melted butter.

EPICUREAN SAUCE FOR STEAKS, CHOPS, GRAVIES, OR FISH.

picture of “SHALOT.”

SHALOT.

410. Ingredients.—¼ pint of walnut ketchup, ¼ pint of mushroom ditto, 2 tablespoonfuls of Indian soy, 2 tablespoonfuls of port wine; ¼ oz. of white pepper, 2 oz. of shalots, ¼ oz. of cayenne, ¼ oz. of cloves, ¾ pint of vinegar.

Mode.—Put the whole of the ingredients into a bottle, and let it remain for a fortnight in a warm place, occasionally shaking up the contents. Strain, and bottle off for use. This sauce will be found an agreeable addition to gravies, hashes, stews, &c.

Average cost, for this quantity, 1s. 6d.

Shalot, or Eschalot.—This plant is supposed to have been introduced to England by the Crusaders, who found it growing wild in the vicinity of Ascalon. It is a bulbous root, and when full grown, its leaves wither in July. They ought to be taken up in the autumn, and when dried in the house, will keep till spring. It is called by old authors the “barren onion,” and is used in sauces and pickles, soups and made dishes, and as an accompaniment to chops and steaks.

ESPAGNOLE, or BROWN SPANISH SAUCE.

411. Ingredients.—2 slices of lean ham, 1 lb. of veal, 1½ pint of white stock, No. 107; 2 or 3 sprigs of parsley, ½ a bay-leaf, 2 or 3 sprigs of savoury herbs, 6 green onions, 3 shalots, 2 cloves, 1 blade of mace, 2 glasses of sherry or Madeira, thickening of butter and flour.

198

Mode.—Cut up the ham and veal into small square pieces, and put them into a stewpan. Moisten these with ½ pint of the stock No. 107, and simmer till the bottom of the stewpan is covered with a nicely-coloured glaze, when put in a few more spoonfuls to detach it. Add the remainder of the stock, with the spices, herbs, shalots, and onions, and simmer very gently for 1 hour. Strain and skim off every particle of fat, and when required for use, thicken with butter and flour, or with a little roux. Add the wine, and, if necessary, a seasoning of cayenne; when it will be ready to serve.

Time.—1½ hour.

Average cost, 2s. per pint.

Note.—The wine in this sauce may be omitted, and an onion sliced and fried of a nice brown substituted for it. This sauce or gravy is used for many dishes, and with most people is a general favourite.

FENNEL SAUCE FOR MACKEREL.

picture of “FENNEL.”

FENNEL.

412. Ingredients.—½ pint of melted butter, No. 376, rather more than 1 tablespoonful of chopped fennel.

Mode.—Make the melted butter very smoothly, by recipe No. 376; chop the fennel rather small, carefully cleansing it from any grit or dirt, and put it to the butter when this is on the point of boiling. Simmer for a minute or two, and serve in a tureen.

Time.—2 minutes.

Average cost, 4d.

Sufficient to serve with 5 or 6 mackerel.

Fennel.—This elegantly-growing plant, of which the Latin name is Anethum fœniculum, grows best in chalky soils, where, indeed, it is often found wild. It is very generally cultivated in gardens, and has much improved on its original form. Various dishes are frequently ornamented and garnished with its graceful leaves, and these are sometimes boiled in soups, although it is more usually confined, in English cookery, to the mackerel sauce as here given.

FISH SAUCE.

413. Ingredients.—1½ oz. of cayenne, 2 tablespoonfuls of walnut ketchup, 2 tablespoonfuls of soy, a few shreds of garlic and shalot, 1 quart of vinegar.

Mode.—Put all the ingredients into a large bottle, and shake well every day for a fortnight. Keep it in small bottles well sealed, and in a few days it will be fit for use.

Average cost, for this quantity, 1s.

199
FORCEMEAT BALLS FOR FISH SOUPS.

414. Ingredients.—1 middling-sized lobster, ½ an anchovy, 1 head of boiled celery, the yolk of a hard-boiled egg; salt, cayenne, and mace to taste; 4 tablespoonfuls of bread crumbs, 2 oz. of butter, 2 eggs.

Mode.—Pick the meat from the shell of the lobster, and pound it, with the soft parts, in a mortar; add the celery, the yolk of the hard-boiled egg, seasoning, and bread crumbs. Continue pounding till the whole is nicely amalgamated. Warm the butter till it is in a liquid state; well whisk the eggs, and work these up with the pounded lobster-meat. Make into balls of about an inch in diameter, and fry of a nice pale brown.

Sufficient, from 18 to 20 balls for 1 tureen of soup.

FORCEMEAT FOR COLD SAVOURY PIES.

415. Ingredients.—1 lb. of veal, 1 lb. of fat bacon; salt, cayenne, pepper, and pounded mace to taste; a very little nutmeg, the same of chopped lemon-peel, ½ teaspoonful of chopped parsley, ½ teaspoonful of minced savoury herbs, 1 or 2 eggs.

picture of “MARJORAM.”

MARJORAM.

Mode.—Chop the veal and bacon together, and put them in a mortar with the other ingredients mentioned above. Pound well, and bind with 1 or 2 eggs which have been previously beaten and strained. Work the whole well together, and the forcemeat will be ready for use. If the pie is not to be eaten immediately, omit the herbs and parsley, as these would prevent it from keeping. Mushrooms or truffles may be added.

Sufficient for 2 small pies.

Marjoram.—Although there are several species of marjoram, that which is known as the sweet or knotted marjoram, is the one usually preferred in cookery. It is a native of Portugal, and when its leaves are used as a seasoning herb, they have an agreeable aromatic flavour. The winter sweet marjoram used for the same purposes, is a native of Greece, and the pot-marjoram is another variety brought from Sicily. All of them are favourite ingredients in soups, stuffings, &c.

FORCEMEAT FOR PIKE, CARP, HADDOCK, AND VARIOUS KINDS OF FISH.

416. Ingredients.—1 oz. of fresh butter, 1 oz. of suet, 1 oz. of fat bacon, 1 small teaspoonful of minced savoury herbs, including parsley; 200 a little onion, when liked, shredded very fine; salt, nutmeg, and cayenne to taste; 4 oz. of bread crumbs, 1 egg.

Mode.—Mix all the ingredients well together, carefully mincing them very finely; beat up the egg, moisten with it, and work the whole very smoothly together. Oysters or anchovies may be added to this forcemeat, and will be found a great improvement.

Average cost, 6d.

Sufficient for a moderate-sized haddock or pike.

FORCEMEAT FOR VEAL, TURKEYS, FOWLS, HARE, &c.

417. Ingredients.—2 oz. of ham or lean bacon, ¼ lb. of suet, the rind of half a lemon, 1 teaspoonful of minced parsley, 1 teaspoonful of minced sweet herbs; salt, cayenne, and pounded mace to taste; 6 oz. of bread crumbs, 2 eggs.

Mode.—Shred the ham or bacon, chop the suet, lemon-peel, and herbs, taking particular care that all be very finely minced; add a seasoning to taste, of salt, cayenne, and mace, and blend all thoroughly together with the bread crumbs, before wetting. Now beat and strain the eggs, work these up with the other ingredients, and the forcemeat will be ready for use. When it is made into balls, fry of a nice brown, in boiling lard, or put them on a tin and bake for ½ hour in a moderate oven. As we have stated before, no one flavour should predominate greatly, and the forcemeat should be of sufficient body to cut with a knife, and yet not dry and heavy. For very delicate forcemeat, it is advisable to pound the ingredients together before binding with the egg; but for ordinary cooking, mincing very finely answers the purpose.

picture of “BASIL.”

BASIL.

Average cost, 8d.

Sufficient for a turkey, a moderate-sized fillet of veal, or a hare.

Note.—In forcemeat for Hare, the liver of the animal is sometimes added. Boil for 5 minutes, mince it very small, and mix it with the other ingredients. If it should be in an unsound state, it must be on no account made use of.

Sweet Herbs.—Those most usually employed for purposes of cooking, such as the flavouring of soups, sauces, forcemeats, &c., are thyme, sage, mint, marjoram, savory, and basil. Other sweet herbs are cultivated for purposes of medicine and perfumery: they are most grateful both to the organs of taste and smelling; and to the aroma derived from them is due, in a great measure, the sweet and exhilarating fragrance of our “flowery meads.” In town, sweet herbs have to be procured at the greengrocers’ or herbalists’, whilst, in the country, the garden should furnish all that are wanted, the cook taking great care to have some dried in the autumn for her use throughout the winter months.

201
FORCEMEAT FOR BAKED PIKE.

418. Ingredients.—3 oz. of bread crumbs, 1 teaspoonful of minced savoury herbs, 8 oysters, 2 anchovies (these may be dispensed with), 2 oz. of suet; salt, pepper, and pounded mace to taste; 6 tablespoonfuls of cream or milk, the yolks of 2 eggs.

Mode.—Beard and mince the oysters, prepare and mix the other ingredients by recipe No. 416, and blend the whole thoroughly together. Moisten with the cream and eggs, put all into a stewpan, and stir it over the fire till it thickens, when put it into the fish, which should have previously been cut open, and sew it up.

Time.—4 or 5 minutes to thicken.

Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for a moderate-sized pike.

FRENCH FORCEMEAT.

419. It will be well to state, in the beginning of this recipe, that French forcemeat, or quenelles, consist of the blending of three separate processes; namely, panada, udder, and whatever meat you intend using.

Panada.

420. Ingredients.—The crumb of 2 penny rolls, 4 tablespoonfuls of white stock, No. 107, 1 oz. of butter, 1 slice of ham, 1 bay-leaf, a little minced parsley, 2 shalots, 1 clove, 2 blades of mace, a few mushrooms (when obtainable), butter, the yolks of 2 eggs.

Mode.—Soak the crumb of the rolls in milk for about ½ hour, then take it out, and squeeze so as to press the milk from it; put the soaked bread into a stewpan with the above quantity of white stock, and set it on one side; then put into a separate stewpan 1 oz. of butter, a slice of lean ham cut small, with a bay-leaf, herbs, mushrooms, spices, &c., in the above proportions, and fry them gently over a slow fire. When done, moisten with 2 teacupfuls of white stock, boil for 20 minutes, and strain the whole through a sieve over the panada in the other stewpan. Place it over the fire, keep constantly stirring, to prevent its burning, and when quite dry, put in a small piece of butter. Let this again dry up by stirring over the fire; then add the yolks of 2 eggs, mix well, put the panada to cool on a clean plate, and use it when required. Panada should always be well flavoured, as the forcemeat receives no taste from any of the other ingredients used in its preparation.

Boiled Calf’s Udder for French Forcemeats.

picture of “PESTLE AND MORTAR.”

PESTLE AND MORTAR.

421. Put the udder into a stewpan with sufficient water to cover it; let it stew gently till quite done, when take it out to cool. Trim all 202 the upper parts, cut it into small pieces, and pound well in a mortar, till it can be rubbed through a sieve. That portion which passes through the strainer is one of the three ingredients of which French forcemeats are generally composed; but many cooks substitute butter for this, being a less troublesome and more expeditious mode of preparation.

Pestle and Mortar.—No cookery can be perfectly performed without the aid of the useful instruments shown in the engraving. For pounding things sufficiently fine, they are invaluable, and the use of them will save a good deal of time, besides increasing the excellence of the preparations. They are made of iron, and, in that material, can be bought cheap; but as these are not available for all purposes, we should recommend, as more economical in the end, those made of Wedgwood, although these are considerably more expensive than the former.

Veal Quenelles.

422. Ingredients.—Equal quantities of veal, panada (No. 420), and calf’s udder (No. 421), 2 eggs; seasoning to taste of pepper, salt, and pounded mace, or grated nutmeg; a little flour.

Mode.—Take the fleshy part of veal, scrape it with a knife, till all the meat is separated from the sinews, and allow about ½ lb. for an entrée. Chop the meat, and pound it in a mortar till reduced to a paste; then roll it into a ball; make another of panada (No. 420), the same size, and another of udder (No. 421), taking care that these three balls be of the same size. It is to be remembered, that equality of size, and not of weight, is here necessary. When the three ingredients are properly prepared, pound them altogether in a mortar for some time; for the more quenelles are pounded, the more delicate they are. Now moisten with the eggs, whites and yolks, and continue pounding, adding a seasoning of pepper, spices, &c. When the whole is well blended together, mould it into balls, or whatever shape is intended, roll them in flour, and poach in boiling water, to which a little salt should have been added. If the quenelles are not firm enough, add the yolk of another egg, but omit the white, which only makes them hollow and puffy inside. In the preparation of this recipe, it would be well to bear in mind that the ingredients are to be well pounded and seasoned, and must be made hard or soft according to the dishes they are intended for. For brown or white ragoûts they should be firm, and when the quenelles are used very small, extreme delicacy will be necessary in their preparation. Their flavour may be varied by using the flesh of rabbit, fowl, hare, pheasant, grouse, or an extra quantity of mushroom, parsley, &c.

203

Time.—About ¼ hour to poach in boiling water.

Sufficient, ½ lb. of veal or other meat, with other ingredients in proportion, for 1 entrée.

Note.—The French are noted for their skill in making forcemeats; one of the principal causes of their superiority in this respect being, that they pound all the ingredients so diligently and thoroughly. Any one with the slightest pretensions to refined cookery, must, in this particular, implicitly follow the example of our friends across the Channel.

FORCEMEAT, or QUENELLES, FOR TURTLE SOUP.
(See No. 189.)

423. Soyer’s Recipe for Forcemeats.—Take a pound and a half of lean veal from the fillet, and cut it in long thin slices; scrape with a knife till nothing but the fibre remains; put it in a mortar, pound it 10 minutes, or until in a purée; pass it through a wire sieve (use the remainder in stock); then take 1 pound of good fresh beef suet, which skin, shred, and chop very fine; put it in a mortar and pound it; then add 6 oz. of panada (that is, bread soaked in milk and boiled till nearly dry) with the suet; pound them well together, and add the veal; season with a teaspoonful of salt, a quarter one of pepper, half that of nutmeg; work all well together; then add four eggs by degrees, continually pounding the contents of the mortar. When well mixed, take a small piece in a spoon, and poach it in some boiling water; and if it is delicate, firm, and of a good flavour, it is ready for use.

FRIED BREAD CRUMBS.

424. Cut the bread into thin slices, place them in a cool oven overnight, and when thoroughly dry and crisp, roll them down into fine crumbs. Put some lard, or clarified dripping, into a frying-pan; bring it to the boiling-point, throw in the crumbs, and fry them very quickly. Directly they are done, lift them out with a slice, and drain them before the fire from all greasy moisture. When quite crisp, they are ready for use. The fat they are fried in should be clear, and the crumbs should not have the slightest appearance or taste of having been, in the least degree, burnt.

FRIED SIPPETS OF BREAD (for Garnishing many Dishes).

425. Cut the bread into thin slices, and stamp them out in whatever shape you like,—rings, crosses, diamonds, &c. &c. Fry them in the same manner as the bread crumbs, in clear boiling lard, or clarified dripping, and drain them until thoroughly crisp before the fire. When variety is desired, fry some of a pale colour, and others, of a darker hue.

204
FRIED BREAD FOR BORDERS.

426. Proceed as above, by frying some slices of bread cut in any fanciful shape. When quite crisp, dip one side of the sippet into the beaten white of an egg mixed with a little flour, and place it on the edge of the dish. Continue in this manner till the border is completed, arranging the sippets a pale and a dark one alternately.

GENEVESE SAUCE FOR SALMON, TROUT, &c.

picture of “SAGE.”

SAGE.

427. Ingredients.—1 small carrot, a small faggot of sweet herbs, including parsley, 1 onion, 5 or 6 mushrooms (when obtainable), 1 bay-leaf, 6 cloves, 1 blade of mace, 2 oz. of butter, 1 glass of sherry, 1½ pint of white stock, No. 107, thickening of butter and flour, the juice of half a lemon.

Mode.—Cut up the onion and carrot into small rings, and put them into a stewpan with the herbs, mushrooms, bay-leaf, cloves, and mace; add the butter, and simmer the whole very gently over a slow fire until the onion is quite tender. Pour in the stock and sherry, and stew slowly for 1 hour, when strain it off into a clean saucepan. Now make a thickening of butter and flour, put it to the sauce, stir it over the fire until perfectly smooth and mellow, add the lemon-juice, give one boil, when it will be ready for table.

Time.—Altogether 2 hours.

Average cost, 1s. 3d. per pint.

Sufficient, half this quantity for two slices of salmon.

Sage.—This was originally a native of the south of Europe, but it has long been cultivated in the English garden. There are several kinds of it, known as the green, the red, the small-leaved, and the broad-leaved balsamic. In cookery, its principal use is for stuffings and sauces, for which purpose the red is the most agreeable, and the green the next. The others are used for medical purposes.

PICKLED GHERKINS.

picture of “GHERKINS.”

GHERKINS.

428. Ingredients.—Salt and water, 1 oz. of bruised ginger, ½ oz. of whole black pepper, ¼ oz. of whole allspice, 4 cloves, 2 blades of mace, a little horseradish. This proportion of pepper, spices, &c., for 1 quart of vinegar.

Mode.—Let the gherkins remain in salt and water for 3 or 4 days, when take them out, wipe perfectly dry, and put them into a stone jar. Boil sufficient vinegar to cover them, with spices and pepper, 205 &c., in the above proportion, for 10 minutes; pour it, quite boiling, over the gherkins, cover the jar with vine-leaves, and put over them a plate, setting them near the fire, where they must remain all night. Next day drain off the vinegar, boil it up again, and pour it hot over them. Cover up with fresh leaves, and let the whole remain till quite cold. Now tie down closely with bladder to exclude the air, and in a month or two, they will be fit for use.

Time.—4 days.

Seasonable from the middle of July to the end of August.

Gherkins.—Gherkins are young cucumbers; and the only way in which they are used for cooking purposes is pickling them, as by the recipe here given. Not having arrived at maturity, they have not, of course, so strongly a developed flavour as cucumbers, and, as a pickle, they are very general favourites.

GOOSEBERRY SAUCE FOR BOILED MACKEREL.

429. Ingredients.—1 pint of green gooseberries, 3 tablespoonfuls of Béchamel, No. 367 (veal gravy may be substituted for this), 2 oz. of fresh butter; seasoning to taste of salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg.

picture of “THE GOOSEBERRY.”

THE GOOSEBERRY.

Mode.—Boil the gooseberries in water until quite tender; strain them, and rub them through a sieve. Put into a saucepan the Béchamel or gravy, with the butter and seasoning; add the pulp from the gooseberries, mix all well together, and heat gradually through. A little pounded sugar added to this sauce is by many persons considered an improvement, as the saccharine matter takes off the extreme acidity of the unripe fruit.

Time.—Boil the gooseberries from 20 minutes to ½ hour.

Sufficient, this quantity, for a large dish of mackerel.

Seasonable from May to July.

The Gooseberry.—This useful and wholesome fruit (Ribes grossularia) is thought to be indigenous to the British Isles, and may be occasionally found in a wild state in some of the eastern counties, although, when uncultivated, it is but a very small and inferior berry. The high state of perfection to which it has been here brought, is due to the skill of the English gardeners; for in no other country does it attain the same size and flavour. The humidity of the British climate, however, has doubtless something to do with the result; and it is said that gooseberries produced in Scotland as far north as Inverness, are of a very superior character. Malic and citric acid blended with sugar, produce the pleasant flavour of the gooseberry; and upon the proper development of these properties depends the success of all cooking operations with which they are connected.

206
GLAZE FOR COVERING COLD HAMS, TONGUES, &c.

430. Ingredients.—Stock No. 104 or 107, doubling the quantity of meat in each.

Mode.—We may remark at the outset, that unless glaze is wanted in very large quantities, it is seldom made expressly. Either of the stocks mentioned above, boiled down and reduced very considerably, will be found to produce a very good glaze. Put the stock into a stewpan, over a nice clear fire; let it boil till it becomes somewhat stiff, when keep stirring, to prevent its burning. The moment it is sufficiently reduced, and comes to a glaze, turn it out into the glazepot, of which we have here given an engraving. As, however, this is not to be found in every establishment, a white earthenware jar would answer the purpose; and this may be placed in a vessel of boiling water, to melt the glaze when required. It should never be warmed in a saucepan, except on the principle of the bain marie, lest it should reduce too much, and become black and bitter. If the glaze is wanted of a pale colour, more veal than beef should be used in making the stock; and it is as well to omit turnips and celery, as these impart a disagreeable bitter flavour.

picture of “GLAZE-KETTLE.”

GLAZE-KETTLE.

To Glaze Cold Joints, &c.—Melt the glaze by placing the vessel which contains it, into the bain marie or saucepan of boiling water; brush it over the meat with a paste-brush, and if in places it is not quite covered, repeat the operation. The glaze should not be too dark a colour. (See Coloured Cut of Glazed Ham, P.)

Glaze-Kettle.—This is a kettle used for keeping the strong stock boiled down to a jelly, which is known by the name of glaze. It is composed of two tin vessels, as shown in the cut, one of which, the upper,—containing the glaze, is inserted into one of larger diameter and containing boiling water. A brush is put in the small hole at the top of the lid, and is employed for putting the glaze on anything that may require it.

picture of “THE BAIN MARIE.”

THE BAIN MARIE.

The Bain Marie.—So long ago as the time when emperors ruled in Rome, and the yellow Tiber passed through a populous and wealthy city, this utensil was extensively employed; and it is frequently mentioned by that profound culinary chemist of the ancients, Apicius. It is an open kind of vessel (as shown in the engraving and explained in our paragraph No. 87, on the French terms used in modern cookery), filled with boiling or nearly boiling water; and into this water should be put all the stewpans containing those ingredients which it is desired to keep hot. The quantity and quality of the contents of these vessels are not at all affected; and if the hour of dinner is uncertain in any establishment, by reason of the nature of the master’s business, nothing is so certain a means of preserving the flavour of all dishes as the employment of the bain marie.

207
GREEN SAUCE FOR GREEN GEESE OR DUCKLINGS.

431. Ingredients.—¼ pint of sorrel-juice, 1 glass of sherry, ½ pint of green gooseberries, 1 teaspoonful of pounded sugar, 1 oz. of fresh butter.

picture of “SORREL.”

SORREL.

Mode.—Boil the gooseberries in water until they are quite tender; mash them and press them through a sieve; put the pulp into a saucepan with the above ingredients; simmer for 3 or 4 minutes, and serve very hot.

Time.—3 or 4 minutes.

Note.—We have given this recipe as a sauce for green geese, thinking that some of our readers might sometimes require it; but, at the generality of fashionable tables, it is now seldom or never served.

Sorrel.—We gather from the pages of Pliny and Apicius, that sorrel was cultivated by the Romans in order to give it more strength and flavour, and that they also partook of it sometimes stewed with mustard, being seasoned with a little oil and vinegar. At the present day, English cookery is not much indebted to this plant (Rumex Acetosa), although the French make use of it to a considerable extent. It is found in most parts of Great Britain, and also on the continent, growing wild in the grass meadows, and, in a few gardens, it is cultivated. The acid of sorrel is very prononcé, and is what chemists term a binoxalate of potash; that is, a combination of oxalic acid with potash.

GENERAL STOCK FOR GRAVIES.

432. Either of the stocks, Nos. 104, 105, or 107, will be found to answer very well for the basis of many gravies, unless these are wanted very rich indeed. By the addition of various store sauces, thickening and flavouring, the stocks here referred to may be converted into very good gravies. It should be borne in mind, however, that the goodness and strength of spices, wines, flavourings, &c., evaporate, and that they lose a great deal of their fragrance, if added to the gravy a long time before they are wanted. If this point is attended to, a saving of one half the quantity of these ingredients will be effected, as, with long boiling, the flavour almost entirely passes away. The shank-bones of mutton, previously well soaked, will be found a great assistance in enriching gravies; a kidney or melt, beef skirt, trimmings of meat, &c. &c., answer very well when only a small quantity is wanted, and, as we have before observed, a good gravy need not necessarily be so very expensive; for economically-prepared dishes are oftentimes found as savoury and wholesome as dearer ones. The cook should also remember that the fragrance of gravies should not be overpowered by too much spice, or any strong essences, and that they should always be warmed in a bain marie, after 208 they are flavoured, or else in a jar or jug placed in a saucepan full of boiling water. The remains of roast-meat gravy should always be saved; as, when no meat is at hand, a very nice gravy in haste may be made from it, and when added to hashes, ragoûts, &c., is a great improvement.

picture of “GRAVY-KETTLE.”

GRAVY-KETTLE.

Gravy-Kettle.—This is a utensil which will not be found in every kitchen; but it is a useful one where it is necessary to keep gravies hot for the purpose of pouring over various dishes as they are cooking. It is made of copper, and should, consequently, be heated over the hot plate, if there be one, or a charcoal stove. The price at which it can be purchased is set down by Messrs. Slack at 14s.

GRAVY FOR ROAST MEAT.

433. Ingredients.—Gravy, salt.

Mode.—Put a common dish with a small quantity of salt in it under the meat, about a quarter of an hour before it is removed from the fire. When the dish is full, take it away, baste the meat, and pour the gravy into the dish on which the joint is to be served.

Sauces and Gravies in the Middle Ages.—Neither poultry, butcher’s meat, nor roast game were eaten dry in the middle ages, any more than fried fish is now. Different sauces, each having its own peculiar flavour, were served with all these dishes, and even with the various parts of each animal. Strange and grotesque sauces, as, for example, “eggs cooked on the spit,” “butter fried and roasted,” were invented by the cooks of those days; but these preparations had hardly any other merit than that of being surprising and difficult to make.

A QUICKLY-MADE GRAVY.

434. Ingredients.—½ lb. of shin of beef, ½ onion, ¼ carrot, 2 or 3 sprigs of parsley and savoury herbs, a piece of butter about the size of a walnut; cayenne and mace to taste, ¾ pint of water.

Mode.—Cut up the meat into very small pieces, slice the onion and carrot, and put them into a small saucepan with the butter. Keep stirring over a sharp fire until they have taken a little colour, when add the water and the remaining ingredients. Simmer for ½ hour, skim well, strain, and flavour, when it will be ready for use.

Time.—½ hour.

Average cost, for this quantity, 5d.

A Hundred different Dishes.—Modern housewives know pretty well how much care, and attention, and foresight are necessary in order to serve well a little dinner for six or eight persons,—a dinner which will give credit to the ménage, and satisfaction and pleasure to the guests. A quickly-made gravy, under some circumstances that we have known occur, will be useful to many housekeepers when they have not much time for preparation. But, talking of speed, and time, and preparation, what a combination of all these must have been necessary for the feast at the wedding of Charles VI. of France. On that occasion, as Froissart the chronicler tells us, the art of cooking, with its innumerable paraphernalia of sauces, with gravy, pepper, cinnamon, garlic, scallion, brains, gravy soups, milk potage, and ragoûts, had a signal triumph. The skilful chef-de-cuisine of the royal household covered the great marble table of the regal palace with no less than a hundred different dishes, prepared in a hundred different ways.

209 P
A GOOD BEEF GRAVY FOR POULTRY, GAME, &c.

435. Ingredients.—½ lb. of lean beef, ½ pint of cold water, 1 shalot or small onion, ½ a teaspoonful of salt, a little pepper, 1 tablespoonful of Harvey’s sauce or mushroom ketchup, ½ a teaspoonful of arrowroot.

Mode.—Cut up the beef into small pieces, and put it, with the water, into a stewpan. Add the shalot and seasoning, and simmer gently for 3 hours, taking care that it does not boil fast. A short time before it is required, take the arrowroot, and having mixed it with a little cold water, pour it into the gravy, which keep stirring, adding the Harvey’s sauce, and just letting it boil. Strain off the gravy in a tureen, and serve very hot.

Time.—3 hours.

Average cost, 8d. per pint.

BROWN GRAVY.

436. Ingredients.—2 oz. of butter, 2 large onions, 2 lbs. of shin of beef, 2 small slices of lean bacon (if at hand), salt and whole pepper to taste, 3 cloves, 2 quarts of water. For thickening, 2 oz. of butter, 3 oz. of flour.

Mode.—Put the butter into a stewpan; set this on the fire, throw in the onions cut in rings, and fry them a light brown; then add the beef and bacon, which should be cut into small square pieces; season, and pour in a teacupful of water; let it boil for about ten minutes, or until it is of a nice brown colour, occasionally stirring the contents. Now fill up with water in the above proportion; let it boil up, when draw it to the side of the fire to simmer very gently for 1½ hour; strain, and when cold, take off all the fat. In thickening this gravy, melt 3 oz. of butter in a stewpan, add 2 oz. of flour, and stir till of a light-brown colour; when cold, add it to the strained gravy, and boil it up quickly. This thickening may be made in larger quantities, and kept in a stone jar for use when wanted.

Time.—Altogether, 2 hours.

Average cost, 4d. per pint.

Cloves.—This very agreeable spice is the unexpanded flower-buds of the Caryophyllus aromaticus, a handsome branching tree, a native of the Malacca Islands. They take their name from the Latin word clavus, or the French clou, both meaning a nail, and to which the clove has a considerable resemblance. Cloves were but little known to the ancients, and Pliny appears to be the only writer who mentions them; and he says, vaguely enough, that some were brought to Rome, very similar to grains of pepper, but somewhat longer; that they were only to be found in India, in a wood consecrated to the gods; and that they served in the manufacture of perfumes. The Dutch, as in the case of the nutmeg (see 378), endeavoured, when they gained possession of the Spice Islands, to secure a monopoly of cloves, and, so that the cultivation of the tree might be confined to Amboyna, their chief island, bribed the surrounding chiefs to cut down all trees found elsewhere. The Amboyna, or royal clove, is said to be the best, and is rare; but other kinds, nearly equally good, are produced in other parts of the world, and they come to Europe from Mauritius, Bourbon, Cayenne, and Martinique, as also from St. Kitts, 210 St. Vincent’s, and Trinidad. The clove contains about 20 per cent. of volatile aromatic oil, to which it owes its peculiar pungent flavour, its other parts being composed of woody fibre, water, gum, and resin.

BROWN GRAVY WITHOUT MEAT.

437. Ingredients.—2 large onions, 1 large carrot, 2 oz. of butter, 3 pints of boiling water, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, a wineglassful of good beer; salt and pepper to taste.

Mode.—Slice, flour, and fry the onions and carrots in the butter until of a nice light-brown colour; then add the boiling water and the remaining ingredients; let the whole stew gently for about an hour; then strain, and when cold, skim off all the fat. Thicken it in the same manner as recipe No. 436, and, if thought necessary, add a few drops of colouring No. 108.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost, 2d. per pint.

Note.—The addition of a small quantity of mushroom ketchup or Harvey’s sauce very much improves the flavour of this gravy.

RICH GRAVY FOR HASHES, RAGOUTS, &c.

438. Ingredients.—2 lbs. of shin of beef, 1 large onion or a few shalots, a little flour, a bunch of savoury herbs, 2 blades of mace, 2 or 3 cloves, 4 whole allspice, ¼ teaspoonful of whole pepper, 1 slice of lean ham or bacon, ½ a head of celery (when at hand), 2 pints of boiling water; salt and cayenne to taste.

picture of “PIMENTO.”

PIMENTO.

Mode.—Cut the beef into thin slices, as also the onions, dredge them with flour, and fry of a pale brown, but do not allow them to get black; pour in the boiling water, let it boil up; and skim. Add the remaining ingredients, and simmer the whole very gently for 2 hours, or until all the juices are extracted from the meat; put it by to get cold, when take off all the fat. This gravy may be flavoured with ketchup, store sauces, wine, or, in fact, anything that may give additional and suitable relish to the dish it is intended for.

Time.—Rather more than 2 hours.

Average cost, 8d. per pint.

Allspice.—This is the popular name given to pimento, or Jamaica pepper, known to naturalists as Eugenia pimenta, and belonging to the order of Myrtaceæ. It is the berry of a fine tree in the West Indies and South America, which attains a height of from fifteen to twenty feet: the berries are not allowed to ripen, but, being gathered green, are then dried in the sun, and then become black. It is an inexpensive spice, and is considered more mild and innocent than most other spices; consequently, it is much used for domestic purposes, combining a very agreeable variety of flavours.

211
GRAVY MADE WITHOUT MEAT FOR FOWLS.

439. Ingredients.—The necks, feet, livers, and gizzards of the fowls, 1 slice of toasted bread, ½ onion, 1 faggot of savoury herbs, salt and pepper to taste, ½ pint of water, thickening of butter and flour, 1 dessert­spoonful of ketchup.

Mode.—Wash the feet of the fowls thoroughly clean, and cut them and the neck into small pieces. Put these into a stewpan with the bread, onion, herbs, seasoning, livers, and gizzards; pour the water over them and simmer gently for 1 hour. Now take out the liver, pound it, and strain the liquor to it. Add a thickening of butter and flour, and a flavouring of mushroom ketchup; boil it up and serve.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost, 4d. per pint.

A CHEAP GRAVY FOR HASHES, &c.

440. Ingredients.—Bones and trimmings of the cooked joint intended for hashing, ¼ teaspoonful of salt, ¼ teaspoonful of whole pepper, ¼ teaspoonful of whole allspice, a small faggot of savoury herbs, ½ head of celery, 1 onion, 1 oz. of butter, thickening, sufficient boiling water to cover the bones.

Mode.—Chop the bones in small pieces, and put them in a stewpan, with the trimmings, salt, pepper, spice, herbs, and celery. Cover with boiling water, and let the whole simmer gently for 1½ or 2 hours. Slice and fry the onion in the butter till it is of a pale brown, and mix it gradually with the gravy made from the bones; boil for ¼ hour, and strain into a basin; now put it back into the stewpan; flavour with walnut pickle or ketchup, pickled-onion liquor, or any store sauce that may be preferred. Thicken with a little butter and flour, kneaded together on a plate, and the gravy will be ready for use. After the thickening is added, the gravy should just boil, to take off the rawness of the flour.

Time.—2 hours, or rather more.

Average cost, 4d., exclusive of the bones and trimmings.

JUGGED GRAVY (Excellent).

441. Ingredients.—2 lbs. of shin of beef, ¼ lb. of lean ham, 1 onion or a few shalots, 2 pints of water, salt and whole pepper to taste, 1 blade of mace, a faggot of savoury herbs, ½ a large carrot, ½ a head of celery.

picture of “CELERY.”

CELERY.

Mode.—Cut up the beef and ham into small pieces, and slice the vegetables; take a jar, capable of holding two pints of water, and arrange therein, in layers, the ham, meat, vegetables, and seasoning, 212 alternately, filling up with the above quantity of water; tie down the jar, or put a plate over the top, so that the steam may not escape; place it in the oven, and let it remain there from 6 to 8 hours; should, however, the oven be very hot, less time will be required. When sufficiently cooked, strain the gravy, and when cold, remove the fat. It may be flavoured with ketchup, wines, or any other store sauce that may be preferred.

It is a good plan to put the jar in a cool oven over-night, to draw the gravy; and then it will not require so long baking the following day.

Time.—From 6 to 8 hours, according to the oven.

Average cost, 7d. per pint.

Celery.—As in the above recipe, the roots of celery are principally used in England for flavouring soups, sauces, and gravies, and for serving with cheese at the termination of a dinner, and as an ingredient for salad. In Italy, however, the green leaves and stems are also employed for stews and soups, and the seeds are also more frequently made use of on the continent than in our own islands. In Germany, celery is very highly esteemed; and it is there boiled and served up as a dish by itself, as well as used in the composition of mixed dishes. We ourselves think that this mild aromatic plant might oftener be cooked than it is; for there are very few nicer vegetable preparations brought to table than a well-dressed plate of stewed celery.

VEAL GRAVY FOR WHITE SAUCES, FRICASSEES, &c.

442. Ingredients.—2 slices of nicely flavoured lean ham, any poultry trimmings, 3 lbs. of lean veal, a faggot of savoury herbs, including parsley, a few green onions (or 1 large onion may be substituted for these), a few mushrooms, when obtainable; 1 blade of mace, salt to taste, 3 pints of water.

Mode.—Cut up the ham and veal into small square pieces, put these in a stewpan, moistening them with a small quantity of water; place them over the fire to draw down. When the bottom of the stewpan becomes covered with a white glaze, fill up with water in the above proportion; add the remaining ingredients, stew very slowly for 3 or 4 hours, and do not forget to skim well the moment it boils. Put it by, and, when cold, take off all the fat. This may be used for Béchamel, sauce tournée, and many other white sauces.

Time.—3 or 4 hours.

Average cost, 9d. per pint.

CHEAP GRAVY FOR MINCED VEAL.

443. Ingredients.—Bones and trimmings of cold roast or boiled veal, 1½ pint of water, 1 onion, ¼ teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, ¼ teaspoonful of salt, 1 blade of pounded mace, the juice of ¼ lemon; thickening of butter and flour.

213

Mode.—Put all the ingredients into a stewpan, except the thickening and lemon-juice, and let them simmer very gently for rather more than 1 hour, or until the liquor is reduced to a pint, when strain through a hair-sieve. Add a thickening of butter and flour, and the lemon-juice; set it on the fire, and let it just boil up, when it will be ready for use. It may be flavoured with a little tomato sauce, and, where a rather dark-coloured gravy is not objected to, ketchup, or Harvey’s sauce, may be added at pleasure.

Time.—Rather more than 1 hour.

Average cost, 3d.

GRAVY FOR VENISON.

444. Ingredients.—Trimmings of venison, 3 or 4 mutton shank-bones, salt to taste, 1 pint of water, 2 teaspoonfuls of walnut ketchup.

Mode.—Brown the trimmings over a nice clear fire, and put them in a stewpan with the shank-bones and water; simmer gently for 2 hours, strain and skim, and add the walnut ketchup and a seasoning of salt. Let it just boil, when it is ready to serve.

picture of “THE DEER.”

THE DEER.

Time.—2 hours.

Venison.—Far, far away in ages past, our fathers loved the chase, and what it brought; and it is usually imagined that when Isaac ordered his son Esau to go out with his weapons, his quiver and his bow, and to prepare for him savoury meat, such as he loved, that it was venison he desired. The wise Solomon, too, delighted in this kind of fare; for we learn that, at his table, every day were served the wild ox, the roebuck, and the stag. Xenophon informs us, in his History, that Cyrus, king of Persia, ordered that venison should never be wanting at his repasts; and of the effeminate Greeks it was the delight. The Romans, also, were devoted admirers of the flesh of the deer; and our own kings and princes, from the Great Alfred down to the Prince Consort, have hunted, although, it must be confessed, under vastly different circumstances, the swift buck, and relished their “haunch” all the more keenly, that they had borne themselves bravely in the pursuit of the animal.

TO DRY HERBS FOR WINTER USE.

445. On a very dry day, gather the herbs, just before they begin to flower. If this is done when the weather is damp, the herbs will not be so good a colour. (It is very necessary to be particular in little matters like this, for trifles constitute perfection, and herbs nicely dried will be found very acceptable when frost and snow are on the ground. It is hardly necessary, however, to state that the flavour and fragrance of fresh herbs are incomparably finer.) They should be perfectly freed from dirt and dust, and be divided into small bunches, with their roots cut off. Dry them quickly in a very hot oven, or before the fire, as by this means most of their flavour will be preserved, and be careful 214 not to burn them; tie them up in paper bags, and keep in a dry place. This is a very general way of preserving dried herbs; but we would recommend the plan described in a former recipe.

Seasonable.—From the month of July to the end of September is the proper time for storing herbs for winter use.

HERB POWDER FOR FLAVOURING, when Fresh Herbs are not obtainable.

446. Ingredients.—1 oz. of dried lemon-thyme, 1 oz. of dried winter savory, 1 oz. of dried sweet marjoram and basil, 2 oz. of dried parsley, 1 oz. of dried lemon-peel.

Mode.—Prepare and dry the herbs by recipe No. 445; pick the leaves from the stalks, pound them, and sift them through a hair-sieve; mix in the above proportions, and keep in glass bottles, carefully excluding the air. This, we think, a far better method of keeping herbs, as the flavour and fragrance do not evaporate so much as when they are merely put in paper bags. Preparing them in this way, you have them ready for use at a moment’s notice.

Mint, sage, parsley, &c., dried, pounded, and each put into separate bottles, will be found very useful in winter.

picture of “CORK WITH WOODEN TOP.”

CORK WITH
WOODEN TOP.

Corks with Wooden Tops.—These are the best corks to use when it is indispensable that the air should not be admitted to the ingredients contained in bottles which are in constant use. The top, which, as will be seen by the accompanying little cut, is larger than the cork, is made of wood; and, besides effectually covering the whole top of the bottle, can be easily removed and again used, as no corkscrew is necessary to pull it out.

Savory.—This we find described by Columella, a voluminous Roman writer on agriculture, as an odoriferous herb, which, “in the brave days of old,” entered into the seasoning of nearly every dish. Verily, there are but few new things under the sun, and we don’t find that we have made many discoveries in gastronomy, at least beyond what was known to the ancient inhabitants of Italy. We possess two varieties of this aromatic herb, known to naturalists as Satureja. They are called summer and winter savory, according to the time of the year when they are fit for gathering. Both sorts are in general cultivation throughout England.

HORSERADISH SAUCE, to serve with Roast Beef.

447. Ingredients.—4 tablespoonfuls of grated horseradish, 1 teaspoonful of pounded sugar, 1 teaspoonful of salt, ½ teaspoonful of pepper, 2 teaspoonfuls of made mustard; vinegar.

picture of “THE HORSERADISH.”

THE HORSERADISH.

Mode.—Grate the horseradish, and mix it well with the sugar, salt, pepper, and mustard; moisten it with sufficient vinegar to give it the consistency of cream, and serve in a tureen: 3 or 4 tablespoonfuls of cream added to the above, very much improve the appearance and flavour of this sauce. To heat it to serve with hot 215 roast beef, put it in a bain marie or a jar, which place in a saucepan of boiling water; make it hot, but do not allow it to boil, or it will curdle.

Note.—This sauce is a great improvement on the old-fashioned way of serving cold-scraped horseradish with hot roast beef. The mixing of the cold vinegar with the warm gravy cools and spoils everything on the plate. Of course, with cold meat, the sauce should be served cold.

The Horseradish.—This has been, for many years, a favourite accompaniment of roast beef, and is a native of England. It grows wild in wet ground, but has long been cultivated in the garden, and is, occasionally, used in winter salads and in sauces. On account of the great volatility of its oil, it should never be preserved by drying, but should be kept moist by being buried in sand. So rapidly does its volatile oil evaporate, that even when scraped for the table, it almost immediately spoils by exposure to the air.

HORSERADISH VINEGAR.

448. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of scraped horseradish, 1 oz. of minced shalot, 1 drachm of cayenne, 1 quart of vinegar.

Mode.—Put all the ingredients into a bottle, which shake well every day for a fortnight. When it is thoroughly steeped, strain and bottle, and it will be fit for use immediately. This will be found an agreeable relish to cold beef, &c.

Seasonable.—This vinegar should be made either in October or November, as horseradish is then in its highest perfection.

INDIAN CURRY-POWDER, founded on Dr. Kitchener’s Recipe.

449. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of coriander-seed, ¼ lb. of turmeric, 2 oz. of cinnamon-seed, ½ oz. of cayenne, 1 oz. of mustard, 1 oz. of ground ginger, ½ ounce of allspice, 2 oz. of fenugreek-seed.

Mode.—Put all the ingredients in a cool oven, where they should remain one night; then pound them in a mortar, rub them through a sieve, and mix thoroughly together; keep the powder in a bottle, from which the air should be completely excluded.

Note.—We have given this recipe for curry-powder, as some persons prefer to make it at home; but that purchased at any respectable shop is, generally speaking, far superior, and, taking all things into consideration, very frequently more economical.

INDIAN MUSTARD, an excellent Relish to Bread and Butter, or any cold Meat.

450. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of the best mustard, ¼ lb. of flour, ½ oz. 216 of salt, 4 shalots, 4 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 4 tablespoonfuls of ketchup, ¼ bottle of anchovy sauce.

picture of “MUSTARD.”

MUSTARD.

Mode.—Put the mustard, flour, and salt into a basin, and make them into a stiff paste with boiling water. Boil the shalots with the vinegar, ketchup, and anchovy sauce, for 10 minutes, and pour the whole, boiling, over the mixture in the basin; stir well, and reduce it to a proper thickness; put it into a bottle, with a bruised shalot at the bottom, and store away for use. This makes an excellent relish, and if properly prepared will keep for years.

Mustard.—Before the year 1729, mustard was not known at English tables. About that time an old woman, of the name of Clements, residing in Durham, began to grind the seed in a mill, and to pass the flour through several processes necessary to free the seed from its husks. She kept her secret for many years to herself, during which she sold large quantities of mustard throughout the country, but especially in London. Here it was introduced to the royal table, when it received the approval of George I. From the circumstance of Mrs. Clements being a resident at Durham, it obtained the name of Durham mustard. In the county of that name it is still principally cultivated, and the plant is remarkable for the rapidity of its growth. It is the best stimulant employed to impart strength to the digestive organs, and even in its previously coarsely-pounded state, had a high reputation with our ancestors.

INDIAN PICKLE (very Superior).

451. Ingredients.—To each gallon of vinegar allow 6 cloves of garlic, 12 shalots, 2 sticks of sliced horseradish, ¼ lb. of bruised ginger, 2 oz. of whole black pepper, 1 oz. of long pepper, 1 oz. of allspice, 12 cloves, ¼ oz. of cayenne, 2 oz. of mustard-seed, ¼ lb. of mustard, 1 oz. of turmeric; a white cabbage, cauliflowers, radish-pods, French beans, gherkins, small round pickling-onions, nasturtiums, capsicums, chilies, &c.

Mode.—Cut the cabbage, which must be hard and white, into slices, and the cauliflowers into small branches; sprinkle salt over them in a large dish, and let them remain two days; then dry them, and put them into a very large jar, with garlic, shalots, horseradish, ginger, pepper, allspice, and cloves, in the above proportions. Boil sufficient vinegar to cover them, which pour over, and, when cold, cover up to keep them free from dust. As the other things for the pickle ripen at different times, they may be added as they are ready: these will be radish-pods, French beans, gherkins, small onions, nasturtiums, capsicums, chilies, &c. &c. As these are procured, they must, first of all, be washed in a little cold vinegar, wiped, and then simply added to the other ingredients in the large jar, only taking care that they are covered by the vinegar. If more vinegar should be wanted 217 to add to the pickle, do not omit first to boil it before adding it to the rest. When you have collected all the things you require, turn all out in a large pan, and thoroughly mix them. Now put the mixed vegetables into smaller jars, without any of the vinegar; then boil the vinegar again, adding as much more as will be required to fill the different jars, and also cayenne, mustard-seed, turmeric, and mustard, which must be well mixed with a little cold vinegar, allowing the quantities named above to each gallon of vinegar. Pour the vinegar, boiling hot, over the pickle, and when cold, tie down with a bladder. If the pickle is wanted for immediate use, the vinegar should be boiled twice more, but the better way is to make it during one season for use during the next. It will keep for years, if care is taken that the vegetables are quite covered by the vinegar.

This recipe was taken from the directions of a lady whose pickle was always pronounced excellent by all who tasted it, and who has, for many years, exactly followed the recipe given above.

Note.—For small families, perhaps the above quantity of pickle will be considered too large; but this may be decreased at pleasure, taking care to properly proportion the various ingredients.

picture of “INDIA PICKLE.”

INDIA PICKLE.

Keeping Pickles.—Nothing shows more, perhaps, the difference between a tidy thrifty housewife and a lady to whom these desirable epithets may not honestly be applied, than the appearance of their respective store-closets. The former is able, the moment anything is wanted, to put her hand on it at once; no time is lost, no vexation incurred, no dish spoilt for the want of “just a little something,”—the latter, on the contrary, hunts all over her cupboard for the ketchup the cook requires, or the pickle the husband thinks he should like a little of with his cold roast beef or mutton-chop, and vainly seeks for the Embden groats, or arrowroot, to make one of her little boys some gruel. One plan, then, we strenuously advise all who do not follow, to begin at once, and that is, to label all their various pickles and store sauces, in the same way as the cut here shows. It will occupy a little time at first, but there will be economy of it in the long run.

Vinegar.—This term is derived from the two French words vin aigre, ‘sour wine,’ and should, therefore, be strictly applied to that which is made only from wine. As the acid is the same, however it is procured, that made from ale also takes the same name. Nearly all ancient nations were acquainted with the use of vinegar. We learn in Ruth, that the reapers in the East soaked their bread in it to freshen it. The Romans kept large quantities of it in their cellars, using it, to a great extent, in their seasonings and sauces. This people attributed very beneficial qualities to it, as it was supposed to be digestive, antibilious, and antiscorbutic, as well as refreshing. Spartianus, a Latin historian, tells us that, mixed with water, it was the drink of the soldiers, and that, thanks to this beverage, the veterans of the Roman army braved, by its use, the inclemency and variety of all the different seasons and climates of Europe, Asia, and Africa. It is said, the Spanish peasantry, and other inhabitants of the southern parts of Europe, still follow this practice, and add to a gallon of water about a gill of wine vinegar, with a little salt; and that this drink, with a little bread, enables them, under the heat of their burning sun, to sustain the labours of the field.

INDIAN CHETNEY SAUCE.

452. Ingredients.—8 oz. of sharp, sour apples, pared and cored; 8 oz. of tomatoes, 8 oz. of salt, 8 oz. of brown sugar, 8 oz. of stoned 218 raisins, 4 oz. of cayenne, 4 oz. of powdered ginger, 2 oz. of garlic, 2 oz. of shalots, 3 quarts of vinegar, 1 quart of lemon-juice.

Mode.—Chop the apples in small square pieces, and add to them the other ingredients. Mix the whole well together, and put in a well-covered jar. Keep this in a warm place, and stir every day for a month, taking care to put on the lid after this operation; strain, but do not squeeze it dry; store it away in clean jars or bottles for use, and the liquor will serve as an excellent sauce for meat or fish.

Seasonable.—Make this sauce when tomatoes are in full season, that is, from the beginning of September to the end of October.

Pickles.—The ancient Greeks and Romans held their pickles in high estimation. They consisted of flowers, herbs, roots, and vegetables, preserved in vinegar, and which were kept, for a long time, in cylindrical vases with wide mouths. Their cooks prepared pickles with the greatest care, and the various ingredients were macerated in oil, brine, and vinegar, with which they were often impregnated drop by drop. Meat, also, after having been cut into very small pieces, was treated in the same manner.

ITALIAN SAUCE (Brown).

453. Ingredients.—A few chopped mushrooms and shalots, ½ pint of stock, No. 105, ½ glass of Madeira, the juice of ½ lemon, ½ teaspoonful of pounded sugar, 1 teaspoonful of chopped parsley.

Mode.—Put the stock into a stewpan with the mushrooms, shalots, and Madeira, and stew gently for ¼ hour, then add the remaining ingredients, and let them just boil. When the sauce is done enough, put it in another stewpan, and warm it in a bain marie. (See No. 430.) The mushrooms should not be chopped long before they are wanted, as they will then become black.

Time.—¼ hour.

Average cost, for this quantity, 7d.

Sufficient for a small dish.

ITALIAN SAUCE (White).

454. Ingredients.—½ pint of white stock, No. 107; 2 tablespoonfuls of chopped mushrooms, 1 dessert­spoonful of chopped shalots, 1 slice of ham, minced very fine; ¼ pint of Béchamel, No. 367; salt to taste, a few drops of garlic vinegar, ½ teaspoonful of pounded sugar, a squeeze of lemon-juice.

Mode.—Put the shalots and mushrooms into a stewpan with the stock and ham, and simmer very gently for ½ hour, when add the Béchamel. Let it just boil up, and then strain it through a tammy; season with the above ingredients, and serve very hot. If this sauce should not have retained a nice white colour, a little cream may be added.

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Time.—½ hour.

Average cost, for this quantity, 10d.

Sufficient for a moderate-sized dish.

Note.—To preserve the colour of the mushrooms after pickling, throw them into water to which a little lemon-juice has been added.

TO PICKLE LEMONS WITH THE PEEL ON.

455. Ingredients.—6 lemons, 2 quarts of boiling water; to each quart of vinegar allow ½ oz. of cloves, ½ oz. of white pepper, 1 oz. of bruised ginger, ¼ oz. of mace and chilies, 1 oz. of mustard-seed, ½ stick of sliced horseradish, a few cloves of garlic.

Mode.—Put the lemons into a brine that will bear an egg; let them remain in it 6 days, stirring them every day; have ready 2 quarts of boiling water, put in the lemons, and allow them to boil for ¼ hour; take them out, and let them lie in a cloth until perfectly dry and cold. Boil up sufficient vinegar to cover the lemons, with all the above ingredients, allowing the same proportion as stated to each quart of vinegar. Pack the lemons in a jar, pour over the vinegar, &c. boiling hot, and tie down with a bladder. They will be fit for use in about 12 months, or rather sooner.

Seasonable.—This should be made from November to April.

The Lemon.—In the earlier ages of the world, the lemon does not appear to have been at all known, and the Romans only became acquainted with it at a very late period, and then only used it to keep moths from their garments. Its acidity would seem to have been unpleasant to them; and in Pliny’s time, at the commencement of the Christian era, this fruit was hardly accepted, otherwise than as an excellent antidote against the effects of poison. Many anecdotes have been related concerning the anti-venomous properties of the lemon; Athenæus, a Latin writer, telling us, that on one occasion, two men felt no effects from the bites of dangerous serpents, because they had previously eaten of this fruit.

TO PICKLE LEMONS WITHOUT THE PEEL.

456. Ingredients.—6 lemons, 1 lb. of fine salt; to each quart of vinegar, the same ingredients as No. 455.

Mode.—Peel the lemons, slit each one down 3 times, so as not to divide them, and rub the salt well into the divisions; place them in a pan, where they must remain for a week, turning them every other day; then put them in a Dutch oven before a clear fire until the salt has become perfectly dry; then arrange them in a jar. Pour over sufficient boiling vinegar to cover them, to which have been added the ingredients mentioned in the foregoing recipe; tie down closely, and in about 9 months they will be fit for use.

Seasonable.—The best time to make this is from November to April.

Note.—After this pickle has been made from 4 to 5 months, the liquor may be strained and bottled, and will be found an excellent lemon ketchup.

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Lemon-juice.—Citric acid is the principal component part of lemon-juice, which, in addition to the agreeableness of its flavour, is also particularly cooling and grateful. It is likewise an antiscorbutic; and this quality enhances its value. In order to combat the fatal effects of scurvy amongst the crews of ships at sea, a regular allowance of lemon-juice is served out to the men; and by this practice, the disease has almost entirely disappeared. By putting the juice into bottles, and pouring on the top sufficient oil to cover it, it may be preserved for a considerable time. Italy and Turkey export great quantities of it in this manner.

LEMON SAUCE FOR BOILED FOWLS.

457. Ingredients.—1 small lemon, ¾ pint of melted butter, No. 380.

Mode.—Cut the lemon into very thin slices, and these again into very small dice. Have ready ¾ pint of melted butter, made by recipe No. 380; put in the lemon; let it just simmer, but not boil, and pour it over the fowls.

Time.—1 minute to simmer.

Average cost, 6d.

Sufficient for a pair of large fowls.

LEMON WHITE SAUCE, FOR FOWLS, FRICASSEES, &c.

458. Ingredients.—¾ pint of cream, the rind and juice of 1 lemon, ½ teaspoonful of whole white pepper, 1 sprig of lemon thyme, 3 oz. of butter, 1 dessert­spoonful of flour, 1 teacupful of white stock; salt to taste.

picture of “LEMON THYME.”

LEMON THYME.

Mode.—Put the cream into a very clean saucepan (a lined one is best), with the lemon-peel, pepper, and thyme, and let these infuse for ½ hour, when simmer gently for a few minutes, or until there is a nice flavour of lemon. Strain it, and add a thickening of butter and flour in the above proportions; stir this well in, and put in the lemon-juice at the moment of serving; mix the stock with the cream, and add a little salt. This sauce should not boil after the cream and stock are mixed together.

Time.—Altogether, ¾ hour.

Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient, this quantity, for a pair of large boiled fowls.

Note.—Where the expense of the cream is objected to, milk may be substituted for it. In this case, an additional dessert­spoonful, or rather more, of flour must be added.

Lemon Thyme.—Two or three tufts of this species of thyme, Thymus citriodorus, usually find a place in the herb compartment of the kitchen-garden. It is a trailing evergreen, is of smaller growth than the common kind (see No. 100), and is remarkable for its smell, which closely resembles that of the rind of a lemon. Hence its distinctive name. It is used for some particular dishes, in which the fragrance of the lemon is desired to slightly predominate.

221
LEAMINGTON SAUCE
(an Excellent Sauce for Flavouring Gravies, Hashes, Soups, &c.).
(Author’s Recipe.)

459. Ingredients.—Walnuts. To each quart of walnut-juice allow 3 quarts of vinegar, 1 pint of Indian soy, 1 oz. of cayenne, 2 oz. of shalots, ¾ oz. of garlic, ½ pint of port wine.

Mode.—Be very particular in choosing the walnuts as soon as they appear in the market; for they are more easily bruised before they become hard and shelled. Pound them in a mortar to a pulp, strew some salt over them, and let them remain thus for two or three days, occasionally stirring and moving them about. Press out the juice, and to each quart of walnut-liquor allow the above proportion of vinegar, soy, cayenne, shalots, garlic, and port wine. Pound each ingredient separately in a mortar, then mix them well together, and store away for use in small bottles. The corks should be well sealed.

Seasonable.—This sauce should be made as soon as walnuts are obtainable, from the beginning to the middle of July.

LEMON BRANDY.

460. Ingredients.—1 pint of brandy, the rind of two small lemons, 2 oz. of loaf-sugar, ¼ pint of water.

Mode.—Peel the lemons rather thin, taking care to have none of the white pith. Put the rinds into a bottle with the brandy, and let them infuse for 24 hours, when they should be strained. Now boil the sugar with the water for a few minutes, skim it, and, when cold, add it to the brandy. A dessert­spoonful of this will be found an excellent flavouring for boiled custards.

Lemon Rind or Peel.—This contains an essential oil of a very high flavour and fragrance, and is consequently esteemed both a wholesome and agreeable stomachic. It is used, as will be seen by many recipes in this book, as an ingredient for flavouring a number of various dishes. Under the name of Candied Lemon-peel, it is cleared of the pulp and preserved by sugar, when it becomes an excellent sweetmeat. By the ancient medical philosopher Galen, and others, it may be added, that dried lemon-peel was considered as one of the best digestives, and recommended to weak and delicate persons.

LIAISON OF EGGS FOR THICKENING SAUCES.

461. Ingredients.—The yolks of 3 eggs, 8 tablespoonfuls of milk or cream.

Mode.—Beat up the yolks of the eggs, to which add the milk, and strain the whole through a hair-sieve. When the liaison is being added to the sauce it is intended to thicken, care must be exercised to keep stirring it during the whole time, or, otherwise, the eggs will curdle. It should only just simmer, but not boil.

222
LIVER AND LEMON SAUCE FOR POULTRY.

462. Ingredients.—The liver of a fowl, one lemon, salt to taste, ½ pint of melted butter, No. 376.

Mode.—Wash the liver, and let it boil for a few minutes; peel the lemon very thin, remove the white part and pips, and cut it into very small dice; mince the liver and a small quantity of the lemon rind very fine; add these ingredients to ½ pint of smoothly-made melted butter; season with a little salt, put in the cut lemon, heat it gradually, but do not allow it to boil, lest the butter should oil.

Time.—1 minute to simmer.

Sufficient to serve with a pair of small fowls.

LIVER AND PARSLEY SAUCE FOR POULTRY.

463. Ingredients.—The liver of a fowl, one tablespoonful of minced parsley, ½ pint of melted butter, No. 376.

Mode.—Wash and score the liver, boil it for a few minutes, and mince it very fine; blanch or scald a small bunch of parsley, of which there should be sufficient when chopped to fill a tablespoon; add this, with the minced liver, to ½ pint of smoothly-made melted butter; let it just boil; when serve.

Time.—1 minute to simmer.

Sufficient for a pair of small fowls.

LOBSTER SAUCE, to serve with Turbot, Salmon, Brill, &c.
(Very Good.)

464. Ingredients.—1 middling-sized hen lobster, ¾ pint of melted butter, No. 376; 1 tablespoonful of anchovy sauce, ½ oz. of butter, salt and cayenne to taste, a little pounded mace when liked, 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of cream.

Mode.—Choose a hen lobster, as this is indispensable, in order to render this sauce as good as it ought to be. Pick the meat from the shells, and cut it into small square pieces; put the spawn, which will be found under the tail of the lobster, into a mortar with ½ oz. of butter, and pound it quite smooth; rub it through a hair-sieve, and cover up till wanted. Make ¾ pint of melted butter by recipe No. 376; put in all the ingredients except the lobster-meat, and well mix the sauce before the lobster is added to it, as it should retain its square form, and not come to table shredded and ragged. Put in the meat, let it get thoroughly hot, but do not allow it to boil, as the colour would immediately be spoiled; for it should be remembered that this sauce should always have a bright red appearance. If it is intended 223 to be served with turbot or brill, a little of the spawn (dried and rubbed through a sieve without butter) should be saved to garnish with; but as the goodness, flavour, and appearance of the sauce so much depend on having a proper quantity of spawn, the less used for garnishing the better.

Time.—1 minute to simmer.

Average cost, for this quantity, 2s.

Seasonable at any time.

Sufficient to serve with a small turbot, a brill, or salmon for 6 persons.

Note.—Melted butter made with milk, No. 380, will be found to answer very well for lobster sauce, as by employing it a nice white colour will be obtained. Less quantity than the above may be made by using a very small lobster, to which add only ½ pint of melted butter, and season as above. Where economy is desired, the cream may be dispensed with, and the remains of a cold lobster left from table, may, with a little care, be converted into a very good sauce.

MAITRE D’HOTEL BUTTER,
for putting into Broiled Fish just before it is sent to Table.

465. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of butter, 2 dessert­spoonfuls of minced parsley, salt and pepper to taste, the juice of 1 large lemon.

Mode.—Work the above ingredients well together, and let them be thoroughly mixed with a wooden spoon. If this is used as a sauce, it may be poured either under or over the meat or fish it is intended to be served with.

Average cost, for this quantity, 5d.

Note.—4 tablespoonfuls of Béchamel, No. 367, 2 do. of white stock, No. 107, with 2 oz. of the above maître d’hôtel butter stirred into it, and just allowed to simmer for 1 minute, will be found an excellent hot maître d’hôtel sauce.

The Maître d’Hôtel.—The house-steward of England is synonomous with the maître d’hôtel of France; and, in ancient times, amongst the Latins, he was called procurator, or major-domo. In Rome, the slaves, after they had procured the various articles necessary for the repasts of the day, would return to the spacious kitchen laden with meat, game, sea-fish, vegetables, fruit, &c. Each one would then lay his basket at the feet of the major-domo, who would examine its contents and register them on his tablets, placing in the pantry contiguous to the dining-room, those of the provisions which need no preparation, and consigning the others to the more immediate care of the cooks.

MAITRE D’HOTEL SAUCE (HOT),
to serve with Calf’s Head, Boiled Eels, and different Fish.

466. Ingredients.—1 slice of minced ham, a few poultry-trimmings, 2 shalots, 1 clove of garlic, 1 bay-leaf, ¾ pint of water, 2 oz. of butter, 1 dessert­spoonful of flour, 1 heaped tablespoonful of chopped 224 parsley; salt, pepper, and cayenne to taste; the juice of ½ large lemon, ¼ teaspoonful of pounded sugar.

Mode.—Put at the bottom of a stewpan the minced ham, and over it the poultry-trimmings (if these are not at hand, veal should be substituted), with the shalots, garlic, and bay-leaf. Pour in the water, and let the whole simmer gently for 1 hour, or until the liquor is reduced to a full ½ pint. Then strain this gravy, put it in another saucepan, make a thickening of butter and flour in the above proportions, and stir it to the gravy over a nice clear fire, until it is perfectly smooth and rather thick, care being taken that the butter does not float on the surface. Skim well, add the remaining ingredients, let the sauce gradually heat, but do not allow it to boil. If this sauce is intended for an entrée, it is necessary to make it of a sufficient thickness, so that it may adhere to what it is meant to cover.

Time.—1½ hour.

Average cost, 1s. 2d. per pint.

Sufficient for re-warming the remains of ½ calf’s head, or a small dish of cold flaked turbot, cod, &c.

MAIGRE MAITRE D’HOTEL SAUCE (HOT).
(Made without Meat.)

467. Ingredients.—½ pint of melted butter, No. 376; 1 heaped tablespoonful of chopped parsley, salt and pepper to taste, the juice of ½ large lemon; when liked, 2 minced shalots.

Mode.—Make ½ pint of melted butter, by recipe No. 376; stir in the above ingredients, and let them just boil; when it is ready to serve.

Time.—1 minute to simmer.

Average cost, 9d. per pint.

MAYONNAISE,
a Sauce or Salad-Dressing for cold Chicken, Meat, and other cold Dishes.

468. Ingredients.—The yolks of 2 eggs, 6 tablespoonfuls of salad-oil, 4 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, salt and white pepper to taste, 1 tablespoonful of white stock, No. 107, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream.

Mode.—Put the yolks of the eggs into a basin, with a seasoning of pepper and salt; have ready the above quantities of oil and vinegar, in separate vessels; add them very gradually to the eggs; continue stirring and rubbing the mixture with a wooden spoon, as herein consists the secret of having a nice smooth sauce. It cannot be stirred too frequently, and it should be made in a very cool place, or, if ice is at hand, it should be mixed over it. When the vinegar and oil are well incorporated with the eggs, add the stock and cream, stirring all the time, and it will then be ready for use.

225 Q

For a fish Mayonnaise, this sauce may be coloured with lobster-spawn, pounded; and for poultry or meat, where variety is desired, a little parsley-juice may be used to add to its appearance. Cucumber, Tarragon, or any other flavoured vinegar, may be substituted for plain, where they are liked.

Average cost, for this quantity, 7d.

Sufficient for a small salad.

Note.—In mixing the oil and vinegar with the eggs, put in first a few drops of oil, and then a few drops of vinegar, never adding a large quantity of either at one time. By this means, you can be more certain of the sauce not curdling. Patience and practice, let us add, are two essentials for making this sauce good.

MINT SAUCE, to serve with Roast Lamb.

469. Ingredients.—4 dessert­spoonfuls of chopped mint, 2 dessert­spoonfuls of pounded white sugar, ¼ pint of vinegar.

picture of “MINT.”

MINT.

Mode.—Wash the mint, which should be young and fresh-gathered, free from grit; pick the leaves from the stalks, mince them very fine, and put them into a tureen; add the sugar and vinegar, and stir till the former is dissolved. This sauce is better by being made 2 or 3 hours before wanted for table, as the vinegar then becomes impregnated with the flavour of the mint. By many persons, the above proportion of sugar would not be considered sufficient; but as tastes vary, we have given the quantity which we have found to suit the general palate.

Average cost, 3d.

Sufficient to serve with a middling-sized joint of lamb.

Note.—Where green mint is scarce and not obtainable, mint vinegar may be substituted for it, and will be found very acceptable in early spring.

Mint.—The common mint cultivated in our gardens is known as the Mentha viridis, and is employed in different culinary processes, being sometimes boiled with certain dishes, and afterwards withdrawn. It has an agreeable aromatic flavour, and forms an ingredient in soups, and sometimes is used in spring salads. It is valuable as a stomachic and antispasmodic; on which account it is generally served at table with pea-soup. Several of its species grow wild in low situations in the country.

MINT VINEGAR.

470. Ingredients.—Vinegar, mint.

Mode.—Procure some nice fresh mint, pick the leaves from the stalks, and fill a bottle or jar with them. Add vinegar to them until 226 the bottle is full; cover closely to exclude the air, and let it infuse for a fortnight. Then strain the liquor, and put it into small bottles for use, of which the corks should be sealed.

Seasonable.—This should be made in June, July, or August.

MIXED PICKLE.
(Very Good.)

471. Ingredients.—To each gallon of vinegar allow ¼ lb. of bruised ginger, ¼ lb. of mustard, ¼ lb. of salt, 2 oz. of mustard-seed, 1½ oz. of turmeric, 1 oz. of ground black pepper, ¼ oz. of cayenne, cauliflowers, onions, celery, sliced cucumbers, gherkins, French beans, nasturtiums, capsicums.

Mode.—Have a large jar, with a tightly-fitting lid, in which put as much vinegar as required, reserving a little to mix the various powders to a smooth paste. Put into a basin the mustard, turmeric, pepper, and cayenne; mix them with vinegar, and stir well until no lumps remain; add all the ingredients to the vinegar, and mix well. Keep this liquor in a warm place, and thoroughly stir every morning for a month with a wooden spoon, when it will be ready for the different vegetables to be added to it. As these come into season, have them gathered on a dry day, and, after merely wiping them with a cloth, to free them from moisture, put them into the pickle. The cauliflowers, it may be said, must be divided into small bunches. Put all these into the pickle raw, and at the end of the season, when there have been added as many of the vegetables as could be procured, store it away in jars, and tie over with bladder. As none of the ingredients are boiled, this pickle will not be fit to eat till 12 months have elapsed. Whilst the pickle is being made, keep a wooden spoon tied to the jar; and its contents, it may be repeated, must be stirred every morning.

Seasonable.—Make the pickle-liquor in May or June, as the season arrives for the various vegetables to be picked.

MUSHROOM KETCHUP.

472. Ingredients.—To each peck of mushrooms ½ lb. of salt; to each quart of mushroom-liquor ¼ oz. of cayenne, ½ oz. of allspice, ½ oz. of ginger, 2 blades of pounded mace.

Mode.—Choose full-grown mushroom-flaps, and take care they are perfectly fresh-gathered when the weather is tolerably dry; for, if they are picked during very heavy rain, the ketchup from which they are made is liable to get musty, and will not keep long. Put 227 a layer of them in a deep pan, sprinkle salt over them, and then another layer of mushrooms, and so on alternately. Let them remain for a few hours, when break them up with the hand; put them in a nice cool place for 3 days, occasionally stirring and mashing them well, to extract from them as much juice as possible. Now measure the quantity of liquor without straining, and to each quart allow the above proportion of spices, &c. Put all into a stone jar, cover it up very closely, put it in a saucepan of boiling water, set it over the fire, and let it boil for 3 hours. Have ready a nice clean stewpan; turn into it the contents of the jar, and let the whole simmer very gently for ½ hour; pour it into a jug, where it should stand in a cool place till the next day; then pour it off into another jug, and strain it into very dry clean bottles, and do not squeeze the mushrooms. To each pint of ketchup add a few drops of brandy. Be careful not to shake the contents, but leave all the sediment behind in the jug; cork well, and either seal or rosin the cork, so as perfectly to exclude the air. When a very clear bright ketchup is wanted, the liquor must be strained through a very fine hair-sieve, or flannel bag, after it has been very gently poured off; if the operation is not successful, it must be repeated until you have quite a clear liquor. It should be examined occasionally, and if it is spoiling, should be reboiled with a few peppercorns.

Seasonable from the beginning of September to the middle of October, when this ketchup should be made.

Note.—This flavouring ingredient, if genuine and well prepared, is one of the most useful store sauces to the experienced cook, and no trouble should be spared in its preparation. Double ketchup is made by reducing the liquor to half the quantity; for example, 1 quart must be boiled down to 1 pint. This goes farther than ordinary ketchup, as so little is required to flavour a good quantity of gravy. The sediment may also be bottled for immediate use, and will be found to answer for flavouring thick soups or gravies.

How to Distinguish Mushrooms from Toadstools.—The cultivated mushroom, known as Agaricus campestris, may be distinguished from other poisonous kinds of fungi by its having pink or flesh-coloured gills, or under-side, and by its invariably having an agreeable smell, which the toadstool has not. When young, mushrooms are like a small round button, both the stalk and head being white. As they grow larger, they expand their heads by degrees into a flat form, the gills underneath being at first of a pale flesh-colour, but becoming, as they stand longer, dark brown or blackish. Nearly all the poisonous kinds are brown, and have in general a rank and putrid smell. Edible mushrooms are found in closely-fed pastures, but seldom grow in woods, where most of the poisonous sorts are to be found.

TO DRY MUSHROOMS.

picture of “THE MUSHROOM.”

THE MUSHROOM.

473. Mode.—Wipe them clean, take away the brown part, and peel off the akin; lay them on sheets of paper to dry, in a cool 228 oven, when they will shrivel considerably. Keep them in paper bags, which hang in a dry place. When wanted for use, put them into cold gravy, bring them gradually to simmer, and it will be found that they will regain nearly their usual size.

The Mushroom.—The cultivated or garden mushroom is a species of fungus, which, in England, is considered the best, and is there usually eaten. The tribe, however, is numerous, and a large proportion of them are poisonous; hence it is always dangerous to make use of mushrooms gathered in their wild state. In some parts of Europe, as in Germany, Russia, and Poland, many species grow wild, and are used as food; but in Britain, two only are generally eaten. These are mostly employed for the flavouring of dishes, and are also dried and pickled. Catsup, or Ketchup, is made from them by mixing spices and salt with their juice. The young, called buttons, are the best for pickling when in the globular form.

BROWN MUSHROOM SAUCE,
to serve with Roast Meat, &c.

474. Ingredients.—½ pint of button mushrooms, ½ pint of good beef gravy, No. 435, 1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup (if at hand), thickening of butter and flour.

Mode.—Put the gravy into a saucepan, thicken it, and stir over the fire until it boils. Prepare the mushrooms by cutting off the stalks and wiping them free from grit and dirt; the large flap mushrooms cut into small pieces will answer for a brown sauce, when the buttons are not obtainable; put them into the gravy, and let them simmer very gently for about 10 minutes; then add the ketchup, and serve.

Time.—Rather more than 10 minutes.

Seasonable from August to October.

Note.—When fresh mushrooms are not obtainable, the powder No. 477 may be used as a substitute for brown sauce.

WHITE MUSHROOM SAUCE,
to serve with Boiled Fowls, Cutlets, &c.
I.

475. Ingredients.—Rather more than ½ pint of button mushrooms, lemon-juice and water, 1 oz. of butter, ½ pint of Béchamel, No. 367, ¼ teaspoonful of pounded sugar.

Mode.—Turn the mushrooms white by putting them into lemon-juice and water, having previously cut off the stalks and wiped them perfectly free from grit. Chop them, and put them in a stewpan with the butter. When the mushrooms are softened, add the Béchamel, 229 and simmer for about 5 minutes; should they, however, not be done enough, allow rather more time. They should not boil longer than necessary, as they would then lose their colour and flavour. Rub the whole through a tammy, and serve very hot. After this, it should be warmed in a bain marie.

Time.—Altogether, ¼ hour.

Average cost, 1s.

Seasonable from August to October.

II.
A More Simple Method.

476. Ingredients.—½ pint of melted butter, made with milk, No. 380; ½ pint of button mushrooms, 1 dessert­spoonful of mushroom ketchup, if at hand; cayenne and salt to taste.

Mode.—Make the melted butter by recipe No. 380, and add to it the mushrooms, which must be nicely cleaned, and free from grit, and the stalks cut off. Let them simmer gently for about 10 minutes, or until they are quite tender. Put in the seasoning and ketchup; let it just boil, when serve.

Time.—Rather more than 10 minutes.

Average cost, 8d.

Seasonable from August to October.

Growth of the Mushroom and other Fungi.—The quick growth of the mushroom and other fungi is no less wonderful than the length of time they live, and the numerous dangers they resist while they continue in the dormant state. To spring up “like a mushroom in a night” is a scriptural mode of expressing celerity; and this completely accords with all the observations which have been made concerning this curious class of plants. Mr. Sowerby remarks—“I have often placed specimens of the Phallus caninus by a window over-night, while in the egg-form, and they have been fully grown by the morning.”

MUSHROOM POWDER
(a valuable addition to Sauces and Gravies, when fresh Mushrooms are not obtainable).

477. Ingredients.—½ peck of large mushrooms, 2 onions, 12 cloves, ¼ oz. of pounded mace, 2 teaspoonfuls of white pepper.

Mode.—Peel the mushrooms, wipe them perfectly free from grit and dirt, remove the black fur, and reject all those that are at all worm-eaten; put them into a stewpan with the above ingredients, but without water; shake them over a clear fire, till all the liquor is dried up, and be careful not to let them burn; arrange them on tins, and dry them in a slow oven; pound them to a fine powder, which put into small dry bottles; cork well, seal the corks, and keep it in a dry place. In using this powder, add it to the gravy just before serving, when it will merely require one boil-up. The flavour imparted by this means to the gravy, ought to be exceedingly good.

230

Seasonable.—This should be made in September, or at the beginning of October.

Note.—If the bottles in which it is stored away are not perfectly dry, as, also the mushroom powder, it will keep good but a very short time.

PICKLED MUSHROOMS.

478. Ingredients.—Sufficient vinegar to cover the mushrooms; to each quart of mushrooms, 2 blades of pounded mace, 1 oz. of ground pepper, salt to taste.

Mode.—Choose some nice young button mushrooms for pickling, and rub off the skin with a piece of flannel and salt, and cut off the stalks; if very large, take out the red inside, and reject the black ones, as they are too old. Put them in a stewpan, sprinkle salt over them, with pounded mace and pepper in the above proportion; shake them well over a clear fire until the liquor flows, and keep them there until it is all dried up again; then add as much vinegar as will cover them; just let it simmer for 1 minute, and store it away in stone jars for use. When cold, tie down with bladder and keep in a dry place: they will remain good for a length of time, and are generally considered delicious.

Seasonable.—Make this the same time as ketchup, from the beginning of September to the middle of October.

Nature of the Mushroom.—Locality has evidently a considerable influence on the nature of the juices of the mushroom; for it has been discovered, after fatal experience, that some species, which are perfectly harmless when raised in open meadows and pasture-lands, become virulently poisonous when they happen to grow in contact with stagnant water or putrescent animal and vegetable substances. What the precise nature of the poison in fungi may be, has not been accurately ascertained.

A VERY RICH AND GOOD MUSHROOM SAUCE,
to serve with Fowls or Rabbits.

479. Ingredients.—1 pint of mushroom-buttons, salt to taste, a little grated nutmeg, 1 blade of pounded mace, 1 pint of cream, 2 oz. of butter, flour to thicken.

Mode.—Rub the buttons with apiece of flannel and salt, to take off the skin; cut off the stalks, and put them in a stewpan with the above ingredients, previously kneading together the butter and flour; boil the whole for about ten minutes, stirring all the time. Pour some of the sauce over the fowls, and the remainder serve in a tureen.

Time.—10 minutes.

Average cost, 2s.

Sufficient to serve with a pair of fowls.

Seasonable from August to October.

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HOW TO MIX MUSTARD.

480. Ingredients.—Mustard, salt, and water.

Mode.—Mustard should be mixed with water that has been boiled and allowed to cool; hot water destroys its essential properties, and raw cold water might cause it to ferment. Put the mustard in a cup, with a small pinch of salt, and mix with it very gradually sufficient boiled water to make it drop from the spoon without being watery. Stir and mix well, and rub the lumps well down with the back of a spoon, as well-mixed mustard should be perfectly free from these. The mustard-pot should not be more than half full, or rather less if it will not be used in a day or two, as it is so much better when freshly mixed.

TARTAR MUSTARD.

481. Ingredients.—Horseradish vinegar, cayenne, ½ a teacupful of mustard.

Mode.—Have ready sufficient horseradish vinegar to mix with the above proportion of mustard; put the mustard in a cup, with a slight seasoning of cayenne; mix it perfectly smooth with the vinegar, adding this a little at a time; rub down with the back of a spoon any lumps that may appear, and do not let it be too thin. Mustard may be flavoured in various ways, with Tarragon, shalot, celery, and many other vinegars, herbs, spices, &c.; but this is more customary in France than in England, as there it is merely considered a “vehicle of flavours,” as it has been termed.

PICKLED NASTURTIUMS (a very good Substitute for Capers)

482. Ingredients.—To each pint of vinegar, 1 oz. of salt, 6 peppercorns, nasturtiums.

picture of “NASTURTIUMS.”

NASTURTIUMS.

Mode.—Gather the nasturtium-pods on a dry day, and wipe them clean with a cloth; put them in a dry glass bottle, with vinegar, salt, and pepper in the above proportion. If you cannot find enough ripe to fill a bottle, cork up what you have got until you have some more fit: they may be added from day to day. Bung up the bottles, and seal or rosin the tops. They will be fit for use in 10 or 12 months; and the best way is to make them one season for the next.

Seasonable. Look for nasturtium-pods from the end of July to the end of August.

Nasturtiums. The elegant nasturtium-plant, called by naturalists Tropæolum, and 232 which sometimes goes by the name of Indian cress, came originally from Peru, but was easily made to grow in these islands. Its young leaves and flowers are of a slightly hot nature, and many consider them a good adjunct to salads, to which they certainly add a pretty appearance. When the beautiful blossoms, which may be employed with great effect in garnishing dishes, are off, then the fruit is used as described in the above recipe.

FRENCH ONION SAUCE, or SOUBISE.

483. Ingredients.—½ pint of Béchamel, No. 367, 1 bay-leaf, seasoning to taste of pounded mace and cayenne, 6 onions, a small piece of ham.

Mode.—Peel the onions and cut them in halves; put them in a stewpan, with just sufficient water to cover them, and add the bay-leaf, ham, cayenne, and mace; be careful to keep the lid closely shut, and simmer them until tender. Take them out and drain thoroughly; rub them through a tammy or sieve (an old one does for the purpose) with a wooden spoon, and put them to ½ pint of Béchamel; keep stirring over the fire until it boils, when serve. If it should require any more seasoning, add it to taste.

Time.—¾ hour to boil the onions.

Average cost, 10d. for this quantity.

Sufficient for a moderate-sized dish.

WHITE ONION SAUCE,
for Boiled Rabbits, Roast Shoulder of Mutton, &c.

484. Ingredients.—9 large onions, or 12 middling-sized ones, 1 pint of melted butter made with milk (No. 380), ½ teaspoonful of salt, or rather more.

Mode.—Peel the onions and put them into water to which a little salt has been added, to preserve their whiteness, and let them remain for ¼ hour. Then put them in a stewpan, cover them with water, and let them boil until tender, and, if the onions should be very strong, change the water after they have been boiling for ¼ hour. Drain them thoroughly, chop them, and rub them through a tammy or sieve. Make 1 pint of melted butter, by recipe No. 380, and when that boils, put in the onions, with a seasoning of salt; stir it till it simmers, when it will be ready to serve. If these directions are carefully attended to, this onion sauce will be delicious.

Time.—From ¾ to 1 hour, to boil the onions.

Average cost, 9d. per pint.

Sufficient to serve with a roast shoulder of mutton, or boiled rabbit.

Seasonable from August to March.

Note.—To make this sauce very mild and delicate, use Spanish onions, which can be procured from the beginning of September to Christmas. 2 or 3 233 tablespoonfuls of cream added just before serving, will be found to improve its appearance very much. Small onions, when very young, may be cooked whole, and served in melted butter. A sieve or tammy should be kept expressly for onions: an old one answers the purpose, as it is liable to retain the flavour and smell, which of course would be excessively disagreeable in delicate preparations.

BROWN ONION SAUCE.

485. Ingredients.—6 large onions, rather more than ½ pint of good gravy, 2 oz. of butter, salt and pepper to taste.

Mode.—Slice and fry the onions of a pale brown in a stewpan, with the above quantity of butter, keeping them well stirred, that they do not get black. When a nice colour, pour over the gravy, and let them simmer gently until tender. Now skim off every particle of fat, add the seasoning, and rub the whole through a tammy or sieve; put it back in the saucepan to warm, and when it boils, serve.

Time.—Altogether 1 hour.

Seasonable from August to March.

Note.—Where a very high flavouring is liked, add 1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup, or a small quantity of port wine.

History of the Onion.—It is not supposed that any variety of the onion is indigenous to Britain, as when the large and mild roots imported from warmer climates, have been cultivated in these islands a few years, they deteriorate both in size and sweetness. It is therefore most likely that this plant was first introduced into England from continental Europe, and that it originally was produced in a southern climate, and has gradually become acclimatized to a colder atmosphere. (See No. 139.)

PICKLED ONIONS
(a very Simple Method, and exceedingly Good).

486. Ingredients.—Pickling onions; to each quart of vinegar, 2 teaspoonfuls of allspice, 2 teaspoonfuls of whole black pepper.

Mode.—Have the onions gathered when quite dry and ripe, and, with the fingers, take off the thin outside skin; then, with a silver knife (steel should not be used, as it spoils the colour of the onions), remove one more skin, when the onion will look quite clear. Have ready some very dry bottles or jars, and as fast as they are peeled, put them in. Pour over sufficient cold vinegar to cover them, with pepper and allspice in the above proportions, taking care that each jar has its share of the latter ingredients. Tie down with bladder, and put them in a dry place, and in a fortnight they will be fit for use. This is a most simple recipe and very delicious, the onions being nice and crisp. They should be eaten within 6 or 8 months after being done, as the onions are liable to become soft.

Seasonable from the middle of July to the end of August.

234
PICKLED ONIONS.

487. Ingredients.—1 gallon of pickling onions, salt and water, milk; to each ½ gallon of vinegar, 1 oz. of bruised ginger, ¼ teaspoonful of cayenne, 1 oz. of allspice, 1 oz. of whole black pepper, ¼ oz. of whole nutmeg bruised, 8 cloves, ¼ oz. of mace.

Mode.—Gather the onions, which should not be too small, when they are quite dry and ripe; wipe off the dirt, but do not pare them; make a strong solution of salt and water, into which put the onions, and change this, morning and night, for 3 days, and save the last brine they were put in. Then take the outside skin off, and put them into a tin saucepan capable of holding them all, as they are always better done together. Now take equal quantities of milk and the last salt and water the onions were in, and pour this to them; to this add 2 large spoonfuls of salt, put them over the fire, and watch them very attentively. Keep constantly turning the onions about with a wooden skimmer, those at the bottom to the top, and vice versâ; and let the milk and water run through the holes of the skimmer. Remember, the onions must never boil, or, if they do, they will be good for nothing; and they should be quite transparent. Keep the onions stirred for a few minutes, and, in stirring them, be particular not to break them. Then have ready a pan with a colander, into which turn the onions to drain, covering them with a cloth to keep in the steam. Place on a table an old cloth, 2 or 3 times double; put the onions on it when quite hot, and over them an old piece of blanket; cover this closely over them, to keep in the steam. Let them remain till the next day, when they will be quite cold, and look yellow and shrivelled; take off the shrivelled skins, when they should be as white as snow. Put them in a pan, make a pickle of vinegar and the remaining ingredients, boil all these up, and pour hot over the onions in the pan. Cover very closely to keep in all the steam, and let them stand till the following day, when they will be quite cold. Put them into jars or bottles well bunged, and a tablespoonful of the best olive-oil on the top of each jar or bottle. Tie them down with bladder, and let them stand in a cool place for a month or six weeks, when they will be fit for use. They should be beautifully white, and eat crisp, without the least softness, and will keep good many mouths.

Seasonable from the middle of July to the end of August.

ORANGE GRAVY, for Wildfowl, Widgeon, Teal, &c.

488. Ingredients.—½ pint of white stock, No. 107, 1 small onion, 3 or 4 strips of lemon or orange peel, a few leaves of basil, if at hand, 235 the juice of a Seville orange or lemon, salt and pepper to taste, 1 glass of port wine.

Mode.—Put the onion, cut in slices, into a stewpan with the stock, orange-peel, and basil, and let them simmer very gently for ¼ hour or rather longer, should the gravy not taste sufficiently of the peel. Strain it off, and add to the gravy the remaining ingredients; let the whole heat through, and, when on the point of boiling, serve very hot in a tureen which should have a cover to it.

Time.—Altogether ½ hour.

Sufficient for a small tureen.

OYSTER FORCEMEAT, for Roast or Boiled Turkey.

489. Ingredients.—½ pint of bread crumbs, 1½ oz. of chopped suet or butter, 1 faggot of savoury herbs, ¼ saltspoonful of grated nutmeg, salt and pepper to taste, 2 eggs, 18 oysters.

Mode.—Grate the bread very fine, and be careful that no large lumps remain; put it into a basin with the suet, which must be very finely minced, or, when butter is used, that must be cut up into small pieces. Add the herbs, also chopped as small as possible, and seasoning; mix all these well together, until the ingredients are thoroughly mingled. Open and beard the oysters, chop them, but not too small, and add them to the other ingredients. Beat up the eggs, and, with the hand, work altogether, until it is smoothly mixed. The turkey should not be stuffed too full: if there should be too much forcemeat, roll it into balls, fry them, and use them as a garnish.

Sufficient for 1 turkey.

OYSTER KETCHUP.

490. Ingredients.—Sufficient oysters to fill a pint measure, 1 pint of sherry, 3 oz. of salt, 1 drachm of cayenne, 2 drachms of pounded mace.

Mode.—Procure the oysters very fresh, and open sufficient to fill a pint measure; save the liquor, and scald the oysters in it with the sherry; strain the oysters, and put them in a mortar with the salt, cayenne, and mace; pound the whole until reduced to a pulp, then add it to the liquor in which they were scalded; boil it again five minutes, and skim well; rub the whole through a sieve, and, when cold, bottle and cork closely. The corks should be sealed.

Seasonable from September to April.

Note.—Cider may be substituted for the sherry.

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PICKLED OYSTERS.

491. Ingredients.—100 oysters; to each ½ pint of vinegar, 1 blade of pounded mace, 1 strip of lemon-peel, 12 black peppercorns.

Mode.—Get the oysters in good condition, open them, place them in a saucepan, and let them simmer in their own liquor for about 10 minutes, very gently; then take them, out, one by one, and place them in a jar, and cover them, when cold, with a pickle made as follows:—Measure the oyster-liquor; add to it the same quantity of vinegar, with mace, lemon-peel, and pepper in the above proportion, and boil it for 5 minutes; when cold, pour over the oysters, and tie them down very closely, as contact with the air spoils them.

Seasonable from September to April.

Note.—Put this pickle away in small jars; because directly one is opened, its contents should immediately be eaten, as they soon spoil. The pickle should not be kept more than 2 or 3 months.

OYSTER SAUCE, to serve with Fish, Boiled Poultry, &c.

492. Ingredients.—3 dozen oysters, ½ pint of melted butter, made with milk, No. 380.

Mode.—Open the oysters carefully, and save their liquor; strain it into a clean saucepan (a lined one is best), put in the oysters, and let them just come to the boiling-point, when they should look plump. Take them off the fire immediately, and put the whole into a basin. Strain the liquor from them, mix with it sufficient milk to make ½ pint altogether, and follow the directions of No. 380. When the melted butter is ready and very smooth, put in the oysters, which should be previously bearded, if you wish the sauce to be really nice. Set it by the side of the fire to get thoroughly hot, but do not allow it to boil, or the oysters will immediately harden. Using cream instead of milk makes this sauce extremely delicious. When liked, add a seasoning of cayenne, or anchovy sauce; but, as we have before stated, a plain sauce should be plain, and not be overpowered by highly-flavoured essences; therefore we recommend that the above directions be implicitly followed, and no seasoning added.

Average cost for this quantity, 2s.

Sufficient for 6 persons. Never allow fewer than 6 oysters to 1 person, unless the party is very large.

Seasonable from September to April.

A more economical sauce may be made by using a smaller quantity of oysters, and not bearding them before they are added to the sauce: this may answer 237 the purpose, but we cannot undertake to recommend it as a mode of making this delicious adjunct to fish, &c.

PARSLEY AND BUTTER, to serve with Calf’s Head, Boiled Fowls, &c.

493. Ingredients.—2 tablespoonfuls of minced parsley, ½ pint of melted butter, No. 376.

Mode.—Put into a saucepan a small quantity of water, slightly salted, and when it boils, throw in a good bunch of parsley which has been previously washed and tied together in a bunch; let it boil for 5 minutes, drain it, mince the leaves very fine, and put the above quantity in a tureen; pour over it ½ pint of smoothly-made melted butter; stir once, that the ingredients may be thoroughly mixed, and serve.

Time.—5 minutes to boil the parsley.

Average cost, 4d.

Sufficient for 1 large fowl; allow rather more for a pair.

Seasonable at any time.

picture of “PARSLEY.”

PARSLEY.

Note.—Sometimes, in the middle of winter, parsley-leaves are not to be had, when the following will be found an excellent substitute:—Tie up a little parsley-seed in a small piece of muslin, and boil it for 10 minutes in a small quantity of water; use this water to make the melted butter with, and throw into it a little boiled spinach, minced rather fine, which will have an appearance similar to that of parsley.

Parsley.—If there be nothing new under the sun, there are, at any rate, different uses found for the same thing; for this pretty aromatic herb was used in ancient times, as we learn from mythological narrative, to adorn the head of a hero, no less than Hercules; and now—was ever fall so great?—we moderns use it in connection with the head of—a calf. According to Homer’s “Iliad,” warriors fed their chariot-steeds on parsley; and Pliny acquaints us with the fact that, as a symbol of mourning, it was admitted to furnish the funeral tables of the Romans. Egypt, some say, first produced this herb; whence it was introduced, by some unknown voyager, into Sardinia, where the Carthaginians found it, and made it known to the inhabitants of Marseilles. (See No. 123.)

FRIED PARSLEY, for Garnishing.

494. Ingredients.—Parsley, hot lard or clarified dripping.

Mode.—Gather some young parsley; wash, pick, and dry it thoroughly in a cloth; put it into the wire basket of which we have given an engraving, and hold it in boiling lard or dripping for a minute or two. Directly it is done, lift out the basket, and let it stand before the fire, that the parsley may become thoroughly crisp; and the quicker it 238 is fried the better. Should the kitchen not be furnished with the above article, throw the parsley into the frying-pan, and when crisp, lift it out with a slice, dry it before the fire, and when thoroughly crisp, it will be ready for use.

picture of “WIRE BASKET.”

WIRE BASKET.

Wire Basket.—For this recipe, a wire basket, as shown in the annexed engraving, will be found very useful. It is very light and handy, and may be used for other similar purposes besides that described above.

PARSLEY JUICE, for Colouring various Dishes.

495. Procure some nice young parsley; wash it and dry it thoroughly in a cloth; pound the leaves in a mortar till all the juice is extracted, and put the juice in a teacup or small jar; place this in a saucepan of boiling water, and warm it on the bain marie principle just long enough to take off its rawness; let it drain, and it will be ready for colouring.

TO PRESERVE PARSLEY THROUGH THE WINTER.

496. Use freshly-gathered parsley for keeping, and wash it perfectly free from grit and dirt; put it into boiling water which has been slightly salted and well skimmed, and then let it boil for 2 or 3 minutes; take it out, let it drain, and lay it on a sieve in front of the fire, when it should be dried as expeditiously as possible. Store it away in a very dry place in bottles, and when wanted for use, pour over it a little warm water, and let it stand for about 5 minutes.

Seasonable.—This may be done at any time between June and October.

AN EXCELLENT PICKLE.

497. Ingredients.—Equal quantities of medium-sized onions, cucumbers, and sauce-apples; 1½ teaspoonful of salt, ¾ teaspoonful of cayenne, 1 wineglassful of soy, 1 wineglassful of sherry; vinegar.

Mode.—Slice sufficient cucumbers, onions, and apples to fill a pint stone jar, taking care to cut the slices very thin; arrange them in alternate layers, shaking in as you proceed salt and cayenne in the above proportion; pour in the soy and wine, and fill up with vinegar. It will be fit for use the day it is made.

Seasonable in August and September.

[This recipe was forwarded to the editress of this work by a subscriber to the “Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine.” Mrs. Beeton, not having tested it, cannot vouch for its excellence; but the contributor spoke very highly in its favour.]

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Soy.—This is a sauce frequently made use of for fish, and comes from Japan, where it is prepared from the seeds of a plant called Dolichos Soja. The Chinese also manufacture it; but that made by the Japanese is said to be the best. All sorts of statements have been made respecting the very general adulteration of this article in England, and we fear that many of them are too true. When genuine, it is of an agreeable flavour, thick, and of a clear brown colour.

PICKLED RED CABBAGE.

498. Ingredients.—Red cabbages, salt and water; to each quart of vinegar, ½ oz. of ginger well bruised, 1 oz. of whole black pepper, and, when liked, a little cayenne.

Mode.—Take off the outside decayed leaves of a nice red cabbage, cut it in quarters, remove the stalks, and cut it across in very thin slices. Lay these on a dish, and strew them plentifully with salt, covering them with another dish. Let them remain for 24 hours, turn into a colander to drain, and, if necessary, wipe lightly with a clean soft cloth. Put them in a jar; boil up the vinegar with spices in the above proportion, and, when cold, pour it over the cabbage. It will be fit for use in a week or two, and, if kept for a very long time, the cabbage is liable get soft and to discolour. To be really nice and crisp, and of a good red colour, it should be eaten almost immediately after it is made. A little bruised cochineal boiled with the vinegar adds much to the appearance of this pickle. Tie down with bladder, and keep in a dry place.

Seasonable in July and August, but the pickle will be much more crisp if the frost has just touched the leaves.

Red Cabbage.—This plant, in its growth, is similar in form to that of the white, but is of a bluish-purple colour, which, however, turns red on the application of acid, as is the case with all vegetable blues. It is principally from the white vegetable that the Germans make their sauerkraut; a dish held in such high estimation with the inhabitants of Vaderland, but which requires, generally speaking, with strangers, a long acquaintance in order to become sufficiently impressed with its numerous merits. The large red Dutch is the kind generally recommended for pickling,

PLUM-PUDDING SAUCE.

499. Ingredients.—1 wineglassful of brandy, 2 oz. of very fresh butter, 1 glass of Madeira, pounded sugar to taste.

Mode.—Put the pounded sugar in a basin, with part of the brandy and the butter; let it stand by the side of the fire until it is warm and the sugar and butter are dissolved; then add the rest of the brandy, with the Madeira. Either pour it over the pudding, or serve in a tureen. This is a very rich and excellent sauce.

Average cost, 1s. 3d. for this quantity.

Sufficient for a pudding made for 6 persons.

QUIN’S SAUCE, an excellent Fish Sauce.

500. Ingredients.—½ pint of walnut pickle, ½ pint of port wine, 240 1 pint of mushroom ketchup, 1 dozen anchovies, 1 dozen shalots, ¼ pint of soy, ½ teaspoonful of cayenne.

Mode.—Put all the ingredients into a saucepan, having previously chopped the shalots and anchovies very small; simmer for 15 minutes, strain, and, when cold, bottle off for use: the corks should be well sealed to exclude the air.

Time.—¼ hour.

Seasonable at any time.

RAVIGOTTE, a French Salad Sauce.
Mons. Ude’s Recipe.

501. Ingredients.—1 teaspoonful of mushroom ketchup, 1 teaspoonful of cavice, 1 teaspoonful of Chili vinegar, 1 teaspoonful of Reading sauce, a piece of butter the size of an egg, 3 tablespoonfuls of thick Béchamel, No. 367, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, 3 tablespoonfuls of cream; salt and pepper to taste.

Mode.—Scald the parsley, mince the leaves very fine, and add it to all the other ingredients; after mixing the whole together thoroughly, the sauce will be ready for use.

Average cost, for this quantity, 10d.

Seasonable at any time.

READING SAUCE.

502. Ingredients.—2½ pints of walnut pickle, 1½ oz. of shalots, 1 quart of spring water, ¾ pint of Indian soy, ½ oz. of bruised ginger, ½ oz. of long pepper, 1 oz. of mustard-seed, 1 anchovy, ½ oz. of cayenne, ¼ oz. of dried sweet bay-leaves.

Mode.—Bruise the shalots in a mortar, and put them in a stone jar with the walnut-liquor; place it before the fire, and let it boil until reduced to 2 pints. Then, into another jar, put all the ingredients except the bay-leaves, taking care that they are well bruised, so that the flavour may be thoroughly extracted; put this also before the fire, and let it boil for 1 hour, or rather more. When the contents of both jars are sufficiently cooked, mix them together, stirring them well as you mix them, and submit them to a slow boiling for ½ hour; cover closely, and let them stand 24 hours in a cool place; then open the jar and add the bay-leaves; let it stand a week longer closed down, when strain through a flannel bag, and it will be ready for use. The above quantities will make ½ gallon.

Time.—Altogether, 3 hours.

Seasonable.—This sauce may be made at any time.

241 R
REMOULADE, or FRENCH SALAD-DRESSING.

503. Ingredients.—4 eggs, ½ tablespoonful of made mustard, salt and cayenne to taste, 3 tablespoonfuls of olive-oil, 1 tablespoonful of tarragon or plain vinegar.

Mode.—Boil 3 eggs quite hard for about ¼ hour, put them into cold water, and let them remain in it for a few minutes; strip off the shells, put the yolks in a mortar, and pound them very smoothly; add to them, very gradually, the mustard, seasoning, and vinegar, keeping all well stirred and rubbed down with the back of a wooden spoon. Put in the oil drop by drop, and when this is thoroughly mixed with the other ingredients, add the yolk of a raw egg, and stir well, when it will be ready for use. This sauce should not be curdled; and to prevent this, the only way is to mix a little of everything at a time, and not to cease stirring. The quantities of oil and vinegar may be increased or diminished according to taste, as many persons would prefer a smaller proportion of the former ingredient.

picture of “TARRAGON.”

TARRAGON.

Green Remoulade is made by using tarragon vinegar instead of plain, and colouring with a little parsley-juice, No. 495. Harvey’s sauce, or Chili vinegar, may be added at pleasure.

Time.—¼ hour to boil the eggs.

Average cost, for this quantity, 7d.

Sufficient for a salad made for 4 or 6 persons.

Tarragon.—The leaves of this plant, known to naturalists as Artemisia dracunculus, are much used in France as a flavouring ingredient for salads. From it also is made the vinegar known as tarragon vinegar, which is employed by the French in mixing their mustard. It originally comes from Tartary, and does not seed in France.

SAGE-AND-ONION STUFFING, for Geese, Ducks, and Pork.

504. Ingredients.—4 large onions, 10 sage-leaves, ¼ lb. of bread crumbs, 1½ oz. of butter, salt and pepper to taste, 1 egg.

Mode.—Peel the onions, put them into boiling water, let them simmer for 5 minutes or rather longer, and, just before they are taken out, put in the sage-leaves for a minute or two to take off their rawness. Chop both these very fine, add the bread, seasoning, and butter, and work the whole together with the yolk of an egg, when the stuffing will be ready for use. It should be rather highly seasoned, and the sage-leaves should be very finely chopped. Many cooks do not parboil the onions in the manner just stated, but merely use them 242 raw. The stuffing then, however, is not nearly so mild, and, to many tastes, its strong flavour would be very objectionable. When made for goose, a portion of the liver of the bird, simmered for a few minutes and very finely minced, is frequently added to this stuffing; and where economy is studied, the egg may be dispensed with.

Time.—Rather more than 5 minutes to simmer the onions.

Average cost, for this quantity, 4d.

Sufficient for 1 goose, or a pair of ducks.

505. Soyer’s Recipe for Goose Stuffing.—Take 4 apples, peeled and cored, 4 onions, 4 leaves of sage, and 4 leaves of lemon thyme not broken, and boil them in a stewpan with sufficient water to cover them; when done, pulp them through a sieve, removing the sage and thyme; then add sufficient pulp of mealy potatoes to cause it to be sufficiently dry without sticking to the hand; add pepper and salt, and stuff the bird.

SALAD DRESSING (Excellent).
I.

506. Ingredients.—1 teaspoonful of mixed mustard, 1 teaspoonful of pounded sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls of salad oil, 4 tablespoonfuls of milk, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, cayenne and salt taste.

Mode.—Put the mixed mustard into a salad-bowl with the sugar, and add the oil drop by drop, carefully stirring and mixing all these ingredients well together. Proceed in this manner with the milk and vinegar, which must be added very gradually, or the sauce will curdle. Put in the seasoning, when the mixture will be ready for use. If this dressing is properly made, it will have a soft creamy appearance, and will be found very delicious with crab, or cold fried fish (the latter cut into dice), as well as with salads. In mixing salad dressings, the ingredients cannot be added too gradually, or stirred too much.

Average cost, for this quantity, 3d.

Sufficient for a small salad.

This recipe can be confidently recommended by the editress, to whom it was given by an intimate friend noted for her salads.

Scarcity of Salads in England.—Three centuries ago, very few vegetables were cultivated in England, and an author writing of the period of Henry VIII.’s reign, tells us that neither salad, nor carrots, nor cabbages, nor radishes, nor any other comestibles of a like nature, were grown in any part of the kingdom: they came from Holland and Flanders. We further learn, that Queen Catharine herself, with all her royalty, could not procure a salad of English growth for her dinner. The king was obliged to mend this sad state of affairs, and send to Holland for a gardener in order to cultivate those pot-herbs, in the growth of which England is now, perhaps, not behind any other country in Europe.

243

picture of “THE OLIVE.”

THE OLIVE.

The Olive and Olive Oil.—This tree assumes a high degree of interest from the historical circumstances with which it is connected. A leaf of it was brought into the ark by the dove, when that vessel was still floating on the waters of the great deep, and gave the first token that the deluge was subsiding. Among the Greeks, the prize of the victor in the Olympic games was a wreath of wild olive; and the “Mount of Olives” is rendered familiar to our ears by its being mentioned in the Scriptures as near to Jerusalem. The tree is indigenous in the north of Africa, Syria, and Greece; and the Romans introduced it to Italy. In Spain and the south of France it is now cultivated; and although it grows in England, its fruit does not ripen in the open air. Both in Greece and Portugal the fruit is eaten in its ripe state; but its taste is not agreeable to many palates. To the Italian shepherd, bread and olives, with a little wine, form a nourishing diet; but in England, olives are usually only introduced by way of dessert, to destroy the taste of the viands which have been previously eaten, that the flavour of the wine may be the better enjoyed. There are three kinds of olives imported to London,—the French, Spanish, and Italian: the first are from Provence, and are generally accounted excellent; the second are larger, but more bitter; and the last are from Lucca, and are esteemed the best. The oil extracted from olives, called olive oil, or salad oil, is, with the continentals, in continual request, more dishes being prepared with than without it, we should imagine. With us, it is principally used in mixing a salad, and when thus employed, it tends to prevent fermentation, and is an antidote against flatulency.

II.

507. Ingredients.—4 eggs, 1 teaspoonful of mixed mustard, ¼ teaspoonful of white pepper, half that quantity of cayenne, salt to taste, 4 tablespoonfuls of cream, vinegar.

Mode.—Boil the eggs until hard, which will be in about ¼ hour or 20 minutes; put them into cold water, take off the shells, and pound the yolks in a mortar to a smooth paste. Then add all the other ingredients, except the vinegar, and stir them well until the whole are thoroughly incorporated one with the other. Pour in sufficient vinegar to make it of the consistency of cream, taking care to add but little at a time. The mixture will then be ready for use.

Average cost, for this quantity, 7d.

Sufficient for a moderate-sized salad.

Note.—The whites of the eggs, cut into rings, will serve very well as a garnishing to the salad.

III.

508. Ingredients.—1 egg, 1 teaspoonful of salad oil, 1 teaspoonful of mixed mustard, ¼ teaspoonful of salt, ½ teaspoonful of pounded sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 6 tablespoonfuls of cream.

Mode.—Prepare and mix the ingredients by the preceding recipe, and be very particular that the whole is well stirred.

Note.—In making salads, the vegetables, &c., should never be added to the sauce very long before they are wanted for table; the dressing, however, may 244 always be prepared some hours before required. Where salads are much in request, it is a good plan to bottle off sufficient dressing for a few days’ consumption, as, thereby, much time and trouble are saved. If kept in a cool place, it will remain good for 4 or 5 days.

Poetic Recipe for Salad.—The Rev. Sydney Smith, the witty canon of St. Paul’s, who thought that an enjoyment of the good things of this earth was compatible with aspirations for things higher, wrote the following excellent recipe for salad, which we should advise our readers not to pass by without a trial, when the hot weather invites to a dish of cold lamb. May they find the flavour equal to the rhyme.—

“Two large potatoes, pass’d through kitchen sieve,

Smoothness and softness to the salad give:

Of mordent mustard add a single spoon,

Distrust the condiment that bites too soon;

But deem it not, thou man of herbs, a fault,

To add a double quantity of salt:

Four times the spoon with oil of Lucca crown,

And twice with vinegar procured from ‘town;’

True flavour needs it, and your poet begs,

The pounded yellow of two well-boil’d eggs.

Let onion’s atoms lurk within the bowl,

And, scarce suspected, animate the whole;

And, lastly, in the flavour’d compound toss

A magic spoonful of anchovy sauce.

Oh! great and glorious, and herbaceous treat,

’Twould tempt the dying anchorite to eat.

Back to the world he’d turn his weary soul,

And plunge his fingers in the salad-bowl.”

SAUCE ALLEMANDE, or GERMAN SAUCE.

509. Ingredients.—½ pint of sauce tournée (No. 517), the yolks of 2 eggs.

Mode.—Put the sauce into a stewpan, heat it, and stir to it the beaten yolks of 2 eggs, which have been previously strained. Let it just simmer, but not boil, or the eggs will curdle; and after they are added to the sauce, it must be stirred without ceasing. This sauce is a general favourite, and is used for many made dishes.

Time.—1 minute to simmer.

Average cost, 6d.

SAUCE ARISTOCRATIQUE (a Store Sauce).

510. Ingredients.—Green walnuts. To every pint of juice, 1 lb. of anchovies, 1 drachm of cloves, 1 drachm of mace, 1 drachm of Jamaica ginger bruised, 8 shalots. To every pint of the boiled liquor, ½ pint of vinegar, ¼ pint of port wine, 2 tablespoonfuls of soy.

Mode.—Pound the walnuts in a mortar, squeeze out the juice through a strainer, and let it stand to settle. Pour off the clear juice, and to every pint of it, add anchovies, spices, and cloves in the above proportion. Boil all these together till the anchovies are dissolved, then strain the juice again, put in the shalots (8 to every pint), and 245 boil again. To every pint of the boiled liquor add vinegar, wine, and soy, in the above quantities, and bottle off for use. Cork well, and seal the corks.

Seasonable.—Make this sauce from the beginning to the middle of July, when walnuts are in perfection for sauces and pickling.

Average cost, 3s. 6d. for a quart.

Manufacture of Sauces.—In France, during the reign of Louis XII., at the latter end of the 14th century, there was formed a company of sauce-manufacturers, who obtained, in those days of monopolies, the exclusive privilege of making sauces. The statutes drawn up by this company inform us that the famous sauce à la cameline, sold by them, was to be composed of “good cinnamon, good ginger, good cloves, good grains of paradise, good bread, and good vinegar.” The sauce Tence, was to be made of “good sound almonds, good ginger, good wine, and good verjuice.” May we respectfully express a hope—not that we desire to doubt it in the least—that the English sauce-manufacturers of the 19th century are equally considerate and careful in choosing their ingredients for their various well-known preparations.

SAUCE A L’AURORE, for Trout, Soles, &c.

511. Ingredients.—The spawn of 1 lobster, 1 oz. of butter, ½ pint of Béchamel (No. 367), the juice of ½ lemon, a high seasoning of salt and cayenne.

Mode.—Take the spawn and pound it in a mortar with the butter, until quite smooth, and work it through a hair sieve. Put the Béchamel into a stewpan, add the pounded spawn, the lemon-juice, which must be strained, and a plentiful seasoning of cayenne and salt; let it just simmer, but do not allow it to boil, or the beautiful red colour of the sauce will be spoiled. A small spoonful of anchovy essence may be added at pleasure.

Time.—1 minute to simmer.

Average cost, for this quantity, 1s.

Sufficient for a pair of large soles.

Seasonable at any time.

SAUCE A LA MATELOTE, for Fish.

512. Ingredients.—½ pint of Espagnole (No. 411), 3 onions, 2 tablespoonfuls of mushroom ketchup, ½ glass of port wine, a bunch of sweet herbs, ½ bay-leaf, salt and pepper to taste, 1 clove, 2 berries of allspice, a little liquor in which the fish has been boiled, lemon-juice, and anchovy sauce.

Mode.—Slice and fry the onions of a nice brown colour, and put them into a stewpan with the Espagnole, ketchup, wine, and a little liquor in which the fish has been boiled. Add the seasoning, herbs, and spices, and simmer gently for 10 minutes, stirring well the whole time; strain it through a fine hair sieve, put in the lemon-juice and anchovy sauce, and pour it over the fish. This sauce may be very much enriched by adding a few small quenelles, or forcemeat 246 balls made of fish, and also glazed onions or mushrooms. These, however, should not be added to the matelote till it is dished.

Time.—10 minutes.

Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Seasonable at any time.

picture of “THE BAY.”

THE BAY.

Note.—This sauce originally took its name as being similar to that which the French sailor (matelot) employed as a relish to the fish he caught and ate. In some cases, cider and perry were substituted for the wine. The Norman matelotes were very celebrated.

The Bay.—We have already described (see No. 180) the difference between the cherry-laurel (Prunus Laurus cerasus) and the classic laurel (Laurus nobilis), the former only being used for culinary purposes. The latter beautiful evergreen was consecrated by the ancients to priests and heroes, and used in their sacrifices. “A crown of bay” was the earnestly-desired reward for great enterprises, and for the display of uncommon genius in oratory or writing. It was more particularly sacred to Apollo, because, according to the fable, the nymph Daphne was changed into a laurel-tree. The ancients believed, too, that the laurel had the power of communicating the gift of prophecy, as well as poetic genius; and, when they wished to procure pleasant dreams, would place a sprig under the pillow of their bed. It was the symbol, too, of victory, and it was thought that the laurel could never be struck by lightning. From this word comes that of “laureate;” Alfred Tennyson being the present poet laureate, crowned with laurel as the first of living bards.

SAUCE PIQUANTE, for Cutlets, Roast Meat, &c.

513. Ingredients.—2 oz. of butter, 1 small carrot, 6 shalots, 1 small bunch of savoury herbs, including parsley, ½ a bay-leaf, 2 slices of lean ham, 2 cloves, 6 peppercorns, 1 blade of mace, 3 whole allspice, 4 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, ½ pint of stock (No. 104 or 105), 1 small lump of sugar, ¼ saltspoonful of cayenne, salt to taste.

Mode.—Put into a stewpan the butter, with the carrot and shalots, both of which must be cut into small slices; add the herbs, bay-leaf, spices, and ham (which must be minced rather finely), and let these ingredients simmer over a slow fire, until the bottom of the stewpan is covered with a brown glaze. Keep stirring with a wooden spoon, and put in the remaining ingredients. Simmer very gently for ¼ hour, skim off every particle of fat, strain the sauce through a sieve, and serve very hot. Care must be taken that this sauce be not made too acid, although it should possess a sharpness indicated by its name. Of course the above quantity of vinegar may be increased or diminished at pleasure, according to taste.

Time.—Altogether ½ hour.

Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for a medium-sized dish of cutlets.

Seasonable at any time.

247
A GOOD SAUCE FOR VARIOUS BOILED PUDDINGS.

514. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of butter, ¼ lb. of pounded sugar, a wineglassful of brandy or rum.

Mode.—Beat the butter to a cream, until no lumps remain; add the pounded sugar, and brandy or rum; stir once or twice until the whole is thoroughly mixed, and serve. This sauce may either be poured round the pudding or served in a tureen, according to the taste or fancy of the cook or mistress.

Average cost, 8d. for this quantity.

Sufficient for a pudding.

SAUCE ROBERT, for Steaks, &c.

515. Ingredients.—2 oz. of butter, 3 onions, 1 teaspoonful of flour, 4 tablespoonfuls of gravy, or stock No. 105, salt and pepper to taste, 1 teaspoonful of made mustard, 1 teaspoonful of vinegar, the juice of ½ lemon.

Mode.—Put the butter into a stewpan, set it on the fire, and, when browning, throw in the onions, which must be cut into small slices. Fry them brown, but do not burn them; add the flour, shake the onions in it, and give the whole another fry. Put in the gravy and seasoning, and boil it gently for 10 minutes; skim off the fat, add the mustard, vinegar, and lemon-juice; give it one boil, and pour round the steaks, or whatever dish the sauce has been prepared for.

Time.—Altogether ½ hour.

Average cost, for this quantity, 6d.

Seasonable at any time.

Sufficient for about 2 lbs. of steak.

Note.—This sauce will be found an excellent accompaniment to roast goose, pork, mutton cutlets, and various other dishes.

A GOOD SAUCE FOR STEAKS.

516. Ingredients.—1 oz. of whole black pepper, ½ oz. of allspice, 1 oz. of salt, ½ oz. grated horseradish, ½ oz. of pickled shalots, 1 pint of mushroom ketchup or walnut pickle.

Mode.—Pound all the ingredients finely in a mortar, and put them into the ketchup or walnut-liquor. Let them stand for a fortnight, when strain off the liquor and bottle for use. Either pour a little of the sauce over the steaks or mix it in the gravy.

Seasonable.—This can be made at any time.

Note.—In using a jar of pickled walnuts, there is frequently left a large 248 quantity of liquor; this should be converted into a sauce like the above, and will be found a very useful relish.

The Growth of the Pepper-Plant.—Our readers will see at Nos. 369 and 399, a description, with engravings, of the qualities of black and long pepper, and an account of where these spices are found. We will here say something of the manner of the growth of the pepper-plant. Like the vine, it requires support, and it is usual to plant a thorny tree by its side, to which it may cling. In Malabar, the chief pepper district of India, the jacea-tree (Artocarpus ,) is made thus to yield its assistance, the same soil being adapted to the growth of both plants. The stem of the pepper-plant entwines round its support to a considerable height; the flexile branches then droop downwards, bearing at their extremities, as well as at other parts, spikes of green flowers, which are followed by the pungent berries. These hang in large bunches, resembling in shape those of grapes; but the fruit grows distinct, each on a little stalk, like currants. Each berry contains a single seed, of a globular form and brownish colour, but which changes to a nearly black when dried; and this is the pepper of commerce. The leaves are not unlike those of the ivy, but are larger and of rather a lighter colour; they partake strongly of the peculiar smell and pungent taste of the berry.

SAUCE TOURNEE.

517. Ingredients.—1 pint of white stock (No. 107), thickening of flour and butter, or white roux (No. 526), a faggot of savoury herbs, including parsley, 6 chopped mushrooms, 6 green onions.

Mode.—Put the stock into a stewpan with the herbs, onions, and mushrooms, and let it simmer very gently for about ½ hour; stir in sufficient thickening to make it of a proper consistency; let it boil for a few minutes, then skim off all the fat, strain and serve. This sauce, with the addition of a little cream, is now frequently called velouté.

Time.—½ hour.

Average cost, for this quantity, 6d.

Note.—If poultry trimmings are at hand, the stock should be made of these; and the above sauce should not be made too thick, as it does not then admit of the fat being nicely removed.

SWEET SAUCE, for Venison.

518. Ingredients.—A small jar of red-currant jelly, 1 glass of port wine.

Mode.—Put the above ingredients into a stewpan, set them over the fire, and, when melted, pour in a tureen and serve. It should not be allowed to boil.

Time.—5 minutes to melt the jelly.

Average cost, for this quantity, 1s.

SAUCE FOR WILDFOWL.

519. Ingredients.—1 glass of port wine, 1 tablespoonful of Leamington sauce (No. 469), 1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 1 slice of lemon-peel, 1 large shalot cut in slices, 1 blade of mace, cayenne to taste.

Mode.—Put all the ingredients into a stewpan, set it over the fire, 249 and let it simmer for about 5 minutes; then strain and serve the sauce in a tureen.

Time.—5 minutes.

Average cost, for this quantity, 8d.

SAUSAGE-MEAT STUFFING, for Turkey.

520. Ingredients.—6 oz. of lean pork, 6 oz. of fat pork, both weighed after being chopped (beef suet may be substituted for the latter), 2 oz. of bread crumbs, 1 small tablespoonful of minced sage, 1 blade of pounded mace, salt and pepper to taste, 1 egg.

Mode.—Chop the meat and fat very finely, mix with them the other ingredients, taking care that the whole is thoroughly incorporated. Moisten with the egg, and the stuffing will be ready for use. Equal quantities of this stuffing and forcemeat, No. 417, will be found to answer very well, as the herbs, lemon-peel, &c. in the latter, impart a very delicious flavour to the sausage-meat. As preparations, however, like stuffings and forcemeats, are matters to be decided by individual tastes, they must be left, to a great extent, to the discrimination of the cook, who should study her employer’s taste in this, as in every other respect.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for a small turkey.

SAVOURY JELLY FOR MEAT PIES.

521. Ingredients.—3 lbs. of shin of beef, 1 calf’s-foot, 3 lbs. of knuckle of veal, poultry trimmings (if for game pies, any game trimmings), 2 onions stuck with cloves, 2 carrots, 4 shalots, a bunch of savoury herbs, 2 bay-leaves; when liked, 2 blades of mace and a little spice; 2 slices of lean ham, rather more than 2 quarts of water.

Mode.—Cut up the meat and put it into a stewpan with all the ingredients except the water; set it over a slow fire to draw down, and, when the gravy ceases to flow from the meat, pour in the water. Let it boil up, then carefully take away all scum from the top. Cover the stewpan closely, and let the stock simmer very gently for 4 hours: if rapidly boiled, the jelly will not be clear. When done, strain it through a fine sieve or flannel bag; and when cold, the jelly should be quite transparent. If this is not the case, clarify it with the whites of eggs, as described in recipe No. 109.

Time.—4 hours.

Average cost, for this quantity, 5s.

SHRIMP SAUCE, for Various Kinds of Fish.

522. Ingredients.—⅓ pint of melted butter (No. 376), ¼ pint of picked shrimps, cayenne to taste.

250

Mode.—Make the melted butter very smoothly by recipe No. 376, shell the shrimps (sufficient to make ¼ pint when picked), and put them into the butter; season with cayenne, and let the sauce just simmer, but do not allow it to boil. When liked, a teaspoonful of anchovy sauce may be added.

Time.—1 minute to simmer.

Average cost, 6d.

Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

SPINACH GREEN FOR COLOURING VARIOUS DISHES.

523. Ingredients.—2 handfuls of spinach.

Mode.—Pick and wash the spinach free from dirt, and pound the leaves in a mortar to extract the juice; then press it through a hair sieve, and put the juice into a small stewpan or jar. Place this in a bain marie, or saucepan of boiling water, and let it set. Watch it closely, as it should not boil; and, as soon as it is done, lay it in a sieve, so that all the water may drain from it, and the green will then be ready for colouring. If made according to this recipe, the spinach-green will be found far superior to that boiled in the ordinary way.

HOT SPICE, a Delicious Adjunct to Chops, Steaks, Gravies, &c.

524. Ingredients.—3 drachms each of ginger, black pepper, and cinnamon, 7 cloves, ½ oz. mace, ¼ oz. of cayenne, 1 oz. grated nutmeg, 1½ oz. white pepper.

picture of “CINNAMON.”

CINNAMON.

Mode.—Pound the ingredients, and mix them thoroughly together, taking care that everything is well blended. Put the spice in a very dry glass bottle for use. The quantity of cayenne may be increased, should the above not be enough to suit the palate.

Cinnamon.—The cinnamon-tree (Laurus Cinnamomum) is a valuable and beautiful species of the laurel family, and grows to the height of 20 or 30 feet. The trunk is short and straight, with wide-spreading branches, and it has a smooth ash-like bark. The leaves are upon short stalks, and are of an oval shape, and 3 to 5 inches long. The flowers are in panicles, with six small petals, and the fruit is about the size of an olive, soft, insipid, and of a deep blue. This incloses a nut, the kernel of which germinates soon after it falls. The wood of the tree is white and not very solid, and its root is thick and branching, exuding a great quantity of camphor. The inner bark of the tree forms the cinnamon of commerce. Ceylon was thought to be its native island; but it has been found in Malabar, Cochin-China, Sumatra, and the Eastern Islands; also in the Brazils, the Mauritius, Jamaica, and other tropical localities.

BROWN ROUX, a French Thickening for Gravies and Sauces.

525. Ingredients.—6 oz. of butter, 9 oz. of flour.

Mode.—Melt the butter in a stewpan over a slow fire, and 251 dredge in, very gradually, the flour; stir it till of a light-brown colour—to obtain this do it very slowly, otherwise the flour will burn and impart a bitter taste to the sauce it is mixed with. Pour it in a jar, and keep it for use: it will remain good some time.

Time.—About ½ hour.

Average cost, 7d.

WHITE ROUX, for thickening White Sauces.

526. Allow the same proportions of butter and flour as in the preceding recipe, and proceed in the same manner as for brown roux, but do not keep it on the fire too long, and take care not to let it colour. This is used for thickening white sauce. Pour it into a jar to use when wanted.

Time.—¼ hour.

Average cost, 7d.

Sufficient.—A dessertspoonful will thicken a pint of gravy.

Note.—Besides the above, sauces may be thickened with potato flour, ground rice, baked flour, arrowroot, &c.: the latter will be found far preferable to the ordinary flour for white sauces. A slice of bread, toasted and added to gravies, answers the two purposes of thickening and colouring them.

SPANISH ONIONS—PICKLED.

527. Ingredients.—Onions, vinegar; salt and cayenne to taste.

Mode.—Cut the onions in thin slices; put a layer of them in the bottom of a jar; sprinkle with salt and cayenne; then add another layer of onions, and season as before. Proceeding in this manner till the jar is full, pour in sufficient vinegar to cover the whole, and the pickle will be fit for use in a month.

Seasonable.—May be had in England from September to February.

STORE SAUCE, or CHEROKEE.

528. Ingredients.—½ oz. of cayenne pepper, 5 cloves of garlic, 2 tablespoonfuls of soy, 1 tablespoonful of walnut ketchup, 1 pint of vinegar.

Mode.—Boil all the ingredients gently for about ½ hour; strain the liquor, and bottle off for use.

Time.—½ hour.

Seasonable.—This sauce can be made at any time.

TOMATO SAUCE—HOT, to serve with Cutlets, Roast Meats, &c.

529. Ingredients.—6 tomatoes, 2 shalots, 1 clove, 1 blade of 252 mace, salt and cayenne to taste, ½ pint of gravy, No. 436, or stock No. 104.

picture of “THE TOMATO.”

THE TOMATO.

Mode.—Cut the tomatoes in two, and squeeze the juice and seeds out; put them in a stewpan with all the ingredients, and let them simmer gently until the tomatoes are tender enough to pulp; rub the whole through a sieve, boil it for a few minutes, and serve. The shalots and spices may be omitted when their flavour is objected to.

Time.—1 hour, or rather more, to simmer the tomatoes.

Average cost, for this quantity, 1s.

In full season in September and October.

Tomato, or Love-Apple.—The plant which hears this fruit is a native of South America, and takes its name from a Portuguese word. The tomato fruit is about the size of a small potato, and is chiefly used in soups, sauces, and gravies. It is sometimes served to table roasted or boiled, and when green, makes a good ketchup or pickle. In its unripe state, it is esteemed as excellent sauce for roast goose or pork, and when quite ripe, a good store sauce may be prepared from it.

TOMATO SAUCE FOR KEEPING (Excellent).
I.

530. Ingredients.—To every quart of tomato-pulp allow 1 pint of cayenne vinegar (No. 386), ¾ oz. of shalots, ¾ oz. of garlic, peeled and cut in slices; salt to taste. To every six quarts of liquor, 1 pint of soy, 1 pint of anchovy sauce.

Mode.—Gather the tomatoes quite ripe; bake them in a slow oven till tender; rub them through a sieve, and to every quart of pulp add cayenne vinegar, shalots, garlic, and salt, in the above proportion; boil the whole together till the garlic and shalots are quite soft; then rub it through a sieve, put it again into a saucepan, and, to every six quarts of the liquor, add 1 pint of soy and the same quantity of anchovy sauce, and boil altogether for about 20 minutes; bottle off for use, and carefully seal or rosin the corks. This will keep good for 2 or 3 years, but will be fit for use in a week. A useful and less expensive sauce may be made by omitting the anchovy and soy.

Time.—Altogether 1 hour.

Seasonable.—Make this from the middle of September to the end of October.

II.

531. Ingredients.—1 dozen tomatoes, 2 teaspoonfuls of the best powdered ginger, 1 dessert­spoonful of salt, 1 head of garlic chopped 253 fine, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 1 dessert­spoonful of Chili vinegar (a small quantity of cayenne may be substituted for this).

Mode.—Choose ripe tomatoes, put them into a stone jar, and stand them in a cool oven until quite tender; when cold, take the skins and stalks from them, mix the pulp with the liquor which is in the jar, but do not strain it; add all the other ingredients, mix well together, and put it into well-sealed bottles. Stored away in a cool dry place, it will keep good for years. It is ready for use as soon as made, but the flavour is better after a week or two. Should it not appear to keep, turn it out, and boil it up with a little additional ginger and cayenne. For immediate use, the skins should be put into a wide-mouthed bottle with a little of the different ingredients, and they will be found very nice for hashes or stews.

Time.—4 or 5 hours in a cool oven.

Seasonable from the middle of September to the end of October.

III.

532. Ingredients.—3 dozen tomatoes; to every pound of tomato-pulp allow 1 pint of Chili vinegar, 1 oz. of garlic, 1 oz. of shalot, 2 oz. of salt, 1 large green capsicum, ½ teaspoonful of cayenne, 2 pickled gherkins, 6 pickled onions, 1 pint of common vinegar, and the juice of 6 lemons.

Mode.—Choose the tomatoes when quite ripe and red; put them in a jar with a cover to it, and bake them till tender. The better way is to put them in the oven overnight, when it will not be too hot, and examine them in the morning to see if they are tender. Do not allow them to remain in the oven long enough to break them; but they should be sufficiently soft to skin nicely and rub through the sieve. Measure the pulp, and to each pound of pulp, add the above proportion of vinegar and other ingredients, taking care to chop very fine the garlic, shalot, capsicum, onion, and gherkins. Boil the whole together till everything is tender; then again rub it through a sieve, and add the lemon-juice. Now boil the whole again till it becomes as thick as cream, and keep continually stirring; bottle it when quite cold, cork well, and seal the corks. If the flavour of garlic and shalot is very much disliked, diminish the quantities.

Time.—Bake the tomatoes in a cool oven all night.

Seasonable from the middle of September to the end of October.

Note.—A quantity of liquor will flow from the tomatoes, which must be put through the sieve with the rest. Keep it well stirred while on the fire, and use a wooden spoon.

254
UNIVERSAL PICKLE.

533. Ingredients.—To 6 quarts of vinegar allow 1 lb. of salt, ¼ lb. of ginger, 1 oz. of mace, ½ lb. of shalots, 1 tablespoonful of cayenne, 2 oz. of mustard-seed, 1½ oz. of turmeric.

Mode.—Boil all the ingredients together for about 20 minutes; when cold, put them into a jar with whatever vegetables you choose, such as radish-pods, French beans, cauliflowers, gherkins, &c. &c., as these come into season; put them in fresh as you gather them, having previously wiped them perfectly free from moisture and grit. This pickle will be fit for use in about 8 or 9 months.

Time.—20 minutes.

Seasonable.—Make the pickle in May or June, to be ready for the various vegetables.

Note.—As this pickle takes 2 or 3 months to make,—that is to say, nearly that time will elapse before all the different vegetables are added,—care must be taken to keep the jar which contains the pickle well covered, either with a closely-fitting lid, or a piece of bladder securely tied over, so as perfectly to exclude the air.

PICKLED WALNUTS (Very Good).

534. Ingredients.—100 walnuts, salt and water. To each quart of vinegar allow 2 oz. of whole black pepper, 1 oz. of allspice, 1 oz. of bruised ginger.

Mode.—Procure the walnuts while young; be careful they are not woody, and prick them well with a fork; prepare a strong brine of salt and water (4 lbs. of salt to each gallon of water), into which put the walnuts, letting them remain 9 days, and changing the brine every third day; drain them off, put them on a dish, place it in the sun until they become perfectly black, which will be in 2 or 3 days; have ready dry jars, into which place the walnuts, and do not quite fill the jars. Boil sufficient vinegar to cover them, for 10 minutes, with spices in the above proportion, and pour it hot over the walnuts, which must be quite covered with the pickle; tie down with bladder, and keep in a dry place. They will be fit for use in a month, and will keep good 2 or 3 years.

Time.—10 minutes.

Seasonable.—Make this from the beginning to the middle of July, before the walnuts harden.

Note.—When liked, a few shalots may be added to the vinegar, and boiled with it.

255
WALNUT KETCHUP.
I.

535. Ingredients.—100 walnuts, 1 handful of salt, 1 quart of vinegar, ¼ oz. of mace, ¼ oz. of nutmeg, ¼ oz. of cloves, ¼ oz. of ginger, ¼ oz. of whole black pepper, a small piece of horseradish, 20 shalots, ¼ lb. of anchovies, 1 pint of port wine.

Mode.—Procure the walnuts at the time you can run a pin through them, slightly bruise, and put them into a jar with the salt and vinegar, let them stand 8 days, stirring every day; then drain the liquor from them, and boil it, with the above ingredients, for about ½ hour. It may be strained or not, as preferred, and, if required, a little more vinegar or wine can be added, according to taste. When bottled well, seal the corks.

Time.—½ hour.

Seasonable.—Make this from the beginning to the middle of July, when walnuts are in perfection for pickling purposes.

II.

536. Ingredients.—½ sieve of walnut-shells, 2 quarts of water, salt, ½ lb. of shalots, 1 oz. of cloves, 1 oz. of mace, 1 oz. of whole pepper, 1 oz. of garlic.

Mode.—Put the walnut-shells into a pan, with the water, and a large quantity of salt; let them stand for 10 days, then break the shells up in the water, and let it drain through a sieve, putting a heavy weight on the top to express the juice; place it on the fire, and remove all scum that may arise. Now boil the liquor with the shalots, cloves, mace, pepper, and garlic, and let all simmer till the shalots sink; then put the liquor into a pan, and, when cold, bottle, and cork closely. It should stand 6 months before using: should it ferment during that time, it must be again boiled and skimmed.

picture of “THE WALNUT.”

THE WALNUT.

Time.—About ¾ hour.

Seasonable in September, when the walnut-shells are obtainable.

The Walnut.—This nut is a native of Persia, and was introduced into England from France. As a pickle, it is much used in the green state; and grated walnuts in Spain are much employed, both in tarts and other dishes. On the continent it is occasionally employed as a substitute for olive oil in cooking; but it is apt, under such circumstances, to become rancid. The matter which remains after the oil is extracted is considered highly nutritious for poultry. It is called mare, and in Switzerland is eaten under the name of pain amer by the poor. The oil is frequently manufactured into a kind of soap, and the leaves and green husks yield an extract, which, as a brown dye, is used to stain hair, wool, and wood.

256
WHITE SAUCE (Good).

537. Ingredients.—½ pint of white stock (No. 107), ½ pint of cream, 1 dessert­spoonful of flour, salt to taste.

Mode.—Have ready a delicately-clean saucepan, into which put the stock, which should be well flavoured with vegetables, and rather savoury; mix the flour smoothly with the cream, add it to the stock, season with a little salt, and boil all these ingredients very gently for about 10 minutes, keeping them well stirred the whole time, as this sauce is very liable to burn.

Time.—10 minutes.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for a pair of fowls.

Seasonable at any time.

WHITE SAUCE, made without Meat.

538. Ingredients.—2 oz. of butter, 2 small onions, 1 carrot, ½ a small teacupful of flour, 1 pint of new milk, salt and cayenne to taste.

Mode.—Cut up the onions and carrot very small, and put them into a stewpan with the butter; simmer them till the butter is nearly dried up; then stir in the flour, and add the milk; boil the whole gently until it thickens, strain it, season with salt and cayenne, and it will be ready to serve.

Time.—¼ hour.

Average cost, 5d.

Sufficient for a pair of fowls.

Seasonable at any time.

WHITE SAUCE (a very Simple and Inexpensive Method).

539. Ingredients.—1½ pint of milk, 1½ oz. of rice, 1 strip of lemon-peel, 1 small blade of pounded mace, salt and cayenne to taste.

Mode.—Boil the milk with the lemon-peel and rice until the latter is perfectly tender, then take out the lemon-peel and pound the milk and rice together; put it back into the stewpan to warm, add the mace and seasoning, give it one boil, and serve. This sauce should be of the consistency of thick cream.

Time.—About 1½ hour to boil the rice.

Average cost, 4d.

Sufficient for a pair of fowls.

Seasonable at any time.

Typographical Errors

Chapter V, Soup, is clean. But come Chapter VI, and you can see our Editress beginning to get tired.

Chapter VI. Soup Recipes.

126. This belongs to the legumious or pulse kind
[Probably an error for “leguminous”. With either spelling, the word occurs nowhere else in the BOHM.]

127. chervil and sorrel cut in large pieces, salt and pepper
comma missing

153. Average cost, 10d. per quart, or 4d.
[Stocks 105 and 106, the two suggested bases for this soup, are respectively 9d. and 3d. per quart, which would account for the sixpence difference. But it still seems as if a few words are missing.]

165. the outside pieces, or green tops, do very well
text has “very / very” at line break

174. which largely enters into the composition of curry powder
text has “compor-/sition” at line break

175. a little sherry, if liked
text has litte

179. if made with fragments of cold game
text has “gold game”
[In the recipe’s source, was the word perhaps printed in small capitals as cold?]

189. and pour that into the soup
final “t” in “that” invisible

197. Sufficient for 8 persons.
final . missing

198. Time.—hour.
[Printed as shown, with no blank space. One hour? One-half hour? It all depends how long it takes to become “well cooked”. As late as the 1906 edition, nobody had noticed that something was missing.]

Chapter VII. The Natural History of Fishes.

208. According to Lewenhoeck
spelling unchanged

217. In the fourteenth century, a decree of King John
text unchanged

Chapter VIII. Fish Recipes.

237. 1 small teaspoonful of curry-powder
corrected by author from “1 tablespoonful”
[Whew.]

243. full of small hairy bones
final . invisible

248. Small John Dories are very good, baked.
“s” in “Dories” invisible

286. Average cost for this quantity, 1s. 9d.
. in “9d.” invisible

348. The fish has been supposed to be the fry of the shad
word “to” added by transcriber

Chapter X. Sauces Recipes.

391. ½ pint of stock No. 105
text has “½ pink”

465. The house-steward of England is synonomous with the maître d’hôtel of France
spelling unchanged

490. scald the oysters in it with the sherry
“n” in “in” invisible

490. then add it to the liquor in which they were scalded
“t” in “then” invisible

494. wash, pick, and dry it thoroughly in a cloth
text has “thorougly”

506. 1 teaspoonful of mixed mustard
text has “teaspoonsful”

528. 5 cloves of garlic, 2 tablespoonfuls of soy
“2” invisible, supplied from 1863 edition.

Notes and Sources

Chapter V. Soup.

91. It has been asserted
[Note that the author never even tries to refute the assertion.]

the proverb which alludes to the divine origin of food, and the precisely opposite origin of its preparers
[Meet a saying once, and suddenly you’re seeing it all over the place. Wendeborn: “I have heard Englishmen, who had mended their taste in foreign countries, say in jest, that heaven had given them good things for the kitchen, but that the devil had sent the cooks.” Did Wendeborn misunderstand the proverb—or did his interlocutors give it a more specific interpretation? Another version, from A. Borde’s 1542 Dietary of Health (quoted in a recent Dictionary of Proverbs), is: “God sends meat, but the devil sends cooks.”]

97. osmazome
[Look up “osmazome” and you’ll find an assortment of definitions all beginning “A substance formerly supposed. . .” By 1861, chemists knew very well that there was no such thing. Culinary writers had not yet got the message; they treated “osmazome” as if it were an actual, physical substance. Modern sources like to bring in parallels to the elusive umami or “deliciousness”.]

Chapter VI. Soup Recipes.

Most informational passages in this chapter are adapted from Webster’s Encyclo­pædia. While the BOHM is organized alphabetically, the Encyclo­pædia is more thematic (fruit trees, vegetables, pot-herbs and so on). So you have to picture Isabella Beeton copying descriptions onto slips of paper which she then put into alpha­betical order.

110. indigenous to the northern parts of Asia and Africa
[Webster has “the northern parts of Africa and Asia”; strip away the squinting modifier and you’re left with “Asia and north Africa”. That’s what happens when you edit for the sake of editing.]

117. We know that King Alfred allowed the unfermented cakes to burn
[This story is so widely told that 21st-century historians still devote time to analyzing or refuting it.]

118. The Cabbage.
[The first part of this paragraph, referring to Anderson, is from Pantropheon. The rest is Webster again.]

122. In this state it is called smallage, and, to some extent, is a dangerous narcotic.
[Whoops! Didn't see that one coming.]

123. the voluptuous Anacreon
[Blame it on Vicesimus Knox. (Not, you will be relieved to learn, his parents’ twentieth child; it was just a name.) In Essays Moral and Literary he says: “The gay, the sprightly, the voluptuous Anacreon is known to every reader.” Writers in the first half of the 19th century loved this description; it saved them from having to form their own opinions, let alone distinguish between Anacreaon, pseudo-Anacreon, and the Anacreontida. The part about parsley being an “emblem of joy and festivity” is from Soyer’s Pantropheon, but “voluptuous” isn’t; Soyer preferred to describe Anacreon as “amiable and frivolous”.]

to parrots it is a poison
[Generations of parsley-deprived parrots can blame Mrs Beeton for helping to perpe­tuate this myth; you can still find it cited as fact.]

126. The Lentil.
[For variety’s sake, this passage is from Pantropheon.]

The lentil . . . . takes its name from lentus, ‘slow,’
[Pantropheon got this from Virgil’s Georgics. It’s still wrong, though.]

131. be particular they are all the same size, or some will be hard whilst the others will be done to a pulp
[This strikes me as a needless worry, since everything is to be stewed for “at least an hour”.]

134. See St. David.
[This line must have been absent-mindedly pasted in, unchanged, from Beeton’s Dictionary of Universal Information, which the Editress has just got through citing. Unlike the surrounding passages, this one doesn’t seem to borrow from Webster at all.]

135. simmer [macaroni] for ½ an hour.
[Earlier in the book there was a list of French culinary terms. Do not look for a similar list containing the Italian phrase al dente.]

147. Nutritious Properties [of the potato]
[Reminder: Vitamins had not been discovered yet. For an alternative view of the potato’s nutritional properties, see Angela Carter’s article on the Irish potato famine.]

148. attained his majority, on the 9th November, 1859
[Doesn’t it seem as if a future king should require more time to reach full adulthood, rather than being considered grownup three years sooner than “mortals of ordinary rank”? Since the Prince of Wales cannot possibly have seen combat, being made a colonel at 17 seems a bit over the top as well.]

150. the Carolina is considered the best, as it is the dearest
[This is not the first time our Editress has made mincemeat of Webster’s text. In his words: “The Carolina rice is considered as the best, and is likewise the dearest in London, as it pays a much higher duty than the East Indian rice.”]

154. Anglicized, and somewhat . . . improved it
[There are times when you just have to sit on your hands.]

155. Spinach.
[This seems to be spliced together from bits of Pantropheon and Webster. But I don’t know where she got the part about monastic gardens.]

156. Tapioca
[The quote from Dr. Christison is taken verbatim from Webster.]

159. Boil the vegetables in the water 2½ hours
[At the raw-OCR stage, this landed in my text editor as “21 hours”. It’s a pretty academic distinction, though. Once you’ve passed the quarter-hour mark, you may as well keep cooking them all day.]

165. Time.—6½ hours.
[Unlike other soup recipes, the time includes preparation of the stock.]

165. with a little more knowledge of the “cooking” art
[Having enough fuel to keep the stove running all day, and a household member available to watch and stir it periodically, wouldn’t hurt either. Elsewhere in the book there are discussions of saving fuel, so it isn’t as if the Editress didn’t know that coal costs money.]

166. Thyme.
[The first sentence is predictably adapted from Pantropheon; the rest reverts to Webster.]

170. The common Hare.
[This marks the first appearance of another very popular source, Bingley’s Animal Biography. Only the last part—about purchasing a hare—is from Webster.]

175. Thomson has beautifully described
[In the book-length poem The Seasons, under Summer. But the Editress got it from Bingley. His description of the Sheep winds up with: “The disposition and actions of these useful creatures, while washing and shearing, Thomson has beautifully described:”—introducing 18 lines of Thomson, of which Mrs. Beeton used the last five.]

176. The Ox.
[Most of this passage is adapted from Webster (1844), but the part about the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 is obviously from another source.]

188. Tusser’s “Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry,” about the year 1585
[That’s a fairly loose interpretation of “about”, since Tusser died in 1580. The book was republished several times in the 19th century, but Mrs. Beeton’s source—Bingley—seems to be working from the original.]

189. all such sweet herbs as are used in the cooking of a turtle
[Careful there, Isabella. This is the only turtle recipe in the book, so you really can’t expect your readers to recognize the list (“Oh, right, your basic turtle herbs”). Possibly M. Ude’s readers did know. The identical list is repeated on the next page, as if Mrs. Beeton had forgotten that she already pasted it in.]

make a very thin white roux
[Another goof: apart from a quick look-in in the list of French culinary terms, this is the very first appearance of the word “roux”. There will be further clues that Mrs. Beeton did not edit the recipe very carefully before including it in her book. Fortunately it is not awfully likely that any of her young middle-class readers ever tried to make turtle soup; that kind of thing is best left to a trained cook.]

The Green Turtle.
[Like many descriptions of non-domesticated animals, this one is about two parts Bingley to one part Webster.]

190. A GOOD FAMILY SOUP.
[Isabella Beeton heaves a sigh of relief as she finishes the Turtle section and returns to everyday life.]

193. The Crayfish.
[Tiring of Webster, Isabella Beeton turns her attention to Pantropheon. Anomalously, the part introduced by “A recipe tells us” started out as a direct, attributed quotation; see Sources.]

the Romans ate it boiled with cumin
[This passage, from Pantropheon, is the only occurrence of the word “cumin” in the entire BOHM. What did English cooks have against it?]

197. Season of Oysters.
[Bingley again—including the six lines of Oppian; see Sources.]

Chapter VII. The Natural History of Fishes.

Much of this chapter, notably sections 199 and 208, is from Volume III of Bingley’s Animal Biography.

208. a carp fourteen inches in length, according to Petit, contained two hundred and sixty-two thousand two hundred and twenty-four [eggs]
[Do you suppose he counted?]

212. a people who have, almost from time immemorial, occupied a high place in the estimation of every civilized country
[As always, “civilized” is defined as “holding classical Greece in high regard”.]

both Aristophanes and Athenæus . . . Philoxenes of Cythera
[When the Editress starts throwing around names like Athenæus and Philoxenes, you know she’s in Pantropheon.]

215. a wealthy living English hermit, who delights in the companionship of rats
[And your point is . . .? In England, rats had been kept as pets since at least the 1840s.]

216. The French long enjoyed
[I strongly suspect that this is from the same source as the line about Italians in the previous section. What either passage has to do with fish is anyone’s guess.]

219. if the weather be not very hot, they will be good for two days
[Even in the mid-19th century, nobody was going to suggest keeping fish for three days.]

Chapter VIII. Fish Recipes.

Most informational passages in this chapter are from Bingley, while the ones that refer to the Greeks, Romans or generically “the ancients” are predictably from Pantro­pheon. In some cases, Isabella Beeton has cherry-picked from various parts of Bingley in what I have to call a tour-de-force manner.

226. In his book of “British Fishes,” Mr. Yarrell states
[Most references to Yarrell’s British Fishes in the BOHM are second-hand, via Webster. But this one seems to come straight from the source.]

228. a work just issued on the adulterations of trade
[The Tricks of Trade in the Adulterations of Food and Physic (subtitled “with directions for their detection and counteraction”) was first published in 1856; a revised edition came out in 1859.]

232. 5 oz. of salt to each gallon of water
[5 oz. by weight is about half a cup of modern-day granulated table salt, yielding roughly the same salinity as seawater. In fact some modern recipes suggest cooking fish in clean seawater, though they do not explain where this is to be obtained.]

236. paste crust (see Pastry)
[We are on page 120—installment 3 as originally published. Pastry recipes begin on page 612—installment 13, ten months in the future. I hope the readers are not too hungry.]

239. [The cod] is able to obtain great quantities of worms, a food peculiarly grateful to it
[Isn’t linguistic change fun?]

241. The Fecundity of the Cod
[Unlike the other Cod passages, this one isn’t Bingley. The quotation—from Hippolyte Cloquet, Poissons et Reptiles—is lifted from Pantropheon.]

to continue the exhaustless supply
[File under: Famous Last Words.]

242. silvered over with age, like silver-fish
[Deduction: the word “silverfish” refers to an entirely different animal in England than it does in the US.]

243. The Char.
[Tucked between passages from Bingley is a lone paragraph from Webster.]

245. They feed variously, on . . . dead bodies.
[In Dorothy Sayers’ Have His Carcase, the author’s alter ego Harriet Vane comes across a newly dead body by the seashore as the tide is coming in. By the time the police arrive, the body has been washed out to sea. The neigh­boring hotel­keepers hasten to remove crab from their menus until further notice.]

The hermit fish, unarm’d by Nature, left
[As usual, Bingley’s Oppian quotation is longer: Mrs. Beeton used only 10 of his 26 lines.]

248. The Doru, or John Dory.
[Take a break from Bingley; this is Webster again.]

252. says Dr. Anderson, in the Bee
[This entire passage—with attribution—was itself quoted in Bingley.]

256. The Lamprey; 261. The Gudgeon 266. The Finnan Haddock
[More Webster.]

269. KEGEREE
[Fun fact: Kedgeree or kegeree began life as khichri, a porridge-like Indian dish made with cooked rice and assorted other ingredients, among which fish and eggs are conspicuous by their absence.]

272. the coral from the inside
[From the inside of the lobster, that is. In general Mrs. Beeton is content to call it “roe”. Eliza Acton does call it “coral”, but this doesn’t seem to be her recipe.]

277. celebrated in the following lines
[Oppian, Halieutica, via Bingley.]

278. The pincers of the lobster’s large claws are furnished with nobs . . . The knobbed, or numb claw
[The inconsistent “nobs” and “knobbed” are reproduced from Bingley.]

284. The Grey Mullet.
[Webster again.]

285. The Striped Red Mullet.
[Compared to the version in Pantropheon, this is exceedingly restrained; see Sources.]

289. to separate the spawn from the cultch
[The cultch is, broadly, whatever the oyster attaches itself to. I wonder why Mrs. Beeton assumed her urban middle-class readers knew this.]

303. Habitat of the Salmon.
[Webster again.]

In 1859, great efforts were made to introduce this fish into the Australian colonies; and it is believed that the attempt, after many difficulties, which were very skilfully overcome, has been successful.
[Thankfully, the efforts seem to have failed after all—or were abandoned before they could do too much harm. History tells us that any animal intro­duced to Australia will first destroy its native analogue, if any, and then go on to become an ineradicable pest. There is an Australian “salmon”, but technically it isn’t a salmon at all.]

315–319 The Skate; The Smelt.
[Most of these passages are again Webster.]

319. Mr. Yarrell asserts
[In A History of British Fishes. But it is not Isabella Beeton herself taking issue with Yarrell; it is her intermediary source, Webster.]

331. The Sprat.
[From Webster.]

335. The pike, fell tyrant of the liquid plain
[Unsurprisingly, this is from the same William Diaper who translated Oppian. He had a thing about fish and marine life in general.]

340. Fish-kettles.
[From Webster.]

347. The Whiting Pout, and Pollack.
[The source—Webster, not Bingley—says “The whiting pout . . . is common about the mouth of the Thames”.]

348. Whitebait.
[Still Webster.]

The fish has been supposed [to] be the fry of the shad . . . Mr. Yarrell, however, maintains that it is a species in itself
[Mr. Yarrell was mistaken. (This is the fourth time Yarrell has been cited by name. Reading between the lines, he was considered a major authority whom other writers hesitated to disagree with—even when he was pretty clearly talking through his hat. Here, as earlier, Mrs. Beeton is quoting Webster’s opinion.)]

Where silver fish-carvers are considered too dear to be bought, good electro-plated ones answer very well, and are inexpensive. The prices set down for them by Messrs. Slack, of the Strand, are from a guinea upwards.
[It is not every day one finds the words “inexpensive” and “a guinea” in the same paragraph. Or is it the solid silver ones that cost a guinea?]

Chapter IX. Sauces

354. An Anecdote is told
[Near the end of the Fish recipes, the Editress quoted Brillat-Savarin’s The Physiology of Taste. She’s still got the book open in front of her.]

Chapter X. Sauces Recipes

With this chapter, the Editress returns to Webster as her main source; her second choice is Pantropheon. In both cases, her version tends to be very concise, compressed from several paragraphs down to a few sentences.

362. Cayenne
[Capsicum baccatum is still around. But for practical purposes, the Capsicum annuum species is responsible for all varieties most people will ever see, from the mildest bell pepper to the most aggressive habanero. Capsicum grossum has been demoted to a subspecies, C. annuum grossum, covering the milder end of the spectrum. The editress—or rather her source (Webster, as usual)—really does seem to think that even bell peppers are “extremely pungent” and can be ground into cayenne pepper.]

367. no pepper, as that would give the sauce a dusty appearance
[Then again, one could use white pepper, which the Editress has only just finished describing.]

378. We find it stated in “Beeton’s Dictionary of Universal Information,” under the article “Banda Islands,”
[This is the second time in just a few pages that the Banda Islands article has been cited. Maybe Beeton’s Dictionary was in press concurrently with the Book of Household Management, so it was easy to throw in cross-references.]

391. 4 tablespoonfuls of Spanish sauce (see Sauces)
[Er, Isabella, this is “Sauces”.]

392. BENGAL RECIPE FOR MAKING MANGO CHETNEY.
[The recipe does not, in fact, contain any mangoes; it uses sour apples instead. There’s no evidence that Isabella Beeton even knew what a mango was, though her sources certainly did. Webster praises the mango highly, but makes up for it by never having heard of chutney. Eliza Acton mentions mangoes as a possible chutney ingredient.]

405. DUTCH SAUCE
[Now generally known by its French name, which you can work out for yourself.]

423. pass it through a wire sieve
[This is the only place in the BOHM where a wire sieve is mentioned. It’s a safe bet that the recipe’s named source, professional chef Alexis Soyer, had access to equipment Isabella Beeton and her readers would never see.]

429. green gooseberries
[That is, unripe ones. If you’re waiting for your gooseberries to become un-green, you’re in for a long wait.]

433. Sauces and Gravies in the Middle Ages.
[This and the following (“A Hundred Different Dishes”) are from Pantropheon—including the editorial comment about “surprising and difficult to make”, which is worthy of Isabella Beeton herself.]

434. gravy, pepper, cinnamon, garlic, scallion, brains
[This passage, from Pantropheon, is the only occurrence of the word “scallion” in the BOHM. Everywhere else, it is “green onion”.]

438. Allspice . . . pimento, or Jamaica pepper
[Also known as Pimenta dioica, P. officinalis and an assortment of other names; by any name, no relation to pimento pepper. They just do it to confuse us.]

439. GRAVY MADE WITHOUT MEAT . . . Ingredients.—The necks, feet, livers, and gizzards of the fowls
[Mrs. Beeton’s definition of “without meat” is somewhat different from mine.]

441. a jar, capable of holding two pints of water
[That is, two pints in addition to everything else in the recipe, which begins with two pounds of beef. So put away that two-pint jar.]

444. Venison.
[The opening “Far, far away in ages past” is a clue that we are once again in Pantropheon; see Sources.]

of the effeminate Greeks it was the delight
[But the manly Greeks didn’t care for it?]

449. Dr. Kitchener’s Recipe
[One of Mrs. Beeton’s donors makes a rare personal appearance. Or maybe it’s a second-hand appearance, as when Webster cites Yarrell. The correct spelling is “Kitchiner”, though it’s an understandable (and common) mistake. Mrs. Beeton’s recipe diverges pretty significantly from Kitchiner’s. His version is: “Coriander-seed, three ounces; Turmeric, three ounces; Black pepper, mustard, and ginger, one ounce of each; Allspice and less cardamoms, half an ounce of each; Cumin-seed, a quarter of an ounce”]

450. Before the year 1729, mustard was not known at English tables.
[This assertion would have come as a surprise to the authors of the various texts, none later than the 16th century, excerpted in Frederick Furnivall’s compilation Early English Meals and Manners. I count more than 60 references to mustard. All becomes clear if you go back to the source; Webster says that “mustard in its present form was not known”.]

451. Vinegar; 452. Pickles
[Both descriptions are loosely adapted from Pantropheon, where they form consecutive paragraphs.]

455. The Lemon.
[Still Pantropheon, but now from a different page.]

465. The Maître d’Hôtel.
[Back to Pantropheon.]

468. Mayonnaise
[Has any foodstuff ever had a more spectacular drop in status? A century ago, sauce mayonnaise was the accompaniment to high-budget foods such as lobster, salmon or asparagus. Today, mayo is sold by the gallon in super­markets. Happily, there’s a middle ground. Mayonnaise is extremely easy to make in a blender—in fact the most time-consuming part is cleaning out the blender afterward—and keeps indefinitely in the refrigerator.]

490. 1 drachm of cayenne, 2 drachms of pounded mace
[This is a dead giveaway that the recipe is from Webster, who routinely measures spices in drachms instead of teaspoons. His version goes: “Take some fine fresh Milton oysters, wash them in their own liquor, then pound them in a marble mortar, and to a pint of oysters add a pint of sherry; boil them up, and add an ounce of salt, two drachms of pounded mace, and one drachm of cayenne; let them all boil up again; skim them, and rub them through a sieve. When cold, put it into bottles: cork, and seal it well. It is best to pound the spice in the mortar with the oysters.”]

493. Parsley.
[Once you’ve seen Hercules, the Iliad, and Carthaginians, there can be little doubt the passage came from Pantropheon. (It did.)]

497. This recipe was forwarded to the editress of this work by a subscriber to the “Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine.” Mrs. Beeton, not having tested it
[This is fairly brazen. The number of recipes that came in from EDM readers—as opposed to being culled from previously published books—can be counted on the fingers of one hand. So how hard would it have been for Mrs. Beeton to test them?]

498. Red Cabbage.
[Most of this paragraph is lifted directly from Webster. But the part about sauerkraut being an acquired taste is from some other source. Could it be Isabella’s personal, based-on-direct-experience opinion? An English teenager meeting sauerkraut for the first time is not likely to respond with anything but a hearty “Yuk!”]

501. RAVIGOTTE, a French Salad Sauce. Mons. Ude’s Recipe.
[This recipe would be more useful if the Editress had given some slight hint what “cavice” is. Incidentally, it has been suggested that “cavice” is an ancestor of the word “catsup”. (This doesn’t seem likely; at most, the initial ca- may have influenced the spelling.)]

506. Scarcity of Salads in England.
[Pantropheon again. Some of the book’s history is decidedly borderline—but it sure is fun.]

508. The Rev. Sydney Smith, the witty canon of St. Paul’s . . . wrote the following excellent recipe for salad
[Salad dressing, at least; see Sources. “The witty canon of St. Paul’s” was the standard descriptor of Sydney Smith, so Mrs. Beeton didn’t necessarily lift it from some specific source.]

510. May we respectfully express a hope
[The first part of the paragraph is from Pantropheon, but this sentence may even be Isabella Beeton expressing her own hope.]

514. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of butter, ¼ lb. of pounded sugar, a wineglassful of brandy or rum.
[The puddings which this sauce is meant to accompany are many hundred pages in the future. In the meantime we’ll have to eat the sauce by itself: cream together 1 stick of unsalted butter and ½ cup white sugar; mix in ¾ cup brandy or rum. Hic!]

520. the cook, who should study her employer’s taste
[Whoops! Careless editing there, Isabella. Our target audience is the employer, who does her own cooking.]

524. Hot Spice
[Apart from the powdered ginger, which you wouldn’t normally find outside of Kashmir, this looks like a pretty decent recipe for garam masala. Which means “hot spice”.]

536. ½ sieve of walnut-shells
[I have to say that the sieve as a unit of measurement is unfamiliar to me.]

The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.