Mrs. Beeton

543

pile of mixed vegetables

CHAPTER XXIV.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON VEGETABLES.

“Strange there should be found

Who, self-imprison’d in their proud saloons,

Renounce the odours of the open field

For the unscented fictions of the loom;

Who, satisfied with only pencilled scenes,

Prefer to the performance of a God,

Th’ inferior wonders of an artist’s hand!

Lovely, indeed, the mimic works of art,

But Nature’s works far lovelier.”

—Cowper.

1069.The Animal and Vegetable Kingdoms,” says Hogg, in his Natural History of the Vegetable Kingdom, “may be aptly compared to the primary colours of the prismatic spectrum, which are so gradually and intimately blended, that we fail to discover where the one terminates and where the other begins. If we had to deal with yellow and blue only, the eye would easily distinguish the one from the other; but when the two are blended, and form green, we cannot tell where the blue ends and the yellow begins. And so it is in the animal and vegetable kingdoms. If our powers of observation were limited to the highest orders of animals and plants, if there were only mammals, birds, reptiles, fishes, and insects in the one, and trees, shrubs, and herbs in the other, we should then be able with facility to define the bounds of the two kingdoms; but as we descend the scale of each, and arrive at the lowest forms of animals and plants, we there meet with bodies of the simplest structure, sometimes a mere cell, whose organization, modes of development and reproduction, are so anomalous, and partake so much at 544 the character of both, that we cannot distinguish whether they are plants or whether they are animals.”

1070. Whilst it is thus difficult to determine where the animal begins and the vegetable ends, it is as difficult to account for many of the singularities by which numbers of plants are characterized. This, however, can hardly be regarded as a matter of surprise, when we recollect that, so far as it is at present known, the vegetable kingdom is composed of upwards of 92,000 species of plants. Of this amazing number the lichens and the mosses are of the simplest and hardiest kinds. These, indeed, may be considered as the very creators of the soil: they thrive in the coldest and most sterile regions, many of them commencing the operations of nature in the growth of vegetables on the barest rocks, and receiving no other nourishment than such as may be supplied to them by the simple elements of air and rain. When they have exhausted their period in such situations as have been assigned them, they pass into a state of decay, and become changed into a very fine mould, which, in the active spontaneity of nature, immediately begins to produce other species, which in their turn become food for various mosses, and also rot. This process of growth and decay, being, from time to time, continued, by-and-by forms a soil sufficient for the maintenance of larger plants, which also die and decay, and so increase the soil, until it becomes deep enough to sustain an oak, or even the weight of a tropical forest. To create soil amongst rocks, however, must not be considered as the only end of the lichen; different kinds of it minister to the elegant arts, in the form of beautiful dyes; thus the lichen rocella is used to communicate to silk and wool, various shades of purple and crimson, which greatly enhance the value of these materials. This species is chiefly imported from the Canary Islands, and, when scarce, as an article of commerce has brought as much as £1,000 per ton.

1071. In the vicinity of Lichens, the Musci, or Mosses, are generally to be found. Indeed, wherever vegetation can be sustained, there they are, affording protection to the roots and seeds of more delicate vegetables, and, by their spongy texture, retaining a moisture which preserves other plants from the withering drought of summer. But even in winter we find them enlivening, by their verdure, the cold bosom of Nature. We see them abounding in our pastures and our woods, attaching themselves to the living, and still more abundantly to the dead, trunks and branches of trees. In marshy places they also abound, and become the medium of their conversion into fruitful fields. This is exemplified by the manner in which peat-mosses are formed: on the surface of these we find them in a state of great life and vigour; immediately below we discover them, more or less, in a state of decomposition; and, still deeper, we find their stems and branches consolidated into a light brown peat. Thus are extensive tracts formed, ultimately to be brought into a state of cultivation, and rendered subservient to the wants of man.

1072. When Nature has found a soil, her next care is to perfect the 545 2N growth of her seeds, and then to disperse them. Whilst the seed remains confined in its capsule, it cannot answer its purpose; hence, when it is sufficiently ripe, the pericardium opens, and lets it out. What must strike every observer with surprise is, how nuts and shells, which we can hardly crack with our teeth, or even with a hammer, will divide of themselves, and make way for the little tender sprout which proceeds from the kernel. There are instances, it is said, such as in the Touch-me-not (impatiens), and the Cuckoo-flower (cardamine), in which the seed-vessels, by an elastic jerk at the moment of their explosion, cast the seeds to a distance. We are all aware, however, that many seeds—those of the most composite flowers, as of the thistle and dandelion—are endowed with, what have not been inappropriately called, wings. These consist of a beautiful silk-looking down, by which they are enabled to float in the air, and to be transported, sometimes, to considerable distances from the parent plant that produced them. The swelling of this downy tuft within the seed-vessel is the means by which the seed is enabled to overcome the resistance of its coats, and to force for itself a passage by which it escapes from its little prison-house.

1073. Birds, as well as Quadrupeds, are likewise the means of dispersing the seeds of plants, and placing them in situations where they ultimately grow. Amongst the latter is the squirrel, which is an extensive planter of oaks; nay, it may be regarded as having, in some measure, been one of the creators of the British navy. We have read of a gentleman who was walking one day in some woods belonging to the Duke of Beaufort, near Troy House, in Monmouthshire, when his attention was arrested by a squirrel, sitting very composedly upon the ground. He stopped to observe its motions, when, in a short time, the little animal suddenly quitted its position, and darted to the top of the tree beneath which it had been sitting. In an instant it returned with an acorn in its mouth, and with its paws began to burrow in the earth. After digging a small hole, it therein deposited an acorn, which it hastily covered, and then darted up the tree again. In a moment it was down with another, which it buried in the same manner; and so continued its labour, gathering and burying, as long as the gentleman had patience to watch it. This industry in the squirrel is an instinct which directs it to lay up a store of provision for the winter; and as it is probable that its memory is not sufficiently retentive to enable it to recollect all the spots in which it deposits its acorns, it no doubt makes some slips in the course of the season, and loses some of them. These few spring up, and are, in time, destined to supply the place of the parent tree. Thus may the sons of Britain, in some degree, consider themselves to be indebted to the industry and defective memory of this little animal for the production of some of those “wooden walls” which have, for centuries, been the national pride, and which have so long “braved the battle and the breeze” on the broad bosom of the great deep, in every quarter of the civilized globe. As with the squirrel, so with jays and pies, which plant among the grass and moss, horse-beans, and probably forget where they have secreted them. Mr. White, the naturalist, says, that both 546 horse-beans and peas sprang up in his field-walks in the autumn; and he attributes the sowing of them to birds. Bees, he also observes, are much the best setters of cucumbers. If they do not happen to take kindly to the frames, the best way is to tempt them by a little honey put on the male and female bloom. When they are once induced to haunt the frames, they set all the fruit, and will hover with impatience round the lights in a morning till the glasses are opened.

1074. Some of the Acorns planted by the Squirrel of Monmouthshire may be now in a fair way to become, at the end of some centuries, venerable trees; for not the least remarkable quality of oaks is the strong principle of life with which they are endued. In Major Rooke’s “Sketch of the Forest of Sherwood” we find it stated that, on some timber cut down in Berkland and Bilhaugh, letters were found stamped in the bodies of the trees, denoting the king’s reign in which they were marked. The bark appears to have been cut off, and then the letters to have been cut in, and the next year’s wood to have grown over them without adhering to where the bark had been cut out. The ciphers were found to be of James I., William and Mary, and one of King John. One of the ciphers of James was about one foot within the tree, and one foot from the centre. It was cut down in 1786. The tree must have been two feet in diameter, or two yards in circumference, when the mark was cut. A tree of this size is generally estimated at 120 years’ growth; which number being subtracted from the middle year of the reign of James, would carry the year back to 1492, which would be about the period of its being planted. The tree with the cipher of William and Mary displayed its mark about nine inches within the tree, and three feet three inches from the centre. This tree was felled in 1786. The cipher of John was eighteen inches within the tree, and rather more than a foot from the centre. The middle year of the reign of that monarch was 1207. By subtracting from this 120, the number of years requisite for a tree’s growth to arrive at the diameter of two feet, the date of its being planted would seem to have been 1085, or about twenty years after the Conquest.

picture of “CELLULAR DEVELOPMENT.”

CELLULAR DEVELOPMENT.

1075. Considering the great Endurance of these Trees, we are necessarily led to inquire into the means by which they are enabled to arrive at such strength and maturity; and whether it may be considered as a humiliation we will not determine, but, with all the ingenious mechanical contrivances of man, we are still unable to define the limits of the animal and vegetable kingdoms. “Plants have been described by naturalists, who would determine the limits of the two kingdoms, as organized living bodies, without volition or locomotion, destitute of a mouth or intestinal cavity, which, when detached from their place of growth, die, and, in decay, ferment, but do not putrefy, and which, on being subjected to analysis, furnish an excess of carbon and no nitrogen. The powers of chemistry, and of the microscope, however, instead of confirming these views, tend more and more to show that a still closer affinity exists between plants and animals; for it is now ascertained 547 that nitrogen, which was believed to be present only in animals, enters largely into the composition of plants also. When the microscope is brought to aid our powers of observation, we find that there are organized bodies belonging to the vegetable kingdom which possess very evident powers of locomotion, and which change about in so very remarkable a manner, that no other cause than that of volition can be assigned to it.” Thus it would seem that, in this particular at least, some vegetables bear a very close resemblance to animal life; and when we consider the manner in which they are supplied with nourishment, and perform the functions of their existence, the resemblance would seem still closer. If, for example, we take a thin transverse slice of the stem of any plant, or a slice cut across its stem, and immerse it in a little pure water, and place it under a microscope, we will find that it consists principally of cells, more or less regular, and resembling those of a honeycomb, or a network of cobweb. The size of these varies in different plants, as it does in different parts of the same plant, and they are sometimes so minute as to require a million to cover a square inch of surface. This singular structure, besides containing water and air, is the repository or storehouse of various secretions. Through it, the sap, when produced, is diffused sideways through the plant, and by it numerous changes are effected in the juices which fill its cells. The forms of the cells are various; they are also subject to various transformations. Sometimes a number of cylindrical cells are laid end to end, and, by the absorption of the transverse partitions, form a continuous tube, as in the sap-vessels of plants, or in muscular and nervous fibre; and when cells are thus woven together, they are called cellular tissue, which, in the human body, forms a fine net-like membrane, enveloping or connecting most of its structures. In pulpy fruits, the cells may be easily separated one from the other; and within the cells are smaller cells, commonly known as pulp. Among the cell-contents of some plants are beautiful crystals, called raphides. The term is derived from ῥαφις, a needle, on account of the resemblance of the crystal to a needle. They are composed of the phosphate and oxalate of 548 lime; but there is great difference of opinion as to their use in the economy of the plant, and one of the French philosophers endeavoured to prove that crystals are the possible transition of the inorganic to organic matter. The differences, however, between the highest form of crystal and the lowest form of organic life known, viz., a simple reproductive cell, are so manifold and striking, that the attempt to make crystals the bridge over which inorganic 549 matter passes into organic, is almost totally regarded as futile. In a layer of an onion, a fig, a section of garden rhubarb, in some species of aloe, in the bark of many trees, and in portions of the cuticle of the medicinal squill, bundles of these needle-shaped crystals are to be found. Some of them are as large as 1–40th of an inch, others are as small as the 1–1000th. They are found in all parts of the plant,—in the stem, bark, leaves, stipules, petals, fruit, roots, and even in the pollen, with some few exceptions, and they are always situated in the interior of cells. Some plants, as many of the cactus tribe, are made up almost entirely of these needle-crystals; in some instances, every cell of the cuticle contains a stellate mass of crystals; in others, the whole interior is full of them, rendering the plant so exceedingly brittle, that the least touch will occasion a fracture; so much so, that some specimens of Cactus senilis, said to be a thousand years old, which were sent a few years since to Kew, from South America, were obliged to be packed in cotton, with all the care of the most delicate jewellery, to preserve them during transport.

picture of “SILICEOUS CUTICLE FROM UNDER-SIDE OF LEAF OF DEUTZIA SCABRA.”

SILICEOUS CUTICLE FROM UNDER-SIDE OF LEAF OF DEUTZIA SCABRA.

1076. Besides the Cellular Tissue, there is what is called a vascular system, which consists of another set of small vessels. If, for example, we, early in the spring, cut a branch transversely, we will perceive the sap oozing out from numerous points over the whole of the divided surface, except on that part occupied by the pith and the bark; and if a twig, on which the leaves are already unfolded, be cut from the tree, and placed with its cut end in a watery solution of Brazil-wood, the colouring matter will be found to ascend into the leaves and to the top of the twig. In both these cases, a close examination with a powerful microscope, will discover the sap perspiring from the divided portion of the stem, and the colouring matter rising through real tubes to the top of the twig: these are the sap or conducting vessels of the plant. If, however, we examine a transverse section of the vine, or of any other tree, at a later period of the season, we find that the wood is apparently dry, whilst the bark, particularly that part next the wood, is swelled with fluid. This is contained in vessels of a different kind from those in which the sap rises. They are found in the bark only in trees, and may be called returning vessels, from their carrying the sap downwards after its preparation in the leaf. It is believed that the passage of the sap in plants is conducted in a manner precisely similar to that of the blood in man, from the regular contraction and expansion of the vessels; but, on account of their extreme minuteness, it is almost an impossibility to be certain upon this point. Numerous observations made with the microscope show that their diameter seldom exceeds a 290th part of a line, or a 3,000th part of an inch. Leuwenhoeck reckoned 20,000 vessels in a morsel of oak about one nineteenth of an inch square.

picture of “SILICEOUS CUTICLE OF GRASS.”

SILICEOUS CUTICLE OF GRASS.

1077. In the Vascular System of a Plant, we at once see the great analogy which it bears to the veins and arteries in the human system; but neither it, nor the cellular tissue combined, is all that is required to perfect the production of a vegetable. There is, besides, a tracheal system, which 550 is composed of very minute elastic spiral tubes, designed for the purpose of conveying air both to and from the plant. There are also fibres, which consist of collections of these cells and vessels closely united together. These form the root and the stem. If we attempt to cut them transversely, we meet with difficulty, because we have to force our way across the tubes, and break them; but if we slit the wood lengthwise, the vessels are separated without breaking. The layers of wood, which appear in the stem or branch of a tree cut transversely, consist of different zones of fibres, each the produce of one year’s growth, and separated by a coat of cellular tissue, without which they could not be well distinguished. Besides all these, there is the cuticle, which extends over every part of the plant, and covers the bark with three distinct coats. The liber, or inner bark, is said to be formed of hollow tubes, which convey the sap downwards to increase the solid diameter of the tree.

1078. The Root and the Stem now demand a slight notice. The former is designed, not only to support the plant by fixing it in the soil, but also to fulfil the functions of a channel for the conveyance of nourishment: it is therefore furnished with pores, or spongioles, as they are called, from their resemblance to a sponge, to suck up whatever comes within its reach. It is found in a variety of forms, and hence its adaptation to a great diversity of soils and circumstances. We have heard of a willow-tree being dug up and its head planted where its roots were, and these suffered to spread out in the air like naked branches. In course of time, the roots became branches, and the branches roots, or rather, roots rose from the branches beneath the ground, and branches shot from the roots above. Some roots last one year, others two, and others, like the shrubs and trees which they produce, have an indefinite period of existence; but they all consist of a collection of fibres, composed of vascular and cellular tissue, without tracheæ, or breathing-vessels. The stem is the grand distributor of the nourishment taken up by the roots, to the several parts of the plant. The seat of its vitality is said to be in the point or spot called the neck, which separates the stem from the root. If the root of a young plant be cut off, it will shoot out afresh; if even the stem be taken away, it will be renewed; but if this part be injured, the plant will assuredly die.

1079. In accordance with the plan of this Work, special notices of culinary vegetables will accompany the various recipes in which they are spoken of; but here we cannot resist the opportunity of declaring it as our conviction, that he or she who introduces a useful or an ornamental plant into our island, ought justly to be considered, to a large extent, a benefactor to the country. No one can calculate the benefits which may spring from this very vegetable, after its qualities have become thoroughly known. If viewed in no other light, it is pleasing to consider it as bestowing upon us a share of the blessings of other climates, and enabling us to participate in the luxury which a more genial sun has produced.

551

RECIPES.
CHAPTER XXV.

BOILED ARTICHOKES.

1080. Ingredients.—To each ½ gallon of water, allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt, a piece of soda the size of a shilling; artichokes.

picture of “ARTICHOKES.”

ARTICHOKES.

Mode.—Wash the artichokes well in several waters; see that no insects remain about them, and trim away the leaves at the bottom. Cut off the stems and put them into boiling water, to which have been added salt and soda in the above proportion. Keep the saucepan uncovered, and let them boil quickly until tender; ascertain when they are done by thrusting a fork in them, or by trying if the leaves can be easily removed. Take them out, let them drain for a minute or two, and serve in a napkin, or with a little white sauce poured over. A tureen of melted butter should accompany them. This vegetable, unlike any other, is considered better for being gathered two or three days; but they must be well soaked and washed previous to dressing.

Time.—20 to 25 minutes, after the water boils.

Sufficient,—a dish of 5 or 6 for 4 persons.

Seasonable from July to the beginning of September.

picture of “CARDOON ARTICHOKE.”

CARDOON ARTICHOKE.

The Compositæ, or Composite Flowers.—This family is so extensive, as to contain nearly a twelfth part of the whole of the vegetable kingdom. It embraces about 9,000 species, distributed over almost every country; and new discoveries are constantly being made and added to the number. Towards the poles their numbers diminish, and slightly, also, towards the equator; but they abound in the tropical and sub-tropical islands, and in the tracts of continent not far from the seashore. Among esculent vegetables, the Lettuce, Salsify, Scorzonera, Cardoon, and Artichoke belong to the family.

FRIED ARTICHOKES.
(Entremets, or Small Dish, to be served with the Second Course.)

1081. Ingredients.—5 or 6 artichokes, salt and water: for the batter,—¼ lb. of flour, a little salt, the yolk of 1 egg, milk.

552

Mode.—Trim and boil the artichokes by recipe No. 1080, and rub them over with lemon-juice, to keep them white. When they are quite tender, take them up, remove the chokes, and divide the bottoms; dip each piece into batter, fry them in hot lard or dripping, and garnish the dish with crisped parsley. Serve with plain melted butter.

Time.—20 minutes to boil the artichokes, 5 to 7 minutes to fry them.

Sufficient,—5 or 6 for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from July to the beginning of September.

A FRENCH MODE OF COOKING ARTICHOKES.

1082. Ingredients.—5 or 6 artichokes; to each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt, ½ teaspoonful of pepper, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, 2 oz. of butter.

Mode.—Cut the ends of the leaves, as also the stems; put the artichokes into boiling water, with the above proportion of salt, pepper, herbs, and butter; let them boil quickly until tender, keeping the lid of the saucepan off, and when the leaves come out easily, they are cooked enough. To keep them a beautiful green, put a large piece of cinder into a muslin bag, and let it boil with them. Serve with plain melted butter.

Time.—20 to 25 minutes.

Sufficient,—5 or 6 sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from July to the beginning of September.

ARTICHOKES A L’ITALIENNE.

1083. Ingredients.—4 or 5 artichokes, salt and butter, about ½ pint of good gravy.

Mode.—Trim and cut the artichokes into quarters, and boil them until tender in water mixed with a little salt and butter. When done, drain them well, and lay them all round the dish, with the leaves outside. Have ready some good gravy, highly flavoured with mushrooms; reduce it until quite thick, and pour it round the artichokes, and serve.

Time.—20 to 25 minutes to boil the artichokes.

Sufficient for one side-dish.

Seasonable from July to the beginning of September.

Constituent Properties of the Artichoke.—According to the analysis of Braconnet, the constituent elements of an artichoke are,—starch 30, albumen 10, uncrystallizable sugar 148, gum 12, fixed oil 1, woody fibre 12, inorganic matter 27, and water 770.

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BOILED JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES.

1084. Ingredients.—To each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt; artichokes.

picture of “JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES.”

JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES.

Mode.—Wash, peel, and shape the artichokes in a round or oval form, and put them into a saucepan with sufficient cold water to cover them, salted in the above proportion. Let them boil gently until tender; take them up, drain them, and serve them in a napkin, or plain, whichever mode is preferred; send to table with them a tureen of melted butter or cream sauce, a little of which may be poured over the artichokes when they are not served in a napkin.

Time.—About 20 minutes after the water boils.

Average cost, 2d. per lb.

Sufficient—10 for a dish for 6 persons.

Seasonable from September to June.

Uses of the Jerusalem Artichoke.—This being a tuberous-rooted plant, with leafy stems from four to six feet high, it is alleged that its tops will afford as much fodder per acre as a crop of oats, or more, and its roots half as many tubers as an ordinary crop of potatoes. The tubers, being abundant in the market-gardens, are to be had at little more than the price of potatoes. The fibres of the stems may be separated by maceration, and manufactured into cordage or cloth; and this is said to be done in some parts of the north and west of France, as about Hagenau, where this plant, on the poor sandy soils, is an object of field culture.

MASHED JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES.

1085. Ingredients.—To each ½ gallon of water allow 1 oz. of salt; 15 or 16 artichokes, 1 oz. butter, pepper and salt to taste.

Mode.—Boil the artichokes as in the preceding recipe until tender; drain and press the water from them, and beat them up with a fork. When thoroughly mashed and free from lumps, put them into a saucepan with the butter and a seasoning of white pepper and salt; keep stirring over the fire until the artichokes are quite hot, and serve.

Time.—About 20 minutes.

Average cost, 2d. per lb.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable from September to June.

JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES WITH WHITE SAUCE.
(Entremets, or to be served with the Second Course as a Side-dish.)

1086. Ingredients.—12 to 15 artichokes, 12 to 15 Brussels sprouts, ½ pint of white sauce, No. 538.

Mode.—Peel and cut the artichokes in the shape of a pear; cut a piece off the bottom of each, that they may stand upright in the dish, and boil them in salt and water until tender. Have ready ½ pint of 554 white sauce, made by recipe No. 538; dish the artichokes, pour over them the sauce, and place between each a fine Brussels sprout: these should be boiled separately, and not with the artichokes.

Time.—About 20 minutes.

Average cost, 2d. per lb.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable from September to June.

The Jerusalem Artichoke.—This plant is well known, being, for its tubers, cultivated not only as a garden vegetable, but also as an agricultural crop. By many it is much esteemed as an esculent, when cooked in various ways; and the domesticated animals eat both the fresh foliage and the tubers with great relish. By some, they are not only considered nourishing, but even fattening.

BOILED ASPARAGUS.

1087. Ingredients.—To each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt; asparagus.

picture of “ASPARAGUS ON TOAST.”

ASPARAGUS ON TOAST.

picture of “ASPARAGUS TONGS.”

ASPARAGUS TONGS.

Mode.—Asparagus should be dressed as soon as possible after it is cut, although it may be kept for a day or two by putting the stalks into cold water; yet, to be good, like every other vegetable, it cannot be cooked too fresh. Scrape the white part of the stems, beginning from the head, and throw them into cold water; then tie them into bundles of about 20 each, keeping the heads all one way, and cut the stalks evenly, that they may all be the same length; put them into boiling water, with salt in the above proportion; keep them boiling quickly until tender, with the saucepan uncovered. When the asparagus is done, dish it upon toast, which should be dipped in the water it was cooked in, and leave the white ends outwards each way, with the points meeting in the middle. Serve with a tureen of melted butter.

Time.—15 to 18 minutes after the water boils.

Average cost, in full season, 2s. 6d. the 100 heads.

Sufficient.—Allow about 50 heads for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable.—May be had, forced, from January, but cheapest in May, June, and July.

picture of “ASPARAGUS.”

ASPARAGUS.

Asparagus.—This plant belongs to the variously-featured family of the order Liliaceæ, which, in the temperate regions of both hemispheres, are most abundant, and, between the tropics, gigantic in size and arborescent in form. Asparagus is a native of Great Britain, and is found on various parts of the seacoast, and in the fens of Lincolnshire. At Kynarve Cove, in Cornwall, there is an island called “Asparagus Island,” from the abundance in which it is there found. The uses to which the young shoots are applied, and the manure in which they are cultivated in order to bring them to the highest state of excellence, have been a study with many kitchen-gardeners.

555
ASPARAGUS PEAS.
(Entremets, or to be served as a Side-dish with the Second Course.)

1088. Ingredients.—100 heads of asparagus, 2 oz. of butter, a small bunch of parsley, 2 or 3 green onions, flour, 1 lump of sugar, the yolks of 2 eggs, 4 tablespoonfuls of cream, salt.

Mode.—Carefully scrape the asparagus, cut it into pieces of an equal size, avoiding that which is in the least hard or tough, and throw them into cold water. Then boil the asparagus in salt and water until three-parts done; take it out, drain, and place it on a cloth to dry the moisture away from it. Put it into a stewpan with the butter, parsley, and onions, and shake over a brisk fire for 10 minutes. Dredge in a little flour, add the sugar, and moisten with boiling water. When boiled a short time and reduced, take out the parsley and onions, thicken with the yolks of 2 eggs beaten with the cream; add a seasoning of salt, and, when the whole is on the point of simmering, serve. Make the sauce sufficiently thick to adhere to the vegetable.

Time.—Altogether, ½ hour.

Average cost, 1s. 6d. a pint.

Seasonable in May, June, and July.

Medicinal Uses of Asparagus.—This plant not only acts as a wholesome and nutritious vegetable, but also as a diuretic, aperient, and deobstruent. The chemical analysis of its juice discovers its composition to be a peculiar crystallizable principle, called asparagin, albumen, mannite, malic acid, and some salts. Thours says, the cellular tissue contains a substance similar to sago. The berries are capable of undergoing vinous fermentation, and affording alcohol by distillation. In their unripe state they possess the same properties as the roots, and probably in a much higher degree.

ASPARAGUS PUDDING.
(A delicious Dish, to be served with the Second Course.

1089. Ingredients.—½ pint of asparagus peas, 4 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 1 tablespoonful of very finely minced ham, 1 oz. of butter, pepper and salt to taste, milk.

Mode.—Cut up the nice green tender parts of asparagus, about the size of peas; put them into a basin with the eggs, which should be well beaten, and the flour, ham, butter, pepper, and salt. Mix all these ingredients well together, and moisten with sufficient milk to make the pudding of the consistency of thick batter; put it into a pint buttered mould, tie it down tightly with a floured cloth, place it in boiling water, and let it boil for 2 hours; turn it out of the mould on to a hot dish, and pour plain melted butter round, but not over, the pudding. Green peas pudding may be made in exactly the same manner, substituting peas for the asparagus.

Time.—2 hours.

Average cost, 1s. 6d. per pint.

Seasonable in May, June, and July.

556
BOILED FRENCH BEANS.

1090. Ingredients.—To each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt, a very small piece of soda.

picture of “SCARLET RUNNER.”

SCARLET RUNNER.

Mode.—This vegetable should always be eaten young, as, when allowed to grow too long, it tastes stringy and tough when cooked. Cut off the heads and tails, and a thin strip on each side of the beans, to remove the strings. Then divide each bean into 4 or 6 pieces, according to size, cutting them lengthways in a slanting direction, and, as they are cut, put them into cold water, with a small quantity of salt dissolved in it. Have ready a saucepan of boiling water, with salt and soda in the above proportion; put in the beans, keep them boiling quickly, with the lid uncovered, and be careful that they do not get smoked. When tender, which may be ascertained by their sinking to the bottom of the saucepan, take them up, throw them into a colander; and when drained, dish and serve with plain melted butter. When very young, beans are sometimes served whole: when they are thus dressed, their colour and flavour are much better preserved; but the more general way of dressing them is to cut them into thin strips.

Time.—Very young beans, 10 to 12 minutes; moderate size, 15 to 20 minutes, after the water boils.

Average cost, in full season, 1s. 4d. a peck; but, when forced, very expensive.

Sufficient.—Allow ½ peck for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable from the middle of July to the end of September; but may be had, forced, from February to the beginning of June.

FRENCH MODE OF COOKING FRENCH BEANS.

1091. Ingredients.—A quart of French beans, 3 oz. of fresh butter, pepper and salt to taste, the juice of ½ lemon.

Mode.—Cut and boil the beans by the preceding recipe, and when tender, put them into a stewpan, and shake over the fire, to dry away the moisture from the beans. When quite dry and hot, add the butter, pepper, salt, and lemon-juice; keep moving the stewpan, without using a spoon, as that would break the beans; and when the butter is melted, and all is thoroughly hot, serve. If the butter should not mix well, add a tablespoonful of gravy, and serve very quickly.

557

Time.—About ¼ hour to boil the beans; 10 minutes to shake them over the fire.

Average cost, in full season, about 1s. 4d. a peck.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from the middle of July to the end of September.

BOILED BROAD OR WINDSOR BEANS.

1092. Ingredients.—To each ½ gallon of water, allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt; beans.

picture of “BROAD BEANS.”

BROAD BEANS.

Mode.—This is a favourite vegetable with many persons, but to be nice, should be young and freshly gathered. After shelling the beans, put them into boiling water, salted in the above proportion, and let them boil rapidly until tender. Drain them well in a colander; dish, and serve with them separately a tureen of parsley and butter. Boiled bacon should always accompany this vegetable, but the beans should be cooked separately. It is usually served with the beans laid round, and the parsley and butter in a tureen. Beans also make an excellent garnish to a ham, and when used for this purpose, if very old, should have their skins removed.

Time.—Very young beans, 15 minutes; when of a moderate size, 20 to 25 minutes, or longer.

Average cost, unshelled, 6d. per peck.

Sufficient.—Allow one peck for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable in July and August.

Nutritive Properties of the Bean.—The produce of beans in meal is, like that of peas, more in proportion to the grain than in any of the cereal grasses. A bushel of beans is supposed to yield fourteen pounds more of flour than a bushel of oats; and a bushel of peas eighteen pounds more, or, according to some, twenty pounds. A thousand parts of bean flour were found by Sir H. Davy to yield 570 parts of nutritive matter, of which 426 were mucilage or starch, 103 gluten, and 41 extract, or matter rendered insoluble during the process.

BROAD BEANS A LA POULETTE.

1093. Ingredients.—2 pints of broad beans, ½ pint of stock or broth, a small bunch of savoury herbs, including parsley, a small lump of sugar, the yolk of 1 egg, ¼ pint of cream, pepper and salt to taste.

Mode.—Procure some young and freshly-gathered beans, and shell sufficient to make 2 pints; boil them, as in the preceding recipe, until nearly done; then drain them and put them into a stewpan, with the stock, finely-minced herbs, and sugar. Stew the beans until perfectly tender, and the liquor has dried away a little; then beat up the yolk of an egg with the cream, add this to the beans, let the whole get 558 thoroughly hot, and when on the point of simmering, serve. Should the beans be very large, the skin should be removed previously to boiling them.

Time.—10 minutes to boil the beans, 15 minutes to stew them in the stock.

Average cost, unshelled, 6d. per peck.

Seasonable in July and August.

Origin and Varieties of the Bean.—This valuable plant is said to be a native of Egypt, but, like other plants which have been domesticated, its origin is uncertain. It has been cultivated in Europe and Asia from time immemorial, and has been long known in Britain. Its varieties may be included under two general heads,—the white, or garden beans, and the grey, or field beans. Of the former, sown in the fields, the mazagan and long-pod are almost the only sorts; of the latter, those known as the horse-bean, the small or ticks, and the prolific of Heligoland, are the principal sorts. New varieties are procured in the same manner as in other plants.

BOILED BEETROOT.

1094. Ingredients.—Beetroot; boiling water.

Mode.—When large, young, and juicy, this vegetable makes a very excellent addition to winter salads, and may easily be converted into an economical and quickly-made pickle. (See No. 369.) Beetroot is more frequently served cold than hot: when the latter mode is preferred, melted butter should be sent to table with it. It may also be stewed with button onions, or boiled and served with roasted onions. Wash the beets thoroughly; but do not prick or break the skin before they are cooked, or they would lose their beautiful colour in boiling. Put them into boiling water, and let them boil until tender, keeping them well covered. If to be served hot, remove the peel quickly, cut the beetroot into thick slices, and send to table melted butter. For salads, pickle, &c., let the root cool, then peel, and cut it into slices.

picture of “BEETROOT.”

BEETROOT.

Time.—Small beetroot, 1½ to 2 hours; large, 2½ to 3 hours.

Average cost, in full season, 2d. each.

Seasonable.—May be had at any time.

Beetroot.—The geographical distribution of the order Saltworts (Salsolaceæ), to which beetroot belongs, is most common in extra-tropical and temperate regions, where they are common weeds, frequenting waste places, among rubbish, and on marshes by the seashore. In the tropics they are rare. They are characterized by the large quantity of mucilage, sugar, starch, and alkaline salts which are found in them. Many of them are used as potherbs, and some are emetic and vermifuge in their medicinal properties. The root of garden or red beet is exceedingly wholesome and nutritious, and Dr. Lyon Playfair has recommended that a good brown bread may be made by rasping down this root with an equal quantity of flour. He says that the average quality of flour contains about 12 per cent. of azotized principles adapted for the formation of flesh, and the average quality of beet contains about 2 per cent. of the same materials.

559
BOILED BROCOLI.

1095. Ingredients.—To each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt; brocoli.

picture of “BOILED BROCOLI.”

BOILED BROCOLI.

picture of “BROCOLI.”

BROCOLI.

Mode.—Strip off the dead outside leaves, and the inside ones cut off level with the flower; cut off the stalk close at the bottom, and put the brocoli into cold salt and water, with the heads downwards. When they have remained in this for about ¾ hour, and they are perfectly free from insects, put them into a saucepan of boiling water, salted in the above proportion, and keep them boiling quickly over a brisk fire, with the saucepan uncovered. Take them up with a slice the moment they are done; drain them well, and serve with a tureen of melted butter, a little of which should be poured over the brocoli. If left in the water after it is done, it will break, its colour will be spoiled, and its crispness gone.

Time.—Small brocoli, 10 to 15 minutes; large one, 20 to 25 minutes.

Average cost, 2d. each.

Sufficient,—2 for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from October to March; plentiful in February and March.

The Kohl-Rabi, or Turnip-Cabbage.—This variety presents a singular development, inasmuch as the stem swells out like a large turnip on the surface of the ground, the leaves shooting from it all round, and the top being surmounted by a cluster of leaves issuing from it. Although not generally grown as a garden vegetable, if used when young and tender, it is wholesome, nutritious, and very palatable.

BOILED BRUSSELS SPROUTS.

1096. Ingredients.—To each gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt; a very small piece of soda.

Mode.—Clean the sprouts from insects, nicely wash them, and pick off any dead or discoloured leaves from the outsides; put them into a saucepan of boiling water, with salt and soda in the above proportion; keep the pan uncovered, and let them boil quickly over a brisk fire until tender; drain, dish, and serve with a tureen of melted butter, or with a maître d’hôtel sauce poured over them. Another mode of serving is, when they are dished, to stir in about 1½ oz. of butter and a seasoning of pepper and salt. They must, however, be sent to table very quickly, as, being so very small, this vegetable soon cools. Where the cook is very expeditious, this vegetable, when cooked, may be 560 arranged on the dish in the form of a pineapple, and, so served, has a very pretty appearance.

Time.—From 9 to 12 minutes after the water boils.

Average cost, 1s. 4d. per peck.

Sufficient—Allow between 40 and 50 for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from November to March.

Savoys and Brussels Sprouts.—When the Green Kale, or Borecole, has been advanced a step further in the path of improvement, it assumes the headed or hearting character, with blistered leaves; it is then known by the name of Savoys and Brussels Sprouts. Another of its headed forms, but with smooth glaucous leaves, is the cultivated Cabbage of our gardens (the Borecole oleracea capitula of science); and all its varieties of green, red, dwarf, tall, early, late, round, conical, flat, and all the forms into which it is possible to put it.

TO BOIL YOUNG GREENS OR SPROUTS.

1097. Ingredients.—To each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt; a very small piece of soda.

picture of “BRUSSELS SPROUTS.”

BRUSSELS SPROUTS.

Mode.—Pick away all the dead leaves, and wash the greens well in cold water; drain them in a colander, and put them into fast-boiling water, with salt and soda in the above proportion. Keep them boiling quickly, with the lid uncovered, until tender; and the moment they are done, take them up, or their colour will be spoiled; when well drained, serve. The great art in cooking greens properly, and to have them a good colour, is to put them into plenty of fast-boiling water, to let them boil very quickly, and to take them up the moment they become tender.

Time.—Brocoli sprouts, 10 to 12 minutes; young greens, 10 to 12 minutes; sprouts, 12 minutes, after the water boils.

Seasonable.—Sprouts of various kinds may be had all the year.

Green Kale, or Borecole.—When Colewort, or Wild Cabbage, is brought into a state of cultivation, its character becomes greatly improved, although it still retains the loose open leaves, and in this form it is called Green Kale, or Borecole. The scientific name is Borecole oleracea acephala, and of it there are many varieties, both as regards the form and colour of the leaves, as well as the height which the plants attain. We may observe, that among them, are included the Thousand-headed, and the Cow or Tree Cabbage.

BOILED CABBAGE.

1098. Ingredients.—To each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt; a very small piece of soda.

Mode.—Pick off all the dead outside leaves, cut off as much of the stalk as possible, and cut the cabbages across twice, at the stalk end; if they should be very large, quarter them. Wash them well in cold 561 2O water, place them in a colander, and drain; then put them into plenty of fast-boiling water, to which have been added salt and soda in the above proportions. Stir them down once or twice in the water, keep the pan uncovered, and let them boil quickly until tender. The instant they are done, take them up into a colander, place a plate over them, let them thoroughly drain, dish, and serve.

Time.—Large cabbages, or savoys, ½ to ¾ hour, young summer cabbage, 10 to 12 minutes, after the water boils.

Average cost, 2d. each in full season.

Sufficient,—2 large ones for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable.—Cabbages and sprouts of various kinds at any time.

The Cabbage Tribe; their Origin.—Of all the tribes of the Cruciferæ this is by far the most important. Its scientific name is Brassiceæ, and it contains a collection of plants which, both in themselves and their products, occupy a prominent position in agriculture, commerce, and domestic economy. On the cliffs of Dover, and in many places on the coasts of Dorsetshire, Cornwall, and Yorkshire, there grows a wild plant, with variously-indented, much-waved, and loose spreading leaves, of a sea-green colour, and large yellow flowers. In spring, the leaves of this plant are collected by the inhabitants, who, after boiling them in two waters, to remove the saltness, use them as a vegetable along with their meat. This is the Brassica oleracea of science, the Wild Cabbage, or Colewort, from which have originated all the varieties of Cabbage, Cauliflower, Greens, and Brocoli.

STEWED RED CABBAGE.

1099. Ingredients.—1 red cabbage, a small slice of ham, ½ oz. of fresh butter, 1 pint of weak stock or broth, 1 gill of vinegar, salt and pepper to taste, 1 tablespoonful of pounded sugar.

Mode.—Cut the cabbage into very thin slices, put it into a stewpan, with the ham cut in dice, the butter, ½ pint of stock, and the vinegar; cover the pan closely, and let it stew for 1 hour. When it is very tender, add the remainder of the stock, a seasoning of salt and pepper, and the pounded sugar; mix all well together, stir over the fire until nearly all the liquor is dried away, and serve. Fried sausages are usually sent to table with this dish: they should be laid round and on the cabbage, as a garnish.

Time.—Rather more than 1 hour.

Average cost, 4d. each.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

Seasonable from September to January.

The Wild Cabbage, or Colewort.—This plant, as it is found on the sea-cliffs of England, presents us with the origin of the cabbage tribe in its simplest and normal form. In this state it is the true Collet, or Colewort, although the name is now applied to any young cabbage which has a loose and open heart.

BOILED CARROTS.

1100. Ingredients.—To each ½ gallon of water, allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt; carrots.

Mode.—Cut off the green tops, wash and scrape the carrots, and 562 should there be any black specks, remove them. If very large, cut them in halves, divide them lengthwise into four pieces, and put them into boiling water, salted in the above proportion; let them boil until tender, which may be ascertained by thrusting a fork into them: dish, and serve very hot. This vegetable is an indispensable accompaniment to boiled beef. When thus served, it is usually boiled with the beef; a few carrots are placed round the dish as a garnish, and the remainder sent to table in a vegetable-dish. Young carrots do not require nearly so much boiling, nor should they be divided: these make a nice addition to stewed veal, &c.

picture of “CARROTS.”

CARROTS.

Time.—Large carrots, 1¾ to 2¼ hours; young ones, about ½ hour.

Average cost, 6d. to 8d. per bunch of 18.

Sufficient,—4 large carrots for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable.—Young carrots from April to June, old ones at any time.

Origin of the Carrot.—In its wild state, this vegetable is found plentifully in Britain, both in cultivated lands and by waysides, and is known by the name of birds-nest, from its umbels of fruit becoming incurved from a hollow cup, like a birds-nest. In this state its root is whitish, slender, and hard, with an acrid, disagreeable taste, and a strong aromatic smell, and was formerly used as an aperient. When cultivated, it is reddish, thick, fleshy, with a pleasant odour, and a peculiar, sweet, mucilaginous taste. The carrot is said by naturalists not to contain much nourishing matter, and, generally speaking, is somewhat difficult of digestion.

TO DRESS CARROTS IN THE GERMAN WAY.

1101. Ingredients.—8 large carrots, 3 oz. of butter, salt to taste, a very little grated nutmeg, 1 tablespoonful of finely-minced parsley, 1 dessert­spoonful of minced onion, rather more than 1 pint of weak stock or broth, 1 tablespoonful of flour.

Mode.—Wash and scrape the carrots, and cut them into rings of about ¼ inch in thickness. Put the butter into a stewpan; when it is melted, lay in the carrots, with salt, nutmeg, parsley, and onion in the above proportions. Toss the stewpan over the fire for a few minutes, and when the carrots are well saturated with the butter, pour in the stock, and simmer gently until they are nearly tender. Then put into another stewpan a small piece of butter; dredge in about a tablespoonful of flour; stir this over the fire, and when of a nice brown colour, add the liquor that the carrots have been boiling in; let this just boil up, pour it over the carrots in the other stewpan, and let them finish simmering until quite tender. Serve very hot. 563 This vegetable, dressed as above, is a favourite accompaniment of roast pork, sausages, &c. &c.

Time.—About ¾ hour.

Average cost, 6d. to 8d. per bunch of 18.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable.—Young carrots from April to June, old ones at anytime.

Constituents of the Carrot.—These are crystallizable and uncrystallizable sugar, a little starch, extractive, gluten, albumen, volatile oil, vegetable jelly, or pectin, saline matter, malic acid, and a peculiar crystallizable ruby-red neuter principle, without odour or taste, called carotin. This vegetable jelly, or pectin, so named from its singular property of gelatinizing, is considered by some as another form of gum or mucilage, combined with vegetable acid. It exists more or less in all vegetables, and is especially abundant in those roots and fruits from which jellies are prepared.

STEWED CARROTS.

1102. Ingredients.—7 or 8 large carrots, 1 teacupful of broth, pepper and salt to taste, ½ teacupful of cream, thickening of butter and flour.

Mode.—Scrape the carrots nicely; half-boil, and slice them into a stewpan; add the broth, pepper and salt, and cream; simmer till tender, and be careful the carrots are not broken. A few minutes before serving, mix a little flour with about 1 oz. of butter; thicken the gravy with this; let it just boil up, and serve.

Time.—About ¾ hour to parboil the carrots, about 20 minutes to cook them after they are sliced.

Average cost, 6d. to 8d. per bunch of 18.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable.—Young carrots from April to June, old ones at any time.

Nutritive Properties of the Carrot.—Sir H. Davy ascertained the nutritive matter of the carrot to amount to ninety-eight parts in one thousand; of which ninety-five are sugar and three are starch. It is used in winter and spring in the dairy to give colour and flavour to butter; and it is excellent in stews, haricots, soups, and, when boiled whole, with salt beef. In the distillery, owing to the great proportion of sugar in its composition, it yields more spirit than the potato. The usual quantity is twelve gallons per ton.

SLICED CARROTS.
(Entremets, or to be served with the Second Course, as a Side-dish.)

1103. Ingredients.—5 or 6 large carrots, a large lump of sugar, 1 pint of weak stock, 3 oz. of fresh butter, salt to taste.

Mode.—Scrape and wash the carrots, cut them into slices of an equal size, and boil them in salt and water, until half done; drain them well, put them into a stewpan with the sugar and stock, and let them boil over a brisk fire. When reduced to a glaze, add the 564 fresh butter and a seasoning of salt; shake the stewpan about well, and when the butter is well mixed with the carrots, serve. There should be no sauce in the dish when it comes to table, but it should all adhere to the carrots.

Time.—Altogether, ¾ hour.

Average cost, 6d. to 8d. per bunch of 18.

Sufficient for 1 dish.

Seasonable.—Young carrots from April to June, old ones at any time.

The Seed of the Carrot.—In order to save the seed of carrots, the plan is, to select annually the most perfect and best-shaped roots in the taking-up season, and either preserve them in sand in a cellar till spring, or plant them immediately in an open airy part of the garden, protecting them with litter during severe frost, or earthing them over, and uncovering them in March following. The seed is in no danger from being injured by any other plant. In August it is fit to gather, and is best preserved on the stalks till wanted.

BOILED CAULIFLOWERS.

picture of “CAULIFLOWER.”

CAULIFLOWER.

picture of “BOILED CAULIFLOWER.”

BOILED CAULIFLOWER.

1104. Ingredients.—To each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt.

Mode.—Choose cauliflowers that are close and white; trim off the decayed outside leaves, and cut the stalk off flat at the bottom. Open the flower a little in places to remove the insects, which generally are found about the stalk, and let the cauliflowers lie in salt and water for an hour previous to dressing them, with their heads downwards: this will effectually draw out all the vermin. Then put them into fast-boiling water, with the addition of salt in the above proportion, and let them boil briskly over a good fire, keeping the saucepan uncovered. The water should be well skimmed; and, when the cauliflowers are tender, take them up with a slice; let them drain, and, if large enough, place them upright in the dish. Serve with plain melted butter, a little of which may be poured over the flower.

Time.—Small cauliflower, 12 to 15 minutes, large one, 20 to 25 minutes, after the water boils.

Average cost, for large cauliflowers, 6d. each.

Sufficient.—Allow 1 large cauliflower for 3 persons.

Seasonable from the beginning of June to the end of September.

565
CAULIFLOWERS A LA SAUCE BLANCHE.
(Entremets, or Side-dish, to be served with the Second Course.)

1105. Ingredients.—3 cauliflowers, ½ pint of sauce blanche, or French melted butter, No. 378; 3 oz. of butter; salt and water.

Mode.—Cleanse the cauliflowers as in the preceding recipe, and cut the stalks off flat at the bottom; boil them until tender in salt and water, to which the above proportion of butter has been added, and be careful to take them up the moment they are done, or they will break, and the appearance of the dish will be spoiled. Drain them well, and dish them in the shape of a large cauliflower. Have ready ½ pint of sauce, made by recipe No. 378, pour it over the flowers, and serve hot and quickly.

Time.—Small cauliflowers, 12 to 15 minutes, large ones, 20 to 25 minutes, after the water boils.

Average cost,—large cauliflowers, in full season, 6d. each.

Sufficient,—1 large cauliflower for 3 or 4 persons.

Seasonable from the beginning of June to the end of September.

Cauliflower and Brocoli.—These are only forms of the wild Cabbage in its cultivated state. They are both well known; but we may observe, that the purple and white Brocoli are only varieties of the Cauliflower.

CAULIFLOWERS WITH PARMESAN CHEESE.
(Entremets, or Side-dish, to be served with the Second Course.)

1106. Ingredients.—2 or 3 cauliflowers, rather more than ½ pint of white sauce No. 378, 2 tablespoonfuls of grated Parmesan cheese, 2 oz. of fresh butter, 3 tablespoonfuls of bread crumbs.

Mode.—Cleanse and boil the cauliflowers by recipe No. 1104, and drain them and dish them with the flowers standing upright. Have ready the above proportion of white sauce; pour sufficient of it over the cauliflowers just to cover the top; sprinkle over this some rasped Parmesan cheese and bread crumbs, and drop on these the butter, which should be melted, but not oiled. Brown with a salamander, or before the fire, and pour round, but not over, the flowers the remainder of the sauce, with which should be mixed a small quantity of grated Parmesan cheese.

Time.—Altogether, ½ hour.

Average cost, for large cauliflowers, 6d. each.

Sufficient,—3 small cauliflowers for 1 dish.

Seasonable from the beginning of June to the end of September.

566
CELERY.

picture of “CELERY IN GLASS.”

CELERY IN GLASS.

1107. With a good heart, and nicely blanched, this vegetable is generally eaten raw, and is usually served with the cheese. Let the roots be washed free from dirt, all the decayed and outside leaves being cut off, preserving as much of the stalk as possible, and all specks or blemishes being carefully removed. Should the celery be large, divide it lengthwise into quarters, and place it, root downwards, in a celery-glass, which should be rather more than half filled with water. The top leaves may be curled, by shredding them in narrow strips with the point of a clean skewer, at a distance of about 4 inches from the top.

Average cost, 2d. per head.

Sufficient.—Allow 2 heads for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from October to April.

Note.—This vegetable is exceedingly useful for flavouring soups, sauces, &c., and makes a very nice addition to winter salad.

STEWED CELERY A LA CREME.

1108. Ingredients.—6 heads of celery; to each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt, 1 blade of pounded mace, ⅓ pint of cream.

Mode.—Wash the celery thoroughly; trim, and boil it in salt and water until tender. Put the cream and pounded mace into a stewpan; shake it over the fire until the cream thickens, dish the celery, pour over the sauce, and serve.

Time.—Large heads of celery, 25 minutes; small ones, 15 to 20 minutes.

Average cost, 2d. per head.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from October to April.

Alexanders.—This plant is the Smyrnium olustratum of science, and is used in this country in the same way in which celery is. It is a native of Great Britain, and is found in its wild state near the seacoast. It received its name from the Italian “herba Alexandrine,” and is supposed to have been originally brought from Alexandria; but, be this as it may, its cultivation is now almost entirely abandoned.

STEWED CELERY (with White Sauce).
I.

1109. Ingredients.—6 heads of celery, 1 oz. of butter; to each 567 ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt, ½ pint of white sauce, No. 537 or 538.

Mode.—Have ready sufficient boiling water just to cover the celery, with salt and butter in the above proportion. Wash the celery well; cut off the decayed outside leaves, trim away the green tops, and shape the root into a point; put it into the boiling water; let it boil rapidly until tender; then take it out, drain well, place it upon a dish, and pour over about ½ pint of white sauce, made by either of the recipes No. 537 or 538. It may also be plainly boiled as above, placed on toast, and melted butter poured over, the same as asparagus is dished.

picture of “CELERY.”

CELERY.

Time.—Large heads of celery, 25 minutes, small ones, 15 to 20 minutes, after the water boils.

Average cost, 2d. per head.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from October to April.

Origin of Celery.—In the marshes and ditches of this country there is to be found a very common plant, known by the name of Smallage. This is the wild form of celery; but, by being subjected to cultivation, it loses its acrid nature, and becomes mild and sweet. In its natural state, it has a peculiar rank, coarse taste and smell, and its root was reckoned by the ancients as one of the “five greater aperient roots.” There is a variety of this in which the root becomes turnip-shaped and large. It is called Celeriæ, and is extensively used by the Germans, and preferred by them to celery. In a raw state, this plant does not suit weak stomachs; cooked, it is less difficult of digestion, although a large quantity should not be taken.

II.

1110. Ingredients.—6 heads of celery, ½ pint of white stock or weak broth, 4 tablespoonfuls of cream, thickening of butter and flour, 1 blade of pounded mace, a very little grated nutmeg; pepper and salt to taste.

Mode.—Wash the celery, strip off the outer leaves, and cut it into lengths of about 4 inches. Put these into a saucepan, with the broth, and stew till tender, which will be in from 20 to 25 minutes; then add the remaining ingredients, simmer altogether for 4 or 5 minutes, pour into a dish, and serve. It may be garnished with sippets of toasted bread.

Time.—Altogether, ½ hour.

Average cost, 2d. per head.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from October to April.

Note.—By cutting the celery into smaller pieces, by stewing it a little longer, and, when done, by pressing it through a sieve, the above stew may be converted into a purée of celery.

568
TO DRESS CUCUMBERS.

1111. Ingredients.—3 tablespoonfuls of salad-oil, 4 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, salt and pepper to taste; cucumber.

picture of “SLICED CUCUMBERS.”

SLICED CUCUMBERS.

picture of “CUCUMBER.”

CUCUMBER.

Mode.—Pare the cucumber, cut it equally into very thin slices, and commence cutting from the thick end; if commenced at the stalk, the cucumber will most likely have an exceedingly bitter taste, far from agreeable. Put the slices into a dish, sprinkle over salt and pepper, and pour over oil and vinegar in the above proportion; turn the cucumber about, and it is ready to serve. This is a favourite accompaniment to boiled salmon, is a nice addition to all descriptions of salads, and makes a pretty garnish to lobster salad.

Average cost, when scarce, 1s. to 2s. 6d.; when cheapest, may be had for 4d. each.

Seasonable.—Forced from the beginning of March to the end of June; in full season in July, August, and September.

Geographical Distribution of Cucumbers.—This family is not known in the frigid zone, is somewhat rare in the temperate, but in the tropical and warmer regions throughout the world they are abundant. They are most plentiful in the continent of Hindostan; but in America are not near so plentiful. Many of the kinds supply useful articles of consumption for food, and others are actively medicinal in their virtues. Generally speaking, delicate stomachs should avoid this plant, for it is cold and indigestible.

CUCUMBERS A LA POULETTE.

1112. Ingredients.—2 or 3 cucumbers, salt and vinegar, 2 oz. of butter, flour, ½ pint of broth, 1 teaspoonful of minced parsley, a lump of sugar, the yolks of 2 eggs, salt and pepper to taste.

Mode.—Pare and cut the cucumbers into slices of an equal thickness, and let them remain in a pickle of salt and vinegar for ½ hour; then drain them in a cloth, and put them into a stewpan with the butter. Fry them over a brisk fire, but do not brown them, and then dredge over them a little flour; add the broth, skim off all the fat, which will rise to the surface, and boil gently until the gravy is somewhat reduced; but the cucumber should not be broken. Stir in the yolks of the eggs, add the parsley, sugar, and a seasoning of pepper and salt; bring the whole to the point of boiling, and serve.

Time.—Altogether, 1 hour.

Average cost, when cheapest, 4d. each.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable in July, August, and September; but may be had, forced, from the beginning of March.

569
FRIED CUCUMBERS.

1113. Ingredients.—2 or 3 cucumbers, pepper and salt to taste, flour, oil or butter.

Mode.—Pare the cucumbers and cut them into slices of an equal thickness, commencing to slice from the thick, and not the stalk end of the cucumber. Wipe the slices dry with a cloth, dredge them with flour, and put them into a pan of boiling oil or butter; keep turning them about until brown; lift them out of the pan, let them drain, and serve, piled lightly in a dish. These will be found a great improvement to rump-steak: they should be placed on a dish with the steak on the top.

Time.—5 minutes.

Average cost, when cheapest, 4d. each.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable.—Forced from the beginning of March to the end of June; in full season in July and August.

Properties and Uses of the Cucurbits.—The common cucumber is the C. sativus of science, and although the whole of the family have a similar action in the animal economy, yet there are some which present us with great anomalies. The roots of those which are perennial contain, besides fecula, which is their base, a resinous, acrid, and bitter principle. The fruits of this family, however, have in general a sugary taste, and are more or less dissolving and perfumed, as we find in the melons, gourds, cucumbers, vegetable-marrows, and squashes. But these are slightly laxative if partaken of largely. In tropical countries, this order furnishes the inhabitants with a large portion of their food, which, even in the most arid deserts and most barren islands, is of the finest quality. In China, Cashmere, and Persia, they are cultivated on the lakes on the floating collections of weeds common in these localities. In India they are everywhere abundant, either in a cultivated or wild state, and the seeds of all the family are sweet and mucilaginous.

STEWED CUCUMBERS.

1114. Ingredients.—3 large cucumbers, flour, butter, rather more than ½ pint of good brown gravy.

Mode.—Cut the cucumbers lengthwise the size of the dish they are intended to be served in; empty them of the seeds, and put them into boiling water with a little salt, and let them simmer for 5 minutes; then take them out, place them in another stewpan, with the gravy, and let them boil over a brisk fire until the cucumbers are tender. Should these be bitter, add a lump of sugar; carefully dish them, skim the sauce, pour over the cucumbers, and serve.

Time.—Altogether, 20 minutes.

Average cost, when cheapest, 1d. each.

Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

Seasonable in June, July, and August; but may be had, forced, from the beginning of March.

The Chate.—This cucumber is a native of Egypt and Arabia, and produces a fruit of almost the same substance as that of the Melon. In Egypt it is esteemed by the upper class natives, as well as by Europeans, as the most pleasant fruit they have.

570
STEWED CUCUMBERS WITH ONIONS.

1115. Ingredients.—6 cucumbers, 3 moderate-sized onions, not quite 1 pint of white stock, cayenne and salt to taste, the yolks of 2 eggs, a very little grated nutmeg.

Mode.—Pare and slice the cucumbers, take out the seeds, and cut the onions into thin slices; put these both into a stewpan, with the stock, and let them boil for ¼ hour or longer, should the cucumbers be very large. Beat up the yolks of 2 eggs; stir these into the sauce; add the cayenne, salt, and grated nutmeg; bring it to the point of boiling, and serve. Do not allow the sauce to boil, or it will curdle. This is a favourite dish with lamb or mutton chops, rump-steaks, &c.

Time.—Altogether, 20 minutes.

Average cost, when cheapest, 4d. each.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable in July, August, and September; but may be had, forced, from the beginning of March.

The Melon.—This is another species of the cucumber, and is highly esteemed for its rich and delicious fruit. It was introduced to this country from Jamaica, in 1570; since which period it has continued to be cultivated. It was formerly called the Musk Melon.

ENDIVE.

picture of “ENDIVE.”

ENDIVE.

1116. This vegetable, so beautiful in appearance, makes an excellent addition to winter salad, when lettuces and other salad herbs are not obtainable. It is usually placed in the centre of the dish, and looks remarkably pretty with slices of beetroot, hard-boiled eggs, and curled celery placed round it, so that the colours contrast nicely. In preparing it, carefully wash and cleanse it free from insects, which are generally found near the heart; remove any decayed or dead leaves, and dry it thoroughly by shaking in a cloth. This vegetable may also be served hot, stewed in cream, brown gravy, or butter; but when dressed thus, the sauce it is stewed in should not be very highly seasoned, as that would destroy and overpower the flavour of the vegetable.

Average cost, 1d. per head.

Sufficient,—1 head for a salad for 4 persons.

Seasonable from November to March.

Endive.—This is the C. endivium of science, and is much used as a salad. It belongs to the family of the Compositæ, with Chicory, common Goats-beard, and others of the 571 same genus. Withering states, that before the stems of the common Goats-heard shoot up, the roots, boiled like asparagus, have the same flavour, and are nearly as nutritious. We are also informed by Villars that the children in Dauphiné universally eat the stems and leaves of the young plant before the flowers appear, with great avidity. The fresh juice of these tender herbs is said to be the best solvent of bile.

STEWED ENDIVE.

1117. Ingredients.—6 heads of endive, salt and water, 1 pint of broth, thickening of butter and flour, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, a small lump of sugar.

Mode.—Wash and free the endive thoroughly from insects, remove the green part of the leaves, and put it into boiling water, slightly salted. Let it remain for 10 minutes; then take it out, drain it till there is no water remaining, and chop it very fine. Put it into a stewpan with the broth; add a little salt and a lump of sugar, and boil until the endive is perfectly tender. When done, which may be ascertained by squeezing a piece between the thumb and finger, add a thickening of butter and flour and the lemon-juice: let the sauce boil up, and serve.

Time.—10 minutes to boil, 5 minutes to simmer in the broth.

Average cost, 1d. per head.

Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

Seasonable from November to March.

ENDIVE A LA FRANCAISE.

1118. Ingredients.—6 heads of endive, 1 pint of broth, 3 oz. of fresh butter; salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg to taste.

Mode.—Wash and boil the endive as in the preceding recipe; chop it rather fine, and put into a stewpan with the broth; boil over a brisk fire until the sauce is all reduced; then put in the butter, pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg (the latter must be very sparingly used); mix all well together, bring it to the boiling point, and serve very hot.

Time.—10 minutes to boil, 5 minutes to simmer in the broth.

Average cost, 1d. per head.

Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

Seasonable from November to March.

TO BOIL HARICOTS BLANCS, or WHITE HARICOT BEANS.

1119. Ingredients.—1 quart of white haricot beans, 2 quarts of soft water, 1 oz. of butter, 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt.

Mode.—Put the beans into cold water, and let them soak from 2 to 572 4 hours, according to their age; then put them into cold water, salted in the above proportion, bring them to boil, and let them simmer very slowly until tender; pour the water away from them, let them stand by the side of the fire, with the lid of the saucepan partially off, to allow the beans to dry; then add 1 oz. of butter and a seasoning of pepper and salt. Shake the beans about for a minute or two, and serve: do not stir them with a spoon, for fear of breaking them to pieces.

Time.—After the water boils, from 2 to 2½ hours.

Average cost, 4d. per quart.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable in winter, when other vegetables are scarce.

Note.—Haricots blancs, when new and fresh, should be put into boiling water, and do not require any soaking previous to dressing.

Haricots and Lentils.—Although these vegetables are not much used in this country, yet in France, and other Catholic countries, from their peculiar constituent properties, they form an excellent substitute for animal food during Lent and maigre days. At the time of the prevalence of the Roman religion in this country, they were probably much more generally used than at present. As reformations are often carried beyond necessity, possibly lentils may have fallen into disuse, as an article of diet amongst Protestants, for fear the use of them might be considered a sign of popery.

HARICOTS BLANCS A LA MAITRE D’HOTEL.

1120. Ingredients.—1 quart of white haricot beans, ¼ lb. of fresh butter, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, pepper and salt to taste, the juice of ½ lemon.

picture of “HARICOT BEANS.”

HARICOT BEANS.

Mode.—Should the beans be very dry, soak them for an hour or two in cold water, and boil them until perfectly tender, as in the preceding recipe. If the water should boil away, replenish it with a little more cold, which makes the skin of the beans tender. Let them be very thoroughly done; drain them well; then add to them the butter, minced parsley, and a seasoning of pepper and salt. Keep moving the stewpan over the fire without using a spoon, as this would break the beans; and, when the various ingredients are well mixed with them, squeeze in the lemon-juice, and serve very hot.

Time.—From 2 to 2½ hours to boil the beans.

Average cost, 4d. per quart.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable in winter.

Haricot Beans.—This is the haricot blanc of the French, and is a native of India. It ripens readily, in dry summers, in most parts of Britain, but its culture has hitherto been 573 confined to gardens in England; but in Germany and Switzerland it is grown in fields. It is usually harvested by pulling up the plants, which, being dried, are stacked and thrashed. The haulm is both of little bulk and little use, but the seed is used in making the esteemed French dish called haricot, with which it were well if the working classes of this country were acquainted. There is, perhaps, no other vegetable dish so cheap and easily cooked, and, at the same time, so agreeable and nourishing. The beans are boiled, and then mixed with a little fat or salt butter, and a little milk or water and flour. From 3,840 parts of kidney-bean Einhoff obtained 1,805 parts of matter analogous to starch, 351 of vegeto-animal matter, and 799 parts of mucilage.

HARICOT BEANS AND MINCED ONIONS.

1121. Ingredients.—1 quart of white haricot beans, 4 middling-sized onions, ¼ pint of good brown gravy, pepper and salt to taste, a little flour.

Mode.—Peel and mince the onions not too finely, and fry them in butter of a light brown colour; dredge over them a little flour, and add the gravy and a seasoning of pepper and salt. Have ready a pint of haricot beans well boiled and drained; put them with the onions and gravy, mix all well together, and serve very hot.

Time.—From 2 to 2½ hours to boil the beans; 5 minutes to fry the onions.

Average cost, 4d. per quart.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable in winter.

HORSERADISH.

picture of “HORSERADISH.”

HORSERADISH.

1122. This root, scraped, is always served with hot roast beef, and is used for garnishing many kinds of boiled fish. Let the horseradish remain in cold water for an hour; wash it well, and with a sharp knife scrape it into very thin shreds, commencing from the thick end of the root. Arrange some of it lightly in a small glass dish, and the remainder use for garnishing the joint: it should be placed in tufts round the border of the dish, with 1 or 2 bunches on the meat.

Average cost, 2d. per stick.

Seasonable from October to June.

The Horseradish.—This belongs to the tribe Alyssidæ, and is highly stimulant and exciting to the stomach. It has been recommended in chronic rheumatism, palsy, dropsical complaints, and in cases of enfeebled digestion. Its principal use, however, is as a condiment to promote appetite and excite the digestive organs. The horseradish contains sulphur to the extent of thirty per cent. in the number of its elements; and it is to the presence of this quality that the metal vessels in which the radish is sometimes distilled, are turned into a black colour. It is one of the most powerful excitants and antiscorbutics we have, and forms the basis of several medical preparations, in the form of wines, tinctures, and syrups.

574
LETTUCES.

1123. These form one of the principal ingredients to summer salads; should be nicely blanched, and be eaten young. They are seldom served in any other way, but may be stewed and sent to table in a good brown gravy flavoured with lemon-juice. In preparing them for a salad, carefully wash them free from dirt, pick off all the decayed and outer leaves, and dry them thoroughly by shaking them in a cloth. Cut off the stalks, and either halve or cut the lettuces into small pieces. The manner of cutting them up entirely depends on the salad for which they are intended. In France the lettuces are sometimes merely wiped with a cloth and not washed, the cooks there declaring that the act of washing them injuriously affects the pleasant crispness of the plant: in this case scrupulous attention must be paid to each leaf, and the grit thoroughly wiped away.

picture of “LETTUCE.”

LETTUCE.

Average cost, when cheapest, 1d. each.

Sufficient.—Allow 2 lettuces for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from March to the end of August, but may be had all the year.

The Lettuce.—All the varieties of the garden lettuce have originated from the Lactuca sativa of science, which has never yet been found in a wild state. Hence it may be concluded that it is merely another form of some species, changed through the effects of cultivation. In its young state, the lettuce forms a well-known and wholesome salad, containing a bland pellucid juice, with little taste or smell, and having a cooling and soothing influence on the system. This arises from the large quantities of water and mucilage it contains, and not from any narcotic principle which it is supposed to possess. During the period of flowering, it abounds in a peculiar milky juice, which flows from the stem when wounded, and which has been found to be possessed of decided medicinal properties.

BAKED MUSHROOMS. (A Breakfast, Luncheon, or Supper Dish.)

1124. Ingredients.—16 to 20 mushroom-flaps, butter, pepper to taste.

Mode.—For this mode of cooking, the mushroom flaps are better than the buttons, and should not be too large. Cut off a portion of the stalk, peel the top, and wipe the mushrooms carefully with a piece of flannel and a little fine salt. Put them into a tin baking-dish, with a very small piece of butter placed on each mushroom; sprinkle over a little pepper, and let them bake for about 20 minutes, or longer should the mushrooms be very large. Have ready a very hot dish, pile the 575 mushrooms high in the centre, pour the gravy round, and send them to table quickly, with very hot plates.

Time.—20 minutes; large mushrooms, ½ hour.

Average cost, 1d. each for large mushroom-flaps.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable.—Meadow mushrooms in September and October; cultivated mushrooms may be had at any time.

Fungi.—These are common parasitical plants, originating in the production of copious filamentous threads, called the mycelium, or spawn. Rounded tubers appear on the mycelium; some of these enlarge rapidly, burst an outer covering, which is left at the base, and protrude a thick stalk, bearing at its summit a rounded body, which in a short time expands into the pileus or cap. The gills, which occupy its lower surface, consist of parallel plates, bearing naked sporules over their whole surface. Some of the cells, which are visible by the microscope, produce four small cells at their free summit, apparently by germination and constriction. These are the sporules, and this is the development of the Agarics.

BROILED MUSHROOMS. (A Breakfast, Luncheon, or Supper Dish.)

1125. Ingredients.—Mushroom-flaps, pepper and salt to taste, butter, lemon-juice.

picture of “BROILED MUSHROOMS.”

BROILED MUSHROOMS.

picture of “MUSHROOMS.”

MUSHROOMS.

Mode.—Cleanse the mushrooms by wiping them with a piece of flannel and a little salt; cut off a portion of the stalk, and peel the tops: broil them over a clear fire, turning them once, and arrange them on a very hot dish. Put a small piece of butter on each mushroom, season with pepper and salt, and squeeze over them a few drops of lemon-juice. Place the dish before the fire, and when the butter is melted, serve very hot and quickly. Moderate-sized flaps are better suited to this mode of cooking than the buttons: the latter are better in stews.

Time.—10 minutes for medium-sized mushrooms.

Average cost, 1d. each for large mushrooms.

Sufficient. Allow 3 or 4 mushrooms to each person.

Seasonable.—Meadow mushrooms in September and October; cultivated mushrooms may be had at any time.

Varieties of the Mushroom.—The common mushroom found in our pastures is the Agaricus campestris of science, and another edible British species is A. Georgii; but A. primulus is affirmed to be the most delicious mushroom. The morel is Morchella esculenta, and Tuber cibarium is the common truffle. There is in New Zealand a long fungus, which grows from the head of a caterpillar, and which forms a horn, as it were, and is called Sphæria Robertsii.

576
TO PRESERVE MUSHROOMS.

1126. Ingredients.—To each quart of mushrooms, allow 3 oz. of butter, pepper and salt to taste, the juice of 1 lemon, clarified butter.

Mode.—Peel the mushrooms, put them into cold water, with a little lemon-juice; take them out and dry them very carefully in a cloth. Put the butter into a stewpan capable of holding the mushrooms; when it is melted, add the mushrooms, lemon-juice, and a seasoning of pepper and salt; draw them down over a slow fire, and let them remain until their liquor is boiled away, and they have become quite dry, but be careful in not allowing them to stick to the bottom of the stewpan. When done, put them into pots, and pour over the top clarified butter. If wanted for immediate use, they will keep good a few days without being covered over. To re-warm them, put the mushrooms into a stewpan, strain the butter from them, and they will be ready for use.

Average cost, 1d. each.

Seasonable.—Meadow mushrooms in September and October; cultivated mushrooms may be had at any time.

Localities of the Mushroom.—Mushrooms are to be met with in pastures, woods, and marshes, but are very capricious and uncertain in their places of growth, multitudes being obtained in one season where few or none were to be found in the preceding. They sometimes grow solitary, but more frequently they are gregarious, and rise in a regular circular form. Many species are employed by man as food; but, generally speaking, they are difficult of digestion, and by no means very nourishing. Many of them are also of suspicious qualities. Little reliance can be placed either on their taste, smell, or colour, as much depends on the situation in which they vegetate; and even the same plant, it is affirmed, may be innocent when young, but become noxious when advanced in age.

STEWED MUSHROOMS.

1127. Ingredients.—1 pint mushroom-buttons, 3 oz. of fresh butter, white pepper and salt to taste, lemon-juice, 1 teaspoonful of flour, cream or milk, ¼ teaspoonful of grated nutmeg.

Mode.—Cut off the ends of the stalks, and pare neatly a pint of mushroom-buttons; put them into a basin of water, with a little lemon-juice, as they are done. When all are prepared, take them from the water with the hands, to avoid the sediment, and put them into a stewpan with the fresh butter, white pepper, salt, and the juice of ½ lemon; cover the pan closely, and let the mushrooms stew gently from 20 to 25 minutes; then thicken the butter with the above proportion of flour, add gradually sufficient cream, or cream and milk, to make the sauce of a proper consistency, and put in the grated nutmeg. If the mushrooms are not perfectly tender, stew them for 5 minutes longer, remove every particle of butter which may be floating on the top, and serve.

577 2P

Time.—½ hour.

Average cost, from 9d. to 2s. per pint.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable.—Meadow mushrooms in September and October.

To procure Mushrooms.—In order to obtain mushrooms at all seasons, several methods of propagation have been had recourse to. It is said that, in some parts of Italy, a species of stone is used for this purpose, which is described as being of two different kinds; the one is found in the chalk hills near Naples, and has a white, porous, stalactical appearance; the other is a hardened turf from some volcanic mountains near Florence. These stones are kept in cellars, and occasionally moistened with water which has been used in the washing of mushrooms, and are thus supplied with their minute seeds. In this country, gardeners provide themselves with what is called spawn, either from the old manure of cucumber-beds, or purchase it from those whose business it is to propagate it. When thus procured, it is usually made up for sale in quadrils, consisting of numerous white fibrous roots, having a strong smell of mushrooms. This is planted in rows, in a dry situation, and carefully attended to for five or six weeks, when the bed begins to produce, and continues to do so for several months.

STEWED MUSHROOMS IN GRAVY.

1128. Ingredients.—1 pint of mushroom-buttons, 1 pint of brown gravy No. 436, ¼ teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, cayenne and salt to taste.

Mode.—Make a pint of brown gravy by recipe 436; cut nearly all the stalks away from the mushrooms and peel the tops; put them into a stewpan, with the gravy, and simmer them gently from 20 minutes to ½ hour. Add the nutmeg and a seasoning of cayenne and salt, and serve very hot.

Time.—20 minutes to ½ hour.

Average cost, 9d. to 2s. per pint.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable.—Meadow mushrooms in September and October.

Analysis of Fungi.—The fungi have been examined chemically with much care, both by MM. Bracannot and Vauquelin, who designate the insoluble spongy matter by the name of fungin, and the soluble portion is found to contain the bolotic and the tungic acids.

BAKED SPANISH ONIONS.

1129. Ingredients.—4 or 5 Spanish onions, salt, and water.

Mode.—Put the onions, with their skins on, into a saucepan of boiling water slightly salted, and let them boil quickly for an hour. Then take them out, wipe them thoroughly, wrap each one in a piece of paper separately, and bake them in a moderate oven for 2 hours, or longer, should the onions be very large. They may be served in their skins, and eaten with a piece of cold butter and a seasoning of pepper and salt; or they may be peeled, and a good brown gravy poured over them.

578

picture of “ONION.”

ONION.

Time.—1 hour to boil, 2 hours to bake.

Average cost, medium-sized, 2d. each.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from September to January.

The Genus Allium.—The Onion, like the Leek, Garlic, and Shalot, belongs to the genus Allium, which is a numerous species of vegetable; and every one of them possesses, more or less, a volatile and acrid penetrating principle, pricking the thin transparent membrane of the eyelids; and all are very similar in their properties. In the whole of them the bulb is the most active part, and any one of them may supply the place of the other; for they are all irritant, excitant, and vesicant. With many, the onion is a very great favourite, and is considered an extremely nutritive vegetable. The Spanish kind is frequently taken for supper, it being simply boiled, and then seasoned with salt, pepper, and butter. Some dredge on a little flour, but many prefer it without this.

BURNT ONIONS FOR GRAVIES.

1130. Ingredients.—½ lb. of onions, ½ pint of water, ½ lb. of moist sugar, ⅓ pint of vinegar.

Mode.—Peel and chop the onions fine, and put them into a stewpan (not tinned), with the water; let them boil for 5 minutes, then add the sugar, and simmer gently until the mixture becomes nearly black and throws out bubbles of smoke. Have ready the above proportion of boiling vinegar, strain the liquor gradually to it, and keep stirring with a wooden spoon until it is well incorporated. When cold, bottle for use.

Time.—Altogether, 1 hour.

Properties of the Onion.—The onion is possessed of a white, acrid, volatile oil, holding sulphur in solution, albumen, a good deal of uncrystallizable sugar and mucilage; phosphoric acid, both free and combined with lime; acetic acid, citrate of lime, and lignine. Of all the species of allium, the onion has the volatile principle in the greatest degree; and hence it is impossible to separate the scales of the root without the eyes being affected. The juice is sensibly acid, and is capable of being, by fermentation, converted into vinegar, and, mixed with water or the dregs of beer, yields, by distillation, an alcoholic liquor. Although used as a common esculent, onions are not suited to all stomachs; there are some who cannot eat them either fried or roasted, whilst others prefer them boiled, which is the best way of using them, as, by the process they then undergo, they are deprived of their essential oil. The pulp of roasted onions, with oil, forms an excellent anodyne and emollient poultice to suppurating tumours.

STEWED SPANISH ONIONS.

1131. Ingredients.—5 or 6 Spanish onions, 1 pint of good broth or gravy.

Mode.—Peel the onions, taking care not to cut away too much of the tops or tails, or they would then fall to pieces; put them into a stewpan capable of holding them at the bottom without piling them one on the top of another; add the broth or gravy, and simmer very gently until the onions are perfectly tender. Dish them, pour the gravy round, and serve. Instead of using broth, Spanish onions may 579 be stewed with a large piece of butter: they must be done very gradually over a slow fire or hot-plate, and will produce plenty of gravy.

Time.—To stew in gravy, 2 hours, or longer if very large.

Average cost,—medium-sized, 2d. each.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable from September to January.

Note.—Stewed Spanish onions are a favourite accompaniment to roast shoulder of mutton.

Origin of the Onion.—This vegetable is thought to have originally come from India, through Egypt, where it became an object of worship. Thence it was transmitted to Greece, thence to Italy, and ultimately it was distributed throughout Europe, in almost every part of which it has, from time immemorial, been cultivated. In warm climates it is found to be less acrid and much sweeter than in colder latitudes; and in Spain it is not at all unusual to see a peasant munching an onion, as an Englishman would an apple. Spanish onions, which are imported to this country during the winter months, are, when properly roasted, perfectly sweet, and equal to many preserves.

BOILED PARSNIPS.

1132. Ingredients.—Parsnips; to each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt.

Mode.—Wash the parsnips, scrape them thoroughly, and, with the point of the knife, remove any black specks about them, and, should they be very large, cut the thick part into quarters. Put them into a saucepan of boiling water salted in the above proportion, boil them rapidly until tender, which may be ascertained by thrusting a fork in them; take them up, drain them, and serve in a vegetable-dish. This vegetable is usually served with salt fish, boiled pork, or boiled beef: when sent to table with the latter, a few should be placed alternately with carrots round the dish, as a garnish.

picture of “PARSNIP.”

PARSNIP.

Time.—Large parsnips, 1 to 1½ hour; small ones, ½ to 1 hour.

Average cost, 1d. each.

Sufficient.—Allow 1 for each person.

Seasonable from October to May.

The Parsnip.—This vegetable is found wild in meadows all over Europe, and, in England, is met with very frequently on dry banks in a chalky soil. In its wild state, the root is white, mucilaginous, aromatic, and sweet, with some degree of acrimony: when old, it has been known to cause vertigo. Willis relates that a whole family fell into delirium from having eaten of its roots, and cattle never touch it in its wild state. In domestic economy the parsnip is much used, and is found to be a highly nutritious vegetable. In times of scarcity, an excellent bread has been made from the roots, and they also furnish an excellent wine, resembling the malmsey of Madeira and the Canaries: a spirit is also obtained from them in as great quantities as from carrots. The composition of the parsnip-root has been found to be 79·4 of water, 6·9 starch and fibre, 6·1 gum, 5·5 sugar, and 2·1 of albumen.

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BOILED GREEN PEAS.

1133. Ingredients.—Green peas; to each ½ gallon of water allow 1 small teaspoonful of moist sugar, 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt.

Mode.—This delicious vegetable, to be eaten in perfection, should be young, and not gathered or shelled long before it is dressed. Shell the peas, wash them well in cold water, and drain them; then put them into a saucepan with plenty of fast-boiling water, to which salt and moist sugar have been added in the above proportion; let them boil quickly over a brisk fire, with the lid of the saucepan uncovered, and be careful that the smoke does not draw in. When tender, pour them into a colander; put them into a hot vegetable-dish, and quite in the centre of the peas place a piece of butter, the size of a walnut. Many cooks boil a small bunch of mint with the peas, or garnish them with it, by boiling a few sprigs in a saucepan by themselves. Should the peas be very old, and difficult to boil a good colour, a very tiny piece of soda may be thrown in the water previous to putting them in; but this must be very sparingly used, as it causes the peas, when boiled, to have a smashed and broken appearance. With young peas, there is not the slightest occasion to use it.

Time.—Young peas, 10 to 15 minutes; the large sorts, such as marrowfats, &c., 18 to 24 minutes; old peas, ½ hour.

Average cost, when cheapest, 6d. per peck; when first in season, 1s. to 1s. 6d. per peck.

Sufficient.—Allow 1 peck of unshelled peas for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from June to the end of August.

Origin of the Pea.—All the varieties of garden peas which are cultivated have originated from the Pisum sativum, a native of the south of Europe; and field peas are varieties of Pisum arvense. The Everlasting Pea is Lathyrus latifolius, an old favourite in flower-gardens. It is said to yield an abundance of honey to bees, which are remarkably fond of it. In this country the pea has been grown from time immemorial; but its culture seems to have diminished since the more general introduction of herbage, plants, and roots.

GREEN PEAS A LA FRANCAISE.

1134. Ingredients.—2 quarts of green peas, 3 oz. of fresh butter, a bunch of parsley, 6 green onions, flour, a small lump of sugar, ½ teaspoonful of salt, a teaspoonful of flour.

Mode.—Shell sufficient fresh-gathered peas to fill 2 quarts; put them into cold water, with the above proportion of butter, and stir them about until they are well covered with the butter; drain them in a colander, and put them in a stewpan, with the parsley and onions; dredge over them a little flour, stir the peas well, and moisten them with boiling water; boil them quickly over a large fire for 20 minutes, or until there is no liquor remaining. Dip a 581 small lump of sugar into some water, that it may soon melt; put it with the peas, to which add ½ teaspoonful of salt. Take a piece of butter the size of a walnut, work it together with a teaspoonful of flour; and add this to the peas, which should be boiling when it is put in. Keep shaking the stewpan, and, when the peas are nicely thickened, dress them high in the dish, and serve.

Time.—Altogether, ¾ hour.

Average cost, 6d. per peck.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from June to the end of August.

Varieties of the Pea.—The varieties of the Pea are numerous; but they may be divided into two classes—those grown for the ripened seed, and those grown for gathering in a green state. The culture of the latter is chiefly confined to the neighbourhoods of large towns, and may be considered as in part rather to belong to the operations of the gardener than to those of the agriculturist. The grey varieties are the early grey, the late grey, and the purple grey; to which some add the Marlborough grey and the horn grey. The white varieties grown in fields are the pearl, early Charlton, golden hotspur, the common white, or Suffolk, and other Suffolk varieties.

STEWED GREEN PEAS.

1135. Ingredients.—1 quart of peas, 1 lettuce, 1 onion, 2 oz. of butter, pepper and salt to taste, 1 egg, ½ teaspoonful of powdered sugar.

Mode.—Shell the peas, and cut the onion and lettuce into slices; put these into a stewpan, with the butter, pepper, and salt, but with no more water than that which hangs round the lettuce from washing. Stew the whole very gently for rather more than 1 hour; then stir to it a well-beaten egg, and about ½ teaspoonful of powdered sugar. When the peas, &c., are nicely thickened, serve; but, after the egg is added, do not allow them to boil.

picture of “GREEN PEA.”

GREEN PEA.

Time.—1¼ hour.

Average cost, 6d. per peck.

Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

Seasonable from June to the end of August.

The Sweet-pea and the Heath or Wood-pea.—The well-known sweet-pea forms a fine covering to a trellis, or lattice-work in a flower-garden. Its gay and fragrant flowers, with its rambling habit, render it peculiarly adapted for such a purpose. The wood-pea, or heath-pea, is found in the heaths of Scotland, and the Highlanders of that country are extremely partial to them, and dry and chew them to give a greater relish to their whiskey. They also regard them as good against chest complaints, and say that by the use of them they are enabled to withstand hunger and thirst for a long time. The peas have a sweet taste, somewhat like the root of liquorice, and, when boiled, have an agreeable flavour, and are nutritive. In times of scarcity they have served as an article of food. When well boiled, a fork will pass through them; and, slightly dried, they are roasted, and in Holland and Flanders served up like chestnuts.

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BAKED POTATOES.

1136. Ingredients.—Potatoes.

picture of “BAKED POTATOES SERVED IN NAPKIN.”

BAKED POTATOES SERVED IN NAPKIN.

Mode.—Choose large potatoes, as much of a size as possible; wash them in lukewarm water, and scrub them well, for the browned skin of a baked potato is by many persons considered the better part of it. Put them into a moderate oven, and bake them for about 2 hours, turning them three or four times whilst they are cooking. Serve them in a napkin immediately they are done, as, if kept a long time in the oven, they have a shrivelled appearance. Potatoes may also be roasted before the fire, in an American oven; but when thus cooked, they must be done very slowly. Do not forget to send to table with them a piece of cold butter.

Time.—Large potatoes, in a hot oven 1½ hour to 2 hours; in a cool oven, 2 to 2½ hours.

Average cost, 4s. per bushel.

Sufficient.—Allow 2 to each person.

Seasonable all the year, but not good just before and whilst new potatoes are in season.

Potato-Sugar.—This sugary substance, found in the tubers of potatoes, is obtained in the form of syrup or treacle, and has not yet been crystallized. It resembles the sugar of grapes, has a very street taste, and may be used for making sweetmeats, and as a substitute for honey. Sixty pounds of potatoes, yielding eight pounds of dry starch, will produce seven and a half pounds of sugar. In Russia it is extensively made, as good, though of less consistency than the treacle obtained from cane-sugar. A spirit is also distilled from the tubers, which resembles brandy, but is milder, and has a flavour as if it were charged with the odour of violets or raspberries. In France this manufacture is carried on pretty extensively, and five hundred pounds of the tubers will produce twelve quarts of spirit, the pulp being given to cattle.

TO BOIL POTATOES.

1137. Ingredients.—10 or 12 potatoes; to each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt.

Mode.—Choose potatoes of an equal size, pare them, take out all the eyes and specks, and as they are peeled, throw them into cold water. Put them into a saucepan, with sufficient cold water to cover them, with salt in the above proportion, and let them boil gently until tender. Ascertain when they are done by thrusting a fork in them, and take them up the moment they feel soft through; for if they are left in the water afterwards, they become waxy or watery. Drain away the water, put the saucepan by the side of the fire, with the lid partially uncovered, to allow the steam to escape, and let the potatoes get thoroughly dry, and do not allow them to get burnt. Their superfluous moisture will evaporate, and the potatoes, if a good sort, 583 should be perfectly mealy and dry. Potatoes vary so much in quality and size, that it is difficult to give the exact time for boiling; they should be attentively watched, and probed with a fork, to ascertain when they are cooked. Send them to table quickly, and very hot, and with an opening in the cover of the dish, that a portion of the steam may evaporate, and not fall back on the potatoes.

Time.—Moderate-sized old potatoes, 15 to 20 minutes after the water boils; large ones, ½ hour to 35 minutes.

Average cost, 4s. per bushel.

Sufficient for 6 persons.

Seasonable all the year, but not good just before and whilst new potatoes are in season.

Note.—To keep potatoes hot, after draining the water from them, put a folded cloth or flannel (kept for the purpose) on the top of them, keeping the saucepan-lid partially uncovered. This will absorb the moisture, and keep them hot some time without spoiling.

The Potato.—The potato belongs to the family of the Solanaceæ, the greater number of which inhabit the tropics, and the remainder are distributed over the temperate regions of both hemispheres, but do not extend to the arctic and antarctic zones. The whole of the family are suspicious; a great number are narcotic, and many are deleterious. The roots partake of the properties of the plants, and are sometimes even more active. The tubercles of such as produce them, are amylaceous and nutritive, as in those of the potato. The leaves are generally narcotic; but they lose this principle in boiling, as is the case with the Solanum nigrum, which are used as a vegetable when cooked.

TO BOIL POTATOES IN THEIR JACKETS.

1138. Ingredients.—10 or 12 potatoes; to each ½ gallon of water, allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt.

Mode.—To obtain this wholesome and delicious vegetable cooked in perfection, it should be boiled and sent to table with the skin on. In Ireland, where, perhaps, the cooking of potatoes is better understood than in any country, they are always served so. Wash the potatoes well, and if necessary, use a clean scrubbing-brush to remove the dirt from them; and if possible, choose the potatoes so that they may all be as nearly the same size as possible. When thoroughly cleansed, fill the saucepan half full with them, and just cover the potatoes with cold water, salted in the above proportion: they are more quickly boiled with a small quantity of water, and, besides, are more savoury than when drowned in it. Bring them to boil, then draw the pan to the side of the fire, and let them simmer gently until tender. Ascertain when they are done by probing them with a fork; then pour off the water, uncover the saucepan, and let the potatoes dry by the side of the fire, taking care not to let them burn. Peel them quickly, put them in a very hot vegetable-dish, either with or without a napkin, and serve very quickly. After potatoes are cooked, they should never 584 be entirely covered up, as the steam, instead of escaping, falls down on them, and makes them watery and insipid. In Ireland they are usually served up with the skins on, and a small plate is placed by the side of each guest.

Time.—Moderate-sized potatoes, with their skins on, 20 to 25 minutes after the water boils; large potatoes, 25 minutes to ¾ hour, or longer; 5 minutes to dry them.

Average cost, 4s. per bushel.

Sufficient for 6 persons.

Seasonable all the year, but not good just before and whilst new potatoes are in season.

Analysis of the Potato.—Next to the cereals, the potato is the most valuable plant for the production of human food. Its tubers, according to analysis conducted by Mr. Fromberg, in the laboratory of the Agricultural Chemical Association in Scotland, contain the following ingredients:—75·52 per cent. of water, 15·72 starch, 0·55 dextrine, 3·3 of impure saccharine matter, and 3·25 of fibre with coagulated albumen. In a dried state the tuber contains 64·2 per cent. of starch, 2·25 of dextrine, 13·47 of impure saccharine matter, 5·77 of caseine, gluten, and albumen, 1 of fatty matter, and 13·31 of fibre with coagulated albumen.

TO BOIL NEW POTATOES.

1139. Ingredients.—Potatoes; to each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt.

Mode.—Do not have the potatoes dug long before they are dressed, as they are never good when they have been out of the ground some time. Well wash them, rub off the skins with a coarse cloth, and put them into boiling water salted in the above proportion. Let them boil until tender; try them with a fork, and when done, pour the water away from them; let them stand by the side of the fire with the lid of the saucepan partially uncovered, and when the potatoes are thoroughly dry, put them into a hot vegetable-dish, with a piece of butter the size of a walnut; pile the potatoes over this, and serve. If the potatoes are too old to have the skins rubbed off, boil them in their jackets; drain, peel, and serve them as above, with a piece of butter placed in the midst of them.

Time.—¼ to ½ hour, according to the size.

Average cost, in full season, 1d. per lb.

Sufficient.—Allow 3 lbs. for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable in May and June, but may be had, forced, in March.

Potato Starch.—This fecula has a beautiful white crystalline appearance, and is inodorous, soft to the touch, insoluble in cold, but readily soluble in boiling water. It is on this starch that the nutritive properties of the tubers depend. As an aliment, it is well adapted for invalids and persons of delicate constitution. It may be used in the form of arrow-root, and eaten with milk or sugar. For pastry of all kinds it is more light and easier of digestion than that made with flour of wheat. In confectionery it serves to form creams and jellies, and in cookery may be used to thicken soups and sauces. It accommodates itself to the chest and stomach of children, for whom it is well adapted; and it is an aliment that cannot be too generally used, as much on account of its wholesomeness as its cheapness, and the ease with which it is kept, which are equal, if not superior, to all the much-vaunted exotic feculæ; as, salep, tapioca, sago, and arrow-root.

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TO STEAM POTATOES.

1140. Ingredients.—Potatoes; boiling water.

Mode.—This mode of cooking potatoes is now much in vogue, particularly where they are wanted on a large scale, it being so very convenient. Pare the potatoes, throw them into cold water as they are peeled, then put them into a steamer. Place the steamer over a saucepan of boiling water, and steam the potatoes from 20 to 40 minutes, according to the size and sort. When a fork goes easily through them, they are done; then take them up, dish, and serve very quickly.

Time.—20 to 40 minutes.

Average cost, 4s. per bushel.

Sufficient.—Allow 2 large potatoes to each person.

Seasonable all the year, but not so good whilst new potatoes are in season.

Uses of the Potato.—Potatoes boiled and beaten along with sour milk form a sort of cheese, which is made in Saxony; and, when kept in close vessels, may be preserved for several years. It is generally supposed that the water in which potatoes are boiled is injurious; and as instances are recorded where cattle having drunk it were seriously affected, it may be well to err on the safe side, and avoid its use for any alimentary purpose. Potatoes which have been exposed to the air and become green, are very unwholesome. Cadet de Vaux asserts that potatoes will clean linen as well as soap; and it is well known that the berries of the S. saponaceum are used in Peru for the same purpose.

HOW TO USE COLD POTATOES.

1141. Ingredients.—The remains of cold potatoes; to every lb. allow 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 2 ditto of minced onions, 1 oz. of butter, milk.

Mode.—Mash the potatoes with a fork until perfectly free from lumps; stir in the other ingredients, and add sufficient milk to moisten them well; press the potatoes into a mould, and bake in a moderate oven until nicely brown, which will be in from 20 minutes to ½ hour. Turn them out of the mould, and serve.

Time.—20 minutes to ½ hour.

Seasonable at any time.

Potato Bread.—The manner in which this is made is very simple. The adhesive tendency of the flour of the potato acts against its being baked or kneaded without being mixed with wheaten flour or meal; it may, however, be made into cakes in the following manner:—A small wooden frame, nearly square, is laid on a pan like a frying-pan, and is grooved, and so constructed that, by means of a presser or lid introduced into the groove, the cake is at once fashioned, according to the dimensions of the mould. The frame containing the farina may be almost immediately withdrawn after the mould is formed upon the pan; because, from the consistency imparted to the incipient cake by the heat, it will speedily admit of being safely handled: it must not, however, be fried too hastily. It will then eat very palatably, and might from time to time be soaked for puddings, like tapioca, or might be used like the cassada-cake, for, when well buttered and toasted, it will be found an excellent accompaniment to breakfast. In Scotland, cold boiled potatoes are frequently squeezed up and mixed with flour or oatmeal, and an excellent cake, or scon, obtained.

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FRIED POTATOES (French Fashion).

1142. Ingredients.—Potatoes, hot butter or clarified dripping, salt.

Mode.—Peel and cut the potatoes into thin slices, as nearly the same size as possible; make some butter or dripping quite hot in a frying-pan; put in the potatoes, and fry them on both sides of a nice brown. When they are crisp and done, take them up, place them on a cloth before the fire to drain the grease from them, and serve very hot, after sprinkling them with salt. These are delicious with rump-steak, and, in France, are frequently served thus as a breakfast dish. The remains of cold potatoes may also be sliced and fried by the above recipe, but the slices must be cut a little thicker.

Time.—Sliced raw potatoes, 5 minutes; cooked potatoes, 5 minutes.

Average cost, 4s. per bushel.

Sufficient,—6 sliced potatoes for 3 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

A GERMAN METHOD OF COOKING POTATOES.

1143. Ingredients.—8 to 10 middling-sized potatoes, 3 oz. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, ½ pint of broth, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar.

Mode.—Put the butter and flour into a stewpan; stir over the fire until the butter is of a nice brown colour, and add the broth and vinegar; peel and cut the potatoes into long thin slices, lay them in the gravy, and let them simmer gently until tender, which will be in from 10 to 15 minutes, and serve very hot. A laurel-leaf simmered with the potatoes is an improvement.

Time.—10 to 15 minutes.

Seasonable at any time.

Preserving Potatoes.—In general, potatoes are stored or preserved in pits, cellars, pies, or camps; but, whatever mode is adopted, it is essential that the tubers be perfectly dry; otherwise, they will surely rot; and a few rotten potatoes will contaminate a whole mass. The pie, as it is called, consists of a trench, lined and covered with straw; the potatoes in it being piled in the shape of a house roof, to the height of about three feet. The camps are shallow pits, filled and ridged up in a similar manner, covered up with the excavated mould of the pit. In Russia and Canada, the potato is preserved in boxes, in houses or cellars, heated, when necessary, to a temperature one or two degrees above the freezing-point, by stoves. To keep potatoes for a considerable time, the best way is to place them in thin layers on a platform suspended in an ice-cellar: there, the temperature being always below that of active vegetation, they will not sprout; while, not being above one or two degrees below the freezing-point, the tubers will not be frostbitten. Another mode is to scoop out the eyes with a very small scoop, and keep the roots buried in earth; a third mode is to destroy the vital principle, by kiln-drying, steaming, or scalding; a fourth is to bury them so deep in dry soil, that no change of temperature will reach them; and thus, being without air, they will remain upwards of a year without vegetating.

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POTATOES A LA MAITRE D’HOTEL.

1144. Ingredients.—Potatoes, salt and water; to every 6 potatoes allow 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, 2 oz. of butter, pepper and salt to taste, 4 tablespoonfuls of gravy, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice.

Mode.—Wash the potatoes clean, and boil them in salt and water by recipe No. 1138; when they are done, drain them, let them cool; then peel and cut the potatoes into thick slices: if these are too thin, they would break in the sauce. Put the butter into a stewpan with the pepper, salt, gravy, and parsley; mix these ingredients well together, put in the potatoes, shake them two or three times, that they may be well covered with the sauce, and, when quite hot through, squeeze in the lemon-juice, and serve.

Time.—½ to ¾ hour to boil the potatoes; 10 minutes for them to heat in the sauce.

Average cost, 4s. per bushel.

Sufficient for 3 persons.

Seasonable all the year.

MASHED POTATOES.

1145. Ingredients.—Potatoes; to every lb. of mashed potatoes allow 1 oz. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of milk, salt to taste.

Mode.—Boil the potatoes in their skins; when done, drain them, and let them get thoroughly dry by the side of the fire; then peel them, and, as they are peeled, put them into a clean saucepan, and with a large fork beat them to a light paste; add butter, milk, and salt in the above proportion, and stir all the ingredients well over the fire. When thoroughly hot, dish them lightly, and draw the fork backwards over the potatoes to make the surface rough, and serve. When dressed in this manner, they may be browned at the top with a salamander, or before the fire. Some cooks press the potatoes into moulds, then turn them out, and brown them in the oven: this is a pretty mode of serving, but it makes them heavy. In whatever way they are sent to table, care must be taken to have them quite free from lumps.

Time.—From ½ to ¾ hour to boil the potatoes.

Average cost, 4s. per bushel.

Sufficient,—1 lb. of mashed potatoes for 3 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

PUREE DE POMMES DE TERRE, or, Very Thin-mashed Potatoes.

1146. Ingredients.—To every lb. of mashed potatoes allow ¼ pint of good broth or stock, 2 oz. of butter.

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Mode.—Boil the potatoes, well drain them, and pound them smoothly in a mortar, or beat them up with a fork; add the stock or broth, and rub the potatoes through a sieve. Put the purée into a very clean saucepan with the butter; stir it well over the fire until thoroughly hot, and it will then be ready to serve. A purée should be rather thinner than mashed potatoes, and is a delicious accompaniment to delicately broiled mutton cutlets. Cream or milk may be substituted for the broth when the latter is not at hand. A casserole of potatoes, which is often used for ragoûts instead of rice, is made by mashing potatoes rather thickly, placing them on a dish, and making an opening in the centre. After having browned the potatoes in the oven, the dish should be wiped clean, and the ragoût or fricassée poured in.

Time.—About ½ hour to boil the potatoes; 6 or 7 minutes to warm the purée.

Average cost, 4s. per bushel.

Sufficient.—Allow 1 lb. of cooked potatoes for 3 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

picture of “SWEET POTATO.”

SWEET POTATO.

Varieties of the Potato.—These are very numerous. “They differ,” says an authority, “in their leaves and bulk of haulm; in the colour of the skin of the tubers; in the colour of the interior, compared with that of the skin; in the time of ripening; in being farinaceous, glutinous, or watery; in tasting agreeably or disagreeably; in cooking readily or tediously; in the length of the subterraneous stolones to which the tubers are attached; in blossoming or not blossoming; and, finally, in the soil which they prefer.” The earliest varieties grown in fields are,—the Early Kidney, the Nonsuch, the Early Shaw, and the Early Champion. This last is the most generally cultivated round London: it is both mealy and hardy. The sweet potato is but rarely eaten in Britain; but in America it is often served at table, and is there very highly esteemed.

POTATO RISSOLES.

1147. Ingredients.—Mashed potatoes, salt and pepper to taste; when liked, a very little minced parsley, egg, and bread crumbs.

picture of “POTATO RISSOLES.”

POTATO RISSOLES.

Mode.—Boil and mash the potatoes by recipe No. 1145; add a seasoning of pepper and salt, and, when liked, a little minced parsley. Roll the potatoes into small balls, cover them with egg and bread crumbs, and fry in hot lard for about 10 minutes; let them drain before the fire, dish them on a napkin, and serve.

Time.—10 minutes to fry the rissoles.

Seasonable at any time.

Note.—The flavour of these rissoles may be very much increased by adding finely-minced tongue or ham, or even chopped onions, when these are liked.

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Qualities of Potatoes.—In making a choice from the many varieties of potatoes which are everywhere found, the best way is to get a sample and taste them, and then fix upon the kind which best pleases your palate. The Shaw is one of the most esteemed of the early potatoes for field culture; and the Kidney and Bread-fruit are also good sorts. The Lancashire Pink is also a good potato, and is much cultivated in the neighbourhood of Liverpool. As late or long-keeping potatoes, the Tartan or Red-apple stands very high in favour.

POTATO SNOW.

1148. Ingredients.—Potatoes, salt, and water.

Mode.—Choose large white potatoes, as free from spots as possible; boil them in their skins in salt and water until perfectly tender; drain and dry them thoroughly by the side of the fire, and peel them. Put a hot dish before the fire, rub the potatoes through a coarse sieve on to this dish; do not touch them afterwards, or the flakes will fall, and serve as hot as possible.

Time.—½ to ¾ hour to boil the potatoes.

Average cost, 4s. per bushel.

Sufficient,—6 potatoes for 3 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

The Potato as an Article of Human Food.—This valuable esculent, next to wheat, is of the greatest importance in the eye of the political economist. From no other crop that can be cultivated does the public derive so much benefit; and it has been demonstrated that an acre of potatoes will feed double the number of people that can be fed from an acre of wheat.

TO DRESS SALSIFY.

1149. Ingredients.—Salsify; to each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt, 1 oz. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice.

Mode.—Scrape the roots gently, so as to strip them only of their outside peel; cut them into pieces about 4 inches long, and, as they are peeled, throw them into water with which has been mixed a little lemon-juice, to prevent their discolouring. Put them into boiling water, with salt, butter, and lemon-juice in the above proportion, and let them boil rapidly until tender; try them with a fork; and, when it penetrates easily, they are done. Drain the salsify, and serve with a good white sauce or French melted butter.

Time.—30 to 50 minutes.

Seasonable in winter.

Note.—This vegetable may be also boiled, sliced, and fried in batter of a nice brown. When crisp and a good colour, they should be served with fried parsley in the centre of the dish, and a little fine salt sprinkled over the salsify.

Salsify.—This esculent is, for the sake of its roots, cultivated in gardens. It belongs to the Composite class of flowers, which is the most extensive family in the vegetable kingdom. This family is not only one of the most natural and most uniform in structure, but there is also a great similarity existing in the properties of the plants of which it is composed. Generally speaking, all composite flowers are tonic or stimulant in their medical virtues.

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BOILED SEA-KALE.

picture of “BOILED SEA-KALE.”

BOILED SEA-KALE.

picture of “SEA-KALE.”

SEA-KALE.

1150. Ingredients.—To each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt.

Mode.—Well wash the kale, cut away any wormeaten pieces, and tie it into small bunches; put it into boiling water, salted in the above proportion, and let it boil quickly until tender. Take it out, drain, untie the bunches, and serve with plain melted butter or white sauce, a little of which may be poured over the kale. Sea-kale may also be parboiled and stewed in good brown gravy: it will then take about ½ hour altogether.

Time.—15 minutes; when liked very thoroughly done, allow an extra 5 minutes.

Average cost, in full season, 9d. per basket.

Sufficient.—Allow 12 heads for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from February to June.

Sea-kale.—This plant belongs to the Asparagus tribe, and grows on seashores, especially in the West of England, and in the neighbourhood of Dublin. Although it is now in very general use, it did not come into repute till 1794. It is easily cultivated, and is esteemed as one of the most valuable esculents indigenous to Britain. As a vegetable, it is stimulating to the appetite, easily digestible, and nutritious. It is so light that the most delicate organizations may readily eat it. The flowers form a favourite resort for bees, as their petals contain a great amount of saccharine matter.

BOILED SALAD.

1151. Ingredients.—2 heads of celery, 1 pint of French beans, lettuce, and endive.

picture of “FRENCH BEANS.”

FRENCH BEANS.

picture of “CHERVIL.”

CHERVIL.

Mode.—Boil the celery and beans separately until tender, and cut the celery into pieces about 2 inches long. Put these into a salad-bowl or dish; pour over either of the sauces No. 506, 507, or 508, and garnish the dish with a little lettuce finely chopped, blanched 591 endive, or a few tufts of boiled cauliflower. This composition, if less agreeable than vegetables in their raw state, is more wholesome; for salads, however they may be compounded, when eaten uncooked, prove to some people indigestible. Tarragon, chervil, burnet, and boiled onion, may be added to the above salad with advantage, as also slices of cold meat, poultry, or fish.

Seasonable from July to October.

Acetarious Vegetables.—By the term Acetarious vegetables, is expressed a numerous class of plants, of various culture and habit, which are principally used as salads, pickles, and condiments. They are to be considered rather as articles of comparative luxury than as ordinary food, and are more desirable for their coolness, or their agreeable flavour, than for their nutritive powers.

Cauliflower.—The cauliflower is less indigestible than the cabbage; it possesses a most agreeable flavour, and is sufficiently delicate to be served at the tables of the wealthy. It is a wholesome vegetable, but should be eaten moderately, as it induces flatulence. Persons of weak constitutions and delicate stomachs should abstain from cauliflower as much as possible. They may be prepared in a variety of ways; and, in selecting them, the whitest should be chosen; those tinged with green or yellow being of indifferent quality.

SUMMER SALAD.

1152. Ingredients.—3 lettuces, 2 handfuls of mustard-and-cress, 10 young radishes, a few slices of cucumber.

picture of “SALAD IN A BOWL.”

SALAD IN A BOWL.

picture of “CUCUMBER-SLICE.”

CUCUMBER-SLICE.

Mode.—Let the herbs be as fresh as possible for a salad, and, if at all stale or dead-looking, let them lie in water for an hour or two, which will very much refresh them. Wash and carefully pick them over, remove any decayed or wormeaten leaves, and drain them thoroughly by swinging them gently in a clean cloth. With a silver knife, cut the lettuces into small pieces, and the radishes and cucumbers into thin slices; arrange all these ingredients lightly on a dish, with the mustard-and-cress, and pour under, but not over the salad, either of the sauces No. 506, 507, or 508, and do not stir it up until it is to be eaten. It may be garnished with hard-boiled eggs, cut in slices, sliced cucumbers, nasturtiums, cut vegetable-flowers, and many other things that taste will always suggest to make a pretty and elegant dish. In making a good salad, care must be taken to have the herbs freshly gathered, and thoroughly drained before the sauce is added to them, or it will be watery and thin. Young spring onions, cut small, are by many persons considered an improvement to salads; but, before these are added, the cook should always consult the taste of her employer. Slices of cold meat or poultry added to a salad make a convenient and quickly-made summer luncheon-dish; or cold fish, flaked, will also be found exceedingly nice, mixed with it.

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Average cost, 9d. for a salad for 5 or 6 persons; but more expensive when the herbs are forced.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from May to September.

Cucumbers.—The cucumber is refreshing, but neither nutritious nor digestible, and should be excluded from the regimen of the delicate. There are various modes of preparing cucumbers. When gathered young, they are called gherkins: these, pickled, are much used in seasonings.

picture of “TURNIP RADISHES.”

TURNIP RADISHES.

picture of “LONG RADISHES.”

LONG RADISHES.

Radishes.—This is the common name given to the root of the Raphanus sativus, one of the varieties of the cultivated horseradish. There are red and white radishes; and the French have also what they call violet and black ones, of which the black are the larger. Radishes are composed of nearly the same constituents as turnips, that is to say, mostly fibre and nitrogen; and, being generally eaten raw, it is on the last of these that their flavour depends. They do not agree with people, except those who are in good health, and have active digestive powers; for they are difficult of digestion, and cause flatulency and wind, and are the cause of headaches when eaten to excess. Besides being eaten raw, they are sometimes, but rarely, boiled; and they also serve as a pretty garnish for salads. In China, the radish may be found growing naturally, without cultivation; and may be occasionally met with in England as a weed, in similar places to where the wild turnip grows; it, however, thrives best in the garden, and the ground it likes best is a deep open loam, or a well-manured sandy soil.

WINTER SALAD.

1153. Ingredients.—Endive, mustard-and-cress, boiled beetroot, 3 or 4 hard-boiled eggs, celery.

Mode.—The above ingredients form the principal constituents of a winter salad, and may be converted into a very pretty dish, by nicely contrasting the various colours, and by tastefully garnishing it. Shred the celery into thin pieces, after having carefully washed and cut away all wormeaten pieces; cleanse the endive and mustard-and-cress free from grit, and arrange these high in the centre of a salad-bowl or dish; garnish with the hard-boiled eggs and beetroot, both of which should be cut in slices; and pour into the dish, but not over the salad, either of the sauces No. 506, 507, or 508. Never dress a salad long before it is required for table, as, by standing, it loses its freshness and pretty crisp and light appearance; the sauce, however, may 593 2Q always be prepared a few hours beforehand, and when required for use, the herbs laid lightly over it.

Average cost, 9d. for a salad for 5 or 6 persons.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from the end of September to March.

Salads.—Salads are raw vegetables, of which, among us, the lettuce is the most generally used; several others, however, such as cresses, celery, onions, beetroot, &c., are occasionally employed. As vegetables eaten in a raw state are apt to ferment on the stomach, and as they have very little stimulative power upon that organ, they are usually dressed with some condiments, such as pepper, vinegar, salt, mustard, and oil. Respecting the use of these, medical men disagree, especially in reference to oil, which is condemned by some and recommended by others.

POTATO SALAD.

1154. Ingredients.—10 or 12 cold boiled potatoes, 4 tablespoonfuls of tarragon or plain vinegar, 6 tablespoonfuls of salad-oil, pepper and salt to taste, 1 teaspoonful of minced parsley.

Mode.—Cut the potatoes into slices about ½ inch in thickness; put these into a salad-bowl with oil and vinegar in the above proportion; season with pepper, salt, and a teaspoonful of minced parsley; stir the salad well, that all the ingredients may be thoroughly incorporated, and it is ready to serve. This should be made two or three hours before it is wanted for table. Anchovies, olives, or pickles may be added to this salad, as also slices of cold beef, fowl, or turkey.

Seasonable at any time.

CHICKEN SALAD.—(See No. 931.)
GROUSE SALAD—(See No. 1026.)
LOBSTER SALAD.—(See No. 272.)
TO BOIL SPINACH (English Mode).

color plate “Spinach and Poached Eggs.”

U. Spinach and Poached Eggs.

1155. Ingredients.—2 pailfuls of spinach, 2 heaped tablespoonfuls of salt, 1 oz. of butter, pepper to taste.

picture of “SPINACH GARNISHED WITH CROÛTONS.”

SPINACH GARNISHED
WITH CROÛTONS.

Mode.—Pick the spinach carefully, and see that no stalks or weeds are left amongst it; wash it in several waters, and, to prevent it being gritty, act in the following manner:—Have ready two large pans or tubs filled with water; put the spinach into one of these, and thoroughly wash it; then, with the hands, take out the spinach, and put it into the other tub of water (by this means all the grit will be left at the bottom of the tub); wash it again, and, should it not be perfectly free from dirt, repeat the process. Put it into a very large saucepan, with about ½ pint of water, just sufficient to keep the spinach from burning, and the above proportion of salt. Press it down frequently with a wooden spoon, that it may be done equally; 594 and when it has boiled for rather more than 10 minutes, or until it is perfectly tender, drain it in a colander, squeeze it quite dry, and chop it finely. Put the spinach into a clean stewpan, with the butter and a seasoning of pepper; stir the whole over the fire until quite hot; then put it on a hot dish, and garnish with sippets of toasted bread.

Time.—10 to 15 minutes to boil the spinach, 5 minutes to warm with the butter.

Average cost for the above quantity, 8d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable.—Spring spinach from March to July; winter spinach from November to March.

Note.—Grated nutmeg, pounded mace, or lemon-juice may also be added to enrich the flavour; and poached eggs are also frequently served with spinach: they should be placed on the top of it, and it should be garnished with sippets of toasted bread.—See coloured plate U.

Varieties of Spinach.—These comprise the Strawberry spinach, which, under that name, was wont to be grown in our flower-gardens; the Good King Harry, the Garden Oracle, the Prickly, and the Round, are the varieties commonly used. The Oracle is a hardy sort, much esteemed in France, and is a native of Tartary, introduced in 1548. The common spinach has its leaves round, and is softer and more succulent than any of the Brassica tribe.

SPINACH DRESSED WITH CREAM, a la Francaise.

1156. Ingredients.—2 pailfuls of spinach, 2 tablespoonfuls of salt, 2 oz. of butter, 8 tablespoonfuls of cream, 1 small teaspoonful of pounded sugar, a very little grated nutmeg.

Mode.—Boil and drain the spinach as in recipe No. 1155; chop it finely, and put it into a stewpan with the butter; stir over a gentle fire, and, when the butter has dried away, add the remaining ingredients, and simmer for about 5 minutes. Previously to adding the cream, boil it first, in case it should curdle. Serve on a hot dish, and garnish either with sippets of toasted bread or leaves of puff-paste.

picture of “SPINACH.”

SPINACH.

Time.—10 to 15 minutes to boil the spinach; 10 minutes to stew with the cream.

Average cost for the above quantity, 8d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable.—Spring spinach from March to July; winter spinach from November to March.

Spinach.—This is a Persian plant. It has been cultivated in our gardens about two hundred years, and is the most wholesome of vegetables. It is not very nutritious, but is very easily digested. It is very light and laxative. Wonderful properties have been ascribed to spinach. It is an excellent vegetable, and very beneficial to health. Plainly dressed, it is a resource for the poor; prepared luxuriantly, it is a choice dish for the rich.

Spinach.—This vegetable belongs to a sub-order of the Salsolaceæ, or saltworts, and is classified under the head of Spirolobeæ, with leaves shaped like worms, and of a succulent 595 kind. In its geographical distribution it is commonly found in extratropical and temperate regions, where they grow as weeds in waste places, and among rubbish, and in marshes by the seashore. In the tropics the order is rarely found. Many of them are used as potherbs, and some of them are emetic and vermifuge in their medicinal properties.

FRENCH MODE OF DRESSING SPINACH.

1157. Ingredients.—2 pailfuls of spinach, 2 tablespoonfuls of salt, 2 oz. of butter, 1 teaspoonful of flour, 8 tablespoonfuls of good gravy; when liked, a very little grated nutmeg.

Mode.—Pick, wash, and boil the spinach, as in recipe No. 1155, and when quite tender, drain and squeeze it perfectly dry from the water that hangs about it. Chop it very fine, put the butter into a stewpan, and lay the spinach over that; stir it over a gentle fire, and dredge in the flour. Add the gravy, and let it boil quickly for a few minutes, that it may not discolour. When the flavour of nutmeg is liked, grate some to the spinach, and when thoroughly hot, and the gravy has dried away a little, serve. Garnish the dish with sippets of toasted bread.

Time.—10 to 15 minutes to boil the spinach; 10 minutes to simmer in the gravy.

Average cost for the above quantity, 8d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable.—Spring spinach from March to July; winter spinach from October to February.

Note.—For an entremets or second-course dish, spinach dressed by the above recipe may be pressed into a hot mould; it should then be turned out quickly, and served very hot.

BAKED TOMATOES.
(Excellent.)

1158. Ingredients.—8 or 10 tomatoes, pepper and salt to taste, 2 oz. of butter, bread crumbs.

Mode.—Take off the stalks from the tomatoes; cut them into thick slices, and put them into a deep baking-dish; add a plentiful seasoning of pepper and salt, and butter in the above proportion; cover the whole with bread crumbs; drop over these a little clarified butter; bake in a moderate oven from 20 minutes to ½ hour, and serve very hot. This vegetable, dressed as above, is an exceedingly nice accompaniment to all kinds of roast meat. The tomatoes, instead of being cut in slices, may be baked whole; but they will take rather longer time to cook.

picture of “THE TOMATO.”

THE TOMATO.

Time.—20 minutes to ½ hour.

Average cost, in full season, 9d. per basket.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

596

Seasonable in August, September, and October; but may be had, forced, much earlier.

Tomatoes.—The Tomato is a native of tropical countries, but is now cultivated considerably both in France and England. Its skin is of a brilliant red, and its flavour, which is somewhat sour, has become of immense importance in the culinary art. It is used both fresh and preserved. When eaten fresh, it is served as an entremets; but its principal use is in sauce and gravy; its flavour stimulates the appetite, and is almost universally approved. The Tomato is a wholesome fruit, and digests easily. From July to September, they gather the tomatoes green in France, not breaking them away from the stalk; they are then hung, head downwards, in a dry and not too cold place; and there they ripen.

HOT TOMATO SAUCE, or PUREE OF TOMATOES. (See No. 529.)
STEWED TOMATOES.
I.

1159. Ingredients.—8 tomatoes, pepper and salt to taste, 2 oz. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar.

picture of “STEWED TOMATOES.”

STEWED TOMATOES.

Mode.—Slice the tomatoes into a lined saucepan; season them with pepper and salt, and place small pieces of butter on them. Cover the lid down closely, and stew from 20 to 25 minutes, or until the tomatoes are perfectly tender; add the vinegar, stir two or three times, and serve with any kind of roast meat, with which they will be found a delicious accompaniment.

Time.—20 to 25 minutes.

Average cost, in full season, 9d. per basket.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from August to October; but may be had, forced, much earlier.

Analysis of the Tomato.—The fruit of the love-apple is the only part used as an esculent, and it has been found to contain a particular acid, a volatile oil, a brown, very fragrant extracto-resinous matter, a vegeto-mineral matter, muco-saccharine, some salts, and, in all probability, an alkaloid. The whole plant has a disagreeable odour, and its juice, subjected to the action of the fire, emits a vapour so powerful as to cause vertigo and vomiting.

II.

1160. Ingredients.—8 tomatoes, about ½ pint of good gravy, thickening of butter and flour, cayenne and salt to taste.

Mode.—Take out the stalks of the tomatoes; put them into a wide stewpan, pour over them the above proportion of good brown gravy, and stew gently until they are tender, occasionally carefully turning them, that they may be equally done. Thicken the gravy with a little butter and flour worked together on a plate; let it just boil up 597 after the thickening is added, and serve. If it be at hand, these should be served on a silver or plated vegetable-dish.

Time.—20 to 25 minutes, very gentle stewing.

Average cost, in full season, 9d. per basket.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable in August, September, and October; but may be had, forced, much earlier.

The Tomato, or Love-apple.—This vegetable is a native of Mexico and South. America, but is also found in the East Indies, where it is supposed to have been introduced by the Spaniards. In this country it is much more cultivated than it formerly was; and the more the community becomes acquainted with the many agreeable forms in which the fruit can be prepared, the more widely will its cultivation be extended. For ketchup, soups, and sauces, it is equally applicable, and the unripe fruit makes one of the best pickles.

TRUFFLES AU NATUREL.

1161. Ingredients.—Truffles, buttered paper.

Mode.—Select some fine truffles; cleanse them, by washing them in several waters with a brush, until not a particle of sand or grit remains on them; wrap each truffle in buttered paper, and bake in a hot oven for quite an hour; take off the paper, wipe the truffles, and serve them in a hot napkin.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost.—Not often bought in this country.

Seasonable from November to March.

picture of “TRUFFLES.”

TRUFFLES.

The Common Truffle.—This is the Tuber cibarium of science, and belongs to that numerous class of esculent fungi distinguished from other vegetables not only by the singularity of their forms, but by their chemical composition. Upon analysis, they are found not only to contain the usual components of the vegetable kingdom, such as carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, but likewise a large proportion of nitrogen; from which they approach more nearly to the nature of animal flesh. It was long ago observed by Dr. Darwin, that all the mushrooms cooked at our tables, as well as those used for ketchup, possessed an animal flavour; and soup enriched by mushrooms only has sometimes been supposed to contain meat.

TO DRESS TRUFFLES WITH CHAMPAGNE.

1162. Ingredients.—12 fine black truffles, a few slices of fat bacon, 1 carrot, 1 turnip, 2 onions, a bunch of savoury herbs, including parsley, 1 bay-leaf, 2 cloves, 1 blade of pounded mace, 2 glasses of champagne, ½ pint of stock.

Mode.—Carefully select the truffles, reject those that have a musty smell, and wash them well with a brush, in cold water only, until perfectly clean. Put the bacon into a stewpan, with the truffles and the remaining ingredients; simmer these gently for an hour, and let the whole cool in the stewpan. When to be served, rewarm them, 598 and drain them on a clean cloth; then arrange them on a delicately-white napkin, that it may contrast as strongly as possible with the truffles, and serve. The trimmings of truffles are used to flavour gravies, stock, sauces, &c.; and are an excellent addition to ragoûts, made dishes of fowl, &c.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost.—Not often bought in this country.

Seasonable from November to March.

The Truffle.—The Truffle belongs to the family of the Mushroom. It is certain that the truffle must possess, equally with other plants, organs of reproduction; yet, notwithstanding all the efforts of art and science, it has been impossible to subject it to a regular culture. Truffles grow at a considerable depth under the earth, never appearing on the surface. They are found in many parts of France: those of Périgord and Magny are the most esteemed for their odour. There are three varieties of the species,—the black, the red, and the white: the latter are of little value. The red are very rare, and their use is restricted. The black has the highest repute, and its consumption is enormous. When the peasantry go to gather truffles, they take a pig with them to scent out the spot where they grow. When that is found, the pig turns up the surface with his snout, and the men then dig until they find the truffles. Good truffles are easily distinguished by their agreeable perfume; they should be light in proportion to their size, and elastic when pressed by the finger. To have them in perfection, they should be quite fresh, as their aroma is considerably diminished by any conserving process. Truffles are stimulating and heating. Weak stomachs digest them with difficulty. Some of the culinary uses to which they are subjected render them more digestible; but they should always be eaten sparingly. Their chief use is in seasoning and garnitures. In short, a professor has said, “Meats with truffles are the most distinguished dishes that opulence can offer to the epicure.” The Truffle grows in clusters, some inches below the surface of the soil, and is of an irregular globular form. Those which grow wild in England are about the size of a hen’s egg, and have no roots. As there is nothing to indicate the places where they are, dogs have been trained to discriminate their scent, by which they are discovered. Hogs are very fond of them, and frequently lead to their being found, from their rutting up the ground in search of them.

ITALIAN MODE OF DRESSING TRUFFLES.

1163. Ingredients.—10 truffles, ¼ pint of salad-oil, pepper and salt to taste, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, a very little finely-minced garlic, 2 blades of pounded mace, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice.

Mode.—After cleansing and brushing the truffles, cut them into thin slices, and put them in a baking-dish, on a seasoning of oil, pepper, salt, parsley, garlic, and mace in the above proportion. Bake them for nearly an hour, and, just before serving, add the lemon-juice, and send them to table very hot.

Time.——Nearly 1 hour.

Average cost.—Not often bought in this country.

Seasonable from November to March.

Where Truffles are found.—In this country, the common truffle is found on the downs of Hampshire, Wiltshire, and Kent; and they abound in dry light soils, and more especially in oak and chestnut forests. In France they are plentiful, and many are imported from the south of that country and Italy, where they are much larger and in greater perfection: they lose, however, much of their flavour by drying. Truffles have in England been tried to be propagated artificially, but without success.

TRUFFLES A L’ITALIENNE.

1164. Ingredients.—10 truffles, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, 1 minced shalot, salt and pepper to taste, 2 oz. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls 599 of good brown gravy, the juice of ½ lemon, cayenne to taste.

Mode.—Wash the truffles and cut them into slices about the size of a penny-piece; put them into a sauté pan, with the parsley, shalot, salt, pepper, and 1 oz. of butter; stir them over the fire, that they may all be equally done, which will be in about 10 minutes, and drain off some of the butter; then add a little more fresh butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of good gravy, the juice of ½ lemon, and a little cayenne; stir over the fire until the whole is on the point of boiling, when serve.

Time.—Altogether, 20 minutes.

Average cost.—Not often bought in this country.

Seasonable from November to March.

Uses of the Truffle.—Like the Morel, truffles are seldom eaten alone, but are much used in gravies, soups, and ragoûts. They are likewise dried for the winter months, and, when reduced to powder, form a useful culinary ingredient; they, however, have many virtues attributed to them which they do not possess. Their wholesomeness is, perhaps, questionable, and they should be eaten with moderation.

BOILED TURNIPS.

1165. Ingredients.—Turnips; to each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt.

Mode.—Pare the turnips, and, should they be very large, divide them into quarters; but, unless this is the case, let them be cooked whole. Put them into a saucepan of boiling water, salted in the above proportion, and let them boil gently until tender. Try them with a fork, and, when done, take them up in a colander; let them thoroughly drain, and serve. Boiled turnips are usually sent to table with boiled mutton, but are infinitely nicer when mashed than served whole: unless nice and young, they are scarcely worth the trouble of dressing plainly as above.

picture of “TURNIPS.”

TURNIPS.

Time.—Old turnips, ¾ to 1¼ hour; young ones, about 18 to 20 minutes.

Average cost, 4d. per bunch.

Sufficient.—Allow a bunch of 12 turnips for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable.—May be had all the year; but in spring only useful for flavouring gravies, &c.

The Turnip.—This vegetable is the Brassica Rapa of science, and grows wild in England, but cannot be brought exactly to resemble what it becomes in a cultivated state. It is said to have been originally introduced from Hanover, and forms an excellent culinary vegetable, much used all over Europe, where it is either eaten alone or mashed and cooked in soups and stews. They do not thrive in a hot climate; for in India they, and many more of our garden vegetables, lose their flavour and become comparatively tasteless. The Swede is the largest variety, but it is too coarse for the table.

600
MASHED TURNIPS.

1166. Ingredients.—10 or 12 large turnips; to each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt, 2 oz. of butter, cayenne or white pepper to taste.

Mode.—Pare the turnips, quarter them, and put them into boiling water, salted in the above proportion; boil them until tender; then drain them in a colander, and squeeze them as dry as possible by pressing them with the back of a large plate. When quite free from water, rub the turnips with a wooden spoon through the colander, and put them into a very clean saucepan; add the butter, white pepper, or cayenne, and, if necessary, a little salt. Keep stirring them over the fire until the butter is well mixed with them, and the turnips are thoroughly hot; dish, and serve. A little cream or milk added after the turnips are pressed through the colander, is an improvement to both the colour and flavour of this vegetable.

Time.—From ½ to ¾ hour to boil the turnips; 10 minutes to warm them through.

Average cost, 4d. per bunch.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable.—May be had all the year; but in spring only good for flavouring gravies.

Vegetables reduced to Purée.—Persons in the flower of youth, having healthy stomachs, and leading active lives, may eat all sorts of vegetables, without inconvenience, save, of course, in excess. The digestive functions possess great energy during the period of youth: the body, to develop itself, needs nourishment. Physical exercise gives an appetite, which it is necessary to satisfy, and vegetables cannot resist the vigorous action of the gastric organs. An old proverb says, “At twenty one can digest iron.” But for aged persons, the sedentary, or the delicate, it is quite otherwise. Then the gastric power has considerably diminished, the digestive organs have lost their energy, the process of digestion is consequently slower, and the least excess at table is followed by derangement of the stomach for several days. Those who generally digest vegetables with difficulty, should eat them reduced to a pulp or purée, that is to say, with their skins and tough fibres removed. Subjected to this process, vegetables which, when entire, would create flatulence and wind, are then comparatively harmless. Experience has established the rule, that nourishment is not complete without the alliance of meat with vegetables. We would also add, that the regime most favourable to health is found in variety: variety pleases the senses, monotony is disagreeable. The eye is fatigued by looking always on one object, the ear by listening to one sound, and the palate by tasting one flavour. It is the same with the stomach: consequently, variety of food is one of the essentials for securing good digestion.

GERMAN MODE OF COOKING TURNIPS.

1167. Ingredients.—8 large turnips, 3 oz. of butter, pepper and salt to taste, rather more than ½ pint of weak stock or broth, 1 tablespoonful of flour.

Mode.—Make the butter hot in a stewpan, lay in the turnips, after having pared and cut them into dice, and season them with pepper and salt. Toss them over the fire for a few minutes, then add the broth, and simmer the whole gently till the turnips are tender. Brown 601 the above proportion of flour with a little butter; add this to the turnips, let them simmer another 5 minutes, and serve. Boiled mutton is usually sent to table with this vegetable, and may be cooked with the turnips by placing it in the midst of them: the meat would then be very delicious, as, there being so little liquid with the turnips, it would almost be steamed, and consequently very tender.

Time.—20 minutes.

Average cost, 4d. per bunch.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

Seasonable.—May be had all the year.

Turnips.—Good turnips are delicate in texture, firm, and sweet. The best sorts contain a sweet juicy mucilage, uniting with the aroma a slightly acid quality, which is completely neutralized in cooking. The turnip is prepared in a variety of ways. Ducks stuffed with turnips have been highly appreciated. It is useful in the regimen of persons afflicted with chronic visceral irritations. The turnip only creates flatulency when it is soft, porous, and stringy. It is then, consequently, bad.

TURNIPS IN WHITE SAUCE.
(An Entremets, or to be served with the Second Course as a Side-dish.)

1168. Ingredients.—7 or 8 turnips, 1 oz. of butter, ½ pint of white sauce, No. 538 or 539.

Mode.—Peel and cut the turnips in the shape of pears or marbles; boil them in salt and water, to which has been added a little butter, until tender; then take them out, drain, arrange them on a dish, and pour over the white sauce made by recipe No. 538 or 539, and to which has been added a small lump of sugar. In winter, when other vegetables are scarce, this will be found a very good and pretty-looking dish: when approved, a little mustard may be added to the sauce.

Time.—About ¾ hour to boil the turnips.

Average cost, 4d. per bunch.

Sufficient for 1 side-dish.

Seasonable in winter.

The French Navet.—This is a variety of the turnip; but, instead of being globular, has more the shape of the carrot. Its flavour being excellent, it is much esteemed on the Continent for soups and made dishes. Two or three of them will impart as much flavour as a dozen of the common turnips will. Accordingly, when stewed in gravy, they are greatly relished. This flavour resides in the rind, which is not cut off, but scraped. This variety was once grown in England, but now it is rarely found in our gardens, though highly deserving of a place there. It is of a yellowish-white colour, and is sometimes imported to the London market.

BOILED TURNIP GREENS.

1169. Ingredients.—To each ½ gallon of water, allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt; turnip-greens.

Mode.—Wash the greens well in two or three waters, and pick off all the decayed and dead leaves; tie them in small bunches, and put them into plenty of boiling water, salted in the above proportion. Keep them boiling quickly, with the lid of the saucepan uncovered, 602 and when tender, pour them into a colander; let them drain, arrange them in a vegetable-dish, remove the string that the greens were tied with, and serve.

Time.—15 to 20 minutes.

Average cost, 4d. for a dish for 3 persons.

Seasonable in March, April, and May.

Cabbage, Turnip-tops, and Greens.—All the cabbage tribe, which comprises coleworts, brocoli, cauliflower, sprouts, and turnip-tops, in order to be delicate, should be dressed young, when they have a rapid growth; but, if they have stood the summer, in order to be tender, they should be allowed to have a touch of frost. The cabbage contains much vegetable albumen, and several parts sulphur and nitrate of potass. Cabbage is heavy, and a long time digesting, which has led to a belief that it is very nourishing. It is only fit food for robust and active persons; the sedentary or delicate should carefully avoid it. Cabbage may be prepared in a variety of ways: it serves as a garniture to several recherché dishes,—partridge and cabbage for example. Bacon and cabbage is a very favourite dish; but only a good stomach can digest it.

BOILED VEGETABLE MARROW.

1170. Ingredients.—To each ½ gallon, of water, allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt; vegetable marrows.

picture of “VEGETABLE MARROW ON TOAST.”

VEGETABLE MARROW ON TOAST.

Mode.—Have ready a saucepan of boiling water, salted in the above proportion; put in the marrows after peeling them, and boil them until quite tender. Take them up with a slice, halve, and, should they be very large, quarter them. Dish them on toast, and send to table with them a tureen of melted butter, or, in lieu of this, a small pat of salt butter. Large vegetable marrows may be preserved throughout the winter by storing them in a dry place; when wanted for use, a few slices should be cut and boiled in the same manner as above; but, when once begun, the marrow must be eaten quickly, as it keeps but a short time after it is cut. Vegetable marrows are also very delicious mashed: they should be boiled, then drained, and mashed smoothly with a wooden spoon. Heat them in a saucepan, add a seasoning of salt and pepper, and a small piece of butter, and dish with a few sippets of toasted bread placed round as a garnish.

Time.—Young vegetable marrows 10 to 20 minutes; old ones, ½ to ¾ hour.

Average cost, in full season, 1s. per dozen.

Sufficient.—Allow 1 moderate-sized marrow for each person.

Seasonable in July, August, and September; but may be preserved all the winter.

FRIED VEGETABLE MARROW.

picture of “VEGETABLE MARROW.”

VEGETABLE MARROW.

1171. Ingredients.—3 medium-sized vegetable marrows, egg and bread crumbs, hot lard.

Mode.—Peel, and boil the marrows until tender in salt and water; then drain them and cut them in quarters, and take out the seeds. 603 When thoroughly drained, brush the marrows over with egg, and sprinkle with bread crumbs; have ready some hot lard, fry the marrow in this, and, when of a nice brown, dish; sprinkle over a little salt and pepper, and serve.

Time.—About ½ hour to boil the marrow, 7 minutes to fry it.

Average cost, in full season, 1s. per dozen.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

Seasonable in July, August, and September.

The Vegetable Marrow.—This vegetable is now extensively used, and belongs to the Cucurbits. It is the C. ovifera of science, and, like the melon, gourd, cucumber, and squash, is widely diffused in the tropical or warmer regions of the globe. Of the nature of this family we have already spoken when treating of the cucumber.

CUT VEGETABLES FOR SOUPS, &c.

picture of “VEGETABLE-CUTTER.”

VEGETABLE-CUTTER.

1172. The annexed engraving represents a cutter for shaping vegetables for soups, ragoûts, stews, &c.; carrots and turnips being the usual vegetables for which this utensil is used. Cut the vegetables into slices about ¼ inch in thickness, stamp them out with the cutter, and boil them for a few minutes in salt and water, until tender. Turnips should be cut in rather thicker slices than carrots, on account of the former boiling more quickly to a pulp than the latter.

Carrots.—Several species of carrots are cultivated,—the red, the yellow, and the white. Those known as the Crecy carrots are considered the best, and are very sweet. The carrot has been classed by hygienists among flatulent vegetables, and as difficult of digestion. When the root becomes old, it is almost as hard as wood; but the young carrot, which has not reached its full growth, is tender, relishing, nutritious, and digests well when properly cooked.

VEGETABLE MARROWS IN WHITE SAUCE.

1173. Ingredients.—4 or 5 moderate-sized marrows, ½ pint of white sauce, No. 539.

picture of “VEGETABLE MARROW IN WHITE SAUCE.”

VEGETABLE MARROW IN WHITE SAUCE.

Mode.—Pare the marrows; cut them in halves, and shape each half at the top in a point, leaving the bottom end flat for it to stand upright in the dish. Boil the marrows in salt and water until tender; take them up very carefully, and arrange them on a hot dish. Have ready ½ pint of white sauce, made by recipe No. 539; pour this over the marrows, and serve.

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Time.—From 15 to 20 minutes to boil the marrows.

Average cost, in full season, 1s. per dozen.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable in July, August, and September.

BOILED INDIAN WHEAT or MAIZE.

1174. Ingredients.—The ears of young and green Indian wheat; to every ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt.

Mode.—This vegetable, which makes one of the most delicious dishes brought to table, is unfortunately very rarely seen in Britain; and we wonder that, in the gardens of the wealthy, it is not invariably cultivated. Our sun, it is true, possesses hardly power sufficient to ripen maize; but, with well-prepared ground, and in a favourable position, it might be sufficiently advanced by the beginning of autumn to serve as a vegetable. The outside sheath being taken off and the waving fibres removed, let the ears be placed in boiling water, where they should remain for about 25 minutes (a longer time may be necessary for larger ears than ordinary); and, when sufficiently boiled and well drained, they may be sent to table whole, and with a piece of toast underneath them. Melted butter should be served with them.

Time.—25 to 35 minutes.

Average cost.—Seldom bought.

Sufficient,—1 ear for each person.

Seasonable in autumn.

Note.—William Cobbett, the English radical writer and politician, was a great cultivator and admirer of maize, and constantly ate it as a vegetable, boiled. We believe he printed a special recipe for it, but we have been unable to lay our hands on it. Mr. Buchanan, the present president of the United States, was in the habit, when ambassador here, of receiving a supply of Indian corn from America in hermetically-sealed cases; and the publisher of this work remembers, with considerable satisfaction, his introduction to a dish of this vegetable, when in America. He found it to combine the excellences of the young green pea and the finest asparagus; but he felt at first slightly awkward in holding the large ear with one hand, whilst the other had to be employed in cutting off with a knife the delicate green grains.

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605

table laden with puddings and pies

CHAPTER XXVI.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON PUDDINGS AND PASTRY.

1175. Puddings and Pastry, familiar as they may be, and unimportant as they may be held in the estimation of some, are yet intimately connected with the development of agricultural resources in reference to the cereal grasses. When they began to be made is uncertain; but we may safely presume, that a simple form of pudding was amongst the first dishes made after discovering a mode of grinding wheat into flour. Traditional history enables us to trace man back to the time of the Deluge. After that event he seems to have recovered himself in the central parts of Asia, and to have first risen to eminence in the arts of civilization on the banks of the Nile. From this region, Greece, Carthage, and some other parts along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, were colonized. In process of time, Greece gave to the Romans the arts which she had thus received from Egypt, and these subsequently diffused them over Europe. How these were carried to or developed in India and China, is not so well ascertained; and in America their ancient existence rests only on very indistinct traditions. As to who was the real discoverer of the use of corn, we have no authentic knowledge. The traditions of different countries ascribe it to various fabulous personages, whose names it is here unnecessary to introduce. In Egypt, however, corn must have grown abundantly; for Abraham, and after him Jacob, had recourse to that country for supplies during times of famine.

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1176. The Habits of a People, to a great extent, are formed by the climate in which they live, and by the native or cultivated productions in which their country abounds. Thus we find that the agricultural produce of the ancient Egyptians is pretty much the same as that of the present day, and the habits of the people are not materially altered. In Greece, the products cultivated in antiquity were the same kinds of grains and legumes as are cultivated at present, with the vine, the fig, the olive, the apple, and other fruits. So with the Romans, and so with other nations. As to the different modes of artificially preparing these to please the taste, it is only necessary to say that they arise from the universal desire of novelty, characteristic of man in the development of his social conditions. Thus has arisen the whole science of cookery, and thus arose the art of making puddings. The porridge of the Scotch in nothing more than a species of hasty pudding, composed of oatmeal, salt, and water; and the “red pottage” for which Esau sold his birthright, must have been something similar. The barley-gruel of the Lacedæmonians, of the Athenian gladiators and common people, was the same, with the exception of the slight seasoning it had beyond the simplicity of Scottish fare. Here is the ancient recipe for the Athenian national dish:—“Dry near the fire, in the oven, twenty pounds of barley-flour; then parch it; add three pounds of linseed-meal, half a pound of coriander-seed, two ounces of salt, and the quantity of water necessary.” To this sometimes a little millet was added, in order to give the paste greater cohesion and delicacy.

1177. Oatmeal amongst the Greeks and Romans was highly esteemed, as was also rice, which they considered as beneficial to the chest. They also held in high repute the Irion, or Indian wheat of the moderns. The flour of this cereal was made into a kind of hasty pudding, and, parched or roasted, was eaten with a little salt. The Spelt, or Red wheat, was likewise esteemed, and its flour formed the basis of the Carthaginian pudding, for which we here give the scientific recipe:—“Put a pound of red-wheat flour into water, and when it has steeped some time, transfer it to a wooden bowl. Add three pounds of cream cheese, half a pound of honey, and one egg. Beat the whole together, and cook it on a slow fire in a stewpan.” Should this be considered unpalatable, another form has been recommended. “Sift the flour, and, with some water, put it into a wooden vessel, and, for ten days, renew the water twice each day. At the end of that period, press out the water and place the paste in another vessel. It is now to be reduced to the consistence of thick lees, and passed through a piece of new linen. Repeat this last operation, then dry the mass in the sun and boil it in milk. Season according to taste.” These are specimens of the puddings of antiquity, and this last recipe was held in especial favour by the Romans.

1178. However great may have been the qualifications of the ancients, however, in the art of pudding-making, we apprehend that such preparations as gave gratification to their palates, would have generally found 607 little favour amongst the insulated inhabitants of Great Britain. Here, from the simple suet dumpling up to the most complicated Christmas production, the grand feature of substantiality is primarily attended to. Variety in the ingredients, we think, is held only of secondary consideration with the great body of the people, provided that the whole is agreeable and of sufficient abundance.

1179. Although from Puddings to Pastry is but a step, it requires a higher degree of art to make the one than to make the other. Indeed, pastry is one of the most important branches of the culinary science. It unceasingly occupies itself with ministering pleasure to the sight as well as to the taste; with erecting graceful monuments, miniature fortresses, and all kinds of architectural imitations, composed of the sweetest and most agreeable products of all climates and countries. At a very early period, the Orientals were acquainted with the art of manipulating in pastry; but they by no means attained to the taste, variety, and splendour of design, by which it is characterized amongst the moderns. At first it generally consisted of certain mixtures of flour, oil, and honey, to which it was confined for centuries, even among the southern nations of the European continent. At the commencement of the middle ages, a change began to take place in the art of mixing it. Eggs, butter, and salt came into repute in the making of paste, which was forthwith used as an inclosure for meat, seasoned with spices. This advance attained, the next step was to inclose cream, fruit, and marmalades; and the next, to build pyramids and castles; when the summit of the art of the pastry-cook may be supposed to have been achieved.

DIRECTIONS IN CONNECTION WITH THE MAKING OF PUDDINGS AND PASTRY.

1180. A few general remarks respecting the various ingredients of which puddings and pastry are composed, may be acceptable as preliminary to the recipes in this department of Household Management.

1181. Flour should be of the best quality, and perfectly dry, and sifted before being used; if in the least damp, the paste made from it will certainly be heavy.

1182. Butter, unless fresh is used, should be washed from the salt, and well squeezed and wrung in a cloth, to get out all the water and buttermilk, which, if left in, assists to make the paste heavy.

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1183. Lard should be perfectly sweet, which may be ascertained by cutting the bladder through, and, if the knife smells sweet, the lard is good.

picture of “PASTE-BOARD AND ROLLING-PIN.”

PASTE-BOARD AND ROLLING-PIN.

1184. Suet should be finely chopped, perfectly free from skin, and quite sweet; during the process of chopping, it should be lightly dredged with flour, which prevents the pieces from sticking together. Beef suet is considered the best; but veal suet, or the outside fat of a loin or neck of mutton, makes good crusts; as also the skimmings in which a joint of mutton has been boiled, but without vegetables.

1185. Clarified Beef Dripping, directions for which will be found in recipes Nos. 621 and 622, answers very well for kitchen pies, puddings, cakes, or for family use. A very good short crust may be made by mixing with it a small quantity of moist sugar; but care must be taken to use the dripping sparingly, or a very disagreeable flavour will be imparted to the paste.

1186. Strict cleanliness must be observed in pastry-making; all the utensils used should be perfectly free from dust and dirt, and the things required for pastry, kept entirely for that purpose.

1187. In mixing paste, add the water very gradually, work the whole together with the knife-blade, and knead it until perfectly smooth. Those who are inexperienced in pastry-making, should work the butter in by breaking it in small pieces and covering the paste rolled out. It should then be dredged with flour, and the ends folded over and rolled out very thin again: this process must be repeated until all the butter is used.

picture of “PASTE-PINCERS AND JAGGER, FOR ORNAMENTING THE EDGES OF PIE-CRUSTS.”

PASTE-PINCERS AND JAGGER,
FOR ORNAMENTING THE EDGES OF PIE-CRUSTS.

1188. The art of making paste requires much practice, dexterity, and skill: it should be touched as lightly as possible, made with cool hands and in a cool place (a marble slab is better than a board for the purpose), and the coolest part of the house should be selected for the process during warm weather.

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1189. To insure rich paste being light, great expedition must be used in the making and baking; for if it stand long before it is put in the oven, it becomes flat and heavy.

picture of “PASTE-CUTTER AND CORNER-CUTTER.”

PASTE-CUTTER AND CORNER-CUTTER.

picture of “ORNAMENTAL-PASTE CUTTER.”

ORNAMENTAL-PASTE CUTTER.

1190. Puff-paste requires a brisk oven, but not too hot, or it would blacken the crust; on the other hand, if the oven be too slack, the paste will be soddened, and will not rise, nor will it have any colour. Tart-tins, cake-moulds, dishes for baked puddings, pattypans, &c., should all be buttered before the article intended to be baked is put in them: things to be baked on sheets should be placed on buttered paper. Raised-pie paste should have a soaking heat, and paste glazed must have rather a slack oven, that the icing be not scorched. It is better to ice tarts, &c. when they are three-parts baked.

picture of “PATTY-PANS, PLAIN AND FLUTED.”

PATTY-PANS, PLAIN AND FLUTED.

picture of “PIE-DISH.”

PIE-DISH.

1191. To ascertain when the oven is heated to the proper degree for puff-paste, put a small piece of the paste in previous to baking the whole, and then the heat can thus be judged of.

picture of “RAISED-PIE MOULD.”

RAISED-PIE MOULD.

picture of “RAISED-PIE MOULD, OPEN.”

RAISED-PIE MOULD, OPEN.

1192. The freshness of all pudding ingredients is of much importance, as one bad article will taint the whole mixture.

1193. When the freshness of eggs is doubtful, break each one 610 separately in a cup, before mixing them altogether. Should there be a bad one amongst them, it can be thrown away; whereas, if mixed with the good ones, the entire quantity would be spoiled. The yolks and whites beaten separately make the articles they are put into much lighter.

picture of “BOILED-PUDDING MOULD.”

BOILED-PUDDING MOULD.

1194. Raisins and dried fruits for puddings should be carefully picked, and, in many cases, stoned. Currants should be well washed, pressed in a cloth, and placed on a dish before the fire to get thoroughly dry; they should then be picked carefully over, and every piece of grit or stone removed from amongst them. To plump them, some cooks pour boiling water over them, and then dry them before the fire.

1195. Batter pudding should be smoothly mixed and free from lumps. To insure this, first mix the flour with a very small proportion of milk, and add the remainder by degrees. Should the pudding be very lumpy, it may be strained through a hair sieve.

1196. All boiled puddings should be put on in boiling water, which must not be allowed to stop simmering, and the pudding must always be covered with the water; if requisite, the saucepan should be kept filled up.

1197. To prevent a pudding boiled in a cloth from sticking to the bottom of the saucepan, place a small plate or saucer underneath it, and set the pan on a trivet over the fire. If a mould is used, this precaution is not necessary; but care must be taken to keep the pudding well covered with water.

picture of “BOILED-PUDDING MOULD.”

BOILED-PUDDING MOULD.

1198. For dishing a boiled pudding as soon as it comes out of the pot, dip it into a basin of cold water, and the cloth will then not adhere to it. Great expedition is necessary in sending puddings to table, as, by standing, they quickly become heavy, batter puddings particularly.

1199. For baked or boiled puddings, the moulds, cups, or basins, 611 should be always buttered before the mixture is put in them, and they should be put into the saucepan directly they are filled.

picture of “PUDDING-BASIN.”

PUDDING-BASIN.

1200. Scrupulous attention should be paid to the cleanliness of pudding-cloths, as, from neglect in this particular, the outsides of boiled puddings frequently taste very disagreeably. As soon as possible after it is taken off the pudding, it should be soaked in water, and then well washed, without soap, unless it be very greasy. It should be dried out of doors, then folded up and kept in a dry place. When wanted for use, dip it in boiling water, and dredge it slightly with flour.

1201. The dry ingredients for puddings are better for being mixed some time before they are wanted; the liquid portion should only be added just before the pudding is put into the saucepan.

1202. A pinch of salt is an improvement to the generality of puddings; but this ingredient should be added very sparingly, as the flavour should not be detected.

1203. When baked puddings are sufficiently solid, turn them out of the dish they were baked in, bottom uppermost, and strew over them fine sifted sugar.

1204. When pastry or baked puddings are not done through, and yet the outside is sufficiently brown, cover them over with a piece of white paper until thoroughly cooked: this prevents them from getting burnt.

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612

RECIPES.
CHAPTER XXVII.

VERY GOOD PUFF-PASTE.

1205. Ingredients.—To every lb. of flour allow 1 lb. of butter, and not quite ½ pint of water.

Mode.—Carefully weigh the flour and butter, and have the exact proportion; squeeze the butter well, to extract the water from it, and afterwards wring it in a clean cloth, that no moisture may remain. Sift the flour; see that it is perfectly dry, and proceed in the following manner to make the paste, using a very clean paste-board and rolling-pin:—Supposing the quantity to be 1 lb. of flour, work the whole into a smooth paste, with not quite ½ pint of water, using a knife to mix it with: the proportion of this latter ingredient must be regulated by the discretion of the cook; if too much be added, the paste, when baked, will be tough. Roll it out until it is of an equal thickness of about an inch; break 4 oz. of the butter into small pieces; place these on the paste, sift over it a little flour, fold it over, roll out again, and put another 4 oz. of butter. Repeat the rolling and buttering until the paste has been rolled out 4 times, or equal quantities of flour and butter have been used. Do not omit, every time the paste is rolled out, to dredge a little flour over that and the rolling-pin, to prevent both from sticking. Handle the paste as lightly as possible, and do not press heavily upon it with the rolling-pin. The next thing to be considered is the oven, as the baking of pastry requires particular attention. Do not put it into the oven until it is sufficiently hot to raise the paste; for the best-prepared paste, if not properly baked, will be good for nothing. Brushing the paste as often as rolled out, and the pieces of butter placed thereon, with the white of an egg, assists it to rise in leaves or flakes. As this is the great beauty of puff-paste, it is as well to try this method.

Average cost, 1s. 4d. per lb.

Butter.—About the second century of the Christian era, butter was placed by Galen amongst the useful medical agents; and about a century before him, Dioscorides mentioned that he had noticed that fresh butter, made of ewes’ and goats’ milk, was served at meals instead of oil, and that it took the place of fat in making pastry. Thus we have undoubted authority that, eighteen hundred years ago, there existed a knowledge of the 613 useful qualities of butter. The Romans seem to have set about making it much as we do; for Pliny tells us, “Butter is made from milk; and the use of this aliment, so much sought after by barbarous nations, distinguished the rich from the common people. It is obtained principally from cows’ milk; that from ewes is the fattest; goats also supply some. It is produced by agitating the milk in long vessels with narrow openings; a little water is added.”

MEDIUM PUFF-PASTE.

1206. Ingredients.—To every lb. of flour allow 8 oz. of butter, 4 oz. of lard, not quite ½ pint of water.

Mode.—This paste may be made by the directions in the preceding recipe, only using less butter and substituting lard for a portion of it. Mix the flour to a smooth paste with not quite ½ pint of water; then roll it out 3 times, the first time covering the paste with butter, the second with lard, and the third with butter. Keep the rolling-pin and paste slightly dredged with flour, to prevent them from sticking, and it will be ready for use.

Average cost, 1s. per lb.

Butter in Haste.—In his “History of Food,” Soyer says that to obtain butter instantly, it is only necessary, in summer, to put new milk into a bottle, some hours after it has been taken from the cow, and shake it briskly. The clots which are thus formed should be thrown into a sieve, washed and pressed together, and they constitute the finest and most delicate butter that can possibly be made.

COMMON PASTE, for Family Pies.

1207. Ingredients.—1¼ lb. of flour, ½ lb. of butter, rather more than ½ pint of water.

Mode.—Rub the butter lightly into the flour, and mix it to a smooth paste with the water; roll it out 2 or 3 times, and it will be ready for use. This paste may be converted into an excellent short crust for sweet tart, by adding to the flour, after the butter is rubbed in, 2 tablespoonfuls of fine-sifted sugar.

Average cost, 8d. per lb.

To keep Butter Fresh.—One of the best means to preserve butter fresh is, first to completely press out all the buttermilk, then to keep it under water, renewing the water frequently, and to remove it from the influence of heat and air, by wrapping it in a wet cloth.

FRENCH PUFF-PASTE, or FEUILLETAGE.
(Founded on M. Ude’s Recipe.)

1208. Ingredients.—Equal quantities of flour and butter—say 1 lb. of each; ½ saltspoonful of salt, the yolks of 2 eggs, rather more than ¼ pint of water.

Mode.—Weigh the flour; ascertain that it is perfectly dry, and sift it; squeeze all the water from the butter, and wring it in a clean cloth till there is no moisture remaining. Put the flour on the paste-board, work lightly into it 2 oz. of the butter, and then make a hole in the centre; into this well put the yolks of 2 eggs, the salt, and about 614 ¼ pint of water (the quantity of this latter ingredient must be regulated by the cook, as it is impossible to give the exact proportion of it); knead up the paste quickly and lightly, and, when quite smooth, roll it out square to the thickness of about ½ inch. Presuming that the butter is perfectly free from moisture, and as cool as possible, roll it into a ball, and place this ball of butter on the paste; fold the paste over the butter all round, and secure it by wrapping it well all over. Flatten the paste by rolling it lightly with the rolling-pin until it is quite thin, but not thin enough to allow the butter to break through, and keep the board and paste dredged lightly with flour during the process of making it. This rolling gives it the first turn. Now fold the paste in three, and roll out again, and, should the weather be very warm, put it in a cold place on the ground to cool between the several turns; for, unless this is particularly attended to, the paste will be spoiled. Roll out the paste again twice, put it by to cool, then roll it out twice more, which will make 6 turnings in all. Now fold the paste in two, and it will be ready for use. If properly baked and well made, this crust will be delicious, and should rise in the oven about 5 or 6 inches. The paste should be made rather firm in the first instance, as the ball of butter is liable to break through. Great attention must also be paid to keeping the butter very cool, as, if this is in a liquid and soft state, the paste will not answer at all. Should the cook be dexterous enough to succeed in making this, the paste will have a much better appearance than that made by the process of dividing the butter into 4 parts, and placing it over the rolled-out paste; but, until experience has been acquired, we recommend puff-paste made by recipe No. 1205. The above paste is used for vols-au-vent, small articles of pastry, and, in fact, everything that requires very light crust.

Average cost, 1s. 6d. per lb.

What to do with Rancid Butter.—When butter has become very rancid, it should be melted several times by a moderate heat, with or without the addition of water, and as soon as it has been well kneaded, after the cooling, in order to extract any water it may have retained, it should be put into brown freestone pots, sheltered from the contact of the air. The French often add to it, after it has been melted, a piece of toasted bread, which helps to destroy the tendency of the butter to rancidity.

SOYER’S RECIPE FOR PUFF-PASTE.

1209. Ingredients.—To every lb. of flour allow the yolk of 1 egg, the juice of 1 lemon, ½ saltspoonful of salt, cold water, 1 lb. of fresh butter.

Mode.—Put the flour on to the paste-board; make a hole in the centre, into which put the yolk of the egg, the lemon-juice, and salt; mix the whole with cold water (this should be iced in summer, if convenient) into a soft flexible paste, with the right hand, and handle it as little as possible; then squeeze all the buttermilk from the 615 butter, wring it in a cloth, and roll out the paste; place the butter on this, and fold the edges of the paste over, so as to hide it; roll it out again to the thickness of ¼ inch; fold over one third, over which again pass the rolling-pin; then fold over the other third, thus forming a square; place it with the ends, top, and bottom before you, shaking a little flour both under and over, and repeat the rolls and turns twice again, as before. Flour a baking-sheet, put the paste on this, and let it remain on ice or in some cool place for ½ hour; then roll twice more, turning it as before; place it again upon the ice for ¼ hour, give it 2 more rolls, making 7 in all, and it is ready for use when required.

Average cost, 1s. 6d. per lb.

VERY GOOD SHORT CRUST FOR FRUIT TARTS.

1210. Ingredients.—To every lb. of flour allow ¾ lb. of butter, 1 tablespoonful of sifted sugar, ⅓ pint of water.

Mode.—Rub the butter into the flour, after having ascertained that the latter is perfectly dry; add the sugar, and mix the whole into a stiff paste, with about ⅓ pint of water. Roll it out two or three times, folding the paste over each time, and it will be ready for use.

Average cost, 1s. 4d. per lb.

ANOTHER GOOD SHORT CRUST.

1211. Ingredients.—To every lb. of flour allow 8 oz. of butter, the yolks of 2 eggs, 2 oz. of sifted sugar, about ¼ pint of milk.

Mode.—Rub the butter into the flour, add the sugar, and mix the whole as lightly as possible to a smooth paste, with the yolks of eggs well beaten, and the milk. The proportion of the latter ingredient must be judged of by the size of the eggs: if these are large, so much will not be required, and more if the eggs are smaller.

Average cost, 1s. per lb.

Sugar and Beetroot.—There are two sorts of Beet,—white and red; occasionally, in the south, a yellow variety is met with. Beetroot contains twenty parts sugar. Everybody knows that the beet has competed with the sugar-cane, and a great part of the French sugar is manufactured from beet. Beetroot has a refreshing, composing, and slightly purgative quality. The young leaves, when cooked, are a substitute for spinach; they are also useful for mixing with sorrel, to lessen its acidity. The large ribs of the leaves are serviceable in various culinary preparations; the root also may be prepared in several ways, but its most general use is in salad. Some writers upon the subject have expressed their opinion that beetroot is easily digested, but those who have taken pains to carefully analyze its qualities make quite a contrary statement. Youth, of course, can digest it; but to persons of a certain age beet is very indigestible, or rather, it does not digest at all. It is not the sugary pulp which is indigestible, but its fibrous network that resists the action of the gastric organs. Thus, when the root is reduced to a purée, almost any person may eat it.

French Sugar.—It had long been thought that tropical heat was not necessary to form sugar, and, about 1740, it was discovered that many plants of the temperate zone, and amongst others the beet, contained it. Towards the beginning of the 19th century, circumstances having, in France, made sugar scarce, and consequently dear, the government 616 caused inquiries to be instituted as to the possibility of finding a substitute for it. Accordingly, it was ascertained that sugar exists in the whole vegetable kingdom; that it is to be found in the grape, chestnut, potato; but that, far above all, the beet contains it in a large proportion. Thus the beet became an object of the most careful culture; and many experiments went to prove that in this respect the old world was independent of the new. Many manufactories came into existence in all parts of France and the making of sugar became naturalized in that country.

COMMON SHORT CRUST.

1212. Ingredients.—To every pound of flour allow 2 oz. of sifted sugar, 3 oz. of butter, about ½ pint of boiling milk.

Mode.—Crumble the butter into the flour as finely as possible, add the sugar, and work the whole up to a smooth paste with the boiling milk. Roll it out thin, and bake in a moderate oven.

Average cost, 6d. per lb.

Qualities of Sugar.—Sugars obtained from various plants are, in fact, of the same nature, and have no intrinsic difference when they have become equally purified by the same processes. Taste, crystallization, colour, weight, are absolutely identical; and the most acute observer cannot distinguish the one from the other.

BUTTER CRUST, for Boiled Puddings.

1213. Ingredients.—To every lb. of flour allow 6 oz. of butter, ½ pint of water.

Mode.—With a knife, work the flour to a smooth paste with ½ pint of water; roll the crust out rather thin; place the butter over it in small pieces; dredge lightly over it some flour, and fold the paste over; repeat the rolling once more, and the crust will be ready for use. It may be enriched by adding another 2 oz. of butter; but, for ordinary purposes, the above quantity will be found quite sufficient.

Average cost, 6d. per lb.

DRIPPING CRUST, for Kitchen Puddings, Pies, &c.

1214. Ingredients.—To every lb. of flour allow 6 oz. of clarified beef dripping, ½ pint of water.

Mode.—After having clarified the dripping, by either of the recipes No. 621 or 622, weigh it, and to every lb. of flour allow the above proportion of dripping. With a knife, work the flour into a smooth paste with the water, rolling it out 3 times, each time placing on the crust 2 oz. of the dripping, broken into small pieces. If this paste is lightly made, if good dripping is used, and not too much of it, it will be found good; and by the addition of two tablespoonfuls of fine moist sugar, it may be converted into a common short crust for fruit pies.

Average cost, 4d. per pound.

Water:—What the Ancients Thought of it.—All the nations of antiquity possessed great veneration for water: thus, the Egyptians offered prayers and homage to water, and the Nile was an especial object of their adoration; the Persians would not 617 wash their hands; the Scythians honoured the Danube; the Greeks and Romans erected altars to the fountains and rivers; and some of the architectural embellishments executed for fountains in Greece were remarkable for their beauty and delicacy. The purity of the water was a great object of the care of the ancients; and we learn that the Athenians appointed four officers to keep watch and ward over the water in their city. These men had to keep the fountains in order and clean the reservoirs, so that the water might be preserved pure and limpid. Like officers were appointed in other Greek cities.

SUET CRUST, for Pies or Puddings.

1215. Ingredients.—To every lb. of flour allow 5 or 6 oz. of beef suet, ½ pint of water.

Mode.—Free the suet from skin and shreds; chop it extremely fine, and rub it well into the flour; work the whole to a smooth paste with the above proportion of water; roll it out, and it is ready for use. This crust is quite rich enough for ordinary purposes, but when a better one is desired, use from ½ to ¾ lb. of suet to every lb. of flour. Some cooks, for rich crusts, pound the suet in a mortar, with a small quantity of butter. It should then be laid on the paste in small pieces, the same as for puff-crust, and will be found exceedingly nice for hot tarts. 5 oz. of suet to every lb. of flour will make a very good crust; and even ¼ lb. will answer very well for children, or where the crust is wanted very plain.

Average cost, 5d. per lb.

PATE BRISEE, or FRENCH CRUST, for Raised Pies.

1216. Ingredients.—To every lb. of flour allow ½ saltspoonful of salt, 2 eggs, ⅓ pint of water, 6 oz. of butter.

Mode.—Spread the flour, which should be sifted and thoroughly dry, on the paste-board; make a hole in the centre, into which put the butter; work it lightly into the flour, and when quite fine, add the salt; work the whole into a smooth paste with the eggs (yolks and whites) and water, and make it very firm. Knead the paste well, and let it be rather stiff, that the sides of the pie may be easily raised, and that they do not afterwards tumble or shrink.

Average cost, 1s. per lb.

Note.—This paste may be very much enriched by making it with equal quantities of flour and butter; but then it is not so easily raised as when made plainer.

Water Supply in Rome.—Nothing in Italy is more extraordinary than the remains of the ancient aqueducts. At first, the Romans were contented with the water from the Tiber. Ancus Martius was the first to commence the building of aqueducts destined to convey the water of the fountain of Piconia from Tibur to Rome, a distance of some 33,000 paces. Appius Claudius continued the good work, and to him is due the completion of the celebrated Appian Way. In time, the gigantic waterways greatly multiplied, and, by the reign of Nero, there were constructed nine principal aqueducts, the pipes of which were of bricks, baked tiles, stone, lead, or wood. According to the calculation of Vigenerus, half a million hogsheads of water were conveyed into Rome every day, by upwards of 10,000 small pipes not one-third of an inch in diameter. The water was received in large closed basins, above which rose splendid monuments: these basins 618 supplied other subterranean conduits, connected with various quarters of the city, and these conveyed water to small reservoirs furnished with taps for the exclusive use of certain streets. The water which was not drinkable ran out, by means of large pipes, into extensive inclosures, where it served to water cattle. At these places the people washed their linen; and here, too, was a supply of the necessary element in case of fire.

COMMON CRUST FOR RAISED PIES.

1217. Ingredients.—To every lb. of flour allow ½ pint of water, 1½ oz. of butter, 1½ oz. of lard, ½ saltspoonful of salt.

Mode.—Put into a saucepan the water; when it boils, add the butter and lard; and when these are melted, make a hole in the middle of the flour; pour in the water gradually; beat it well with a wooden spoon, and be particular in not making the paste too soft. When it is well mixed, knead it with the hands until quite stiff, dredging a little flour over the paste and board, to prevent them from sticking. When it is well kneaded, place it before the fire, with a cloth covered over it, for a few minutes; it will then be more easily worked into shape. This paste does not taste so nicely as the preceding one, but is worked with greater facility, and answers just as well for raised pies, for the crust is seldom eaten.

Average cost, 5d. per lb.

LARD OR FLEAD CRUST.

1218. Ingredients.—To every lb. of flour allow ½ lb. of lard or flead, ½ pint of water, ½ saltspoonful of salt.

Mode.—Clear the flead free from skin, and slice it into thin flakes; rub it into the flour, add the salt, and work the whole into a smooth paste, with the above proportion of water; fold the paste over two or three times, beat it well with the rolling-pin, roll it out, and it will be ready for use. The crust made from this will be found extremely light, and may be made into cakes or tarts; it may also be very much enriched by adding more flead to the same proportion of flour.

Average cost, 8d. per lb.

Nutritious Qualities of Flour.—The gluten of grain and the albumen of vegetable juices are identical in composition with the albumen of blood. Vegetable caseine has also the composition of animal caseine. The finest wheat flour contains more starch than the coarser; the bran of wheat is proportionably richer in gluten. Rye and rye-bread contain a substance resembling starch-gum (or dextrine, as it is called) in its properties, which is very easily converted into sugar. The starch of barley approaches in many properties to cellulose, and is, therefore, less digestible. Oats are particularly rich in plastic substances; Scotch oats are richer than those grown in England or in Germany. This kind of grain contains in its ashes, after deduction of the silica of the husks, very nearly the same ingredients as are found in the ashes of the juice of flesh. Fine American flour is one of the varieties which is richest in gluten, and is consequently one of the most nutritious.

ALMOND CHEESECAKES.

1219. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of sweet almonds, 4 bitter ones, 3 eggs, 2 oz. of butter, the rind of ¼ lemon, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 3 oz. of sugar.

picture of “ALMOND AND BLOSSOM.”

ALMOND AND BLOSSOM.

619

Mode.—Blanch and pound the almonds smoothly in a mortar, with a little rose- or spring-water; stir in the eggs, which should be well beaten, and the butter, which should be warmed; add the grated lemon-peel and -juice, sweeten, and stir well until the whole is thoroughly mixed. Line some pattypans with puff-paste, put in the mixture, and bake for 20 minutes, or rather less in a quick oven.

Time.—20 minutes, or rather less.

Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for about 12 cheesecakes.

Seasonable at any time.

Almonds.—Almonds are the fruit of the Amygdalus communis, and are cultivated throughout the whole of the south of Europe, Syria, Persia, and Northern Africa; but England is mostly supplied with those which are grown in Spain and the south of France. They are distinguished into Sweet and Bitter, the produce of different varieties. Of the sweet, there are two varieties, distinguished in commerce by the names of Jordan and Valentia almonds. The former are imported from Malaga, and are longer, narrower, more pointed, and more highly esteemed than the latter, which are imported from Valentia. Bitter almonds are principally obtained from Morocco, and are exported from Mogador.

ALMOND PASTE, for Second-Course Dishes.

1220. Ingredients.—1 lb. of sweet almonds, 6 bitter ones, 1 lb. of very finely sifted sugar, the whites of 2 eggs.

Mode.—Blanch the almonds, and dry them thoroughly; put them into a mortar, and pound them well, wetting them gradually with the whites of 2 eggs. When well pounded, put them into a small preserving-pan, add the sugar, and place the pan on a small but clear fire (a hot-plate is better); keep stirring until the paste is dry, then take it out of the pan, put it between two dishes, and, when cold, make it into any shape that fancy may dictate.

Time.—½ hour.

Average cost, 2s. for the above quantity.

Sufficient for 3 small dishes of pastry.

Seasonable at any time.

Bitter Almonds.—The Bitter Almond is a variety of the common almond, and is injurious to animal life, on account of the great quantity of hydrocyanic acid it contains, and is consequently seldom used in domestic economy, unless it be to give flavour to confectionery; and even then it should be used with great caution. A single drop of the essential oil of bitter almonds is sufficient to destroy a bird, and four drops have caused the death of a middle-sized dog.

BAKED ALMOND PUDDING.
(Very rich.)

1221. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of almonds, 4 bitter ditto, 1 glass of sherry, 4 eggs, the rind and juice of ½ lemon, 3 oz. of butter, 1 pint of cream, 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar.

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Mode.—Blanch and pound the almonds to a smooth paste with the water; mix these with the butter, which should be melted; beat up the eggs, grate the lemon-rind, and strain the juice; add these, with the cream, sugar, and wine, to the other ingredients, and stir them well together. When well mixed, put it into a pie-dish lined with puff-paste, and bake for ½ hour.

Time.—½ hour.

Average cost, 2s. 3d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Note.—To make this pudding more economically, substitute milk for the cream; but then add rather more than 1 oz. of finely-grated bread.

Uses of the Sweet Almond.—The kernels of the sweet almond are used either in a green or ripe state, and as an article in the dessert. Into cookery, confectionery, perfumery, and medicine, they largely enter, and in domestic economy, should always be used in preference to bitter almonds. The reason for advising this, is because the kernels do not contain any hydrocyanic or prussic acid, although it is found in the leaves, flowers, and bark of the tree. When young and green, they are preserved in sugar, like green apricots. They furnish the almond-oil; and the farinaceous matter which is left after the oil is expressed, forms the pâte d’amandes of perfumers. In the arts, the oil is employed for the some purposes as the olive-oil, and forms the basis of kalydor, macassar oil, Gowland’s lotion, and many other articles of that kind vended by perfumers. In medicine, it is considered a nutritive, laxative, and an emollient.

SMALL ALMOND PUDDINGS.

1222. Ingredients.—½ lb. of sweet almonds, 6 bitter ones, ¼ lb. of butter, 4 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of sifted sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, 1 tablespoonful of brandy.

picture of “ALMOND PUDDINGS.”

ALMOND PUDDINGS.

Mode.—Blanch and pound the almonds to a smooth paste with a spoonful of water; warm the butter, mix the almonds with this, and add the other ingredients, leaving out the whites of 2 eggs, and be particular that these are well beaten. Mix well, butter some cups, half fill them, and bake the puddings from 20 minutes to a hour. Turn them out on a dish, and serve with sweet sauce.

Time.—20 minutes to ½ hour.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

The Husks of Almonds.—In the environs of Alicante, the husks of almonds are ground to a powder, and enter into the composition of common soap, the large quantity of alkaline principle they contain rendering them suitable for this purpose. It is said that in some parts of the south of France, where they are extensively grown, horses and mules are fed on the green and dry husks; but, to prevent any evil consequences arising from this practice, they are mixed with chopped straw or oats.

ALMOND PUFFS.

1223. Ingredients.—2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 2 oz. of butter, 2 oz. of pounded sugar, 2 oz. of sweet almonds, 4 bitter almonds.

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Mode.—Blanch and pound the almonds in a mortar to a smooth paste; melt the butter, dredge in the flour, and add the sugar and pounded almonds. Beat the mixture well, and put it into cups or very tiny jelly-pots, which should be well buttered, and bake in a moderate oven for about 20 minutes, or longer should the puffs be large. Turn them out on a dish, the bottom of the puff uppermost, and serve.

Time.—20 minutes.

Average cost, 6d.

Sufficient for 2 or 3 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

AUNT NELLY’S PUDDING.

1224. Ingredients.—½ lb. of flour, ½ lb. of treacle, ½ lb. of suet, the rind and juice of 1 lemon, a few strips of candied lemon-peel, 3 tablespoonfuls of cream, 2 eggs.

Mode.—Chop the suet finely; mix with it the flour, treacle, lemon-peel minced, and candied lemon-peel; add the cream, lemon-juice, and 2 well-beaten eggs; beat the pudding well, put it into a buttered basin, tie it down with a cloth, and boil from 3½ to 4 hours.

Time.—3½ to 4 hours.

Average cost, 1s. 2d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time, but more suitable for a winter pudding.

Treacle, or Molasses.—Treacle is the uncrystallizable part of the saccharine juice drained from the Muscovado sugar, and is either naturally so or rendered uncrystallizable through some defect in the process of boiling. As it contains a large quantity of sweet or saccharine principle and is cheap, it is of great use as an article of domestic economy. Children are especially fond of it; and it is accounted wholesome. It is also useful for making beer, rum, and the very dark syrups.

BAKED APPLE DUMPLINGS (a Plain Family Dish).

1225. Ingredients.—6 apples, ¾ lb. of suet-crust No. 1215, sugar to taste.

Mode.—Pare and take out the cores of the apples without dividing them, and make ½ lb. of suet-crust by recipe No. 1215; roll the apples in the crust, previously sweetening them with moist sugar, and taking care to join the paste nicely. When they are formed into round balls, put them on a tin, and bake them for about ½ hour, or longer should the apples be very large; arrange them pyramidically on a dish, and sift over them some pounded white sugar. These may be made richer by using one of the puff-pastes instead of suet.

Time.—From ½ to ¾ hour, or longer.

Average cost, 1½d. each.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

Seasonable from August to March, but flavourless after the end of January.

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Uses of the Apple.—It is well known that this fruit forms a very important article of food, in the form of pies and puddings, and furnishes several delicacies, such as sauces, marmalades, and jellies, and is much esteemed as a dessert fruit. When flattened in the form of round cakes, and baked in ovens, they are called beefings; and large quantities are annually dried in the sun in America, as well as in Normandy, and stored for use during winter, when they may be stewed or made into pies. In a roasted state they are remarkably wholesome, and, it is said, strengthening to a weak stomach. In putrid and malignant fevers, when used with the juice of lemons and currants, they are considered highly efficacious.

APPLE CHEESECAKES.

picture of “APPLE AND BLOSSOM.”

APPLE AND BLOSSOM.

1226. Ingredients.—½ lb. of apple pulp, ¼ lb. of sifted sugar, ¼ lb. of butter, 4 eggs, the rind and juice of 1 lemon.

Mode.—Pare, core, and boil sufficient apples to make ½ lb. when cooked; add to these the sugar, the butter, which should be melted; the eggs, leaving out 2 of the whites, and the grated rind and juice of 1 lemon; stir the mixture well; line some patty-pans with puff-paste, put in the mixture, and bake about 20 minutes.

Time.—About 20 minutes.

Average cost, for the above quantity, with the paste, 1s. 2d.

Sufficient for about 18 or 20 cheesecakes.

Seasonable from August to March.

The Apple.—The most useful of all the British fruits is the apple, which is a native of Britain, and may be found in woods and hedges, in the form of the common wild crab, of which all our best apples are merely seminal varieties, produced by culture or particular circumstances. In most temperate climates it is very extensively cultivated, and in England, both as regards variety and quantity, it is excellent and abundant. Immense supplies are also imported from the United States and from France. The apples grown in the vicinity of New York are universally admitted to be the finest of any; but unless selected and packed with great care, they are apt to spoil before reaching England.

BOILED APPLE DUMPLINGS.

1227. Ingredients.—6 apples, ¾ lb. of suet-crust No. 1215, sugar to taste.

Mode.—Pare and take out the cores of the apples without dividing them; sweeten, and roll each apple in a piece of crust, made by recipe No. 1211; be particular that the paste is nicely joined; put the dumplings into floured cloths, tie them securely, and put them into boiling water. Keep them boiling from ½ to ¾ hour; remove the cloths, and send them hot and quickly to table. Dumplings boiled in knitted cloths have a very pretty appearance when they come to table. The cloths should be made square, just large enough to hold one dumpling, and should be knitted in plain knitting, with very coarse cotton.

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Time.—¾ to 1 hour, or longer should the dumplings be very large.

Average cost, 1½d. each.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

Seasonable from August to March, but flavourless after the end of January.

Lambswool, or Lamasool.—This old English beverage is composed of apples mixed with ale, and seasoned with sugar and spice. It takes its name from Lamaes abhal, which, in ancient British, signifies the day of apple fruit, from being drunk on the apple feast in autumn. In France, a beverage, called, by the Parisians raisinée, is made by boiling any given quantity of new wine, skimming it as often as fresh scum rises, and, when it is boiled to half its bulk, straining it. To this apples, pared and cut into quarters, are added; the whole is then allowed to simmer gently, stirring it all the time with a long wooden spoon, till the apples are thoroughly mixed with the liquor, and the whole forms a species of marmalade, which is extremely agreeable to the taste, having a slight flavour of acidity, like lemon mixed with honey.

RICH BAKED APPLE PUDDING.
I.

1228. Ingredients.—½ lb. of the pulp of apples, ½ lb. of loaf sugar, 6 oz. of butter, the rind of 1 lemon, 6 eggs, puff-paste.

Mode.—Peel, core, and cut the apples, as for sauce; put them into a stewpan, with only just sufficient water to prevent them from burning, and let them stew until reduced to a pulp. Weigh the pulp, and to every ½ lb. add sifted sugar, grated lemon-rind, and 6 well-beaten eggs. Beat these ingredients well together; then melt the butter, stir it to the other things, put a border of puff-paste round the dish, and bake for rather more than ½ hour. The butter should not be added until the pudding is ready for the oven.

Time.—½ to ¾ hour.

Average cost, 1s. 10d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from August to March.

II.
(More Economical.)

1229. Ingredients.—12 large apples, 6 oz. of moist sugar, ¼ lb. of butter, 4 eggs, 1 pint of bread crumbs.

Mode.—Pare, core, and cut the apples, as for sauce, and boil them until reduced to a pulp; then add the butter, melted, and the eggs, which should be well whisked. Beat up the pudding for 2 or 3 minutes; butter a pie-dish; put in a layer of bread crumbs, then the apple, and then another layer of bread crumbs; flake over these a few tiny pieces of butter, and bake for about ½ hour.

Time.—About ½ hour.

Average cost, 1s. 3d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from August to March.

Note.—A very good economical pudding may be made merely with apples, boiled and sweetened, with the addition of a few strips of lemon-peel. A 624 layer of bread crumbs should be placed above and below the apples, and the pudding baked for ½ hour.

Constituents of the Apple.—All apples contain sugar, malic acid, or the acid of apples; mucilage, or gum; woody fibre, and water; together with some aroma, on which their peculiar flavour depends. The hard acid kinds are unwholesome if eaten raw; but by the process of cooking, a great deal of this acid is decomposed and converted into sugar. The sweet and mellow kinds form a valuable addition to the dessert. A great part of the acid juice is converted into sugar as the fruit ripens, and even after it is gathered, by a natural process, termed maturation; but, when apples decay, the sugar is changed into a bitter principle, and the mucilage becomes mouldy and offensive. Old cheese has a remarkable effect in meliorating the apple when eaten; probably from the volatile alkali or ammonia of the cheese neutralizing its acid.

RICH SWEET APPLE PUDDING.

1230. Ingredients.—½ lb. of bread crumbs, ½ lb. of suet, ½ lb. of currants, ½ lb. of apples, ½ lb. of moist sugar, 6 eggs, 12 sweet almonds, ½ saltspoonful of grated nutmeg, 1 wineglassful of brandy.

Mode.—Chop the suet very fine; wash the currants, dry them, and pick away the stalks and pieces of grit; pare, core, and chop the apple, and grate the bread into fine crumbs, and mince the almonds. Mix all these ingredients together, adding the sugar and nutmeg; beat up the eggs, omitting the whites of three; stir these to the pudding, and when all is well mixed, add the brandy, and put the pudding into a buttered mould; tie down with a cloth, put it into boiling water, and let it boil for 3 hours.

Time.—3 hours.

Average cost, 2s.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from August to March.

To Preserve Apples.—The best mode of preserving apples is to carry them at once to the fruit-room, where they should be put upon shelves, covered with white paper, after gently wiping each of the fruit. The room should be dry, and well aired, but should not admit the sun. The finer and larger kinds of fruit should not be allowed to touch each other, but should be kept separate. For this purpose, a number of shallow trays should be provided, supported by racks or stands above each other. In very cold frosty weather, means should be adopted for warming the room.

BAKED APPLE PUDDING.
(Very Good.)

1231. Ingredients.—5 moderate-sized apples, 2 tablespoonfuls of finely-chopped suet, 3 eggs, 3 tablespoonfuls of flour, 1 pint of milk, a little grated nutmeg.

Mode.—Mix the flour to a smooth batter with the milk; add the eggs, which should be well whisked, and put this batter into a well-buttered pie-dish. Wipe the apples clean, but do not pare them; cut them in halves, and take out the cores; lay them in the batter, rind uppermost; shake the suet on the top, over which also grate a little nutmeg; bake in a moderate oven for an hour, and cover, 625 2S when served, with sifted loaf sugar. This pudding is also very good with the apples pared, sliced, and mixed with the batter.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

BOILED APPLE PUDDING.

1232. Ingredients.—Crust No. 1215, apples, sugar to taste, 1 small teaspoonful of finely-minced lemon-peel, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice.

Mode.—Make a butter-crust by recipe No. 1213, or a suet one by recipe No. 1215, using for a moderate-sized pudding from ¾ to 1 lb. of flour, with the other ingredients in proportion. Butter a basin; line it with some of the paste; pare, core, and cut the apples into slices, and fill the basin with these; add the sugar, the lemon-peel and juice, and cover with crust; pinch the edges together, flour the cloth, place it over the pudding, tie it securely, and put it into plenty of fast-boiling water. Let it boil from 1½ to 2½ hours, according to the size; then turn it out of the basin and send to table quickly. Apple puddings may also be boiled in a cloth without a basin; but, when made in this way, must be served without the least delay, as the crust so soon becomes heavy. Apple pudding is a very convenient dish to have when the dinner-hour is rather uncertain, as it does not spoil by being boiled an extra hour; care, however, must be taken to keep it well covered with the water all the time, and not to allow it to stop boiling.

Time.—From 1½ to 2½ hours, according to the size of the pudding and the quality of the apples.

Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient, made with 1 lb. of flour, for 7 or 8 persons.

Seasonable from August to March; but the apples become flavourless and scarce after February.

APPLE TART OR PIE.

1233. Ingredients.—Puff-paste No. 1205 or 1206, apples; to every lb. of unpared apples allow 2 oz. of moist sugar, ½ teaspoonful of finely-minced lemon-peel, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice.

Mode.—Make ½ lb. of puff-paste by either of the above-named recipes, place a border of it round the edge of a pie-dish, and fill it with apples pared, cored, and cut into slices; sweeten with moist sugar, add the lemon-peel and juice, and 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of water; cover with crust, cut it evenly round close to the edge of the pie-dish, and bake in a hot oven from ½ to ¾ hour, or rather longer, should the pie be 626 very large. When it is three-parts done, take it out of the oven, put the white of an egg on a plate, and, with the blade of a knife, whisk it to a froth; brush the pie over with this, then sprinkle upon it some sifted sugar, and then a few drops of water. Put the pie back into the oven, and finish baking, and be particularly careful that it does not catch or burn, which it is very liable to do after the crust is iced. If made with a plain crust, the icing may be omitted.

Time.—½ hour before the crust is iced; 10 to 15 minutes afterwards.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient.—Allow 2 lbs. of apples for a tart for 6 persons.

Seasonable from August to March; but the apples become flavourless after February.

picture of “QUINCE.”

QUINCE.

Note.—Many things are suggested for the flavouring of apple pie; some say 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of beer, others the same quantity of sherry, which very much improve the taste; whilst the old-fashioned addition of a few cloves is, by many persons, preferred to anything else, as also a few slices of quince.

Quinces.—The environs of Corinth originally produced the most beautiful quinces, but the plant was subsequently introduced into Gaul with the most perfect success. The ancients preserved the fruit by placing it, with its branches and leaves, in a vessel filled with honey or sweet wine, which was reduced to half the quantity by ebullition. Quinces may be profitably cultivated in this country as a variety with other fruit-trees, and may be planted in espaliers or as standards. A very fine-flavoured marmalade may be prepared from quinces, and a small portion of quince in apple pie much improves its flavour. The French use quinces for flavouring many sauces. This fruit has the remarkable peculiarity of exhaling an agreeable odour, taken singly; but when in any quantity, or when they are stowed away in a drawer or close room, the pleasant aroma becomes an intolerable stench, although the fruit may be perfectly sound; it is therefore desirable that, as but a few quinces are required for keeping, they should be kept in a high and dry loft, and out of the way of the rooms used by the family.

CREAMED APPLE TART.

1234. Ingredients.—Puff-crust No. 1205 or 1206, apples; to every lb. of pared and cored apples, allow 2 oz. of moist sugar, ½ teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, ½ pint of boiled custard.

Mode.—Make an apple tart by the preceding recipe, with the exception of omitting the icing. When the tart is baked, cut out the middle of the lid or crust, leaving a border all round the dish. Fill up with a nicely-made boiled custard, grate a little nutmeg over the top, and the pie is ready for table. This tart is usually eaten cold; is rather an old-fashioned dish, but, at the same time, extremely nice.

Time.—½ to ¾ hour.

Average cost, 1s. 3d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from August to March.

627
APPLE SNOWBALLS.

1235. Ingredients.—2 teacupfuls of rice, apples, moist sugar, cloves.

Mode.—Boil the rice in milk until three-parts done; then strain it off, and pare and core the apples without dividing them. Put a small quantity of sugar and a clove into each apple, put the rice round them, and tie each ball separately in a cloth. Boil until the apples are tender; then take them up, remove the cloths, and serve.

Time.—½ hour to boil the rice separately; ½ to 1 hour with the apple.

Seasonable from August to March.

APPLE TOURTE OR CAKE.
(German Recipe.)

1236. Ingredients.—10 or 12 apples, sugar to taste, the rind of 1 small lemon, 3 eggs, ¼ pint of cream or milk, ¼ lb. of butter, ¾ lb. of good short crust No. 1211, 3 oz. of sweet almonds.

Mode.—Pare, core, and cut the apples into small pieces; put sufficient moist sugar to sweeten them into a basin; add the lemon-peel, which should be finely minced, and the cream; stir these ingredients well, whisk the eggs, and melt the butter; mix altogether, add the sliced apple, and let these be well stirred into the mixture. Line a large round plate with the paste, place a narrow rim of the same round the outer edge, and lay the apples thickly in the middle. Blanch the almonds, cut them into long shreds, and strew over the top of the apples, and bake from ½ to ¾ hour, taking care that the almonds do not get burnt: when done, strew some sifted sugar over the top, and serve. This tourte may be eaten either hot or cold, and is sufficient to fill 2 large-sized plates.

Time.—½ to ¾ hour.

Average cost, 2s. 2d.

Sufficient for 2 large-sized tourtes.

Seasonable from August to March.

Apples.—No fruit is so universally popular as the apple. It is grown extensively for cider, but many sorts are cultivated for the table. The apple, uncooked, is less digestible than the pear; the degree of digestibility varying according to the firmness of its texture and flavour. Very wholesome and delicious jellies, marmalades, and sweetmeats are prepared from it. Entremets of apples are made in great variety. Apples, when peeled, cored, and well cooked, are a most grateful food for the dyspeptic.

ALMA PUDDING.

1237. Ingredients.—½ lb. of fresh butter, ½ lb. of powdered sugar, ½ lb. of flour, ¼ lb. of currants, 4 eggs.

Mode.—Beat the butter to a thick cream, strew in, by degrees, the sugar, and mix both these well together; then dredge the flour in 628 gradually, add the currants, and moisten with the eggs, which should be well beaten. When all the ingredients are well stirred and mixed, butter a mould that will hold the mixture exactly, tie it down with a cloth, put the pudding into boiling water, and boil for 5 hours; when turned out, strew some powdered sugar over it, and serve.

Time.—6 hours.

Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

BAKED APRICOT PUDDING.

1238. Ingredients.—12 large apricots, ¾ pint of bread crumbs, 1 pint of milk, 3 oz. of pounded sugar, the yolks of 4 eggs, 1 glass of sherry.

Mode.—Make the milk boiling hot, and pour it on to the bread crumbs; when half cold, add the sugar, the well-whisked yolks of the eggs, and the sherry. Divide the apricots in half, scald them until they are soft, and break them up with a spoon, adding a few of the kernels, which should be well pounded in a mortar; then mix the fruit and other ingredients together, put a border of paste round the dish, fill with the mixture, and bake the pudding from ½ to ¾ hour.

Time.—½ to ¾ hour.

Average cost, in full season, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable in August, September, and October.

APRICOT TART.

1239. Ingredients.—12 or 14 apricots, sugar to taste, puff-paste or short crust.

Mode.—Break the apricots in half, take out the stones, and put them into a pie-dish, in the centre of which place a very small cup or jar, bottom uppermost; sweeten with good moist sugar, but add no water. Line the edge of the dish with paste, put on the cover, and ornament the pie in any of the usual modes. Bake from ½ to ¾ hour, according to size; and if puff-paste is used, glaze it about 10 minutes before the pie is done, and put it into the oven again to set the glaze. Short crust merely requires a little sifted sugar sprinkled over it before being sent to table.

Time.—½ to ¾ hour.

Average cost, in full season, 1s.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable in August, September, and October; green ones rather earlier.

Note.—Green apricots make very good tarts, but they should be boiled with a little sugar and water before they are covered with the crust.

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Apricots.—The apricot is indigenous to the plains of Armenia, but is now cultivated in almost every climate, temperate or tropical. There are several varieties. The skin of this fruit has a perfumed flavour, highly esteemed. A good apricot, when perfectly ripe, is an excellent fruit. It has been somewhat condemned for its laxative qualities, but this has possibly arisen from the fruit having been eaten unripe, or in too great excess. Delicate persons should not eat the apricot uncooked, without a liberal allowance of powdered sugar. The apricot makes excellent jam and marmalade, and there are several foreign preparations of it which are considered great luxuries.

BAKED OR BOILED ARROWROOT PUDDING.

1240. Ingredients.—2 tablespoonfuls of arrowroot, 1½ pint of milk, 1 oz. of butter, the rind of ½ lemon, 2 heaped tablespoonfuls of moist sugar, a little grated nutmeg.

Mode.—Mix the arrowroot with as much cold milk as will make it into a smooth batter, moderately thick; put the remainder of the milk into a stewpan with the lemon-peel, and let it infuse for about ½ hour; when it boils, strain it gently to the batter, stirring it all the time to keep it smooth; then add the butter; beat this well in until thoroughly mixed, and sweeten with moist sugar. Put the mixture into a pie-dish, round which has been placed a border of paste, grate a little nutmeg over the top, and bake the pudding from 1 to 1¼ hour, in a moderate oven, or boil it the same length of time in a well-buttered basin. To enrich this pudding, stir to the other ingredients, just before it is put in the oven, 3 well-whisked eggs, and add a tablespoonful of brandy. For a nursery pudding, the addition of the latter ingredients will be found quite superfluous, as also the paste round the edge of the dish.

Time.—1 to 1¼ hour, baked or boiled.

Average cost, 7d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Arrowroot.—In India, and in the colonies, by the process of rasping, they extract from a vegetable (Maranta arundinacea) a sediment nearly resembling tapioca. The grated pulp is sifted into a quantity of water, from which it is afterwards strained and dried, and the sediment thus produced is called arrowroot. Its qualities closely resemble those of tapioca.

A BACHELOR’S PUDDING.

1241. Ingredients.—4 oz. of grated bread, 4 oz. of currants, 4 oz. of apples, 2 oz. of sugar, 3 eggs, a few drops of essence of lemon, a little grated nutmeg.

Mode.—Pare, core, and mince the apples very finely, sufficient, when minced, to make 4 oz.; add to these the currants, which should be well washed, the grated bread, and sugar; whisk the eggs, beat these up with the remaining ingredients, and, when all is thoroughly mixed, put the pudding into a buttered basin, tie it down with a cloth, and boil for 3 hours.

Time.—3 hours.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from August to March.

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BAKEWELL PUDDING.
(Very Rich.)
I.

1242. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of puff-paste, 5 eggs, 6 oz. of sugar, ¼ lb. of butter, 1 oz. of almonds, jam.

Mode.—Cover a dish with thin paste, and put over this a layer of any kind of jam, ½ inch thick; put the yolks of 5 eggs into a basin with the white of 1, and beat these well; add the sifted sugar, the butter, which should be melted, and the almonds, which should be well pounded; beat all together until well mixed, then pour it into the dish over the jam, and bake for an hour in a moderate oven.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

II.

1243. Ingredients.—¾ pint of bread crumbs, 1 pint of milk, 4 eggs, 2 oz. of sugar, 3 oz. of butter, 1 oz. of pounded almonds, jam.

Mode.—Put the bread crumbs at the bottom of a pie-dish, then over them a layer of jam of any kind that may be preferred; mix the milk and eggs together; add the sugar, butter, and pounded almonds; beat all well together; pour it into the dish, and bake in a moderate oven for 1 hour.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost, 1s. 3d. to 1s. 6d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

BARONESS PUDDING.
(Author’s Recipe.)

1244. Ingredients.—¾ lb. of suet, ¾ lb. of raisins weighed after being stoned, ¾ lb. of flour, ½ pint of milk, ¼ saltspoonful of salt.

Mode.—Prepare the suet, by carefully freeing it from skin, and chop it finely; stone the raisins, and cut them in halves, and mix both these ingredients with the salt and flour; moisten the whole with the above proportion of milk, stir the mixture well, and tie the pudding in a floured cloth, which has been previously wrung out in boiling water. Put the pudding into a saucepan of boiling water, and let it boil, without ceasing, 4½ hours. Serve merely with plain sifted sugar, a little of which may be sprinkled over the pudding.

Time.—4½ hours.

Average cost, 1s. 4d.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

Seasonable in winter, when fresh fruit is not obtainable.

Note.—This pudding the editress cannot too highly recommend. The recipe was kindly given to her family by a lady who bore the title here prefixed to 631 it; and with all who have partaken of it, it is an especial favourite. Nothing is of greater consequence, in the above directions, than attention to the time of boiling, which should never be less than that mentioned.

BARBERRY TART.

1245. Ingredients.—To every lb. of barberries allow ¾ lb. of lump sugar; paste.

picture of “LEAF IN PUFF-PASTE.”

LEAF IN PUFF-PASTE.

picture of “BARBERRY.”

BARBERRY.

Mode.—Pick the barberries from the stalks, and put the fruit into a stone jar; place this jar in boiling water, and let it simmer very slowly until the fruit is soft; then put it into a preserving-pan with the sugar, and boil gently for 15 minutes; line a tartlet-pan with paste, bake it, and, when the paste is cold, fill with the barberries, and ornament the tart with a few baked leaves of paste, cut out, as shown in the engraving.

Time.—¼ hour to bake the tart.

Average cost, 4d. per pint.

Seasonable in autumn.

Barberries (Berberris vulgaris).—A fruit of such great acidity, that even birds refuse to eat it. In this respect, it nearly approaches the tamarind. When boiled with sugar, it makes a very agreeable preserve or jelly, according to the different modes of preparing it. Barberries are also used as a dry sweetmeat, and in sugarplums or comfits; are pickled with vinegar, and are used for various culinary purposes. They are well calculated to allay heat and thirst in persons afflicted with fevers. The berries, arranged on bunches of nice curled parsley, make an exceedingly pretty garnish for supper-dishes, particularly for white meats, like boiled fowl à la Béchamel, the three colours, scarlet, green, and white, contrasting so well, and producing a very good effect.

BAKED BATTER PUDDING.

1246. Ingredients.—1½ pint of milk, 4 tablespoonfuls of flour, 2 oz. of butter, 4 eggs, a little salt.

Mode.—Mix the flour with a small quantity of cold milk; make the remainder hot, and pour it on to the flour, keeping the mixture well stirred; add the butter, eggs, and salt; beat the whole well, and put the pudding into a buttered pie-dish; bake for ¾ hour, and serve with sweet sauce, wine sauce, or stewed fruit. Baked in small cups, this makes very pretty little puddings, and should be eaten with the same accompaniments as above.

Time.—¾ hour.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

632
BAKED BATTER PUDDING, with Dried or Fresh Fruit.

1247. Ingredients.—1½ pint of milk, 4 tablespoonfuls of flour, 3 eggs, 2 oz. of finely-shredded suet, ¼ lb. of currants, a pinch of salt.

Mode.—Mix the milk, flour, and eggs to a smooth batter; add a little salt, the suet, and the currants, which should be well washed, picked, and dried; put the mixture into a buttered pie-dish, and bake in a moderate oven for 1¼ hour. When fresh fruits are in season, this pudding is exceedingly nice, with damsons, plums, red currants, gooseberries, or apples; when made with these, the pudding must be thickly sprinkled over with sifted sugar. Boiled batter pudding, with fruit, is made in the same manner, by putting the fruit into a buttered basin, and filling it up with batter made in the above proportion, but omitting the suet. It must be sent quickly to table, and covered plentifully with sifted sugar.

Time.—Baked batter pudding, with fruit, 1¼ to 1½ hour; boiled ditto, 1½ to 1¾ hour, allowing that both are made with the above proportion of batter. Smaller puddings will be done enough in ¾ or 1 hour.

Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

Seasonable at any time, with dried fruits.

BOILED BATTER PUDDING.

1248. Ingredients.—3 eggs, 1 oz. of butter, 1 pint of milk, 3 tablespoonfuls of flour, a little salt.

Mode.—Put the flour into a basin, and add sufficient milk to moisten it; carefully rub down all the lumps with a spoon, then pour in the remainder of the milk, and stir in the butter, which should be previously melted; keep beating the mixture, add the eggs and a pinch of salt, and when the batter is quite smooth, put it into a well-buttered basin, tie it down very tightly, and put it into boiling water; move the basin about for a few minutes after it is put into the water, to prevent the flour settling in any part, and boil for 1¼ hour. This pudding may also be boiled in a floured cloth that has been wetted in hot water; it will then take a few minutes less than when boiled in a basin. Send these puddings very quickly to table, and serve with sweet sauce, wine sauce, stewed fruit, or jam of any kind: when the latter is used, a little of it may be placed round the dish in small quantities, as a garnish.

Time.—1¼ hour in a basin, 1 hour in a cloth.

Average cost, 7d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

633
ORANGE BATTER PUDDING.

1249. Ingredients.—4 eggs, 1 pint of milk, 1½ oz. of loaf sugar, 3 tablespoonfuls of flour.

Mode.—Make the batter with the above ingredients, put it into a well-buttered basin, tie it down with a cloth, and boil for 1 hour. As soon as it is turned out of the basin, put a small jar of orange marmalade all over the top, and send the pudding very quickly to table.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost, with the marmalade, 1s. 3d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time; but more suitable for a winter pudding.

BAKED BREAD PUDDING.

1250. Ingredients.—½ lb. of grated bread, 1 pint of milk, 4 eggs, 4 oz. of butter, 4 oz. of moist sugar, 2 oz. of candied peel, 6 bitter almonds, 1 tablespoonful of brandy.

Mode.—Put the milk into a stewpan, with the bitter almonds; let it infuse for ¼ hour; bring it to the boiling point; strain it on to the bread crumbs, and let these remain till cold; then add the eggs, which should be well whisked, the butter, sugar, and brandy, and beat the pudding well until all the ingredients are thoroughly mixed; line the bottom of a pie-dish with the candied peel sliced thin, put in the mixture, and bake for nearly ¾ hour.

Time.—Nearly ¾ hour.

Average cost, 1s. 4d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Note.—A few currants may be substituted for the candied peel, and will be found, an excellent addition to this pudding: they should be beaten in with the mixture, and not laid at the bottom of the pie-dish.

VERY PLAIN BREAD PUDDING.

1251. Ingredients.—Odd pieces of crust or crumb of bread; to every quart allow ½ teaspoonful of salt, 1 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, 3 oz. of moist sugar, ½ lb. of currants, 1½ oz. of butter.

Mode.—Break the bread into small pieces, and pour on them as much boiling water as will soak them well. Let these stand till the water is cool; then press it out, and mash the bread with a fork until it is quite free from lumps. Measure this pulp, and to every quart stir in salt, nutmeg, sugar, and currants in the above proportion; mix all well together, and put it into a well-buttered pie-dish. Smooth the surface with the back of a spoon, and place the butter in small pieces over the top; bake in a moderate oven for 1½ hour, and 634 serve very hot. Boiling milk substituted for the boiling water would very much improve this pudding.

Time.—1½ hour.

Average cost, 6d., exclusive of the bread.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

BOILED BREAD PUDDING.

1252. Ingredients.—1½ pint of milk, ¾ pint of bread crumbs, sugar to taste, 4 eggs, 1 oz. of butter, 3 oz. of currants, ¼ teaspoonful of grated nutmeg.

Mode.—Make the milk boiling, and pour it on the bread crumbs; let these remain till cold; then add the other ingredients, taking care that the eggs are well beaten and the currants well washed, picked, and dried. Beat the pudding well, and put it into a buttered basin; tie it down tightly with a cloth, plunge it into boiling water, and boil for 1¼ hour; turn it out of the basin, and serve with sifted sugar. Any odd pieces or scraps of bread answer for this pudding; but they should be soaked overnight, and, when wanted for use, should have the water well squeezed from them.

Time.—1¼ hour.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Bread.—Bread contains, in its composition, in the form of vegetable albumen and vegetable fibrine, two of the chief constituents of flesh, and, in its incombustible constituents, the salts which are indispensable for sanguification, of the same quality and in the same proportion as flesh. But flesh contains, besides these, a number of substances which are entirely wanting in vegetable food; and on these peculiar constituents of flesh depend certain effects, by which it is essentially distinguished from other articles of food.

BROWN-BREAD PUDDING.

1253. Ingredients.—¾ lb. of brown-bread crumbs, ½ lb. of currants, ½ lb. of suet, ¼ lb. of moist sugar, 4 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of brandy, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, grated nutmeg to taste.

Mode.—Grate ¾ lb. of crumbs from a stale brown loaf; add to these the currants and suet, and be particular that the latter is finely chopped. Put in the remaining ingredients; beat the pudding well for a few minutes; put it into a buttered basin or mould; tie it down tightly, and boil for nearly 4 hours. Send sweet sauce to table with it.

Time.—Nearly 4 hours.

Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable at any time; but more suitable for a winter pudding.

MINIATURE BREAD PUDDINGS.

1254. Ingredients.—1 pint of milk, ½ lb. of bread crumbs, 4 eggs, 2 oz. of butter, sugar to taste, 2 tablespoonfuls of brandy, 1 teaspoonful of finely-minced lemon-peel.

635

Mode.—Make the milk boiling, pour it on to the bread crumbs, and let them soak for about ½ hour. Beat the eggs, mix these with the bread crumbs, add the remaining ingredients, and stir well until all is thoroughly mixed. Butter some small cups; rather more than half fill them with the mixture, and bake in a moderate oven from 20 minutes to ½ hour, and serve with sweet sauce. A few currants may be added to these puddings: about 3 oz. will be found sufficient for the above quantity.

Time.—20 minutes to ½ hour.

Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 small puddings.

Seasonable at any time.

BAKED BREAD-AND-BUTTER PUDDING.

1255. Ingredients.—9 thin slices of bread and butter, 1½ pint of milk, 4 eggs, sugar to taste, ¼ lb. of currants, flavouring of vanilla, grated lemon-peel or nutmeg.

Mode.—Cut 9 slices of bread and butter not very thick, and put them into a pie-dish, with currants between each layer and on the top. Sweeten and flavour the milk, either by infusing a little lemon-peel in it, or by adding a few drops of essence of vanilla; well whisk the eggs, and stir these to the milk. Strain this over the bread and butter, and bake in a moderate oven for 1 hour, or rather longer. This pudding may be very much enriched by adding cream, candied peel, or more eggs than stated above. It should not be turned out, but sent to table in the pie-dish, and is better for being made about 2 hours before it is baked.

Time.—1 hour, or rather longer.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Butter.—Butter is indispensable in almost all culinary preparations. Good fresh butter, used in moderation, is easily digested; it is softening, nutritious, and fattening, and is far more easily digested than any other of the oleaginous substances sometimes used in its place.

CABINET or CHANCELLOR’S PUDDING.

1256. Ingredients.—1½ oz. of candied peel, 4 oz. of currants, 4 dozen sultanas, a few slices of Savoy cake, sponge cake, a French roll, 4 eggs, 1 pint of milk, grated lemon-rind, ¼ nutmeg, 3 tablespoonfuls of sugar.

picture of “CABINET PUDDING.”

CABINET PUDDING.

Mode.—Melt some butter to a paste, and with it, well grease the mould or basin in which the pudding is to be boiled, taking care that it is buttered in every part. Cut the peel into thin slices, and place 636 these in a fanciful device at the bottom of the mould, and fill up the spaces between with currants and sultanas; then add a few slices of sponge cake or French roll; drop a few drops of melted butter on these, and between each layer sprinkle a few currants. Proceed in this manner until the mould is nearly full; then flavour the milk with nutmeg and grated lemon-rind; add the sugar, and stir to this the eggs, which should be well beaten. Beat this mixture for a few minutes; then strain it into the mould, which should be quite full; tie a piece of buttered paper over it, and let it stand for 2 hours; then tie it down with a cloth, put it into boiling water, and let it boil slowly for 1 hour. In taking it up, let it stand for a minute or two before the cloth is removed; then quickly turn it out of the mould or basin, and serve with sweet sauce separately. The flavouring of this pudding may be varied by substituting for the lemon-rind essence of vanilla or bitter almonds; and it may be made much richer by using cream; but this is not at all necessary.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost, 1s. 3d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

A PLAIN CABINET or BOILED BREAD-AND-BUTTER PUDDING.

1257. Ingredients.—2 oz. of raisins, a few thin slices of bread and butter, 3 eggs, 1 pint of milk, sugar to taste, ¼ nutmeg.

Mode.—Butter a pudding-basin, and line the inside with a layer of raisins that have been previously stoned; then nearly fill the basin with slices of bread and butter with the crust cut off, and, in another basin, beat the eggs; add to them the milk, sugar, and grated nutmeg; mix all well together, and pour the whole on to the bread and butter; let it stand ½ hour, then tie a floured cloth over it; boil for 1 hour, and serve with sweet sauce. Care must be taken that the basin is quite full before the cloth is tied over.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

CANARY PUDDING.

1258. Ingredients.—The weight of 3 eggs in sugar and butter, the weight of 2 eggs in flour, the rind of 1 small lemon, 3 eggs.

Mode.—Melt the butter to a liquid state, but do not allow it to oil; stir to this the sugar and finely-minced lemon-peel, and gradually dredge in the flour, keeping the mixture well stirred; whisk the eggs; 637 add these to the pudding; beat all the ingredients until thoroughly blended, and put them into a buttered mould or basin; boil for 2 hours, and serve with sweet sauce.

Time.—2 hours.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

BAKED OR BOILED CARROT PUDDING.

1259. Ingredients.—½ lb. of bread crumbs, 4 oz. of suet, ¼ lb. of stoned raisins, ¾ lb. of carrot, ¼ lb. of currants, 3 oz. of sugar, 3 eggs, milk, ¼ nutmeg.

Mode.—Boil the carrots until tender enough to mash to a pulp; add the remaining ingredients, and moisten with sufficient milk to make the pudding of the consistency of thick batter. If to be boiled, put the mixture into a buttered basin, tie it down with a cloth, and boil for 2½ hours: if to be baked, put it into a pie-dish, and bake for nearly an hour; turn it out of the dish, strew sifted sugar over it, and serve.

Time.—2½ hours to boil; 1 hour to bake.

Average cost, 1s. 2d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from September to March.

Carrots, says Liebig, contain the same kind of sugar as the juice of the sugar-cane.

ROYAL COBURG PUDDING.

1260. Ingredients.—1 pint of new milk, 6 oz. of flour, 6 oz. of sugar, 6 oz. of butter, 6 oz. of currants, 6 eggs, brandy and grated nutmeg to taste.

Mode.—Mix the flour to a smooth batter with the milk, add the remaining ingredients gradually, and when well mixed, put it into four basins or moulds half full; bake for ¾ hour, turn the puddings out on a dish, and serve with wine sauce.

Time.—¾ hour.

Average cost, 1s. 9d.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

CHERRY TART.

1261. Ingredients.—1½ lb. of cherries, 2 small tablespoonfuls of moist sugar, ½ lb. of short crust, No. 1210 or 1211.

Mode.—Pick the stalks from the cherries, put them, with the sugar, into a deep pie-dish just capable of holding them, with a small cup placed upside down in the midst of them. Make a short crust with ½ lb. of flour, by either of the recipes 1210 or 1211; lay a border round the edge of the dish; put on the cover, and ornament the edges; bake in a brisk oven from ½ hour to 40 minutes; strew finely-sifted sugar over, 638 and serve hot or cold, although the latter is the more usual mode. It is more economical to make two or three tarts at one time, as the trimmings from one tart answer for lining the edges of the dish for another, and so much paste is not required as when they are made singly. Unless for family use, never make fruit pies in very large dishes; select them, however, as deep as possible.

picture of “CHERRY.”

CHERRY.

Time.—½ hour to 40 minutes.

Average cost, in full season, 8d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable in June, July, and August.

Note.—A few currants added to the cherries will be found to impart a nice piquant taste to them.

Cherries.—According to Lucullus, the cherry-tree was known in Asia in the year of Rome 680. Seventy different species of cherries, wild and cultivated, exist, which are distinguishable from each other by the difference of their form, size, and colour. The French distil from cherries a liqueur named kirsch-waser (eau de cérises); the Italians prepare, from a cherry called marusca, the liqueur named marasquin, sweeter and more agreeable than the former. The most wholesome cherries have a tender and delicate skin; those with a hard skin should be very carefully masticated. Sweetmeats, syrups, tarts, entremets, &c., of cherries, are universally approved.

COLD PUDDING.

1262. Ingredients.—4 eggs, 1 pint of milk, sugar to taste, a little grated lemon-rind, 2 oz. of raisins, 4 tablespoonfuls of marmalade, a few slices of sponge cake.

Mode.—Sweeten the milk with lump sugar, add a little grated lemon-rind, and stir to this the eggs, which should be well whisked; line a buttered mould with the raisins, stoned and cut in half; spread the slices of cake with the marmalade, and place them in the mould; then pour in the custard, tie the pudding down with paper and a cloth, and boil gently for 1 hour: when cold, turn it out, and serve.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost, 1s. 2d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

COLLEGE PUDDINGS.

1263. Ingredients.—1 pint of bread crumbs, 6 oz. of finely-chopped suet, ¼ lb. of currants, a few thin slices of candied peel, 3 oz. of sugar, ¼ nutmeg, 3 eggs, 4 tablespoonfuls of brandy.

Mode.—Put the bread crumbs into a basin; add the suet, currants, candied peel, sugar, and nutmeg, grated, and stir these ingredients until they are thoroughly mixed. Beat up the eggs, moisten the pudding with these, and put in the brandy; beat well for a few minutes, 639 then form the mixture into round balls or egg-shaped pieces; fry these in hot butter or lard, letting them stew in it until thoroughly done, and turn them two or three times, till of a fine light brown; drain them on a piece of blotting-paper before the fire; dish, and serve with wine sauce.

Time.—15 to 20 minutes.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 puddings.

Seasonable at any time.

CURRANT DUMPLINGS.

1264. Ingredients.—1 lb. of flour, 6 oz. of suet, ½ lb. of currants, rather more than ½ pint of water.

Mode.—Chop the suet finely, mix it with the flour, and add the currants, which should be nicely washed, picked, and dried; mix the whole to a limp paste with the water (if wanted very nice, use milk); divide it into 7 or 8 dumplings; tie them in cloths, and boil for 1¼ hour. They may be boiled without a cloth: they should then be made into round balls, and dropped into boiling water, and should be moved about at first, to prevent them from sticking to the bottom of the saucepan. Serve with a cut lemon, cold butter, and sifted sugar.

picture of “ZANTE CURRANTS.”

ZANTE CURRANTS.

Time.—In a cloth, 1¼ hour; without, ¾ hour.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Zante Currants.—The dried fruit which goes by the name of currants in grocers’ shops is not a currant really, but a small kind of grape, chiefly cultivated in the Morea and the Ionian Islands, Corfu, Zante, &c. Those of Zante are cultivated in an immense plain, under the shelter of mountains, on the shore of the island, where the sun has great power, and brings them to maturity. When gathered and dried by the sun and air, on mats, they are conveyed to magazines, heaped together, and left to cake, until ready for shipping. They are then dug out by iron crowbars, trodden into casks, and exported. The fertile vale of “Zante the woody” produces about 9,000,000 lbs. of currants annually. In cakes and puddings this delicious little grape is most extensively used; in fact, we could not make a plum pudding without the currant.

BOILED CURRANT PUDDING.
(Plain and Economical.)

1265. Ingredients.—1 lb. of flour, ½ lb. of suet, ½ lb. of currants, milk.

Mode.—Wash the currants, dry them thoroughly, and pick away any stalks or grit; chop the suet finely; mix all the ingredients together, and moisten with sufficient milk to make the pudding into a stiff batter; tie it up in a floured cloth, put it into boiling water, and boil for hours; serve with a cut lemon, cold butter, and sifted sugar.

640

Time.—3½ hours.

Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

BLACK or RED CURRANT PUDDING.

1266. Ingredients.—1 quart of red or black currants, measured with the stalks, ¼ lb. of moist sugar, suet crust No. 1215, or butter crust No. 1213.

Mode.—Make, with ¾ lb. of flour, either a suet crust or butter crust (the former is usually made); butter a basin, and line it with part of the crust; put in the currants, which should be stripped from the stalks, and sprinkle the sugar over them; put the cover of the pudding on; make the edges very secure, that the juice does not escape; tie it down with a floured cloth, put it into boiling water, and boil from 2½ to 3 hours. Boiled without a basin, allow ½ hour less. We have allowed rather a large proportion of sugar; but we find fruit puddings are so much more juicy and palatable when well sweetened before they are boiled, besides being more economical. A few raspberries added to red-currant pudding are a very nice addition: about ½ pint would be sufficient for the above quantity of fruit. Fruit puddings are very delicious if, when they are turned out of the basin, the crust is browned with a salamander, or put into a very hot oven for a few minutes to colour it: this makes it crisp on the surface.

picture of “CURRANTS.”

CURRANTS.

Time.—2½ to 3 hours; without a basin, 2 to 2½ hours.

Average cost, in full season, 8d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable in June, July, and August.

Currants.—The utility of currants, red, black, or white, has long been established in domestic economy. The juice of the red species, if boiled with an equal weight of loaf sugar, forms an agreeable substance called currant jelly, much employed in sauces, and very valuable in the cure of sore throats and colds. The French mix it with sugar and water, and thus form an agreeable beverage. The juice of currants is a valuable remedy in obstructions of the bowels; and, in febrile complaints, it is useful on account of its readily quenching thirst, and for its cooling effect on the stomach. White and flesh-coloured currants have, with the exception of the fullness of flavour, in every respect, the same qualities as the red species. Both white and red currants are pleasant additions to the dessert, but the black variety is mostly used for culinary and medicinal purposes, especially in the form of jelly for quinsies. The leaves of the black currant make a pleasant tea.

RED-CURRANT AND RASPBERRY TART.

1267. Ingredients.—1½ pint of picked currants, ½ pint of raspberries, 3 heaped tablespoonfuls of moist sugar, ½ lb. of short crust.

641 2T

Mode.—Strip the currants from the stalks, and put them into a deep pie-dish, with a small cup placed in the midst, bottom upwards; add the raspberries and sugar; place a border of paste round the edge of the dish, cover with crust, ornament the edges, and bake from ½ to ¾ hour: strew some sifted sugar over before being sent to table. This tart is more generally served cold than hot.

picture of “RASPBERRY.”

RASPBERRY.

Time.—½ to ¾ hour.

Average cost,    

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable in June, July, and August.

Raspberries.—There are two sorts of raspberries, the red and the white. Both the scent and flavour of this fruit are very refreshing, and the berry itself is exceedingly wholesome, and invaluable to people of a nervous or bilious temperament. We are not aware, however, of its being cultivated with the same amount of care which is bestowed upon some other of the berry tribe, although it is far from improbable that a more careful cultivation would not be repaid by a considerable improvement in the size and flavour of the berry; neither, as an eating fruit, is it so universally esteemed as the strawberry, with whose lusciousness and peculiarly agreeable flavour it can bear no comparison. In Scotland, it is found in large quantities, growing wild, and is eagerly sought after, in the woods, by children. Its juice is rich and abundant, and to many, extremely agreeable.

BAKED CUSTARD PUDDING.

1268. Ingredients.—1½ pint of milk, the rind of ¼ lemon, ¼ lb. of moist sugar, 4 eggs.

Mode.—Put the milk into a saucepan with the sugar and lemon-rind, and let this infuse for about ½ hour, or until the milk is well flavoured; whisk the eggs, yolks and whites; pour the milk to them, stirring all the while; then have ready a pie-dish, lined at the edge with paste ready baked; strain the custard into the dish, grate a little nutmeg over the top, and bake in a very slow oven for about ½ hour, or rather longer. The flavour of this pudding may be varied by substituting bitter almonds for the lemon-rind; and it may be very much enriched by using half cream and half milk, and doubling the quantity of eggs.

Time.—½ to ¾ hour.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Note.—This pudding is usually served cold with fruit tarts.

BOILED CUSTARD PUDDING.

1269. Ingredients.—1 pint of milk, 1 tablespoonful of flour, 4 eggs, flavouring to taste.

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Mode.—Flavour the milk by infusing in it a little lemon-rind or cinnamon; whisk the eggs, stir the flour gradually to these, and pour over them the milk, and stir the mixture well. Butter a basin that will exactly hold it; put in the custard, and tie a floured cloth over; plunge it into boiling water, and turn it about for a few minutes, to prevent the flour from settling in one part. Boil it slowly for ½ hour; turn it out of the basin, and serve. The pudding may be garnished with red-currant jelly, and sweet sauce may be sent to table with it.

Time.—½ hour.

Average cost, 7d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

DAMSON TART.

1270. Ingredients.—1½ pint of damsons, ¼ lb. of moist sugar, ½ lb. of short or puff crust.

Mode.—Put the damsons, with the sugar between them, into a deep pie-dish, in the midst of which, place a small cup or jar turned upside down; pile the fruit high in the middle, line the edges of the dish with short or puff crust, whichever may be preferred; put on the cover, ornament the edges, and bake from ½ to ¾ hour in a good oven. If puff-crust is used, about 10 minutes before the pie is done, take it out of the oven, brush it over with the white of an egg beaten to a froth with the blade of a knife; strew some sifted sugar over, and a few drops of water, and put the tart back to finish baking: with short crust, a little plain sifted sugar, sprinkled over, is all that will be required.

picture of “DAMSONS.”

DAMSONS.

Time.—½ to ¾ hour.

Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable in September and October.

Damsons.—Whether for jam, jelly, pie, pudding, water, ice, wine, dried fruit or preserved, the damson, or damascene (for it was originally brought from Damascus, whence its name), is invaluable. It combines sugary and acid qualities in happy proportions, when full ripe. It is a fruit easily cultivated; and, if budded nine inches from the ground on vigorous stocks, it will grow several feet high in the first year, and make fine standards the year following. Amongst the list of the best sorts of baking plums, the damson stands first, not only on account of the abundance of its juice, but also on account of its soon softening. Because of the roughness of its flavour, it requires a large quantity of sugar.

DAMSON PUDDING.

1271. Ingredients.—1½ pint of damsons, ¼ lb. of moist sugar, ¾ lb. of suet or butter crust.

Mode.—Make a suet crust with ¾ lb. of flour by recipe No. 1215; 643 line a buttered pudding-basin with a portion of it; till the basin with the damsons, sweeten them, and put on the lid; pinch the edges of the crust together, that the juice does not escape; tie over a floured cloth, put the pudding into boiling water, and boil from 2½ to 3 hours.

Time.—2½ to 3 hours.

Average cost, 8d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable in September and October.

DELHI PUDDING.

1272. Ingredients.—4 large apples, a little grated nutmeg, 1 teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, 2 large tablespoonfuls of sugar, 6 oz. of currants, ¾ lb. of suet crust No. 1215.

Mode.—Pare, core, and cut the apples into slices; put them into a saucepan, with the nutmeg, lemon-peel, and sugar; stir them over the fire until soft; then have ready the above proportion of crust, roll it out thin, spread the apples over the paste, sprinkle over the currants, roll the pudding up, closing the ends properly, tie it in a floured cloth, and boil for 2 hours.

Time.—2 hours.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from August to March.

EMPRESS PUDDING.

1273. Ingredients.—½ lb. of rice, 2 oz. of butter, 3 eggs, jam, sufficient milk to soften the rice.

Mode.—Boil the rice in the milk until very soft; then add the butter; boil it for a few minutes after the latter ingredient is put in, and set it by to cool. Well beat the eggs, stir these in, and line a dish with puff-paste; put over this a layer of rice, then a thin layer of any kind of jam, then another layer of rice, and proceed in this manner until the dish is full; and bake in a moderate oven for ¾ hour. This pudding may be eaten hot or cold; if the latter, it will be much improved by having a boiled custard poured over it.

Time.—¾ hour.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

EXETER PUDDING.
(Very rich.)

1274. Ingredients.—10 oz. of bread crumbs, 4 oz. of sago, 7 oz. of finely-chopped suet, 6 oz. of moist sugar, the rind of ½ lemon, ¼ pint of rum, 7 eggs, 4 tablespoonfuls of cream, 4 small sponge cakes, 2 oz. of ratafias, ½ lb. of jam.

644

Mode.—Put the bread crumbs into a basin with the sago, suet, sugar, minced lemon-peel, rum, and 4 eggs; stir these ingredients well together, then add 3 more eggs and the cream, and let the mixture be well beaten. Then butter a mould, strew in a few bread crumbs, and cover the bottom with a layer of ratafias; then put in a layer of the mixture, then a layer of sliced sponge cake spread thickly with any kind of jam; then add some ratafias, then some of the mixture and sponge cake, and so on until the mould is full, taking care that a layer of the mixture is on the top of the pudding. Bake in a good oven from ¾ to 1 hour, and serve with the following sauce:—Put 3 tablespoonfuls of black-currant jelly into a stewpan, add 2 glasses of sherry, and, when warm, turn the pudding out of the mould, pour the sauce over it, and serve hot.

Time.—From 1 to 1¼ hour.

Average cost, 2s. 6d.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

FIG PUDDING.
I.

1275. Ingredients.—2 lbs. of figs, 1 lb. of suet, ½ lb. of flour, ½ lb. of bread crumbs, 2 eggs, milk.

Mode.—Cut the figs into small pieces, grate the bread finely, and chop the suet very small; mix these well together, add the flour, the eggs, which should be well beaten, and sufficient milk to form the whole into a stiff paste; butter a mould or basin, press the pudding into it very closely, tie it down with a cloth, and boil for 3 hours, or rather longer; turn it out of the mould, and serve with melted butter, wine-sauce, or cream.

Time.—3 hours, or longer.

Average cost, 2s.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

Seasonable.—Suitable for a winter pudding.

II.
(Staffordshire Recipe.)

1276. Ingredients.—1 lb. of figs, 6 oz. of suet, ¾ lb. of flour, milk.

Mode.—Chop the suet finely, mix with it the flour, and make these into a smooth paste with milk; roll it out to the thickness of about ½ inch, cut the figs in small pieces, and strew them over the paste; roll it up, make the ends secure, tie the pudding in a cloth, and boil it from 1½ to 2 hours.

Time.—1½ to 2 hours.

Average cost, 1s. 1d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

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FOLKESTONE PUDDING-PIES.

1277. Ingredients.—1 pint of milk, 3 oz. of ground rice, 3 oz. of butter, ¼ lb. of sugar, flavouring of lemon-peel or bay-leaf, 6 eggs, puff-paste, currants.

Mode.—Infuse 2 laurel or bay leaves, or the rind of ½ lemon, in the milk, and when it is well flavoured, strain it, and add the rice; boil these for ¼ hour, stirring all the time; then take them off the fire, stir in the butter, sugar, and eggs, and let these latter be well beaten before they are added to the other ingredients; when nearly cold, line some patty-pans with puff-paste, fill with the custard, strew over each a few currants, and bake from 20 to 25 minutes in a moderate oven.

Time.—20 to 25 minutes.

Average cost, 1s. 1d.

Sufficient to fill a dozen patty-pans.

Seasonable at any time.

FRUIT TURNOVERS (suitable for Pic-Nics).

1278. Ingredients.—Puff-paste No. 1206, any kind of fruit, sugar to taste.

Mode.—Make some puff-paste by recipe No. 1206; roll it out to the thickness of about ¼ inch, and cut it out in pieces of a circular form; pile the fruit on half of the paste, sprinkle over some sugar, wet the edges and turn the paste over. Press the edges together, ornament them, and brush the turnovers over with the white of an egg; sprinkle over sifted sugar, and bake on tins, in a brisk oven, for about 20 minutes. Instead of putting the fruit in raw, it may be boiled down with a little sugar first, and then inclosed in the crust; or jam, of any kind, may be substituted for fresh fruit.

Time.—20 minutes.

Sufficient—½ lb. of puff-paste will make a dozen turnovers.

Seasonable at any time.

GERMAN PUDDING.

1279. Ingredients.—2 teaspoonfuls of flour, 1 teaspoonful of arrowroot, 1 pint of milk, 2 oz. of butter, sugar to taste, the rind of ½ lemon, 4 eggs, 3 tablespoonfuls of brandy.

Mode.—Boil the milk with the lemon-rind until well flavoured; then strain it, and mix with it the flour, arrowroot, butter, and sugar. Boil these ingredients for a few minutes, keeping them well stirred; then take them off the fire and mix with them the eggs, yolks and whites, beaten separately and added separately. Boil some sugar to candy; line a mould with this, put in the brandy, then the mixture; tie down 646 with a cloth, and boil for rather more than 1 hour. When turned out, the brandy and sugar make a nice sauce.

Time.—Rather more than 1 hour.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

DAMPFNUDELN, or GERMAN PUDDINGS.

1280. Ingredients.—1 lb. of flour, ¼ lb. of butter, 5 eggs, 2 small tablespoonfuls of yeast, 2 tablespoonfuls of finely-pounded sugar, milk, a very little salt.

Mode.—Put the flour into a basin, make a hole in the centre, into which put the yeast, and rather more than ¼ pint of warm milk; make this into a batter with the middle of the flour, and let the sponge rise in a warm temperature. When sufficiently risen, mix the eggs, butter, sugar, and salt with a little more warm milk, and knead the whole well together with the hands, beating the dough until it is perfectly smooth, and it drops from the fingers. Then cover the basin with a cloth, put it in a warm place, and when the dough has nicely risen, knead it into small balls; butter the bottom of a deep sauté-pan, strew over some pounded sugar, and let the dampfnudeln be laid in, but do not let them touch one another; then pour over sufficient milk to cover them, put on the lid, and let them rise to twice their original size by the side of the fire. Now place them in the oven for a few minutes, to acquire a nice brown colour, and serve them on a napkin, with custard sauce flavoured with vanilla, or a compôte of any fruit that may be preferred.

Time.—½ to ¾ hour for the sponge to rise; 10 to 15 minutes for the puddings to rise; 10 minutes to bake them in a brisk oven.

Sufficient for 10 or 12 dampfnudeln.

Seasonable at any time.

GINGER PUDDING.

1281. Ingredients.—½ lb. of flour, ¼ lb. of suet, ¼ lb. of moist sugar, 2 large teaspoonfuls of grated ginger.

Mode.—Shred the suet very fine, mix it with the flour, sugar, and ginger; stir all well together; butter a basin, and put the mixture in dry; tie a cloth over, and boil for 3 hours.

Time.—3 hours.

Average cost, 6d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

GOLDEN PUDDING.

1282. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of bread crumbs, ¼ lb. of suet, ¼ lb. of marmalade, ¼ lb. of sugar, 4 eggs.

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Mode.—Put the bread crumbs into a basin; mix with them the suet, which should be finely minced, the marmalade, and the sugar; stir all these ingredients well together, beat the eggs to a froth, moisten the pudding with these, and when well mixed, put it into a mould or buttered basin; tie down with a floured cloth, and boil for 2 hours. When turned out, strew a little fine-sifted sugar over the top, and serve.

Time.—2 hours.

Average cost, 11d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Note.—The mould may be ornamented with stoned raisins, arranged in any fanciful pattern, before the mixture is poured in, which would add very much to the appearance of the pudding. For a plainer pudding, double the quantities of the bread crumbs, and if the eggs do not moisten it sufficiently, use a little milk.

BAKED GOOSEBERRY PUDDING.

1283. Ingredients.—Gooseberries, 3 eggs, 1½ oz. of butter, ½ pint of bread crumbs, sugar to taste.

Mode.—Put the gooseberries into a jar, previously cutting off the tops and tails; place this jar in boiling water, and let it boil until the gooseberries are soft enough to pulp; then beat them through a coarse sieve, and to every pint of pulp add 3 well-whisked eggs, 1½ oz. of butter, ½ pint of bread crumbs, and sugar to taste; beat the mixture well, put a border of puff-paste round the edge of a pie-dish, put in the pudding, bake for about 40 minutes, strew sifted sugar over, and serve.

Time.—About 40 minutes.

Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from May to July.

BOILED GOOSEBERRY PUDDING.

1284. Ingredients.—¾ lb. of suet crust No. 1215, 1½ pint of green gooseberries, ¼ lb. of moist sugar.

picture of “BOILED FRUIT PUDDING.”

BOILED FRUIT PUDDING.

Mode.—Line a pudding-basin with suet crust No. 1215, rolled out to about ½ inch in thickness, and, with a pair of scissors, cut off the tops and tails of the gooseberries; fill the basin with the fruit, put in the sugar, and cover with crust. Pinch the edges of the pudding together, tie over it a floured cloth, put it into boiling water, and boil from 2½ to 3 hours; turn it out of the basin, and serve with a jug of cream.

Time.—2½ to 3 hours.

Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable from May to July.

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GOOSEBERRY TART.

1285. Ingredients.—1½ pint of gooseberries, ½ lb. of short crust No. 1211, ¼ lb. of moist sugar.

picture of “GOOSEBERRY.”

GOOSEBERRY.

Mode.—With a pair of scissors cut off the tops and tails of the gooseberries; put them into a deep pie-dish, pile the fruit high in the centre, and put in the sugar; line the edge of the dish with short crust, put on the cover, and ornament the edges of the tart; bake in a good oven for about ¾ hour, and before being sent to table, strew over it some fine-sifted sugar. A jug of cream, or a dish of boiled or baked custards, should always accompany this dish.

Time.—½ hour.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from May to July.

Gooseberries.—The red and the white are the two principal varieties of gooseberries. The red are rather the more acid; but, when covered with white sugar, are most wholesome, because the sugar neutralizes their acidity. Red gooseberries make an excellent jelly, which is light and refreshing, but not very nourishing. It is good for bilious and plethoric persons, and to invalids generally who need light and digestible food. It is a fruit from which many dishes might be made. All sorts of gooseberries are agreeable when stewed, and, in this country especially, there is no fruit so universally in favour. In Scotland, there is scarcely a cottage-garden without its gooseberry-bush. Several of the species are cultivated with the nicest care.

HALF-PAY PUDDING.

1286. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of suet, ¼ lb. of currants, ¼ lb. of raisins, ¼ lb. of flour, ¼ lb. of bread crumbs, 2 tablespoonfuls of treacle, ½ pint of milk.

Mode.—Chop the suet finely; mix with it the currants, which should be nicely washed and dried, the raisins, which should be stoned, the flour, bread crumbs, and treacle; moisten with the milk, beat up the ingredients until all are thoroughly mixed, put them into a buttered basin, and boil the pudding for 3½ hours.

Time.—3½ hours.

Average cost, 8d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

HERODOTUS PUDDING.

1287. Ingredients.—½ lb. of bread crumbs, ½ lb. of good figs, 6 oz. of suet, 6 oz. of moist sugar, ½ saltspoonful of salt, 3 eggs, nutmeg to taste.

Mode.—Mince the suet and figs very finely; add the remaining ingredients, taking care that the eggs are well whisked; beat the 649 mixture for a few minutes, put it into a buttered mould, tie it down with a floured cloth, and boil the pudding for 5 hours. Serve with wine sauce.

Time.—5 hours.

Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

HUNTER’S PUDDING.

1288. Ingredients.—1 lb. of raisins, 1 lb. of currants, 1 lb. of suet, 1 lb. of bread crumbs, ½ lb. of moist sugar, 8 eggs, 1 tablespoonful of flour, ¼ lb. of mixed candied peel, 1 glass of brandy, 10 drops of essence of lemon, 10 drops of essence of almonds, 3 nutmeg, 2 blades of mace, 6 cloves.

Mode.—Stone and shred the raisins rather small, chop the suet finely, and rub the bread until all lumps are well broken; pound the spice to powder, cut the candied peel into thin shreds, and mix all these ingredients well together, adding the sugar. Beat the eggs to a strong froth, and as they are beaten, drop into them the essence of lemon and essence of almonds; stir these to the dry ingredients, mix well, and add the brandy. Tie the pudding firmly in a cloth, and boil it for 6 hours at the least: 7 or 8 hours would be still better for it. Serve with boiled custard, or red-currant jelly, or brandy sauce.

Time.—6 to 8 hours.

Average cost, 3s. 6d.

Sufficient for 9 or 10 persons.

Seasonable in winter.

ICED PUDDING.
(Parisian Recipe.)

picture of “ICED-PUDDING MOULD.”

ICED-PUDDING MOULD.

1289. Ingredients.—½ lb. of sweet almonds, 2 oz. of bitter ones, ¾ lb. of sugar, 8 eggs, 1½ pint of milk.

Mode.—Blanch and dry the almonds thoroughly in a cloth, then pound them in a mortar until reduced to a smooth paste; add to these the well-beaten eggs, the sugar, and milk; stir these ingredients over the fire until they thicken, but do not allow them to boil; then strain and put the mixture into the freezing-pot; surround it with ice, and freeze it as directed in recipe 1290. When quite frozen, fill an iced-pudding mould, put on the lid, and keep the pudding in ice until 650 required for table; then turn it out on the dish, and garnish it with a compôte of any fruit that may be preferred, pouring a little over the top of the pudding. This pudding may be flavoured with vanilla, Curaçoa, or Maraschino.

Time.—½ hour to freeze the mixture.

Seasonable.—Served all the year round.

ICED APPLE PUDDING.
(French Recipe, after Carême.)

picture of “ICE-SPATULA.”

ICE-
SPATULA.

1290. Ingredients.—2 dozen apples, a small pot of apricot-jam, ½ lb. of sugar, 1 Seville orange, ¼ pint of preserved cherries, ¼ lb. of raisins, 1 oz. of citron, 2 oz. of almonds, 1 gill of Curaçoa, 1 gill of Maraschino, 1 pint of cream.

Mode.—Peel, core, and cut the apples into quarters, and simmer them over the fire until soft; then mix with them the apricot-jam and the sugar, on which the rind of the orange should be previously rubbed; work all these ingredients through a sieve, and put them into the freezing-pot. Stone the raisins, and simmer them in a little syrup for a few minutes; add these, with the sliced citron, the almonds cut in dice, and the cherries drained from their syrup, to the ingredients in the freezing-pot; put in the Curaçoa and Maraschino, and freeze again; add as much whipped cream as will be required, freeze again, and fill the mould. Put the lid on, and plunge the mould into the ice-pot; cover it with a wet cloth and pounded ice and saltpetre, where it should remain until wanted for table. Turn the pudding out of the mould on to a clean and neatly-folded napkin, and serve, as sauce, a little iced whipped cream, in a sauce-tureen or glass dish.

Time.—½ hour to freeze the mixture.

Seasonable from August to March.

picture of “ICE-FREEZING PAIL.”

ICE-FREEZING PAIL.

Method of working the freezing Apparatus.—Put into the outer pail some pounded ice, upon which strew some saltpetre; then fix the pewter freezing-pot upon this, and surround it entirely with ice and saltpetre. Wipe the cover and edges of the pot, pour in the preparation, and close the lid; a quarter of an hour after, begin turning the freezing-pan from right to left, and when the mixture begins to 651 be firm round the sides of the pot, stir it about with the slice or spattle, that the preparation may be equally congealed. Close the lid again, keep working from right to left, and, from time to time, remove the mixture from the sides, that it may be smooth; and when perfectly frozen, it is ready to put in the mould; the mould should then be placed in the ice again, where it should remain until wanted for table.

ROLY-POLY JAM PUDDING.

1291. Ingredients.¾ lb. of suet-crust No. 1215, ¾ lb. of any kind of jam.

Mode.—Make a nice light suet-crust by recipe No. 1215, and roll it out to the thickness of about ½ inch. Spread the jam equally over it, leaving a small margin of paste without any, where the pudding joins. Roll it up, fasten the ends securely, and tie it in a floured cloth; put the pudding into boiling water, and boil for 2 hours. Mincemeat or marmalade may be substituted for the jam, and makes excellent puddings.

Time.—2 hours.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable.—Suitable for winter puddings, when fresh fruit is not obtainable.

LEMON CHEESECAKES.

1292. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of butter, 1 lb. of loaf sugar, 6 eggs, the rind of 2 lemons and the juice of 3.

Mode.—Put all the ingredients into a stewpan, carefully grating the lemon-rind and straining the juice. Keep stirring the mixture over the fire until the sugar is dissolved, and it begins to thicken: when of the consistency of honey, it is done; then put it into small jars, and keep in a dry place. This mixture will remain good 3 or 4 months. When made into cheesecakes, add a few pounded almonds, or candied peel, or grated sweet biscuit; line some patty-pans with good puff-paste, rather more than half fill them with the mixture, and bake for about ¼ hour in a good brisk oven.

Time.—¼ hour.

Average cost, 1s. 4d.

Sufficient for 24 cheesecakes.

Seasonable at any time.

LEMON MINCEMEAT.

1293. Ingredients.—2 large lemons, 6 large apples, ½ lb. of suet, 1 lb. of currants, ½ lb. of sugar, 2 oz. of candied lemon-peel, 1 oz. of citron, mixed spice to taste.

Mode.—Pare the lemons, squeeze them, and boil the peel until tender enough to mash. Add to the mashed lemon-peel the apples, 652 which should be pared, cored, and minced; the chopped suet, currants, sugar, sliced peel, and spice. Strain the lemon-juice to these ingredients, stir the mixture well, and put it in a jar with a closely-fitting lid. Stir occasionally, and in a week or 10 days the mincemeat will be ready for use.

Average cost, 2s.

Sufficient for 18 large or 24 small pies.

Seasonable.—Make this about the beginning of December.

LEMON DUMPLINGS.

1294. Ingredients.—½ lb. of grated bread, ¼ lb. of chopped suet, ¼ lb. of moist sugar, 2 eggs, 1 large lemon.

picture of “LEMON DUMPLINGS.”

LEMON DUMPLINGS.

Mode.—Mix the bread, suet, and moist sugar well together, adding the lemon-peel, which should be very finely minced. Moisten with the eggs and strained lemon-juice; stir well, and put the mixture into small buttered cups. Tie them down and boil for ¾ hour. Turn them out on a dish, strew sifted sugar over them, and serve with wine sauce.

Time.—¾ hour.

Average cost, 7d.

Sufficient for 6 dumplings.

Seasonable at any time.

BAKED LEMON PUDDING.
I.

1295. Ingredients.—The yolks of 4 eggs, 4 oz. of pounded sugar, 1 lemon, ¼ lb. of butter, puff-crust.

Mode.—Beat the eggs to a froth; mix with them the sugar and warmed butter; stir these ingredients well together, putting in the grated rind and strained juice of the lemon-peel. Line a shallow dish with puff-paste; put in the mixture, and bake in a moderate oven for 40 minutes; turn the pudding out of the dish, strew over it sifted sugar, and serve.

Time.—40 minutes.

Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

II.

1296. Ingredients.—10 oz. of bread crumbs, 2 pints of milk, 2 oz. of butter, 1 lemon, ¼ lb. of pounded sugar, 4 eggs, 1 tablespoonful of brandy.

picture of “LEMON.”

LEMON.

Mode.—Bring the milk to the boiling point, stir in the butter, and pour these hot over the bread crumbs; add the sugar and very finely-minced lemon-peel; beat the eggs, and stir these in with the brandy 653 to the other ingredients; put a paste round the dish, and bake for ¾ hour.

Time.—¾ hour.

Average cost, 1s. 2d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Lemon.—The lemon is a variety of the citron. The juice of this fruit makes one of our most popular and refreshing beverages—lemonade, which is gently stimulating and cooling, and soon quenches the thirst. It may be freely partaken by bilious and sanguine temperaments; but persons with irritable stomachs should avoid it, on account of its acid qualities. The fresh rind of the lemon is a gentle tonic, and, when dried and grated, is used in flavouring a variety of culinary preparations. Lemons appear in company with the orange in most orange-growing countries. They were only known to the Romans at a very late period, and, at first, were used only to keep the moths from their garments: their acidity was unpleasant to them. In the time of Pliny, the lemon was hardly known otherwise than as an excellent counter-poison.

III.
(Very rich.)

1297. Ingredients.—The rind and juice of 2 large lemons, ½ lb. of loaf sugar, ¼ pint of cream, the yolks of 8 eggs, 2 oz. of almonds, ½ lb. of butter, melted.

Mode.—Mix the pounded sugar with the cream, and add the yolks of eggs and the butter, which should be previously warmed. Blanch and pound the almonds, and put these, with the grated rind and strained juice of the lemons, to the other ingredients. Stir all well together; line a dish with puff-paste, put in the mixture, and bake for 1 hour.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost, 2s.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

BOILED LEMON PUDDING.

1298. Ingredients.—½ lb. of chopped suet, ¾ lb. of bread crumbs, 2 small lemons, 6 oz. of moist sugar, ¼ lb. of flour, 2 eggs, milk.

Mode.—Mix the suet, bread crumbs, sugar, and flour well together, adding the lemon-peel, which should be very finely minced, and the juice, which should be strained. When these ingredients are well mixed, moisten with the eggs and sufficient milk to make the pudding of the consistency of thick batter; put it into a well-buttered mould, and boil for 3½ hours; turn it out, strew sifted sugar over, and serve with wine sauce, or not, at pleasure.

Time.—3½ hours.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Note.—This pudding may also be baked, and will be found very good, It will take about 2 hours.

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PLAIN LEMON PUDDING.

1299. Ingredients.—¾ lb. of flour, 6 oz. of lard or dripping, the juice of 1 large lemon, 1 teaspoonful of flour, sugar.

Mode.—Make the above proportions of flour and lard into a smooth paste, and roll it out to the thickness of about ½ inch. Squeeze the lemon-juice, strain it into a cup, stir the flour into it, and as much moist sugar as will make it into a stiff and thick paste; spread this mixture over the paste, roll it up, secure the ends, and tie the pudding in a floured cloth. Boil for 2 hours.

Time.—2 hours.

Average cost, 7d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

MANCHESTER PUDDING (to eat Cold).

1300. Ingredients.—3 oz. of grated bread, ½ pint of milk, a strip of lemon-peel, 4 eggs, 2 oz. of butter, sugar to taste, puff-paste, jam, 3 tablespoonfuls of brandy.

Mode.—Flavour the milk with lemon-peel, by infusing it in the milk for ½ hour; then strain it on to the bread crumbs, and boil it for 2 or 3 minutes; add the eggs, leaving out the whites of 2, the butter, sugar, and brandy; stir all these ingredients well together; cover a pie-dish with puff-paste, and at the bottom put a thick layer of any kind of jam; pour the above mixture, cold, on the jam, and bake the pudding for an hour. Serve cold, with a little sifted sugar sprinkled over.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

SWEET MACARONI PUDDING.

1301. Ingredients.—2½ oz. of macaroni, 2 pints of milk, the rind of ½ lemon, 3 eggs, sugar and grated nutmeg to taste, 2 tablespoonfuls of brandy.

Mode.—Put the macaroni, with a pint of the milk, into a saucepan with the lemon-peel, and let it simmer gently until the macaroni is tender; then put it into a pie-dish without the peel; mix the other pint of milk with the eggs; stir these well together, adding the sugar and brandy, and pour the mixture over the macaroni. Grate a little nutmeg over the top, and bake in a moderate oven for ½ hour. To make this pudding look nice, a paste should be laid round the edges of the dish, and, for variety, a layer of preserve or marmalade may be placed on the macaroni: in this case omit the brandy.

picture of “MACARONI.”

MACARONI.

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Time.—¾ hour to simmer the macaroni; ½ hour to bake the pudding.

Average cost, 11d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Macaroni is composed of wheaten flour, flavoured with other articles, and worked up with water into a paste, to which, by a peculiar process, a tubular or pipe form is given, in order that it may cook more readily in hot water. That of smaller diameter than macaroni (which is about the thickness of a goose-quill) is called vermicelli; and when smaller still, fidelini. The finest is made from the flour of the hard-grained Black-Sea wheat. Macaroni is the principal article of food in many parts of Italy, particularly Naples, where the best is manufactured, and from whence, also, it is exported in considerable quantities. In this country, macaroni and vermicelli are frequently used in soups.

MANNA KROUP PUDDING.

1302. Ingredients.—3 tablespoonfuls of manna kroup, 12 bitter almonds, 1 pint of milk, sugar to taste, 3 eggs.

Mode.—Blanch and pound the almonds in a mortar; mix them with the manna kroup; pour over these a pint of boiling milk, and let them steep for about ¼ hour. When nearly cold, add sugar and the well-beaten eggs; mix all well together; put the pudding into a buttered dish, and bake for ½ hour.

Time.—½ hour.

Average cost,    

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Manna Kroup, Semora, or Semolina, are three names given to a flour made from ground wheat and rice. The preparation is white when it is made only of these materials; the yellow colour which it usually has, is produced by a portion of saffron and yolks of eggs. Next to vermicelli, this preparation is the most useful for thickening either meat or vegetable soups. As a food, it is light, nutritious, wholesome, and easily digested. The best preparation is brought from Arabia, and, next to that, from Italy.

MANSFIELD PUDDING.

1303. Ingredients.—The crumb of 2 rolls, 1 pint of milk, sugar to taste, 4 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of brandy, 6 oz. of chopped suet, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, ½ lb. of currants, ½ teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream.

Mode.—Slice the roll very thin, and pour upon it a pint of boiling milk; let it remain covered close for ¼ hour, then beat it up with a fork, and sweeten with moist sugar; stir in the chopped suet, flour, currants, and nutmeg. Mix these ingredients well together, moisten with the eggs, brandy, and cream; beat the mixture for 2 or 3 minutes, put it into a buttered dish or mould, and bake in a moderate oven for 1¼ hour. Turn it out, strew sifted sugar over, and serve.

Time.—1¼ hour.

Average cost, 1s. 3d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

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MARLBOROUGH PUDDING.

1304. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of butter, ¼ lb. of powdered lump sugar, 4 eggs, puff-paste, a layer of any kind of jam.

Mode.—Beat the butter to a cream, stir in the powdered sugar, whisk the eggs, and add these to the other ingredients. When these are well mixed, line a dish with puff-paste, spread over a layer of any kind of jam that may be preferred, pour in the mixture, and bake the pudding for rather more than ½ hour.

Time.—Rather more than ½ hour.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

MARMALADE AND VERMICELLI PUDDING.

1305. Ingredients.—1 breakfastcupful of vermicelli, 2 tablespoonfuls of marmalade, ¼ lb. of raisins, sugar to taste, 3 eggs, milk.

Mode.—Pour some boiling milk on the vermicelli, and let it remain covered for 10 minutes; then mix with it the marmalade, stoned raisins, sugar, and beaten eggs. Stir all well together, put the mixture into a buttered mould, boil for 1½ hour, and serve with custard sauce.

Time.—1½ hour.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

MARROW DUMPLINGS,
to serve with Roast Meat, in Soup, with Salad, &c.
(German Recipe.)

1306. Ingredients.—1 oz. of beef marrow, 1 oz. of butter, 2 eggs, 2 penny rolls, 1 teaspoonful of minced onion, 1 teaspoonful of minced parsley, salt and grated nutmeg to taste.

Mode.—Beat the marrow and butter together to a cream; well whisk the eggs, and add these to the other ingredients. When they are well stirred, put in the rolls, which should previously be well soaked in boiling milk, strained, and beaten up with a fork. Add the remaining ingredients, omitting the minced onion where the flavour is very much disliked, and form the mixture into small round dumplings. Drop these into boiling broth, and let them simmer for about 20 minutes or ½ hour. They may be served in soup, with roast meat, or with salad, as in Germany, where they are more frequently sent to table than in this country. They are very good.

Time.—20 minutes to ½ hour.

Average cost, 6d.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 dumplings.

Seasonable at any time.

BAKED OR BOILED MARROW PUDDING.

1307. Ingredients.—½ pint of bread crumbs, 1½ pint of milk, 6 oz. 657 2U of marrow, 4 eggs, ¼ lb. of raisins or currants, or 2 oz. of each; sugar and grated nutmeg to taste.

Mode.—Make the milk boiling, pour it hot on to the bread crumbs, and let these remain covered for about ½ hour; shred the marrow, beat up the eggs, and mix these with the bread crumbs; add the remaining ingredients, beat the mixture well, and either put it into a buttered mould and boil it for 2½ hours, or put it into a pie-dish edged with puff-paste, and bake for rather more than ¾ hour. Before sending it to table, sift a little pounded sugar over, after being turned out of the mould or basin.

Time.—2½ hours to boil, ¾ hour to bake.

Average cost, 1s. 2d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

MILITARY PUDDINGS.

1308. Ingredients.—½ lb. of suet, ½ lb. of bread crumbs, ½ lb. of moist sugar, the rind and juice of 1 large lemon.

Mode.—Chop the suet finely, mix it with the bread crumbs and sugar, and mince the lemon-rind and strain the juice; stir these into the other ingredients, mix well, and put the mixture into small buttered cups, and bake for rather more than ½ hour; turn them out on the dish, and serve with lemon-sauce. The above ingredients may be made into small balls, and boiled for about ½ hour; they should then be served with the same sauce as when baked.

Time.—Rather more than ½ hour.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient to fill 6 or 7 moderate-sized cups.

Seasonable at any time.

MINCEMEAT.

1309. Ingredients.—2 lbs. of raisins, 3 lbs. of currants, 1½ lb. of lean beef, 3 lbs. of beef suet, 2 lbs. of moist sugar, 2 oz. of citron, 2 oz. of candied lemon-peel, 2 oz. of candied orange-peel, 1 small nutmeg, 1 pottle of apples, the rind of 2 lemons, the juice of 1, ½ pint of brandy.

Mode.—Stone and cut the raisins once or twice across, but do not chop them; wash, dry, and pick the currants free from stalks and grit, and mince the beef and suet, taking care that the latter is chopped very fine; slice the citron and candied peel, grate the nutmeg, and pare, core, and mince the apples; mince the lemon-peel, strain the juice, and when all the ingredients are thus prepared, mix them well together, adding the brandy when the other things are well blended; press the whole into a jar, carefully exclude the air, and the mincemeat will be ready for use in a fortnight.

Average cost for this quantity, 8s.

Seasonable.—Make this about the beginning of December.

658
EXCELLENT MINCEMEAT.

1310. Ingredients.—3 large lemons, 3 large apples, 1 lb. of stoned raisins, 1 lb. of currants, 1 lb. of suet, 2 lbs. of moist sugar, 1 oz. of sliced candied citron, 1 oz. of sliced candied orange-peel, and the same quantity of lemon-peel, 1 teacupful of brandy, 2 tablespoonfuls of orange marmalade.

Mode.—Grate the rinds of the lemons; squeeze out the juice, strain it, and boil the remainder of the lemons until tender enough to pulp or chop very finely. Then add to this pulp the apples, which should be baked, and their skins and cores removed; put in the remaining ingredients one by one, and, as they are added, mix everything very thoroughly together. Put the mincemeat into a stone jar with a closely-fitting lid, and in a fortnight it will be ready for use.

Seasonable.—This should be made the first or second week in December.

MINCE PIES.

1311. Ingredients.—Good puff-paste No. 1205, mincemeat No. 1309.

picture of “MINCE PIES.”

MINCE PIES.

Mode.—Make some good puff-paste by recipe No. 1205; roll it out to the thickness of about ¼ inch, and line some good-sized pattypans with it; fill them with mincemeat, cover with the paste, and cut it off all round close to the edge of the tin. Put the pies into a brisk oven, to draw the paste up, and bake for 25 minutes, or longer, should the pies be very large; brush them over with the white of an egg, beaten with the blade of a knife to a stiff froth; sprinkle over pounded sugar, and put them into the oven for a minute or two, to dry the egg; dish the pies on a white d’oyley, and serve hot. They may be merely sprinkled with pounded sugar instead of being glazed, when that mode is preferred. To re-warm them, put the pies on the pattypans, and let them remain in the oven for 10 minutes or ¼ hour, and they will be almost as good as if freshly made.

Time.—25 to 30 minutes; 10 minutes to re-warm them.

Average cost, 4d. each.

Sufficient—½ lb. of paste for 4 pies.

Seasonable at Christmas time.

MONDAY’S PUDDING.

1312. Ingredients.—The remains of cold plum-pudding, brandy, custard made with 5 eggs to every pint of milk.

Mode.—Cut the remains of a good cold plum-pudding into finger-pieces, 659 soak them in a little brandy, and lay them cross-barred in a mould until full. Make a custard with the above proportion of milk and eggs, flavouring it with nutmeg or lemon-rind; fill up the mould with it; tie it down with a cloth, and boil or steam it for an hour. Serve with a little of the custard poured over, to which has been added a tablespoonful of brandy.

Time.—1 hour.

Average cost, exclusive of the pudding, 6d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

NESSELRODE PUDDING.
(A fashionable iced pudding—Carême’s Recipe.)

1313. Ingredients.—40 chestnuts, 1 lb. of sugar, flavouring of vanilla, 1 pint of cream, the yolks of 12 eggs, 1 glass of Maraschino, 1 oz. of candied citron, 2 oz. of currants, 2 oz. of stoned raisins, ½ pint of whipped cream, 3 eggs.

Mode.—Blanch the chestnuts in boiling water, remove the husks, and pound them in a mortar until perfectly smooth, adding a few spoonfuls of syrup. Then rub them through a fine sieve, and mix them in a basin with a pint of syrup made from 1 lb. of sugar, clarified, and flavoured with vanilla, 1 pint of cream, and the yolks of 12 eggs. Set this mixture over a slow fire, stirring it without ceasing, and just as it begins to boil, take it off and pass it through a tammy. When it is cold, put it into a freezing-pot, adding the Maraschino, and make the mixture set; then add the sliced citron, the currants, and stoned raisins (these two latter should be soaked the day previously in Maraschino and sugar pounded with vanilla); the whole thus mingled, add a plateful of whipped cream mixed with the whites of 3 eggs, beaten to a froth with a little syrup. When the pudding is perfectly frozen, put it into a pineapple-shaped mould; close the lid, place it again in the freezing-pan, covered over with pounded ice and saltpetre, and let it remain until required for table; then turn the pudding out, and serve.

Time.—½ hour to freeze the mixture.

Seasonable from October to February.

BAKED ORANGE PUDDING.

1314. Ingredients.—6 oz. of stale sponge cake or bruised ratafias, 6 oranges, 1 pint of milk, 6 eggs, ½ lb. of sugar.

Mode.—Bruise the sponge cake or ratafias into fine crumbs, and pour upon them the milk, which should be boiling. Rub the rinds of 2 of the oranges on sugar, and add this, with the juice of the remainder, to the other ingredients. Beat up the eggs, stir them in, sweeten to 660 taste, and put the mixture into a pie-dish previously lined with puff-paste. Bake for rather more than ½ hour; turn it out of the dish, strew sifted sugar over, and serve.

Time.—Rather more than ½ hour.

Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

Seasonable from November to May.

picture of “ORANGE.”

ORANGE.

Orange (Citrus Aurantium).—The principal varieties are the sweet, or China orange, and the bitter, or Seville orange; the Maltese is also worthy of notice, from its red blood-like pulp. The orange is extensively cultivated in the south of Europe, and in Devonshire, on walls with a south aspect, it bears an abundance of fruit. So great is the increase in the demand for the orange, and so ample the supply, that it promises to rival the apple in its popularity. The orange-tree is considered young at the age of a hundred years. The pulp of the orange consists of a collection of oblong vesicles filled with a sugary and refreshing juice. The orange blossom is proverbially chosen for the bridal wreath, and, from the same flower, an essential oil is extracted hardly less esteemed than the celebrated ottar of roses. Of all marmalades, that made from the Seville orange is the best. The peel and juice of the orange are much used in culinary preparations. From oranges are made preserves, comfitures, jellies, glacés, sherbet, liqueurs, and syrups. The juice of the orange in a glass d’eau sucrée makes a refreshing and wholesome drink. From the clarified pulp of the orange the French make a delicious jelly, which they serve in small pots, and call crême. The rasped peel of the orange is used in several sweet entremets, to which it communicates its perfume. The confectioner manufactures a variety of dainties from all parts of the orange. Confections of orange-peel are excellent tonics and stomachics. Persons with delicate stomachs should abstain from oranges at dessert, because their acidity is likely to derange the digestive organs.

SMALL DISHES OF PASTRY FOR ENTREMETS, SUPPER-DISHES, &c.

FANCHONNETTES, or CUSTARD TARTLETS.

1315. Ingredients.—For the custard, 4 eggs, ¾ pint of milk, 2 oz. of butter, 2 oz. of pounded sugar, 3 dessert­spoonfuls of flour, flavouring to taste; the whites of 2 eggs, 2 oz. of pounded sugar.

Mode.—Well beat the eggs; stir to them the milk, the butter, which should be beaten to a cream, the sugar, and flour; mix these ingredients well together, put them into a very clean saucepan, and bring them to the simmering point, but do not allow them to boil. Flavour with essence of vanilla, bitter almonds, lemon, grated chocolate, or any flavouring ingredient that may be preferred. Line some round tartlet-pans with good puff-paste; fill them with the custard, and bake in a moderate oven for about 20 minutes; then take them out of the pans; let them cool, and in the mean time whisk the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth; stir into this the pounded sugar, and spread smoothly over the tartlets a little of this mixture. Put them in the oven again to set the icing, but be particular that they do not scorch: 661 when the icing looks crisp, they are done. Arrange them, piled high in the centre, on a white napkin, and garnish the dish, and in between the tartlets, with strips of bright jelly, or very firmly-made preserve.

Time.—20 minutes to bake the tartlets; 5 minutes after being iced.

Average cost, exclusive of the paste, 1s.

Sufficient to fill 10 or 12 tartlets.

Seasonable at any time.

Note.—The icing may be omitted on the top of the tartlets, and a spoonful of any kind of preserve put at the bottom of the custard instead: this varies both the flavour and appearance of this dish.

ALMOND FLOWERS.

1316. Ingredients.—Puff-paste No. 1205; to every ½ lb. of paste allow 3 oz. of almonds, sifted sugar, the white of an egg.

Mode.—Roll the paste out to the thickness of ¼ inch, and, with a round fluted cutter, stamp out as many pieces as may be required. Work the paste up again, roll it out, and, with a smaller cutter, stamp out some pieces the size of a shilling. Brush the larger pieces over with the white of an egg, and place one of the smaller pieces on each. Blanch and cut the almonds into strips lengthwise; press them slanting into the paste closely round the rings; and when they are all completed, sift over some pounded sugar, and bake for about ¼ hour or 20 minutes. Garnish between the almonds with strips of apple jelly, and place in the centre of the ring a small quantity of strawberry jam; pile them high on the dish, and serve.

Time.—¼ hour or 20 minutes.

Sufficient.—18 or 20 for a dish.

Seasonable at any time.

FLUTED ROLLS.

1317. Ingredients.—Puff-paste, the white of an egg, sifted sugar, jelly or preserve.

Mode.—Make some good puff-paste by recipe No. 1205 (trimmings answer very well for little dishes of this sort); roll it out to the thickness of ¼ inch, and, with a round fluted paste-cutter, stamp out as many round pieces as may be required; brush over the upper side with the white of an egg; roll up the pieces, pressing the paste lightly together where it joins; place the rolls on a baking-sheet, and bake for about ¼ hour. A few minutes before they are done, brush them over with the white of an egg; strew over sifted sugar, put them back in the oven; and when the icing is firm and of a pale brown colour, they are done. Place a strip of jelly or preserve across each roll, dish them high on a napkin, and serve cold.

662

Time.—¼ hour before being iced; 5 to 10 minutes after.

Average cost, 1s. 3d.

Sufficient.—½ lb. of puff-paste for 2 dishes.

Seasonable at any time.

PASTRY SANDWICHES.

1318. Ingredients.—Puff-paste, jam of any kind, the white of an egg, sifted sugar.

Mode.—Roll the paste out thin; put half of it on a baking-sheet or tin, and spread equally over it apricot, greengage, or any preserve that may be preferred. Lay over this preserve another thin paste; press the edges together all round; and mark the paste in lines with a knife on the surface, to show where to cut it when baked. Bake from 20 minutes to ½ hour; and, a short time before being done, take the pastry out of the oven, brush it over with the white of an egg, sift over pounded sugar, and put it back in the oven to colour. When cold, cut it into strips; pile these on a dish pyramidically, and serve. These strips, cut about 2 inches long, piled in circular rows, and a plateful of flavoured whipped cream poured in the middle, make a very pretty dish.

Time.—20 minutes to ½ hour.

Average cost, with ½ lb. of paste, 1s.

Sufficient.—½ lb. of paste will make 2 dishes of sandwiches.

Seasonable at any time.

PETITES BOUCHEES.

1319. Ingredients.—6 oz. of sweet almonds, ¼ lb. of sifted sugar, the rind of ½ lemon, the white of 1 egg, puff-paste.

Mode.—Blanch the almonds, and chop them fine; rub the sugar on the lemon-rind, and pound it in a mortar; mix this with the almonds and the white of the egg. Roll some puff-paste out; cut it in any shape that may be preferred, such as diamonds, rings, ovals, &c., and spread the above mixture over the paste. Bake the bouchées in an oven, not too hot, and serve cold.

Time.—¼ hour, or rather more.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for ½ lb. of puff-paste.

Seasonable at any time.

POLISH TARTLETS.

1320. Ingredients.—Puff-paste, the white of an egg, pounded sugar.

Mode.—Roll some good puff-paste out thin, and cut it into 2½-inch squares; brush each square over with the white of an egg, then fold down the corners, so that they all meet in the middle of each piece of 663 paste; slightly press the two pieces together, brush them over with the egg, sift over sugar, and bake in a nice quick oven for about ¼ hour. When they are done, make a little hole in the middle of the paste, and fill it up with apricot jam, marmalade, or red-currant jelly. Pile them high in the centre of a dish, on a napkin, and garnish with the same preserve the tartlets are filled with.

Time.—¼ hour or 20 minutes.

Average cost, with ½ lb. of puff-paste, 1s.

Sufficient for 2 dishes of pastry.

Seasonable at any time.

Note.—It should be borne in mind, that, for all dishes of small pastry, such as the preceding, trimmings of puff-paste, left from larger tarts, answer as well as making the paste expressly.

PUITS d’AMOUR, or PUFF-PASTE RINGS.

1321. Ingredients.—Puff-paste No. 1205, the white of an egg, sifted loaf sugar.

Mode.—Make some good puff-paste by recipe No. 1205; roll it out to the thickness of about ¼ inch, and, with a round fluted paste-cutter, stamp out as many pieces as may be required; then work the paste up again, and roll it out to the same thickness, and with a smaller cutter, stamp out sufficient pieces to correspond with the larger ones. Again stamp out the centre of these smaller rings; brush over the others with the white of an egg, place a small ring on the top of every large circular piece of paste, egg over the tops, and bake from 15 to 20 minutes. Sift over sugar, put them back in the oven to colour them; then fill the rings with preserve of any bright colour. Dish them high on a napkin, and serve. So many pretty dishes of pastry may be made by stamping puff-paste out with fancy cutters, and filling the pieces, when baked, with jelly or preserve, that our space will not allow us to give a separate recipe for each of them; but, as they are all made from one paste, and only the shape and garnishing varied, perhaps it is not necessary, and by exercising a little ingenuity, variety may always be obtained. Half-moons, leaves, diamonds, stars, shamrocks, rings, &c., are the most appropriate shapes for fancy pastry.

Time.—15 to 25 minutes.

Average cost, with ½ lb. of paste, 1s.

Sufficient for 2 dishes of pastry.

Seasonable at any time.

PARADISE PUDDING.

1322. Ingredients.—3 eggs, 3 apples, ¼ lb. of bread crumbs, 3 oz. of sugar, 3 oz. of currants, salt and grated nutmeg to taste, the rind of ½ lemon, ½ wineglassful of brandy.

664

Mode.—Pare, core, and mince the apples into small pieces, and mix them with the other dry ingredients; beat up the eggs, moisten the mixture with these, and beat it well; stir in the brandy, and put the pudding into a buttered mould; tie it down with a cloth, boil for 1½ hour, and serve with sweet sauce.

Time.—1½ hour.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

PEASE PUDDING.

1323. Ingredients.—1½ pint of split peas, 2 oz. of butter, 2 eggs, pepper and salt to taste.

Mode.—Put the peas to soak over-night, in rain-water, and float off any that are wormeaten or discoloured. Tie them loosely in a clean cloth, leaving a little room for them to swell, and put them on to boil in cold rain-water, allowing 2½ hours after the water has simmered up. When the peas are tender, take them up and drain; rub them through a colander with a wooden spoon; add the butter, eggs, pepper, and salt; beat all well together for a few minutes, until the ingredients are well incorporated; then tie them tightly in a floured cloth; boil the pudding for another hour, turn it on to the dish, and serve very hot. This pudding should always be sent to table with boiled leg of pork, and is an exceedingly nice accompaniment to boiled beef.

Time.—2½ hours to boil the peas, tied loosely in the cloth; 1 hour for the pudding.

Average cost, 6d.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

Seasonable from September to March.

BAKED PLUM-PUDDING.

1324. Ingredients.—2 lbs. of flour, 1 lb. of currants, 1 lb. of raisins, 1 lb. of suet, 2 eggs, 1 pint of milk, a few slices of candied peel.

picture of “RAISIN-GRAPE.”

RAISIN-GRAPE.

Mode.—Chop the suet finely; mix with it the flour, currants, stoned raisins, and candied peel; moisten with the well-beaten eggs, and add sufficient milk to make the pudding of the consistency of very thick batter. Put it into a buttered dish, and bake in a good oven from 2¼ to 2½ hours; turn it out, strew sifted sugar over, and serve. For a very plain pudding, use only half the quantity of fruit, omit the eggs, and substitute milk or water for them. The above ingredients make a large family pudding; for a small one, half the 665 quantity would be found ample; but it must be baked quite 1½ hour.

Time.—Large pudding, 2¼ to 2½ hours; half the size, 1½ hour.

Average cost, 2s. 6d.

Sufficient for 9 or 10 persons.

Seasonable in winter.

Raisin-Grape.—All the kinds of raisins have much the same virtues; they are nutritive and balsamic, but they are very subject to fermentation with juices of any kind; and hence, when eaten immoderately, they often bring on colics. There are many varieties of grape used for raisins; the fruit of Valencia is that mostly dried for culinary purposes, whilst most of the table kinds are grown in Malaga, and called Muscatels. The finest of all table raisins come from Provence or Italy; the most esteemed of all are those of Roquevaire; they are very large and very sweet. This sort is rarely eaten by any but the most wealthy. The dried Malaga, or Muscatel raisins, which come to this country packed in small boxes, and nicely preserved in bunches, are variable in their quality, but mostly of a rich flavour, when new, juicy, and of a deep purple hue.

AN EXCELLENT PLUM-PUDDING, made without Eggs.

1325. Ingredients.—½ lb. of flour, 6 oz. of raisins, 6 oz. of currants, ¼ lb. of chopped suet, ¼ lb. of brown sugar, ¼ lb. of mashed carrot, ¼ lb. of mashed potatoes, 1 tablespoonful of treacle, 1 oz. of candied lemon-peel, 1 oz. of candied citron.

Mode.—Mix the flour, currants, suet, and sugar well together; have ready the above proportions of mashed carrot and potato, which stir into the other ingredients; add the treacle and lemon-peel; but put no liquid in the mixture, or it will be spoiled. Tie it loosely in a cloth, or, if put in a basin, do not quite fill it, as the pudding should have room to swell, and boil it for 4 hours. Serve with brandy-sauce. This pudding is better for being mixed over-night.

Time.—4 hours.

Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable in winter.

AN UNRIVALLED PLUM-PUDDING.

1326. Ingredients.—1½ lb. of muscatel raisins, 1¾ lb. of currants, 1 lb. of sultana raisins, 2 lbs. of the finest moist sugar, 2 lbs. of bread crumbs, 16 eggs, 2 lbs. of finely-chopped suet, 6 oz. of mixed candied peel, the rind of 2 lemons, 1 oz. of ground nutmeg, 1 oz. of ground cinnamon, ½ oz. of pounded bitter almonds, ¼ pint of brandy.

Mode.—Stone and cut up the raisins, but do not chop them; wash and dry the currants, and cut the candied peel into thin slices. Mix all the dry ingredients well together, and moisten with the eggs, 666 which should be well beaten and strained, to the pudding; stir in the brandy, and, when all is thoroughly mixed, well butter and flour a stout new pudding-cloth; put in the pudding, tie it down very tightly and closely, boil from 6 to 8 hours, and serve with brandy-sauce. A few sweet almonds, blanched and cut in strips, and stuck on the pudding, ornament it prettily. This quantity may be divided and boiled in buttered moulds. For small families this is the most desirable way, as the above will be found to make a pudding of rather large dimensions.

picture of “SULTANA GRAPE.”

SULTANA GRAPE.

Time.—6 to 8 hours.

Average cost, 7s. 6d.

Seasonable in winter.

Sufficient for 12 or 14 persons.

Note.—The muscatel raisins can be purchased at a cheap rate loose (not in bunches): they are then scarcely higher in price than the ordinary raisins, and impart a much richer flavour to the pudding.

Sultana Grape.—We have elsewhere stated that the small black grape grown in Corinth and the Ionian Isles is, when dried, the common currant of the grocers’ shops; the white or yellow grape, grown in the same places, is somewhat larger than the black variety, and is that which produces the Sultana raisin. It has been called Sultana from its delicate qualities and unique growth: the finest are those of Smyrna. They have not sufficient flavour and sugary properties to serve alone for puddings and cakes, but they are peculiarly valuable for mixing, that is to say, for introducing in company with the richer sorts of Valencias or Muscatels. In white puddings, or cakes, too, where the whiteness must be preserved, the Sultana raisin should be used. But the greatest value of this fruit in the cuisine is that of its saving labour; for it has no stones. Half Muscatels and half Sultanas are an admirable mixture for general purposes.

MODERN MODE OF SERVING DISHES.

Full-page color plate 11

N1. Raised Pie. O1. Vol-au-Vent. P1. Christmas Plum Pudding in Mould. Q1. Apples in Custard. R1. Charlottes aux Pommes.

plate closeup plate closeup plate closeup plate closeup plate closeup
A PLAIN CHRISTMAS PUDDING FOR CHILDREN.

1327. Ingredients.—1 lb. of flour, 1 lb. of bread crumbs, ¾ lb. of stoned raisins, ¾ lb. of currants, ¾ lb. of suet, 3 or 4 eggs, milk, 2 oz. of candied peel, 1 teaspoonful of powdered allspice, ½ saltspoonful of salt.

Mode.—Let the suet be finely chopped, the raisins stoned, and the currants well washed, picked, and dried. Mix these with the other dry ingredients, and stir all well together; beat and strain the eggs to the pudding, stir these in, and add just sufficient milk to make it mix properly. Tie it up in a well-floured cloth, put it into boiling water, and boil for at least 5 hours. Serve with a sprig of holly placed in the middle of the pudding, and a little pounded sugar sprinkled over it.

Time.—5 hours.

Average cost, 1s. 9d.

Sufficient for 9 or 10 children.

Seasonable at Christmas.

667

Raisins.—Raisins are grapes, prepared by suffering them to remain on the vine until they are perfectly ripe, and then drying them in the sun or by the heat of an oven. The sun-dried grapes are sweet, the oven-dried of an acid flavour. The common way of drying grapes for raisins is to tie two or three bunches of them together, whilst yet on the vine, and dip them into a hot lixivium of wood-ashes mixed with a little of the oil of olives: this disposes them to shrink and wrinkle, after which they are left on the vine three or four days, separated, on sticks in a horizontal situation, and then dried in the sun at leisure, after being cut from the tree.

color plate “Christmas Plum Pudding in Mould.”

P1. Christmas Plum Pudding in Mould.

CHRISTMAS PLUM-PUDDING.
(Very Good.)

1328. Ingredients.—1½ lb. of raisins, ½ lb. of currants, ½ lb. of mixed peel, ¾ lb. of bread crumbs, ¾ lb. of suet, 8 eggs, 1 wineglassful of brandy.

picture of “CHRISTMAS PLUM-PUDDING IN MOULD.”

CHRISTMAS PLUM-PUDDING IN MOULD.

Mode.—Stone and cut the raisins in halves, but do not chop them; wash, pick, and dry the currants, and mince the suet finely; cut the candied peel into thin slices, and grate down the bread into fine crumbs. When all these dry ingredients are prepared, mix them well together; then moisten the mixture with the eggs, which should be well beaten, and the brandy; stir well, that everything may be very thoroughly blended, and press the pudding into a buttered mould; tie it down tightly with a floured cloth, and boil for 5 or 6 hours. It may be boiled in a cloth without a mould, and will require the same time allowed for cooking. As Christmas puddings are usually made a few days before they are required for table, when the pudding is taken out of the pot, hang it up immediately, and put a plate or saucer underneath to catch the water that may drain from it. The day it is to be eaten, plunge it into boiling water, and keep it boiling for at least 2 hours; then turn it out of the mould, and serve with brandy-sauce. On Christmas-day a sprig of holly is usually placed in the middle of the pudding, and about a wineglassful of brandy poured round it, which, at the moment of serving, is lighted, and the pudding thus brought to table encircled in flame.

Time.—5 or 6 hours the first time of boiling; 2 hours the day it is to be served.

Average cost, 4s.

Sufficient for a quart mould for 7 or 8 persons.

Seasonable on the 25th of December, and on various festive occasions till March.

Note.—Five or six of these puddings should be made at one time, as they 668 will keep good for many weeks, and in cases where unexpected guests arrive, will be found an acceptable, and, as it only requires warming through, a quickly-prepared dish. Moulds of every shape and size are manufactured for these puddings, and may be purchased of Messrs. R. & J. Slack, 336, Strand.

Brandy is the alcoholic or spirituous portion of wine, separated from the aqueous part, the colouring matter, &c., by distillation. The word is of German origin, and in its German form, brantwein, signifies burnt wine, or wine that has undergone the action of fire; brandies, so called, however, have been made from potatoes, carrots, beetroot, pears, and other vegetable substances; but they are all inferior to true brandy. Brandy is prepared in most wine countries, but that of France is the most esteemed. It is procured not only by distilling the wine itself, but also by fermenting and distilling the marc, or residue of the pressings of the grape. It is procured indifferently from red or white wine, and different wines yield very different proportions of it, the strongest, of course, giving the largest quantity. Brandy obtained from marc has a more acrid taste than that from wine. The celebrated brandy of Cognac, a town in the department of Charente, and that brought from Andraye, seem to owe their excellence from being made from white wine. Like other spirit, brandy is colourless when recently distilled; by mere keeping, however, owing, probably, to some change in the soluble matter contained in it, it acquires a slight colour, which is much increased by keeping in casks, and is made of the required intensity by the addition of burnt sugar or other colouring matter. What is called British brandy is not, in fact, brandy, which is the name, as we have said, of a spirit distilled from wine; but is a spirit made chiefly from malt spirit, with the addition of mineral acids and various flavouring ingredients, the exact composition being kept secret. It is distilled somewhat extensively in this country; real brandy scarcely at all. The brandies imported into England are chiefly from Bordeaux, Rochelle, and Cognac.

A POUND PLUM-PUDDING.

1329. Ingredients.—1 lb. of suet, 1 lb. of currants, 1 lb. of stoned raisins, 8 eggs, ½ grated nutmeg, 2 oz. of sliced candied peel, 1 teaspoonful of ground ginger, ½ lb. of bread crumbs, ½ lb. of flour, ½ pint of milk.

picture of “BAKED PUDDING- OR CAKE-MOULD.”

BAKED PUDDING- OR CAKE-MOULD.

Mode.—Chop the suet finely; mix with it the dry ingredients; stir these well together, and add the well-beaten eggs and milk to moisten with. Beat up the mixture well, and should the above proportion of milk not be found sufficient to make it of the proper consistency, a little more should be added. Press the pudding into a mould, tie it in a floured cloth, and boil for 5 hours, or rather longer, and serve with brandy-sauce.

Time.—5 hours, or longer.

Average cost, 3s.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

Seasonable in winter.

Note.—The above pudding may be baked instead of boiled; it should be put into a buttered mould or tin, and baked for about 2 hours; a smaller one would take about 1¼ hour.

Citron.—The fruit of the citron-tree (Citrus medica) is acidulous, antiseptic, and antiscorbutic: it excites the appetite, and stops vomiting, and, like lemon-juice, has been greatly extolled in chronic rheumatism, gout, and scurvy. Mixed with cordials, it is 669 used as an antidote to the machineel poison. The candied peel is prepared in the same manner as orange or lemon-peel; that is to say, the peel is boiled in water until quite soft, and then suspended in concentrated syrup (in the cold), after which it is either dried in a current of warm air, or in a stove, at a heat not exceeding 120° Fahrenheit. The syrup must be kept fully saturated with sugar by reboiling it once or twice during the process. It may be dusted with powdered lump sugar, if necessary. The citron is supposed to be the Median, Assyrian, or Persian apple of the Greeks. It is described by Risso as having a majestic appearance, its shining leaves and rosy flowers being succeeded by fruit whose beauty and size astonish the observer, whilst their odour gratifies his senses. In China there is an enormous variety, but the citron is cultivated in all orange-growing countries.

PLUM-PUDDING OF FRESH FRUIT.

1330. Ingredients.—¾ lb. of suet crust No. 1215, 1½ pint of Orleans or any other kind of plum, ¼ lb. of moist sugar.

picture of “PLUM.”

PLUM.

Mode.—Line a pudding-basin with suet crust rolled out to the thickness of about ½ inch; fill the basin with the fruit, put in the sugar, and cover with crust. Fold the edges over, and pinch them together, to prevent the juice escaping. Tie over a floured cloth, put the pudding into boiling water, and boil from 2 to 2½ hours. Turn it out of the basin, and serve quickly.

Time.—2 to 2½ hours.

Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable, with various kinds of plums, from the beginning of August to the beginning of October.

Plums.—Almost all the varieties of the cultivated plum are agreeable and refreshing: it is not a nourishing fruit, and if indulged in to excess, when unripe, is almost certain to cause diarrhœa and cholera. Weak and delicate persons had better abstain from plums altogether. The modes of preparing plums are as numerous as the varieties of the fruit. The objections raised against raw plums do not apply to the cooked fruit, which even the invalid may eat in moderation.

PLUM TART.

1331. Ingredients.—½ lb. of good short crust No. 1211, 1½ pint of plums, ¼ lb. of moist sugar.

picture of “PLUM TART.”

PLUM TART.

Mode.—Line the edges of a deep tart-dish with crust made by recipe No. 1211; fill the dish with plums, and place a small cup or jar, upside down, in the midst of them. Put in the sugar, cover the pie with crust, ornament the edges, and bake in a good oven from ½ to ¾ hour. When puff-crust is preferred to short crust, use that made by recipe No. 1206, and glaze the top by brushing it over with the white 670 of an egg beaten to a stiff froth with a knife; sprinkle over a little sifted sugar, and put the pie in the oven to set the glaze.

Time.—½ to ¾ hour.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable, with various kinds of plums, from the beginning of August to the beginning of October.

POTATO PASTY.

1332. Ingredients.—1½ lb. of rump-steak or mutton cutlets, pepper and salt to taste, ⅓ pint of weak broth or gravy, 1 oz. of butter, mashed potatoes.

picture of “POTATO-PASTY PAN.”

POTATO-PASTY PAN.

Mode.—Place the meat, cut in small pieces, at the bottom of the pan; season it with pepper and salt, and add the gravy and butter broken into small pieces. Put on the perforated plate, with its valve-pipe screwed on, and fill up the whole space to the top of the tube with nicely-mashed potatoes mixed with a little milk, and finish the surface of them in any ornamental manner. If carefully baked, the potatoes will be covered with a delicate brown crust, retaining all the savoury steam rising from the meat. Send it to table as it comes from the oven, with a napkin folded round it.

Time.—40 to 60 minutes.

Average cost, 2s.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

POTATO PUDDING.

1333. Ingredients.—½ lb. of mashed potatoes, 2 oz. of butter, 2 eggs, ¼ pint of milk, 3 tablespoonfuls of sherry, ¼ saltspoonful of salt, the juice and rind of 1 small lemon, 2 oz. of sugar.

Mode.—Boil sufficient potatoes to make ½ lb. when mashed; add to these the butter, eggs, milk, sherry, lemon-juice, and sugar; mince the lemon-peel very finely, and beat all the ingredients well together. Put the pudding into a buttered pie-dish, and bake for rather more than ½ hour. To enrich it, add a few pounded almonds, and increase the quantity of eggs and butter.

Time.—½ hour, or rather longer.

Average cost, 8d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

TO ICE OR GLAZE PASTBY.

1334. To glaze pastry, which is the usual method adopted for meat or raised pies, break an egg, separate the yolk from the white, and 671 beat the former for a short time. Then, when the pastry is nearly baked, take it out of the oven, brush it over with this beaten yolk of egg, and put it back in the oven to set the glaze.

1335. To ice pastry, which is the usual method adopted for fruit tarts and sweet dishes of pastry, put the white of an egg on a plate, and with the blade of a knife beat it to a stiff froth. When the pastry is nearly baked, brush it over with this, and sift over some pounded sugar; put it back into the oven to set the glaze, and, in a few minutes, it will be done. Great care should be taken that the paste does not catch or burn in the oven, which it is very liable to do after the icing is laid on.

Sufficient.—Allow 1 egg and 1½ oz. of sugar to glaze 3 tarts.

picture of “SUGAR-CANES.”

SUGAR-CANES.

Sugar has been happily called “the honey of reeds.” The sugar-cane appears to be originally a native of the East Indies. The Chinese have cultivated it for 2,000 years. The Egyptians, Phœnicians, and Jews knew nothing about it. The Greek physicians are the first who speak of it. It was not till the year 1471 that a Venetian discovered the method of purifying brown sugar and making loaf sugar. He gained an immense fortune by this discovery. Our supplies are now obtained from Barbadoes, Jamaica, Mauritius, Ceylon, the East and West Indies generally, and the United States; but the largest supplies come from Cuba. Sugar is divided into the following classes:—Refined sugar, white clayed, brown clayed, brown raw, and molasses. The sugar-cane grows to the height of six, twelve, or even sometimes twenty feet. It is propagated from cuttings, requires much hoeing and weeding, giving employment to thousands upon thousands of slaves in the slave countries, and attains maturity in twelve or thirteen months. When ripe, it is cut down close to the stole, the stems are divided into lengths of about three feet, which are made up into bundles, and carried to the mill, to be crushed between rollers. In the process of crushing, the juice runs down into a reservoir, from which, after a while, it is drawn through a siphon; that is to say, the clear fluid is taken from the scum. This fluid undergoes several processes of drying and refining; the methods varying in different manufactories. There are some large establishments engaged in sugar-refining in the neighbourhoods of Blackwall and Bethnal Green, London. The process is mostly in the hands of German workmen. Sugar is adulterated with fine sand and sawdust. Pure sugar is highly nutritious, adding to the fatty tissue of the body; but it is not easy of digestion.

BAKED RAISIN PUDDING.
(Plain and Economical.)

1336. Ingredients.—1 lb. of flour, ¾ lb. of stoned raisins, ½ lb. of suet, a pinch of salt, 1 oz. of sugar, a little grated nutmeg, milk.

Mode.—Chop the suet finely; stone the raisins and cut them in halves; mix these with the suet, add the salt, sugar, and grated nutmeg, and moisten the whole with sufficient milk to make it of the consistency 672 of thick batter. Put the pudding into a buttered pie-dish, and bake for 1½ hour, or rather longer. Turn it out of the dish, strew sifted sugar over, and serve. This is a very plain recipe, and suitable where there is a family of children. It, of course, can be much improved by the addition of candied peel, currants, and rather a larger proportion of suet: a few eggs would also make the pudding richer.

Time.—1½ hour.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

Seasonable in winter.

Introduction of Sugar.—Sugar was first known as a drug, and used by the apothe­caries, and with them was a most important article. At its first appearance, some said it was heating; others, that it injured the chest; others, that it disposed persons to apoplexy; the truth, however, soon conquered these fancies, and the use of sugar has increased every day, and there is no household in the civilized world which can do without it.

BOILED RAISIN PUDDING.
(Plain and Economical.)

1337. Ingredients.—1 lb. of flour, ½ lb. of stoned raisins, ½ lb. of chopped suet, ½ saltspoonful of salt, milk.

Mode.—After having stoned the raisins and chopped the suet finely, mix them with the flour, add the salt, and when these dry ingredients are thoroughly mixed, moisten the pudding with sufficient milk to make it into rather a stiff paste. Tie it up in a floured cloth, put it into boiling water, and boil for 4 hours: serve with sifted sugar. This pudding may, also, be made in a long shape, the same as a rolled jam-pudding, and will then not require so long boiling;—2½ hours would then be quite sufficient.

Time.—Made round, 4 hours; in a long shape, 2½ hours.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 8 or 9 persons.

Seasonable in winter.

BOILED RHUBARB PUDDING.

1338. Ingredients.—4 or 5 sticks of fine rhubarb, ¼ lb. of moist sugar, ¾ lb. of suet-crust No. 1215.

Mode.—Make a suet-crust with ¾ lb. of flour, by recipe No. 1215, and line a buttered basin with it. Wash and wipe the rhubarb, and, if old, string it—that is to say, pare off the outside skin. Cut it into inch lengths, fill the basin with it, put in the sugar, and cover with crust. Pinch the edges of the pudding together, tie over it a floured cloth, put it into boiling water, and boil from 2 to 2½ hours. Turn it out of the basin, and serve with a jug of cream and sifted sugar.

Time.—2 to 2½ hours.

Average cost, 7d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable in spring.

673 2X
RHUBARB TART.

1339. Ingredients.—½ lb. of puff-paste No. 1206, about 5 sticks of large rhubarb, ¼ lb. of moist sugar.

picture of “RHUBARB.”

RHUBARB.

Mode.—Make a puff-crust by recipe No. 1206; line the edges of a deep pie-dish with it, and wash, wipe, and cut the rhubarb into pieces about 1 inch long. Should it be old and tough, string it, that is to say, pare off the outside skin. Pile the fruit high in the dish, as it shrinks very much in the cooking; put in the sugar, cover with crust, ornament the edges, and bake the tart in a well-heated oven from ½ to ¾ hour. If wanted very nice, brush it over with the white of an egg beaten to a stiff froth, then sprinkle on it some sifted sugar, and put it in the oven just to set the glaze: this should be done when the tart is nearly baked. A small quantity of lemon-juice, and a little of the peel minced, are by many persons considered an improvement to the flavour of rhubarb tart.

Time.—½ to ¾ hour.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable in spring.

Rhubarb.—This is one of the most useful of all garden productions that are put into pies and puddings. It was comparatively little known till within the last twenty or thirty years, but it is now cultivated in almost every British garden. The part used is the footstalks of the leaves, which, peeled and cut into small pieces, are put into tarts, either mixed with apples or alone. When quite young, they are much better not peeled. Rhubarb comes in season when apples are going out. The common rhubarb is a native of Asia; the scarlet variety has the finest flavour. Turkey rhubarb, the well-known medicinal drug, is the root of a very elegant plant (Rheum palmatum), coming to greatest perfection in Tartary. For culinary purposes, all kinds of rhubarb are the better for being blanched.

RAISED PIE OF POULTRY OR GAME.

color plate “Raised Pie.”

N1. Raised Pie.

picture of “RAISED PIE.”

RAISED PIE.

1340. Ingredients.—To every lb. of flour allow ½ lb. of butter, ½ pint of water, the yolks of 2 eggs, ½ teaspoonful of salt (these are for the crust); 1 large fowl or pheasant, a few slices of veal cutlet, a few slices of dressed ham, forcemeat, seasoning of nutmeg, allspice, pepper and salt, gravy.

Mode.—Make a stiff short crust with the above proportion of butter, flour, water, and eggs, and work it up very smoothly; butter a raised-pie mould, as shown in No. 1190, and line it with the paste. Previously to making the crust, bone the fowl, or whatever bird is intended to be used, lay it, breast downwards, upon a cloth, and season the inside well with pounded mace, allspice, pepper, and salt; then spread over it a layer of forcemeat, then a layer of seasoned 674 veal, and then one of ham, and then another layer of forcemeat, and roll the fowl over, making the skin meet at the back. Line the pie with forcemeat, put in the fowl, and fill up the cavities with slices of seasoned veal and ham and forcemeat; wet the edges of the pie, put on the cover, pinch the edges together with the paste-pincers, and decorate it with leaves; brush it over with beaten yolk of egg, and bake in a moderate oven for 4 hours. In the mean time, make a good strong gravy from the bones, pour it through a funnel into the hole at the top; cover this hole with a small leaf, and the pie, when cold, will be ready for use. Let it be remembered that the gravy must be considerably reduced before it is poured into the pie, as, when cold, it should form a firm jelly, and not be the least degree in a liquid state. This recipe is suitable for all kinds of poultry or game, using one or more birds, according to the size of the pie intended to be made; but the birds must always be boned. Truffles, mushrooms, &c., added to this pie, make it much nicer; and, to enrich it, lard the fleshy parts of the poultry or game with thin strips of bacon. This method of forming raised pies in a mould is generally called a timbale, and has the advantage of being more easily made than one where the paste is raised by the hands; the crust, besides, being eatable. (See coloured plate N1.)

Time.—Large pie, 4 hours.

Average cost, 6s. 6d.

Seasonable, with poultry, all the year; with game, from September to March.

RAISED PIE OF VEAL AND HAM.

1341. Ingredients.—3 or 4 lbs. of veal cutlets, a few slices of bacon or ham, seasoning of pepper, salt, nutmeg, and allspice, forcemeat No. 416, 2 lbs. of hot-water paste No. 1217, ½ pint of good strong gravy.

Mode.—To raise the crust for a pie with the hands is a very difficult task, and can only be accomplished by skilled and experienced cooks. The process should be seen to be satisfactorily learnt, and plenty of practice given to the making of raised pies, as by that means only will success be insured. Make a hot-water paste by recipe No. 1217, and from the mass raise the pie with the hands; if this cannot be accomplished, cut out pieces for the top and bottom, and a long piece for the sides; fasten the bottom and side-piece together by means of egg, and pinch the edges well together; then line the pie with forcemeat made by recipe No. 415, put in a layer of 675 veal, and a plentiful seasoning of salt, pepper, nutmeg, and allspice, as, let it be remembered, these pies taste very insipid unless highly seasoned. Over the seasoning place a layer of sliced bacon or cooked ham, and then a layer of forcemeat, veal seasoning, and bacon, and so on until the meat rises to about an inch above the paste; taking care to finish with a layer of forcemeat, to fill all the cavities of the pie, and to lay in the meat firmly and compactly. Brush the top edge of the pie with beaten egg, put on the cover, press the edges, and pinch them round with paste-pincers. Make a hole in the middle of the lid, and ornament the pie with leaves, which should be stuck on with the white of an egg; then brush it all over with the beaten yolk of an egg, and bake the pie in an oven with a soaking heat from 3 to 4 hours. To ascertain when it is done, run a sharp-pointed knife or skewer through the hole at the top into the middle of the pie, and if the meat feels tender, it is sufficiently baked. Have ready about ½ pint of very strong gravy, pour it through a funnel into the hole at the top, stop up the hole with a small leaf of baked paste, and put the pie away until wanted for use. Should it acquire too much colour in the baking, cover it with white paper, as the crust should not in the least degree be burnt. Mushrooms, truffles, and many other ingredients, may be added to enrich the flavour of these pies, and the very fleshy parts of the meat may be larded. These pies are more frequently served cold than hot, and form excellent dishes for cold suppers or breakfasts. The cover of the pie is sometimes carefully removed, leaving the perfect edges, and the top decorated with square pieces of very bright aspic jelly: this has an exceedingly pretty effect.

Time.—About 4 hours.

Average cost, 6s. 6d.

Sufficient for a very large pie.

Seasonable from March to October.

BAKED RICE PUDDING.
I.

1342. Ingredients.—1 small teacupful of rice, 4 eggs, 1 pint of milk, 2 oz. of fresh butter, 2 oz. of beef marrow, ¼ lb. of currants, 2 tablespoonfuls of brandy, nutmeg, ¼ lb. of sugar, the rind of ½ lemon.

Mode.—Put the lemon-rind and milk into a stewpan, and let it infuse till the milk is well flavoured with the lemon; in the mean time, boil the rice until tender in water, with a very small quantity of salt, and, when done, let it be thoroughly drained. Beat the eggs, stir to them the milk, which should be strained, the butter, marrow, currants, and remaining ingredients; add the rice, and mix all well together. Line the edges of the dish with puff-paste, put in the pudding, 676 and bake for about ¾ hour in a slow oven. Slices of candied-peel may be added at pleasure, or Sultana raisins may be substituted for the currants.

Time.—¾ hour.

Average cost, 1s. 3d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable.—Suitable for a winter pudding, when fresh fruits are not obtainable.

Rice, with proper management in cooking it, forms a very valuable and cheap addition to our farinaceous food, and, in years of scarcity, has been found eminently useful in lessening the consumption of flour. When boiled, it should be so managed that the grains, though soft, should be as little broken and as dry as possible. The water in which it is dressed should only simmer, and not boil hard. Very little water should be used, as the grains absorb a great deal, and, consequently, swell much; and if they take up too much at first, it is difficult to get rid of it. Baking it in puddings is the best mode of preparing it.

II.
(Plain and Economical; a nice Pudding for Children.)

1343. Ingredients.—1 teacupful of rice, 2 tablespoonfuls of moist sugar, 1 quart of milk, ½ oz. of butter or 2 small tablespoonfuls of chopped suet, ½ teaspoonful of grated nutmeg.

Mode.—Wash the rice, put it into a pie-dish with the sugar, pour in the milk, and stir those ingredients well together; then add the butter cut up into very small pieces, or, instead of this, the above proportion of finely-minced suet; grate a little nutmeg over the top, and bake the pudding, in a moderate oven, from 1½ to 2 hours. As the rice is not previously cooked, care must be taken that the pudding be very slowly baked, to give plenty of time for the rice to swell, and for it to be very thoroughly done.

Time.—1½ to 2 hours.

Average cost, 7d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 children.

Seasonable at any time.

PLAIN BOILED RICE PUDDING.

1344. Ingredients.—½ lb. of rice.

Mode.—Wash the rice, tie it in a pudding-cloth, allowing room for the rice to swell, and put it into a saucepan of cold water; boil it gently for 2 hours, and if, after a time, the cloth seems tied too loosely, take the rice up and tighten the cloth. Serve with sweet melted butter, or cold butter and sugar, or stewed fruit, jam, or marmalade; any of which accompaniments are suitable for plain boiled rice.

Time.—2 hours after the water boils.

Average cost, 2d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

BOILED RICE PUDDING.
I.

1345. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of rice, 1½ pint of new milk, 2 oz. of 677 butter, 4 eggs, ½ saltspoonful of salt, 4 large tablespoonfuls of moist sugar, flavouring to taste.

Mode.—Stew the rice very gently in the above proportion of new milk, and, when it is tender, pour it into a basin; stir in the butter, and let it stand to cool; then beat the eggs, add these to the rice with the sugar, salt, and any flavouring that may be approved, such as nutmeg, powdered cinnamon, grated lemon-peel, essence of bitter almonds, or vanilla. When all is well stirred, put the pudding into a buttered basin, tie it down with a cloth, plunge it into boiling water, and boil for 1¼ hour.

Time.—1¼ hour.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Varieties of Rice.—Of the varieties of rice brought to our market, that from Bengal is chiefly of the species denominated cargo rice, and is of a coarse reddish-brown cast, but peculiarly sweet and large-grained; it does not readily separate from the husk, but it is preferred by the natives to all the others. Patna rice is more esteemed in Europe, and is of very superior quality; it is small-grained, rather long and wiry, and is remarkably white. The Carolina rice is considered as the best, and is likewise the dearest in London.

II.
(With Dried or Fresh Fruit; a nice dish for the Nursery.)

1346. Ingredients.—½ lb. of rice, 1 pint of any kind of fresh fruit that may be preferred, or ½ lb. of raisins or currants.

Mode.—Wash the rice, tie it in a cloth, allowing room for it to swell, and put it into a saucepan of cold water; let it boil for an hour, then take it up, untie the cloth, stir in the fruit, and tie it up again tolerably tight, and put it into the water for the remainder of the time. Boil for another hour, or rather longer, and serve with sweet sauce, if made with dried fruit, and with plain sifted sugar and a little cream or milk, if made with fresh fruit.

Time.—1 hour to boil the rice without the fruit; 1 hour, or longer, afterwards.

Average cost, 6d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 children.

Seasonable at any time.

Note.—This pudding is very good made with apples: they should be pared, cored, and cut into thin shoes.

BOILED RICE FOR CURRIES, &c.

1347. Ingredients.—¾ lb. of rice, water, salt.

Mode.—Pick, wash, and soak the rice in plenty of cold water; then have ready a saucepan of boiling water, drop the rice into it, and keep it boiling quickly, with the lid uncovered, until it is tender, but not soft. Take it up, drain it, and put it on a dish before the fire to dry: do not handle it much with a spoon, but shake it about a 678 little with two forks, that it may all be equally dried, and strew over a little salt. It is now ready to serve, and may be heaped lightly on a dish by itself, or be laid round the dish as a border, with a curry or fricassee in the centre. Some cooks smooth the rice with the back of a spoon, and then brush it over with the yolk of an egg, and set it in the oven to colour; but the rice well boiled, white, dry, and with every grain distinct, is by far the more preferable mode of dressing it. During the process of boiling, the rice should be attentively watched, that it be not overdone, as, if this is the case, it will have a mashed and soft appearance.

Time.—15 to 25 minutes, according to the quality of the rice.

Average cost, 3d.

Sufficient for a large dish of curry.

Seasonable at any time.

Rice, in the native rough state, with the husk on, is called paddy, both in India and America, and it will keep better, and for a much longer time, in this state, than after the husk has been removed; besides which, prepared rice is apt to become dirty from rubbing about in the voyage on board ship, and in the warehouses. It is sometimes brought to England in the shape of paddy, and the husk detached here. Paddy pays less duty than shelled rice.

TO BOIL RICE FOR CURRIES, &c.
(Soyer’s Recipe.)

1348. Ingredients.—1 lb. of the best Carolina rice, 2 quarts of water, 1½ oz. of butter, a little salt.

Mode.—Wash the rice well in two waters; make 2 quarts of water boiling, and throw the rice into it; boil it until three-parts done, then drain it on a sieve. Butter the bottom and sides of a stewpan, put in the rice, place the lid on tightly, and set it by the side of the fire until the rice is perfectly tender, occasionally shaking the pan to prevent its sticking. Prepared thus, every grain should be separate and white. Either dish it separately, or place it round the curry as a border.

Time.—15 to 25 minutes.

Average cost, 7d.

Sufficient for 2 moderate-sized curries.

Seasonable at any time.

BUTTERED RICE.

1349. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of rice, 1½ pint of milk, 2 oz. of butter, sugar to taste, grated nutmeg or pounded cinnamon.

Mode.—Wash and pick the rice, drain and put it into a saucepan with the milk; let it swell gradually, and, when tender, pour off the milk; stir in the butter, sugar, and nutmeg or cinnamon, and, when the butter is thoroughly melted, and the whole is quite hot, serve. After the milk is poured off, be particular that the rice does not burn: to prevent this, do not cease stirring it.

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Time.—About ¾ hour to swell the rice.

Average cost, 7d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Rice was held in great esteem by the ancients: they considered it as a very beneficial food for the chest; therefore it was recommended in cases of consumption, and to persons subject to spitting of blood.

SAVOURY CASSEROLE OF RICE,
Or Rice Border, for Ragouts, Fricassees, &c. (an Entree).

1350. Ingredients.—1½ lb. of rice, 3 pints of weak stock or broth, 2 slices of fat ham, 1 teaspoonful of salt.

picture of “CASSEROLE OF RICE.”

CASSEROLE OF RICE.

Mode.—A casserole of rice, when made in a mould, is not such a difficult operation as when it is moulded by the hand. It is an elegant and inexpensive entrée, as the remains of cold fish, flesh, or fowl may be served as ragoûts, fricassees, &c., inclosed in the casserole. It requires great nicety in its preparation, the principal thing to attend to being the boiling of the rice, as, if this is not sufficiently cooked, the casserole, when moulded, will have a rough appearance, which would entirely spoil it. After having washed the rice in two or three waters, drain it well, and put it into a stewpan with the stock, ham, and salt; cover the pan closely, and let the rice gradually swell over a slow fire, occasionally stirring, to prevent its sticking. When it is quite soft, strain it, pick out the pieces of ham, and, with the back of a large wooden spoon, mash the rice to a perfectly smooth paste. Then well grease a mould (moulds are made purposely for rice borders), and turn it upside down for a minute or two, to drain away the fat, should there be too much; put some rice all round the bottom and sides of it; place a piece of soft bread in the middle, and cover it with rice; press it in equally with the spoon, and let it cool. Then dip the mould into hot water, turn the casserole carefully on to a dish, mark where the lid is to be formed on the top, by making an incision with the point of a knife about an inch from the edge all round, and put it into a very hot oven. Brush it over with a little clarified butter, and bake about ½ hour, or rather longer; then carefully remove the lid, which will be formed by the incision having been made all round, and remove the bread, in small pieces, with the point of a penknife, being careful not to injure the casserole. Fill the centre with the ragoût or fricassee, which should be made thick; put on the cover, glaze it, place it in the oven to set the glaze, and serve as hot as possible. The casserole should not be emptied too much, as it is liable to crack from the weight of whatever is put in; 680 and in baking it, let the oven be very hot, or the casserole will probably break.

Time.—About ¾ hour to swell the rice.

Sufficient for 2 moderate-sized casseroles.

Seasonable at any time.

SWEET CASSEROLE OF RICE (an Entremets).

1351. Ingredients.—1½ lb. of rice, 3 pints of milk, sugar to taste, flavouring of bitter almonds, 3 oz. of butter, the yolks of 3 eggs.

Mode.—This is made in precisely the same manner as a savoury casserole, only substituting the milk and sugar for the stock and salt. Put the milk into a stewpan, with sufficient essence of bitter almonds to flavour it well; then add the rice, which should be washed, picked, and drained, and let it swell gradually in the milk over a slow fire. When it is tender, stir in the sugar, butter, and yolks of eggs; butter a mould, press in the rice, and proceed in exactly the same manner as in recipe No. 1350. When the casserole is ready, fill it with a compôte of any fruit that may be preferred, or with melted apricot-jam, and serve.

Time.—From ¾ to 1 hour to swell the rice, ½ to ¾ hour to bake the casserole.

Average cost, exclusive of the compôte or jam, 1s. 9d.

Sufficient for 2 casseroles.

Seasonable at any time.

FRENCH RICE PUDDING, or GATEAU DE RIZ.

1352. Ingredients.—To every ¼ lb. of rice allow 1 quart of milk, the rind of 1 lemon, ½ teaspoonful of salt, sugar to taste, 4 oz. of butter, 6 eggs, bread crumbs.

Mode.—Put the milk into a stewpan with the lemon-rind, and let it infuse for ½ hour, or until the former is well flavoured; then take out the peel; have ready the rice washed, picked, and drained; put it into the milk, and let it gradually swell over a very slow fire. Stir in the butter, salt, and sugar, and when properly sweetened, add the yolks of the eggs, and then the whites, both of which should be well beaten, and added separately to the rice. Butter a mould, strew in some fine bread crumbs, and let them be spread equally over it; then carefully pour in the rice, and bake the pudding in a slow oven for 1 hour. Turn it out of the mould, and garnish the dish with preserved cherries, or any bright-coloured jelly or jam. This pudding would be exceedingly nice, flavoured with essence of vanilla.

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Time.—¾ to 1 hour for the rice to swell; to be baked 1 hour in a slow oven.

Average cost, 1s. 8d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

BAKED OR BOILED GROUND RICE PUDDING.

1353. Ingredients.—2 pints of milk, 6 tablespoonfuls of ground rice, sugar to taste, 4 eggs, flavouring of lemon-rind, nutmeg, bitter almonds or bay-leaf.

Mode.—Put 1½ pint of the milk into a stewpan, with any of the above flavourings, and bring it to the boiling-point, and, with the other ½ pint of milk, mix the ground rice to a smooth batter; strain the boiling milk to this, and stir over the fire until the mixture is tolerably thick; then pour it into a basin, leave it uncovered, and when nearly or quite cold, sweeten it to taste, and add the eggs, which should be previously well beaten, with a little salt. Put the pudding into a well-buttered basin, tie it down with a cloth, plunge it into boiling water, and boil for 1½ hour. For a baked pudding, proceed in precisely the same manner, only using half the above proportion of ground rice, with the same quantity of all the other ingredients: an hour will bake the pudding in a moderate oven. Stewed fruit, or preserves, or marmalade, may be served with either the boiled or baked pudding, and will be found an improvement.

Time.—1½ hour to boil, 1 hour to bake.

Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

ICED RICE PUDDING.

1354. Ingredients.—6 oz. of rice, 1 quart of milk, ½ lb. of sugar, the yolks of 6 eggs, 1 small teaspoonful of essence of vanilla.

Mode.—Put the rice into a stewpan, with the milk and sugar, and let these simmer over a gentle fire until the rice is sufficiently soft to break up into a smooth mass, and should the milk dry away too much, a little more may be added. Stir the rice occasionally, to prevent its burning, then beat it to a smooth mixture; add the yolks of the eggs, which should be well whisked, and the vanilla (should this flavouring not be liked, essence of bitter almonds may be substituted for it); put this rice custard into the freezing-pot, and proceed as directed in recipe No. 1290. When wanted for table, turn the pudding out of the mould, and pour over the top, and round it, a compôte of oranges, or any other fruit that may be preferred, taking care that the flavouring in the pudding harmonizes well with the fruit that is served with it.

682

Time.—½ hour to freeze the mixture.

Average cost, 1s. 6d.; exclusive of the compôte, 1s. 4d.

Seasonable.—Served all the year round.

MINIATURE RICE PUDDINGS.

1355. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of rice, 1½ pint of milk, 2 oz. of fresh butter, 4 eggs, sugar to taste; flavouring of lemon-peel, bitter almonds, or vanilla; a few strips of candied peel.

Mode.—Let the rice swell in 1 pint of the milk over a slow fire, putting with it a strip of lemon-peel; stir to it the butter and the other ½ pint of milk, and let the mixture cool. Then add the well-beaten eggs, and a few drops of essence of almonds or essence of vanilla, whichever may be preferred; butter well some small cups or moulds, line them with a few pieces of candied peel sliced very thin, fill them three parts full, and bake for about 40 minutes; turn them out of the cups on to a white d’oyley, and serve with sweet sauce. The flavouring and candied peel might be omitted, and stewed fruit or preserve served instead, with these puddings.

Time.—40 minutes.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 6 puddings.

Seasonable at any time.

ARROWROOT SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS.

1356. Ingredients.—2 small teaspoonfuls of arrowroot, 4 dessert­spoonfuls of pounded sugar, the juice of 1 lemon, ¼ teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, ½ pint of water.

Mode.—Mix the arrowroot smoothly with the water; put this into a stewpan; add the sugar, strained lemon-juice, and grated nutmeg. Stir these ingredients over the fire until they boil, when the sauce is ready for use. A small quantity of wine, or any liqueur, would very much improve the flavour of this sauce: it is usually served with bread, rice, custard, or any dry pudding that is not very rich.

Time.—Altogether, 15 minutes.

Average cost, 4d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

CHERRY SAUCE FOR SWEET PUDDINGS.
(German Recipe.)

1357. Ingredients.—1 lb. of cherries, 1 tablespoonful of flour, 1 oz. of butter, ½ pint of water, 1 wineglassful of port wine, a little grated lemon-rind, 4 pounded cloves, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice, sugar to taste.

Mode.—Stone the cherries, and pound the kernels in a mortar to a smooth paste; put the butter and flour into a saucepan; stir them 683 over the fire until of a pale brown; then add the cherries, the pounded kernels, the wine, and the water. Simmer these gently for ¼ hour, or until the cherries are quite cooked, and rub the whole through a hair sieve; add the remaining ingredients, let the sauce boil for another 5 minutes, and serve. This is a delicious sauce to serve with boiled batter pudding, and when thus used, should be sent to table poured over the pudding.

Time.—20 minutes to ½ hour.

Average cost, 1s. 2d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable in June, July, and August.

LEMON SAUCE FOR SWEET PUDDINGS.

1358. Ingredients.—The rind and juice of 1 lemon, 1 tablespoonful of flour, 1 oz. of butter, 1 large wineglassful of sherry, 1 wineglassful of water, sugar to taste, the yolks of 4 eggs.

Mode.—Rub the rind of the lemon on to some lumps of sugar; squeeze out the juice, and strain it; put the butter and flour into a saucepan, stir them over the fire, and when of a pale brown, add the wine, water, and strained lemon-juice. Crush the lumps of sugar that were rubbed on the lemon; stir these into the sauce, which should be very sweet. When these ingredients are well mixed, and the sugar is melted, put in the beaten yolks of 4 eggs; keep stirring the sauce until it thickens, when serve. Do not, on any account, allow it to boil, or it will curdle, and be entirely spoiled.

Time.—Altogether, 15 minutes.

Average cost, 1s. 2d.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

SOYER’S SAUCE FOR PLUM-PUDDING.

1359. Ingredients.—The yolks of 3 eggs, 1 tablespoonful of powdered sugar, 1 gill of milk, a very little grated lemon-rind, 2 small wineglassfuls of brandy.

Mode.—Separate the yolks from the whites of 3 eggs, and put the former into a stewpan; add the sugar, milk, and grated lemon-rind, and stir over the fire until the mixture thickens; but do not allow it to boil. Put in the brandy; let the sauce stand by the side of the fire, to get quite hot; keep stirring it, and serve in a boat or tureen separately, or pour it over the pudding.

Time.—Altogether, 10 minutes.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

SWEET SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS.

1360. Ingredients.—½ pint of melted butter made with milk, 3 heaped teaspoonfuls of pounded sugar, flavouring of grated lemon-rind, or nutmeg, or cinnamon.

684

Mode.—Make ½ pint of melted butter by recipe No. 380, omitting the salt; stir in the sugar, add a little grated lemon-rind, nutmeg, or powdered cinnamon, and serve. Previously to making the melted butter, the milk can be flavoured with bitter almonds, by infusing about half a dozen of them in it for about ½ hour; the milk should then be strained before it is added to the other ingredients. This simple sauce may be served for children with rice, batter, or bread pudding.

Time.—Altogether, 15 minutes.

Average cost, 4d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

VANILLA CUSTARD SAUCE, to serve with Puddings.

1361. Ingredients.—½ pint of milk, 2 eggs, 2 oz. of sugar, 10 drops of essence of vanilla.

Mode.—Beat the eggs, sweeten the milk; stir these ingredients well together, and flavour them with essence of vanilla, regulating the proportion of this latter ingredient by the strength of the essence, the size of the eggs, &c. Put the mixture into a small jug, place this jug in a saucepan of boiling water, and stir the sauce one way until it thickens; but do not allow it to boil, or it will instantly curdle. Serve in a boat or tureen separately, with plum, bread, or any kind of dry pudding. Essence of bitter almonds or lemon-rind may be substituted for the vanilla, when they are more in accordance with the flavouring of the pudding with which the sauce is intended to be served.

Time.—To be stirred in the jug from 8 to 10 minutes.

Average cost, 4d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

AN EXCELLENT WINE SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS.

1362. Ingredients.—The yolks of 4 eggs, 1 teaspoonful of flour, 2 oz. of pounded sugar, 2 oz. of fresh butter, ¼ saltspoonful of salt, ½ pint of sherry or Madeira.

Mode.—Put the butter and flour into a saucepan, and stir them over the fire until the former thickens; then add the sugar, salt, and wine, and mix these ingredients well together. Separate the yolks from the whites of 4 eggs; beat up the former, and stir them briskly to the sauce; let it remain over the fire until it is on the point of simmering; but do not allow it to boil, or it will instantly curdle. This sauce is delicious with plum, marrow, or bread puddings; but should be served separately, and not poured over the pudding.

Time.—From 5 to 7 minutes to thicken the butter; about 5 minutes to stir the sauce over the fire.

Average cost, 1s. 10d.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

685
WINE OR BRANDY SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS.

1363. Ingredients.—½ pint of melted butter No. 377, 3 heaped teaspoonfuls of pounded sugar; 1 large wineglassful of port or sherry, or ¾ of a small glassful of brandy.

Mode.—Make ½ pint of melted butter by recipe No. 377, omitting the salt; then stir in the sugar and wine or spirit in the above proportion, and bring the sauce to the point of boiling. Serve in a boat or tureen separately, and, if liked, pour a little of it over the pudding. To convert this into punch sauce, add to the sherry and brandy a small wineglassful of rum and the juice and grated rind of ½ lemon. Liqueurs, such as Maraschino or Curaçoa, substituted for the brandy, make excellent sauces.

Time.—Altogether, 15 minutes.

Average cost, 8d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

WINE SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS.

1364. Ingredients.—½ pint of sherry, ¼ pint of water, the yolks of 5 eggs, 2 oz. of pounded sugar, ½ teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, a few pieces of candied citron cut thin.

Mode.—Separate the yolks from the whites of 5 eggs; beat them, and put them into a very clean saucepan (if at hand, a lined one is best); add all the other ingredients, place them over a sharp fire, and keep stirring until the sauce begins to thicken; then take it off and serve. If it is allowed to boil, it will be spoiled, as it will immediately curdle.

Time.—To be stirred over the fire 3 or 4 minutes; but it must not boil.

Average cost, 2s.

Sufficient for a large pudding; allow half this quantity for a moderate-sized one.

Seasonable at any time.

OPEN TART OF STRAWBERRY OR ANY OTHER KIND OF PRESERVE.

1365. Ingredients.—Trimmings of puff-paste, any kind of jam.

Mode.—Butter a tart-pan of the shape shown in the engraving; roll out the paste to the thickness of ½ an inch, and line the pan with 686 it; prick a few holes at the bottom with a fork, and bake the tart in a brisk oven from 10 to 15 minutes. Let the paste cool a little; then fill it with preserve, place a few stars or leaves on it, which have been previously cut out of the paste and baked, and the tart is ready for table. By making it in this manner, both the flavour and colour of the jam are preserved, which would otherwise be lost, were it baked in the oven on the paste; and, besides, so much jam is not required.

picture of “OPEN TART.”

OPEN TART.

picture of “OPEN-TART MOULD.”

OPEN-TART MOULD.

Time.—10 to 15 minutes.

Average cost, 8d.

Sufficient.—1 tart for 3 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Strawberry.—The name of this favourite fruit is said to be derived from an ancient custom of putting straw beneath the fruit when it began to ripen, which is very useful to keep it moist and clean. The strawberry belongs to temperate and rather cold climates; and no fruit of these latitudes, that ripens without the aid of artificial heat, is at all comparable with it in point of flavour. The strawberry is widely diffused, being found in most parts of the world, particularly in Europe and America.

QUICKLY-MADE PUDDINGS.

1366. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of butter, ½ lb. of sifted sugar, ¼ lb. of flour, 1 pint of milk, 5 eggs, a little grated lemon-rind.

Mode.—Make the milk hot; stir in the butter, and let it cool before the other ingredients are added to it; then stir in the sugar, flour, and eggs, which should be well whisked, and omit the whites of 2; flavour with a little grated lemon-rind, and beat the mixture well. Butter some small cups, rather more than half fill them; bake from 20 minutes to ½ hour, according to the size of the puddings, and serve with fruit, custard, or wine sauce, a little of which may be poured over them.

Time.—20 minutes to ½ hour.

Average cost, 1s. 2d.

Sufficient for 6 puddings.

Seasonable at any time.

SAGO PUDDING.

1367. Ingredients.—1½ pint of milk, 3 tablespoonfuls of sago, the rind of ½ lemon, 3 oz. of sugar, 4 eggs, 1½ oz. of butter, grated nutmeg, puff-paste.

Mode.—Put the milk and lemon-rind into a stewpan, place it by the side of the fire, and let it remain until the milk is well flavoured with the lemon; then strain it, mix with it the sago and sugar, and simmer gently for about 15 minutes. Let the mixture cool a little, and stir to it the eggs, which should be well beaten, and the butter. Line the edges of a pie-dish with puff-paste, pour in the pudding, grate a little nutmeg over the top, and bake from ¾ to 1 hour.

Time.—¾ to 1 hour, or longer if the oven is very slow.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

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Note. The above pudding may be boiled instead of baked; but then allow 2 extra tablespoonfuls of sago, and boil the pudding in a buttered basin from 1¼ to 1¾ hour.

Sago.—Sago is the pith of a species of palm (Cycas circinalis). Its form is that of a small round grain. There are two sorts of sago,—the white and the yellow; but their properties are the same. Sago absorbs the liquid in which it is cooked, becomes transparent and soft, and retains its original shape. Its alimentary properties are the same as those of tapioca and arrowroot.

SAGO SAUCE FOR SWEET PUDDINGS.

1368. Ingredients.—1 tablespoonful of sago, ⅓ pint of water, ¼ pint of port or sherry, the rind and juice of 1 small lemon, sugar to taste; when the flavour is liked, a little pounded cinnamon.

Mode.—Wash the sago in two or three waters; then put it into a saucepan, with the water and lemon-peel; let it simmer gently by the side of the fire for 10 minutes; then take out the lemon-peel, add the remaining ingredients, give one boil, and serve. Be particular to strain the lemon-juice before adding it to the sauce. This, on trial, will be found a delicious accompaniment to various boiled puddings, such as those made of bread, raisins, rice, &c.

Time.—10 minutes.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

BAKED SEMOLINA PUDDING.

1369. Ingredients.—3 oz. of semolina, 1½ pint of milk, ¼ lb. of sugar, 12 bitter almonds, 3 oz. of butter, 4 eggs.

Mode.—Flavour the milk with the bitter almonds, by infusing them in it by the side of the fire for about ½ hour; then strain it, and mix with it the semolina, sugar, and butter. Stir these ingredients over the fire for a few minutes; then take them off, and gradually mix in the eggs, which should be well beaten. Butter a pie-dish, line the edges with puff-paste, put in the pudding, and bake in rather a slow oven from 40 to 50 minutes. Serve with custard sauce or stewed fruit, a little of which may be poured over the pudding.

Time.—40 to 50 minutes.

Average cost, 1s. 2d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Semolina.—After vermicelli, semolina is the most useful ingredient that can be used for thickening soups, meat or vegetable, of rich or simple quality. Semolina is softening, light, wholesome, easy of digestion, and adapted to the infant, the aged, and the invalid. That of a clear yellow colour, well dried and newly made, is the fittest for use.

TAPIOCA PUDDING.

1370. Ingredients.—3 oz. of tapioca, 1 quart of milk, 2 oz. of butter, ¼ lb. of sugar, 4 eggs, flavouring of vanilla, grated lemon-rind, or bitter almonds.

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Mode.—Wash the tapioca, and let it stew gently in the milk by the side of the fire for ¼ hour, occasionally stirring it; then let it cool a little; mix with it the butter, sugar, and eggs, which should be well beaten, and flavour with either of the above ingredients, putting in about 12 drops of the essence of almonds or vanilla, whichever is preferred. Butter a pie-dish, and line the edges with puff-paste; put in the pudding, and bake in a moderate oven for an hour. If the pudding is boiled, add a little more tapioca, and boil it in a buttered basin 1½ hour.

Time.—1 hour to bake, 1½ hour to boil.

Average cost, 1s. 2d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Tapioca.—Tapioca is recommended to the convalescent, as being easy of digestion. It may be used in soup or broth, or mixed with milk or water, and butter. It is excellent food for either the healthy or sick, for the reason that it is so quickly digested without fatigue to the stomach.

TARTLETS.

1371. Ingredients.—Trimmings of puff-paste, any jam or marmalade that may be preferred.

picture of “DISH OF TARTLETS.”

DISH OF TARTLETS.

Mode.—Roll out the paste to the thickness of about ½ inch; butter some small round patty-pans, line them with it, and cut off the superfluous paste close to the edge of the pan. Put a small piece of bread into each tartlet (this is to keep them in shape), and bake in a brisk oven for about 10 minutes, or rather longer. When they are done, and are of a nice colour, take the pieces of bread out carefully, and replace them by a spoonful of jam or marmalade. Dish them high on a white d’oyley, piled high in the centre, and serve.

Time.—10 to 15 minutes.

Average cost, 1d. each.

Sufficient.—1 lb. of paste will make 2 dishes of tartlets.

Seasonable at any time.

ROLLED TREACLE PUDDING.

1372. Ingredients.—1 lb. of suet crust No. 1215, ¼ lb. of treacle, ½ teaspoonful of grated ginger.

Mode.—Make, with 1 lb. of flour, a suet crust by recipe No. 1215; roll it out to the thickness of ½ inch, and spread the treacle equally over it, leaving a small margin where the paste joins; close the ends securely, tie the pudding in a floured cloth, plunge it into boiling water, and boil for 2 hours. We have inserted this pudding, being economical, and a favourite one with children; it is, of course, only suitable for a nursery, or very plain family dinner. Made with a lard 689 2Y instead of a suet crust, it would be very nice baked, and would be sufficiently done in from 1½ to 2 hours.

Time.—Boiled pudding, 2 hours; baked pudding, 1½ to 2 hours.

Average cost, 7d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

MEAT OR SAUSAGE ROLLS.

1373. Ingredients.—1 lb. of puff-paste No. 1206, sausage-meat No. 837, the yolk of 1 egg.

Mode.—Make 1 lb. of puff-paste by recipe No. 1206; roll it out to the thickness of about ½ inch, or rather less, and divide it into 8, 10, or 12 squares, according to the size the rolls are intended to be. Place some sausage-meat on one-half of each square, wet the edges of the paste, and fold it over the meat; slightly press the edges together, and trim them neatly with a knife. Brush the rolls over with the yolk of an egg, and bake them in a well-heated oven for about ½ hour, or longer should they be very large. The remains of cold chicken and ham, minced and seasoned, as also cold veal or beef, make very good rolls.

Time.—½ hour, or longer if the rolls are large.

Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient.—1 lb. of paste for 10 or 12 rolls.

Seasonable, with sausage-meat, from September to March or April.

SOMERSETSHIRE PUDDINGS.

1374. Ingredients.—3 eggs, their weight in flour, pounded sugar and butter, flavouring of grated lemon-rind, bitter almonds, or essence of vanilla.

Mode.—Carefully weigh the various ingredients, by placing on one side of the scales the eggs, and on the other the flour; then the sugar, and then the butter. Warm the butter, and with the hands beat it to a cream; gradually dredge in the flour and pounded sugar, and keep stirring and beating the mixture without ceasing until it is perfectly smooth. Then add the eggs, which should be well whisked, and either of the above flavourings that may be preferred; butter some small cups, rather more than half-fill them, and bake in a brisk oven for about ½ hour. Turn them out, dish them on a napkin, and serve custard or wine-sauce with them. A pretty little supper-dish may be made of these puddings cold, by cutting out a portion of the inside with the point of a knife, and putting into the cavity a little whipped cream or delicate preserve, such as apricot, greengage, or very bright marmalade. The paste for these puddings 690 requires a great deal of mixing, as the more it is beaten, the better will the puddings be. When served cold, they are usually called gâteaux à la Madeleine.

Time.—½ hour.

Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 puddings.

Seasonable at any time.

SUET PUDDING, to serve with Roast Meat.

1375. Ingredients.—1 lb. of flour, 6 oz. of finely-chopped suet, ½ saltspoonful of salt, 1 saltspoonful of pepper, ½ pint of milk or water.

Mode.—Chop the suet very finely, after freeing it from skin, and mix it well with the flour; add the salt and pepper (this latter ingredient may be omitted if the flavour is not liked), and make the whole into a smooth paste with the above proportion of milk or water. Tie the pudding in a floured cloth, or put it into a buttered basin, and boil from 2½ to 3 hours. To enrich it, substitute 3 beaten eggs for some of the milk or water, and increase the proportion of suet.

Time.—2½ to 3 hours.

Average cost, 6d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Note.—When there is a joint roasting or baking, this pudding may be boiled in a long shape, and then cut into slices a few minutes before dinner is served: these slices should be laid in the dripping-pan for a minute or two, and then browned before the fire. Most children like this accompaniment to roast meat. Where there is a large family of children, and the means of keeping them are limited, it is a most economical plan to serve up the pudding before the meat: as, in this case, the consumption of the latter article will be much smaller than it otherwise would be.

SUSSEX, or HARD DUMPLINGS.

1376. Ingredients.—1 lb. of flour, ½ pint of water, ½ saltspoonful of salt.

Mode.—Mix the flour and water together to a smooth paste, previously adding a small quantity of salt. Form this into small round dumplings; drop them into boiling water, and boil from ½ to ¾ hour. They may be served with roast or boiled meat; in the latter case they may be cooked with the meat, but should be dropped into the water when it is quite boiling.

Time.—½ to ¾ hour.

Sufficient for 10 or 12 dumplings.

Seasonable at any time.

VERMICELLI PUDDING.

1377. Ingredients.—4 oz. of vermicelli, 1½ pint of milk, ½ pint of cream, 3 oz. of butter, 3 oz. of sugar, 4 eggs.

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Mode.—Boil the vermicelli in the milk until it is tender; then stir in the remaining ingredients, omitting the cream, if not obtainable. Flavour the mixture with grated lemon-rind, essence of bitter almonds, or vanilla; butter a pie-dish; line the edges with puff-paste, put in the pudding, and bake in a moderate oven for about ¾ hour.

Time.—¾ hour.

Average cost, 1s. 2d. without cream.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Vermicelli.—The finest vermicelli comes from Marseilles, Nimes, and Montpellier. It is a nourishing food, and owes its name to its peculiar thread-like form. Vermicelli means, little worms.

VICARAGE PUDDING.

1378. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of flour, ¼ lb. of chopped suet, ¼ lb. of currants, ¼ lb. of raisins, 1 tablespoonful of moist sugar, ½ teaspoonful of ground ginger, ½ saltspoonful of salt.

Mode.—Put all the ingredients into a basin, having previously stoned the raisins, and washed, picked, and dried the currants; mix well with a clean knife; dip the pudding-cloth into boiling water, wring it out, and put in the mixture. Have ready a saucepan of boiling water, plunge in the pudding, and boil for 3 hours. Turn it out on the dish, and serve with sifted sugar.

Time.—3 hours.

Average cost, 8d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable.—Suitable for a winter pudding.

VOL-AU-VENT (an Entree).

color plate “Vol-au-Vent.”

O1. Vol-au-Vent.

picture of “VOL-AU-VENT.”

VOL-AU-VENT.

1379. Ingredients.—¾ to 1 lb. of puff-paste No. 1208, fricasseed chickens, rabbits, ragoûts, or the remains of cold fish, flaked and warmed in thick white sauce.

Mode.—Make from ¾ to 1 lb. of puff-paste, by recipe No. 1208, taking care that it is very evenly rolled out each time, to insure its rising properly; and if the paste is not extremely light, and put into a good hot oven, this cannot be accomplished, and the vol-au-vent will look very badly. Roll out the paste to the thickness of about 1½ inch, and, with a fluted cutter, stamp it out to the desired shape, either round or oval, and, with the point of a small knife, make a slight incision in the paste all round the top, about an inch from the edge, which, when baked, forms the lid. Put the vol-au-vent into a good brisk oven, and keep the door shut for a few minutes after it is put in. Particular attention should be paid to the heating of the oven, for the paste cannot rise without a tolerable degree of heat. 692 When of a nice colour, without being scorched, withdraw it from the oven, instantly remove the cover where it was marked, and detach all the soft crumb from the centre: in doing this, be careful not to break the edges of the vol-au-vent; but should they look thin in places, stop them with small flakes of the inside paste, stuck on with the white of an egg. This precaution is necessary to prevent the fricassee or ragoût from bursting the case, and so spoiling the appearance of the dish. Fill the vol-au-vent with a rich mince, or fricassee, or ragoût, or the remains of cold fish flaked and warmed in a good white sauce, and do not make them very liquid, for fear of the gravy bursting the crust: replace the lid, and serve. To improve the appearance of the crust, brush it over with the yolk of an egg after it has risen properly.—See coloured plate O1.

picture of “SMALL VOL-AU-VENTS.”

SMALL VOL-AU-VENTS.

Time.—¾ hour to bake the vol-au-vent.

Average cost, exclusive of interior, 1s. 6d.

Seasonable at any time.

Note.—Small vol-au-vents may be made like those shown in the engraving, and filled with minced veal, chicken, &c. They should be made of the same paste as the larger ones, and stamped out with a small fluted cutter.

SWEET VOL-AU-VENT OF PLUMS, APPLES, OR ANY OTHER FRESH PRUIT.

1380. Ingredients.—¾ lb. of puff-paste No. 1208, about 1 pint of fruit compôte.

Mode.—Make ½ lb. of puff-paste by recipe No. 1208, taking care to bake it in a good brisk oven, to draw it up nicely and make it look light. Have ready sufficient stewed fruit, the syrup of which must be boiled down until very thick; fill the vol-au-vent with this, and pile it high in the centre; powder a little sugar over it, and put it back in the oven to glaze, or use a salamander for the purpose: the vol-au-vent is then ready to serve. They may be made with any fruit that is in season, such as rhubarb, oranges, gooseberries, currants, cherries, apples, &c.; but care must be taken not to have the syrup too thin, for fear of its breaking through the crust.

Time.—½ hour to 40 minutes to bake the vol-au-vent.

Average cost, exclusive of the compôte, 1s. 1d.

Sufficient for 1 entremets.

VOL-AU-VENT OF FRESH STRAWBERRIES WITH WHIPPED CREAM.

1381. Ingredients.—¾ lb. of puff-paste No. 1208, 1 pint of freshly-gathered strawberries, sugar to taste, a plateful of whipped cream.

693

Mode.—Make a vol-au-vent case by recipe No. 1379, only not quite so large nor so high as for a savoury one. When nearly done, brush the paste over with the white of an egg, then sprinkle on it some pounded sugar, and put it back in the oven to set the glaze. Remove the interior, or soft crumb, and, at the moment of serving, fill it with the strawberries, which should be picked, and broken up with sufficient sugar to sweeten them nicely. Place a few spoonfuls of whipped cream on the top, and serve.

Time.—½ hour to 40 minutes to bake the vol-au-vent.

Average cost, 2s. 3d.

Sufficient for 1 vol-au-vent.

Seasonable in June and July.

Strawberry.—Among the Greeks, the name of the strawberry indicated its tenuity, this fruit forming hardly a mouthful. With the Latins, the name reminded one of the delicious perfume of this plant. Both nations were equally fond of it, and applied the same care to its cultivation. Virgil appears to place it in the same rank with flowers; and Ovid gives it a tender epithet, which delicate palates would not disavow. Neither does this luxurious poet forget the wild strawberry, which disappears beneath its modest foliage, but whose presence the scented air reveals.

WEST-INDIAN PUDDING.

1382. Ingredients.—1 pint of cream, ¼ lb. of loaf-sugar, ½ lb. of Savoy or sponge-cakes, 8 eggs, 3 oz. of preserved green ginger.

Mode.—Crumble down the cakes, put them into a basin, and pour over them the cream, which should be previously sweetened and brought to the boiling-point; cover the basin, well beat the eggs, and when the cream is soaked up, stir them in. Butter a mould, arrange the ginger round it, pour in the pudding carefully, and tie it down with a cloth; steam or boil it slowly for 1½ hour, and serve with the syrup from the ginger, which should be warmed, and poured over the pudding.

Time.—1½ hour.

Average cost, with cream at 1s. per pint, 2s. 8d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

YEAST DUMPLINGS.

1383. Ingredients.—½ quartern of dough, boiling water.

Mode.—Make a very light dough as for bread, using to mix it, milk, instead of water; divide it into 7 or 8 dumplings; plunge them into boiling water, and boil them for 20 minutes. Serve the instant they are taken up, as they spoil directly, by falling and becoming heavy; and in eating them do not touch them with a knife, but tear them apart with two forks. They may be eaten with meat gravy, or cold butter and sugar, and if not convenient to make the dough at home, a little from the baker’s answers as well, only it must be 694 placed for a few minutes near the fire, in a basin with a cloth over it, to let it rise again before it is made into dumplings.

Time.—20 minutes.

Average cost, 4d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

Yeast consists principally of a substance very similar in composition, and in many of its sensible properties, to gluten; and, when new or fresh, it is inflated and rendered frothy by a large quantity of carbonic acid. When mixed with wort, this substance acts upon the saccharine matter; the temperature rises, carbonic acid is disengaged, and the result is ale, which always contains a considerable proportion of alcohol, or spirit. The quantity of yeast employed in brewing ale being small, the saccharine matter is but imperfectly decomposed: hence a considerable portion of it remains in the liquor, and gives it that viscid quality and body for which it is remarkable. The fermenting property of yeast is weakened by boiling for ten minutes, and is entirely destroyed by continuing the boiling. Alcohol poured upon it likewise renders it inert; on which account its power lessens as the alcohol is formed during fermentation.

YORKSHIRE PUDDING, to serve with hot Roast Beef.

1384. Ingredients.—1½ pint of milk, 6 large tablespoonfuls of flour, 3 eggs, 1 saltspoonful of salt.

picture of “YORKSHIRE PUDDING.”

YORKSHIRE PUDDING.

Mode.—Put the flour into a basin with the salt, and stir gradually to this enough milk to make it into a stiff batter. When this is perfectly smooth, and all the lumps are well rubbed down, add the remainder of the milk and the eggs, which should be well beaten. Beat the mixture for a few minutes, and pour it into a shallow tin, which has been previously well rubbed with beef dripping. Put the pudding into the oven, and bake it for an hour; then, for another ½ hour, place it under the meat, to catch a little of the gravy that flows from it. Cut the pudding into small square pieces, put them on a hot dish, and serve. If the meat is baked, the pudding may at once be placed under it, resting the former on a small three-cornered stand.

Time.—1½ hour.

Average cost, 7d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

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assorted sweets on decorative dishes

CHAPTER XXVIII.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON CREAMS, JELLIES, SOUFFLES, OMELETS, & SWEET DISHES.

1385. Creams.—The yellowish-white, opaque fluid, smooth and unctuous to the touch, which separates itself from new milk, and forms a layer on its surface, when removed by skimming, is employed in a variety of culinary preparations. The analyses of the contents of cream have been decided to be, in 100 parts—butter, 3·5; curd, or matter of cheese, 3·5; whey, 92·0. That cream contains an oil, is evinced by its staining clothes in the manner of oil; and when boiled for some time, a little oil floats upon the surface. The thick animal oil which it contains, the well-known butter, is separated only by agitation, as in the common process of churning, and the cheesy matter remains blended with the whey in the state of buttermilk. Of the several kinds of cream, the principal are the Devonshire and Dutch clotted creams, the Costorphin cream, and the Scotch sour cream. The Devonshire cream is produced by nearly boiling the milk in shallow tin vessels over a charcoal fire, and kept in that state until the whole of the cream is thrown up. It is used for eating with fruits and tarts. The cream from Costorphin, a village of that name near Edinburgh, is accelerated in its separation from three or four days’ old milk, by a certain degree of heat; and the Dutch clotted cream—a coagulated mass in which a spoon will stand upright—is manufactured from fresh-drawn milk, which is put into a pan, and stirred with a spoon two or three times a day, to prevent the cream from separating from the milk. The Scotch “sour cream” is a misnomer; for it is a material produced without cream. A small tub filled with skimmed milk is put into a larger one, containing hot 696 water, and after remaining there all night, the thin milk (called wigg) is drawn off, and the remainder of the contents of the smaller vessel is “sour cream.”

1386. Jellies are not the nourishing food they were at one time considered to be, and many eminent physicians are of opinion that they are less digestible than the flesh, or muscular part of animals; still, when acidulated with lemon-juice and flavoured with wine, they are very suitable for some convalescents. Vegetable jelly is a distinct principle, existing in fruits, which possesses the property of gelatinizing when boiled and cooled; but it is a principle entirely different from the gelatine of animal bodies, although the name of jelly, common to both, sometimes leads to an erroneous idea on that subject. Animal jelly, or gelatine, is glue, whereas vegetable jelly is rather analogous to gum. Liebig places gelatine very low indeed in the scale of usefulness. He says, “Gelatine, which by itself is tasteless, and when eaten, excites nausea, possesses no nutritive value; that, even when accompanied by the savoury constituents of flesh, it is not capable of supporting the vital process, and when added to the usual diet as a substitute for plastic matter, does not increase, but, on the contrary, diminishes the nutritive value of the food, which it renders insufficient in quantity and inferior in quality.” It is this substance which is most frequently employed in the manufacture of the jellies supplied by the confectioner; but those prepared at home from calves’ feet do possess some nutrition, and are the only sort that should be given to invalids. Isinglass is the purest variety of gelatine, and is prepared from the sounds or swimming-bladders of certain fish, chiefly the sturgeon. From its whiteness it is mostly used for making blanc-mange and similar dishes.

1387. The White of Eggs is perhaps the best substance that can be employed in clarifying jelly, as well as some other fluids, for the reason that when albumen (and the white of eggs is nearly pure albumen) is put into a liquid that is muddy, from substances suspended in it, on boiling the liquid, the albumen coagulates in a flocculent manner, and, entangling with it the impurities, rises with them to the surface as a scum, or sinks to the bottom, according to their weight.

1388. Souffles, Omelets, and Sweet Dishes, in which eggs form the principal ingredient, demand, for their successful manufacture, an experienced cook. They are the prettiest, but most difficult of all entremets. The most essential thing to insure success is to secure the best ingredients from an honest tradesman. The entremets coming within the above classification, are healthy, nourishing, and pleasant to the taste, and may be eaten with safety by persons of the most delicate stomachs.

697

RECIPES.
CHAPTER XXIX.

BAKED APPLE CUSTARD.

1389. Ingredients.—1 dozen large apples, moist sugar to taste, 1 small teacupful of cold water, the grated rind of one lemon, 1 pint of milk, 4 eggs, 2 oz. of loaf sugar.

Mode. Peel, cut, and core the apples; put them into a lined saucepan with the cold water, and as they heat, bruise them to a pulp; sweeten with moist sugar, and add the grated lemon-rind. When cold, put the fruit at the bottom of a pie-dish, and pour over it a custard, made with the above proportion of milk, eggs, and sugar; grate a little nutmeg over the top, place the dish in a moderate oven, and bake from 25 to 35 minutes. The above proportions will make rather a large dish.

Time.—25 to 35 minutes.

Average cost, 1s. 4d.

Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Seasonable from July to March.

BUTTERED APPLES (Sweet Entremets).

1390. Ingredients.—Apple marmalade No. 1395, 6 or 7 good boiling apples, ½ pint of water, 6 oz. of sugar, 2 oz. of butter, a little apricot jam.

Mode.—Pare the apples, and take out the cores without dividing them; boil up the sugar and water for a few minutes; then lay in the apples, and simmer them very gently until tender, taking care not to let them break. Have ready sufficient marmalade made by recipe No. 1395, and flavoured with lemon, to cover the bottom of the dish; arrange the apples on this with a piece of butter placed in each, and in between them a few spoonfuls of apricot jam or marmalade; place the dish in the oven for 10 minutes, then sprinkle over the top sifted sugar; either brown it before the fire or with a salamander, and serve hot.

698

Time.—From 20 to 30 minutes to stew the apples very gently, 10 minutes in the oven.

Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient for 1 entremets.

Note.—The syrup that the apples were boiled in should be saved for another occasion.

FLANC OF APPLES, or APPLES IN A RAISED CRUST.
(Sweet Entremets.)

1391. Ingredients.—¾ lb. of short crust No. 1211 or 1212, 9 moderate-sized apples, the rind and juice of ½ lemon, ½ lb. of white sugar, ¾ pint of water, a few strips of candied citron.

Mode.—Make a short crust by either of the above recipes; roll it out to the thickness of ½ inch, and butter an oval mould; line it with the crust, and press it carefully all round the sides, to obtain the form of the mould, but be particular not to break the paste. Pinch the part that just rises above the mould with the paste-pincers, and fill the case with flour; bake it for about ¾ hour; then take it out of the oven, remove the flour, put the case back in the oven for another ¼ hour, and do not allow it to get scorched. It is now ready for the apples, which should be prepared in the following manner: peel, and take out the cores with a small knife, or a cutter for the purpose, without dividing the apples; put them into a small lined saucepan, just capable of holding them, with sugar, water, lemon juice and rind, in the above proportion. Let them simmer very gently until tender; then take out the apples, let them cool, arrange them in the flanc or case, and boil down the syrup until reduced to a thick jelly; pour it over the apples, and garnish them with a few slices of candied citron.

1392. A more simple flanc may be made by rolling out the paste, cutting the bottom of a round or oval shape, and then a narrow strip for the sides: these should be stuck on with the white of an egg, to the bottom piece, and the flanc then filled with raw fruit, with sufficient sugar to sweeten it nicely. It will not require so long baking as in a mould; but the crust must be made everywhere of an equal thickness, and so perfectly joined, that the juice does not escape. This dish may also be served hot, and should be garnished in the same manner, or a little melted apricot jam may be poured over the apples, which very much improves their flavour.

Time.—Altogether, 1 hour to bake the flanc, from 30 to 40 minutes to stew the apples very gently.

Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient for 1 entremets or side-dish.

Seasonable from July to March.

699
APPLE FRITTERS.

1393. Ingredients.—For the batter, ½ lb. of flour, ½ oz. of butter, ½ saltspoonful of salt, 2 eggs, milk, apples, hot lard or clarified beef-dripping.

Mode.—Break the eggs; separate the whites from the yolks, and beat them separately. Put the flour into a basin, stir in the butter, which should be melted to a cream; add the salt, and moisten with sufficient warm milk to make it of a proper consistency, that is to say, a batter that will drop from the spoon. Stir this well, rub down any lumps that may be seen, and add the whites of the eggs, which have been previously well whisked; beat up the batter for a few minutes, and it is ready for use. Now peel and cut the apples into rather thick whole slices, without dividing them, and stamp out the middle of each slice, where the core is, with a cutter. Throw the slices into the batter; have ready a pan of boiling lard or clarified dripping; take out the pieces of apple one by one, put them into the hot lard, and fry a nice brown, turning them when required. When done, lay them on a piece of blotting-paper before the fire, to absorb the greasy moisture; then dish on a white d’oyley, piled one above the other; strew over them some pounded sugar, and serve very hot. The flavour of the fritters would be very much improved by soaking the pieces of apple in a little wine, mixed with sugar and lemon-juice, for 3 or 4 hours before wanted for table; the batter, also, is better for being mixed some hours before the fritters are made.

Time.—About 10 minutes to fry them; 5 minutes to drain them.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from July to March.

ICED APPLES, or APPLE HEDGEHOG.

1394. Ingredients.—About 3 dozen good boiling apples, ½ lb. of sugar, ½ pint of water, the rind of ½ lemon minced very fine, the whites of 2 eggs, 3 tablespoonfuls of pounded sugar, a few sweet almonds.

Mode.—Peel and core a dozen of the apples without dividing them, and stew them very gently in a lined saucepan with ½ lb. of sugar and ½ pint of water, and when tender, lift them carefully on to a dish. Have ready the remainder of the apples pared, cored, and cut into thin slices; put them into the same syrup with the lemon-peel, and boil gently until they are reduced to a marmalade: they must be kept stirred, to prevent them from burning. Cover the bottom of a dish with some of the marmalade, and over that a layer of the stewed 700 apples, in the insides of which, and between each, place some of the marmalade; then place another layer of apples, and fill up the cavities with marmalade as before, forming the whole into a raised oval shape. Whip the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, mix with them the pounded sugar, and cover the apples very smoothly all over with the icing; blanch and cut each almond into 4 or 5 strips; place these strips at equal distances over the icing sticking up; strew over a little rough pounded sugar, and place the dish in a very slow oven, to colour the almonds, and for the apples to get warm through. This entremets may also be served cold, and makes a pretty supper-dish.

Time.—From 20 to 30 minutes to stew the apples.

Average cost, 1s. 9d. to 2s.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from July to March.

THICK APPLE JELLY OR MARMALADE,
for Entremets or Dessert Dishes.

1395. Ingredients.—Apples; to every lb. of pulp allow ¾ lb. of sugar, ½ teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel.

picture of “APPLE JELLY STUCK WITH ALMONDS.”

APPLE JELLY STUCK WITH ALMONDS.

Mode.—Peel, core, and boil the apples with only sufficient water to prevent them from burning; beat them to a pulp, and to every lb. of pulp allow the above proportion of sugar in lumps. Dip the lumps into water; put these into a saucepan, and boil till the syrup is thick and can be well skimmed; then add this syrup to the apple pulp, with the minced lemon-peel, and stir it over a quick fire for about 20 minutes, or until the apples cease to stick to the bottom of the pan. The jelly is then done, and may be poured into moulds which have been previously dipped in water, when it will turn out nicely for dessert or a side-dish; for the latter a little custard should be poured round, and it should be garnished with strips of citron or stuck with blanched almonds.

Time.—From ½ to ¾ hour to reduce the apples to a pulp; 20 minutes to boil after the sugar is added.

Sufficient.—1½ lb. of apples sufficient for a small mould.

Seasonable from July to March; but is best in September, October, or November.

CLEAR APPLE JELLY.

1396. Ingredients.—2 dozen apples, 1½ pint of spring-water; to every pint of juice allow ½ lb. of loaf sugar, 4 oz. of isinglass, the rind of ½ lemon.

701

Mode.—Pare, core, and cut the apples into quarters, and boil them, with the lemon-peel, until tender; then strain off the apples, and run the juice through a jelly-bag; put the strained juice, with the sugar and isinglass, which has been previously boiled in ½ pint of water, into a lined saucepan or preserving-pan; boil all together for about ¼ hour, and put the jelly into moulds. When this jelly is nice and clear, and turned out well, it makes a pretty addition to the supper-table, with a little custard or whipped cream round it: the addition of a little lemon-juice improves the flavour, but it is apt to render the jelly muddy and thick. If required to be kept any length of time, rather a larger proportion of sugar must be used.

Time.—From 1 to 1½ hour to boil the apples; ¼ hour the jelly.

Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient for a 1½-pint mould.

Seasonable from July to March.

A PRETTY DISH OF APPLES AND RICE.

1397. Ingredients.—6 oz. of rice, 1 quart of milk, the rind of ½ lemon, sugar to taste, ½ saltspoonful of salt, 8 apples, ¼ lb. of sugar, ¼ pint of water, ½ pint of boiled custard No. 1423.

Mode.—Flavour the milk with lemon-rind, by boiling them together for a few minutes; then take out the peel, and put in the rice, with sufficient sugar to sweeten it nicely, and boil gently until the rice is quite soft; then let it cool. In the mean time pare, quarter, and core the apples, and boil them until tender in a syrup made with sugar and water in the above proportion; and, when soft, lift them out on a sieve to drain. Now put a middling-sized gallipot in the centre of a dish; lay the rice all round till the top of the gallipot is reached; smooth the rice with the back of a spoon, and stick the apples into it in rows, one row sloping to the right and the next to the left. Set it in the oven to colour the apples; then, when required for table, remove the gallipot, garnish the rice with preserved fruits, and pour in the middle sufficient custard, made by recipe No. 1423, to be level with the top of the rice, and serve hot.

Time.—From 20 to 30 minutes to stew the apples; ¾ hour to simmer the rice; ¼ hour to bake.

Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from July to March.

APPLES A LA PORTUGAISE.

1398. Ingredients.—8 good boiling apples, ½ pint of water, 6 oz. of sugar, a layer of apple marmalade No. 1395, 8 preserved cherries, garnishing of apricot jam.

Mode.—Peel the apples, and, with a vegetable-cutter, push out the 702 cores; boil them in the above proportion of sugar and water, without being too much done, and take care they do not break. Have ready a white apple marmalade, made by recipe No. 1395; cover the bottom of the dish with this, level it, and lay the apples in a sieve to drain; pile them neatly on the marmalade, making them high in the centre, and place a preserved cherry in the middle of each. Garnish with strips of candied citron or apricot jam, and the dish is ready for table.

Time.—From 20 to 30 minutes to stew the apples.

Average cost, 1s. 3d.

Sufficient for 1 entremets.

Seasonable from July to March.

APPLES IN RED JELLY.
(A pretty Supper Dish.)

1399. Ingredients.—6 good-sized apples, 12 cloves, pounded sugar, 1 lemon, 2 teacupfuls of water, 1 tablespoonful of gelatine, a few drops of prepared cochineal.

Mode.—Choose rather large apples; peel them and take out the cores, either with a scoop or a small silver knife, and put into each apple 2 cloves and as much sifted sugar as they will hold. Place them, without touching each other, in a large pie-dish; add more white sugar, the juice of 1 lemon, and 2 teacupfuls of water. Bake in the oven, with a dish over them, until they are done. Look at them frequently, and, as each apple is cooked, place it in a glass dish. They must not be left in the oven after they are done, or they will break, and so would spoil the appearance of the dish. When the apples are neatly arranged in the dish without touching each other, strain the liquor in which they have been stewing, into a lined saucepan; add to it the rind of the lemon, and a tablespoonful of gelatine which has been previously dissolved in cold water, and, if not sweet, a little more sugar, and 6 cloves. Boil till quite clear; colour with a few drops of prepared cochineal, and strain the jelly through a double muslin into a jug; let it cool a little; then pour it into the dish round the apples. When quite cold, garnish the tops of the apples with a bright-coloured marmalade, a jelly, or the white of an egg, beaten to a strong froth, with a little sifted sugar.

Time.—From 30 to 50 minutes to bake the apples.

Average cost, 1s., with the garnishing.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from July to March.

APPLES AND RICE.
(A Plain Dish.)

1400. Ingredients.—8 good-sized apples, 3 oz. of butter, the rind 703 of ½ lemon minced very fine, 6 oz. of rice, 1½ pint of milk, sugar to taste, ½ teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, 6 tablespoonfuls of apricot jam.

Mode.—Peel the apples, halve them, and take out the cores; put them into a stewpan with the butter, and strew sufficient sifted sugar over to sweeten them nicely, and add the minced lemon-peel. Stew the apples very gently until tender, taking care they do not break. Boil the rice, with the milk, sugar, and nutmeg, until soft, and, when thoroughly done, dish it, piled high in the centre; arrange the apples on it, warm the apricot jam, pour it over the whole, and serve hot.

Time.—About 30 minutes to stew the apples very gently; about ¾ hour to cook the rice.

Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from July to March.

APPLE SNOW.
(A pretty Supper Dish.)

1401. Ingredients.—10 good-sized apples, the whites of 10 eggs, the rind of 1 lemon, ½ lb. of pounded sugar.

Mode.—Peel, core, and cut the apples into quarters, and put them into a saucepan with the lemon-peel and sufficient water to prevent them from burning,—rather less than ½ pint. When they are tender, take out the peel, beat them to a pulp, let them cool, and stir them to the whites of the eggs, which should be previously beaten to a strong froth. Add the sifted sugar, and continue the whisking until the mixture becomes quite stiff; and either heap it on a glass dish, or serve it in small glasses. The dish may be garnished with preserved barberries, or strips of bright-coloured jelly; and a dish of custards should be served with it, or a jug of cream.

Time.—From 30 to 40 minutes to stew the apples.

Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient to fill a moderate-sized glass dish.

Seasonable from July to March.

APPLE SOUFFLE.

1402. Ingredients.—6 oz. of rice, 1 quart of milk, the rind of ½ lemon, sugar to taste, the yolks of 4 eggs, the whites of 6, 1½ oz. of butter, 4 tablespoonfuls of apple marmalade No. 1395.

Mode.—Boil the milk with the lemon-peel until the former is well flavoured; then strain it, put in the rice, and let it gradually swell over a slow fire, adding sufficient sugar to sweeten it nicely. Then 704 crush the rice to a smooth pulp with the back of a wooden spoon; line the bottom and sides of a round cake-tin with it, and put it into the oven to set; turn it out of the tin carefully, and be careful that the border of rice is firm in every part. Mix with the marmalade the beaten yolks of eggs and the butter, and stir these over the fire until the mixture thickens. Take it off the fire; to this add the whites of the eggs, which should be previously beaten to a strong froth; stir all together, and put it into the rice border. Bake in a moderate oven for about ½ hour, or until the soufflé rises very light. It should be watched, and served instantly, or it will immediately fall after it is taken from the oven.

Time.—½ hour.

Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from July to March.

color plate “Apples in Custard.”

Q1. Apples in Custard.

STEWED APPLES AND CUSTARD.
(A pretty Dish for a Juvenile Supper.)

1403. Ingredients.—7 good-sized apples, the rind of ½ lemon or 4 cloves, ½ lb. of sugar, ¾ pint of water, ½ pint of custard No. 1423.

Mode.—Pare and take out the cores of the apples, without dividing them, and, if possible, leave the stalks on; boil the sugar and water together for 10 minutes; then put in the apples with the lemon-rind or cloves, whichever flavour may be preferred, and simmer gently until they are tender, taking care not to let them break. Dish them neatly on a glass dish, reduce the syrup by boiling it quickly for a few minutes, let it cool a little; then pour it over the apples. Have ready quite ½ pint of custard made by recipe No. 1423; pour it round, but not over, the apples when they are quite cold, and the dish is ready for table. A few almonds blanched and cut into strips, and stuck in the apples, would improve their appearance.—See coloured plate Q1.

Time.—From 20 to 30 minutes to stew the apples.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient to fill a large glass dish.

Seasonable from July to March.

APPLE TRIFLE.
(A Supper Dish.)

1404. Ingredients.—10 good-sized apples, the rind of ½ lemon, 6 oz. of pounded sugar, ½ pint of milk, ½ pint of cream, 2 eggs, whipped cream.

Mode.—Peel, core, and cut the apples into thin slices, and put them into a saucepan with 2 tablespoonfuls of water, the sugar, and minced lemon-rind. Boil all together until quite tender, and pulp the apples 705 2Z through a sieve; if they should not be quite sweet enough, add a little more sugar, and put them at the bottom of the dish to form a thick layer. Stir together the milk, cream, and eggs, with a little sugar, over the fire, and let the mixture thicken, but do not allow it to reach the boiling-point. When thick, take it off the fire; let it cool a little, then pour it over the apples. Whip some cream with sugar, lemon-peel, &c., the same as for other trifles; heap it high over the custard, and the dish is ready for table. It may be garnished as fancy dictates, with strips of bright apple jelly, slices of citron, &c.

Time.—From 30 to 40 minutes to stew the apples; 10 minutes to stir the custard over the fire.

Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient for a moderate-sized trifle.

Seasonable from July to March.

APRICOT CREAM.

1405. Ingredients.—12 to 16 ripe apricots, ½ lb. of sugar, 1½ pint of milk, the yolks of 8 eggs, 1 oz. of isinglass.

Mode.—Divide the apricots, take out the stones, and boil them in a syrup made with ¼ lb. of sugar and ¼ pint of water, until they form a thin marmalade, which rub through a sieve. Boil the milk with the other ¼ lb. of sugar, let it cool a little, then mix with it the yolks of eggs which have been previously well beaten; put this mixture into a jug, place this jug in boiling water, and stir it one way over the fire until it thickens; but on no account let it boil. Strain through a sieve, add the isinglass, previously boiled with a small quantity of water, and keep stirring it till nearly cold; then mix the cream with the apricots; stir well, put it into an oiled mould, and, if convenient, set it on ice; at any rate, in a very cool place. It should turn out on the dish without any difficulty.

Time.—From 20 to 30 minutes to boil the apricots.

Average cost, 3s. 6d.

Sufficient to fill a quart mould.

Seasonable in August, September, and October.

Note.—In winter-time, when fresh apricots are not obtainable, a little jam may be substituted for them.

FLANC OF APRICOTS,
or Compote of Apricots in a Raised Crust.
(Sweet Entremets.)

1406. Ingredients.—¾ lb. of short crust No. 1212, from 9 to 12 good-sized apricots, ¾ pint of water, ½ lb. of sugar.

Mode.—Make a short crust by recipe No. 1212, and line a mould with it as directed in recipe No. 1391. Boil the sugar and water 706 together for 10 minutes; halve the apricots, take out the stones, and simmer them in the syrup until tender; watch them carefully, and take them up the moment they are done, for fear they break. Arrange them neatly in the flanc or case; boil the syrup until reduced to a jelly, pour it over the fruit, and serve either hot or cold. Greengages, plums of all kinds, peaches, &c., may be done in the same manner, as also currants, raspberries, gooseberries, strawberries, &c.; but with the last-named fruits, a little currant-juice added to them will be found an improvement.

Time.—Altogether, 1 hour to bake the flanc, about 10 minutes to simmer the apricots.

Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient for 1 entremets or side-dish.

Seasonable in July, August, and September.

ARROWROOT BLANC-MANGE.
(An inexpensive Supper Dish.)

1407. Ingredients.—4 heaped tablespoonfuls of arrowroot, 1½ pint of milk, 3 laurel-leaves or the rind of ½ lemon, sugar to taste.

Mode.—Mix to a smooth batter the arrowroot with ½ pint of the milk; put the other pint on the fire, with laurel-leaves or lemon-peel, whichever may be preferred, and let the milk steep until it is well flavoured. Then strain the milk, and add it, boiling, to the mixed arrowroot; sweeten it with sifted sugar, and let it boil, stirring it all the time, till it thickens sufficiently to come from the saucepan. Grease a mould with pure salad-oil, pour in the blanc-mange, and when quite set, turn it out on a dish, and pour round it a compôte of any kind of fruit, or garnish it with jam. A tablespoonful of brandy, stirred in just before the blanc-mange is moulded, very much improves the flavour of this sweet dish.

Time.—Altogether, ½ hour.

Average cost, 6d. without the garnishing.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

BLANC-MANGE.
(A Supper Dish.)

1408. Ingredients.—1 pint of new milk, 1¼ oz. of isinglass, the rind of ½ lemon, ¼ lb. of loaf sugar, 10 bitter almonds, ½ oz. of sweet almonds, 1 pint of cream.

707

picture of “BLANC-MANGE MOULD.”

BLANC-MANGE MOULD.

Mode.—Put the milk into a saucepan, with the isinglass, lemon-rind, and sugar, and let these ingredients stand by the side of the fire until the milk is well flavoured; add the almonds, which should be blanched and pounded in a mortar to a paste, and let the milk just boil up; strain it through a fine sieve or muslin into a jug, add the cream, and stir the mixture occasionally until nearly cold. Let it stand for a few minutes, then pour it into the mould, which should be previously oiled with the purest salad-oil, or dipped in cold water. There will be a sediment at the bottom of the jug, which must not be poured into the mould, as, when turned out, it would very much disfigure the appearance of the blanc-mange. This blanc-mange may be made very much richer by using 1½ pint of cream, and melting the isinglass in ½ pint of boiling water. The flavour may also be very much varied by adding bay-leaves, laurel-leaves, or essence of vanilla, instead of the lemon-rind and almonds. Noyeau, Maraschino, Curaçoa, or any favourite liqueur, added in small proportions, very much enhances the flavour of this always favourite dish. In turning it out, just loosen the edges of the blanc-mange from the mould, place a dish on it, and turn it quickly over: it should come out easily, and the blanc-mange have a smooth glossy appearance when the mould is oiled, which it frequently has not when it is only dipped in water. It may be garnished as fancy dictates.

Time.—About 1½ hour to steep the lemon-rind and almonds in the milk.

Average cost, with cream at 1s. per pint, 3s. 3d.

Sufficient to fill a quart mould.

Seasonable at any time.

CHEAP BLANC-MANGE.

1409. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of sugar, 1 quart of milk, 1½ oz. of isinglass, the rind of ½ lemon, 4 laurel-leaves.

picture of “BLANC-MANGE.”

BLANC-MANGE.

Mode.—Put all the ingredients into a lined saucepan, and boil gently until the isinglass is dissolved; taste it occasionally, to ascertain when it is sufficiently flavoured with the laurel-leaves; then take them out, and keep stirring the mixture over the fire for about 708 10 minutes. Strain it through a fine sieve into a jug, and, when nearly cold, pour it into a well-oiled mould, omitting the sediment at the bottom. Turn it out carefully on a dish, and garnish with preserves, bright jelly, or a compôte of fruit.

Time.—Altogether, ½ hour.

Average cost, 8d.

Sufficient to fill a quart mould.

Seasonable at any time.

BREAD-AND-BUTTER FRITTERS.

1410. Ingredients.—Batter, 8 slices of bread and butter, 3 or 4 tablespoonfuls of jam.

Mode.—Make a batter, the same as for apple fritters No. 1393; cut some slices of bread and butter, not very thick; spread half of them with any jam that may be preferred, and cover with the other slices; slightly press them together, and cut them out in square, long, or round pieces. Dip them in the batter, and fry in boiling lard for about 10 minutes; drain them before the fire on a piece of blotting-paper or cloth. Dish them, sprinkle over sifted sugar, and serve.

Time.—About 10 minutes.

Average cost. 1s.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

TO MAKE THE STOCK FOR JELLY, AND TO CLARIFY IT.

1411. Ingredients.—2 calf’s feet, 6 pints of water.

Mode.—The stock for jellies should always be made the day before it is required for use, as the liquor has time to cool, and the fat can be so much more easily and effectually removed when thoroughly set. Procure from the butcher’s 2 nice calf’s feet; scald them, to take off the hair; slit them in two, remove the fat from between the claws, and wash the feet well in warm water; put them into a stewpan, with the above proportion of cold water, bring it gradually to boil, and 709 remove every particle of scum as it rises. When it is well skimmed, boil it very gently for 6 or 7 hours, or until the liquor is reduced rather more than half; then strain it through a sieve into a basin, and put it in a cool place to set. As the liquor is strained, measure it, to ascertain the proportion for the jelly, allowing something for the sediment and fat at the top. To clarify it, carefully remove all the fat from the top, pour over a little warm water, to wash away any that may remain, and wipe the jelly with a clean cloth; remove the jelly from the sediment, put it into a saucepan, and, supposing the quantity to be a quart, add to it 6 oz. of loaf sugar, the shells and well-whisked whites of 5 eggs, and stir these ingredients together cold; set the saucepan on the fire, but do not stir the jelly after it begins to warm. Let it boil about 10 minutes after it rises to a head, then throw in a teacupful of cold water; let it boil 5 minutes longer, then take the saucepan off, cover it closely, and let it remain ½ hour near the fire. Dip the jelly-bag into hot water, wring it out quite dry, and fasten it on to a stand or the back of a chair, which must be placed near the fire, to prevent the jelly from setting before it has run through the bag. Place a basin underneath to receive the jelly; then pour it into the bag, and should it not be clear the first time, run it through the bag again. This stock is the foundation of all really good jellies, which may be varied in innumerable ways, by colouring and flavouring with liqueurs, and by moulding it with-fresh and preserved fruits. To insure the jelly being firm when turned out, ½ oz. of isinglass clarified might be added to the above proportion of stock. Substitutes for calf’s feet are now frequently used in making jellies, which lessen the expense and trouble in preparing this favourite dish; isinglass and gelatine being two of the principal materials employed; but, although they may look as nicely as jellies made from good stock, they are never so delicate, having very often an unpleasant flavour, somewhat resembling glue, particularly when made with gelatine.

picture of “JELLY-MOULD.”

JELLY-MOULD.

picture of “JELLY-BAG.”

JELLY-BAG.

Time.—About 6 hours to boil the feet for the stock; to clarify it,—¼ hour to boil, ½ hour to stand in the saucepan covered.

Average cost.—Calf’s feet may be purchased for 6d. each when veal is in full season, but more expensive when it is scarce.

Sufficient.—2 calf’s feet should make 1 quart of stock.

Seasonable from March to October, but may be had all the year.

How to make a Jelly-bag.—The very stout flannel called double-mill, used for ironing-blankets, is the best material for a jelly-bag: those of home manufacture are the only ones to be relied on for thoroughly clearing the jelly. Care should be taken that the seam of the bag be stitched twice, to secure it against unequal filtration. The most convenient mode of using the bag is to tie it upon a hoop the exact size of the outside of its mouth; and, to do this, strings should be sewn round it at equal distances. The 710 jelly-bag may, of course, be made any size; but one of twelve or fourteen inches deep and seven or eight across the mouth, will be sufficient for ordinary use. The form of a jelly-bag is the fool’s cap.

COW-HEEL STOCK FOR JELLIES.
(More Economical than Calf’s Feet.)

1412. Ingredients.—2 cow-heels, 3 quarts of water.

Mode.—Procure 2 heels that have only been scalded, and not boiled; split them in two, and remove the fat between the claws; wash them well in warm water, and put them into a saucepan with the above proportion of cold water; bring it gradually to boil, remove all the scum as it rises, and simmer the heels gently from 7 to 8 hours, or until the liquor is reduced one-half; then strain it into a basin, measuring the quantity, and put it in a cool place. Clarify it in the same manner as calf’s-feet stock No. 1411, using, with the other ingredients, about ½ oz. of isinglass to each quart. This stock should be made the day before it is required for use. Two dozen shank-bones of mutton, boiled for 6 or 7 hours, yield a quart of strong firm stock. They should be put on in 2 quarts of water, which should be reduced one-half. Make this also the day before it is required.

Time.—7 to 8 hours to boil the cow-heels, 6 to 7 hours to boil the shank-bones.

Average cost, from 4d. to 6d. each.

Sufficient.—2 cow-heels should make 3 pints of stock.

Seasonable at any time.

ISINGLASS OR GELATINE JELLY.
(Substitutes for Calf’s Feet.)

1413. Ingredients.—3 oz. of isinglass or gelatine, 2 quarts of water.

Mode.—Put the isinglass or gelatine into a saucepan with the above proportion of cold water; bring it quickly to boil, and let it boil very fast, until the liquor is reduced one-half. Carefully remove the scum as it rises, then strain it through a jelly-bag, and it will be ready for use. If not required very clear, it may be merely strained through a fine sieve, instead of being run through a bag. Rather more than ½ oz. of isinglass is about the proper quantity to use for a quart of strong calf’s-feet stock, and rather more than 2 oz. for the same quantity of fruit juice. As isinglass varies so much in quality and strength, it is difficult to give the exact proportions. The larger the mould, the stiffer should be the jelly; and where there is no ice, more isinglass must be used than if the mixture were frozen. This forms a stock for all kinds of jellies, which may be flavoured in many ways.

Time.—1½ hour.

711

Sufficient, with wine, syrup, fruit, &c., to fill two moderate-sized moulds.

Seasonable at any time.

Note.—The above, when boiled, should be perfectly clear, and may be mixed warm with wine, flavourings, fruits, &c., and then run through the bag.

Isinglass.—The best isinglass is brought from Russia; some of an inferior kind is brought from North and South America and the East Indies: the several varieties may be had from the wholesale dealers in isinglass in London. In choosing isinglass for domestic use, select that which is whitest, has no unpleasant odour, and which dissolves most readily in water. The inferior kinds are used for fining beer, and similar purposes. Isinglass is much adulterated: to test its purity, take a few threads of the substance, drop some into boiling water, some into cold water, and some into vinegar. In the boiling water the isinglass will dissolve, in cold water it will become white and “cloudy,” and in vinegar it will swell and become jelly-like. If the isinglass is adulterated with gelatine (that is to say, the commoner sorts of gelatine,—for isinglass is classed amongst gelatines, of all which varieties it is the very purest and best), in boiling water the gelatine will not so completely dissolve as the isinglass; in cold water it becomes clear and jellylike; and in vinegar it will harden.

HOW TO MOULD BOTTLED JELLIES.

1414. Uncork the bottle; place it in a saucepan of hot water until the jelly is reduced to a liquid state; taste it, to ascertain whether it is sufficiently flavoured, and if not, add a little wine. Pour the jelly into moulds which have been soaked in water; let it set, and turn it out by placing the mould in hot water for a minute; then wipe the outside, put a dish on the top, and turn it over quickly. The jelly should then slip easily away from the mould, and be quite firm. It may be garnished as taste dictates.

TO CLARIFY SYRUP FOR JELLIES.

1415. Ingredients.—To every quart of water allow 2 lbs. of loaf sugar; the white of 1 egg.

Mode.—Put the sugar and water into a stewpan; set it on the fire, and, when the sugar is dissolved, add the white of the egg, whipped up with a little water. Whisk the whole well together, and simmer very gently until it has thrown up all the scum. Take this off as it rises, strain the syrup through a fine sieve or cloth into a basin, and keep it for use.

CALF’S-FEET JELLY.

1416. Ingredients.—1 quart of calf’s-feet stock No. 1411, ½ lb. of sugar, ½ pint of sherry, 1 glass of brandy, the shells and whites of 5 eggs, the rind and juice of 2 lemons, ½ oz. of isinglass.

picture of “JELLY-MOULD.”

JELLY-MOULD.

Mode.—Prepare the stock as directed in recipe No. 1411, taking care 712 to leave the sediment, and to remove all the fat from the surface. Put it into a saucepan, cold, without clarifying it; add the remaining ingredients, and stir them well together before the saucepan is placed on the fire. Then simmer the mixture gently for ¼ hour, but do not stir it after it begins to warm. Throw in a teacupful of cold water, boil for another 5 minutes, and keep the saucepan covered by the side of the fire for about ½ hour, but do not let it boil again. In simmering, the head or scum may be carefully removed as it rises; but particular attention must be given to the jelly, that it be not stirred in the slightest degree after it is heated. The isinglass should be added when the jelly begins to boil: this assists to clear it, and makes it firmer for turning out. Wring out a jelly-bag in hot water; fasten it on to a stand, or the back of a chair; place it near the fire with a basin underneath it, and run the jelly through it. Should it not be perfectly clear the first time, repeat the process until the desired brilliancy is obtained. Soak the moulds in water, drain them for half a second, pour in the jelly, and put it in a cool place to set. If ice is at hand, surround the moulds with it, and the jelly will set sooner, and be firmer when turned out. In summer it is necessary to have ice in which to put the moulds, or the cook will be, very likely, disappointed, by her jellies being in too liquid a state to turn out properly, unless a great deal of isinglass is used. When wanted for table, dip the moulds in hot water for a minute, wipe the outside with a cloth, lay a dish on the top of the mould, turn it quickly over, and the jelly should slip out easily. It is sometimes served broken into square lumps, and piled high in glasses. Earthenware moulds are preferable to those of pewter or tin, for red jellies, the colour and transparency of the composition being often spoiled by using the latter.

To make this jelly more economically, raisin wine may be substituted for the sherry and brandy, and the stock made from cow-heels, instead of calf’s feet.

Time.—20 minutes to simmer the jelly, ½ hour to stand covered.

Average cost, reckoning the feet at 6d. each, 3s. 6d.

Sufficient to fill two 1½-pint moulds.

Seasonable at any time.

Note.—As lemon-juice, unless carefully strained, is liable to make the jelly muddy, see that it is clear before it is added to the other ingredients. Omit the brandy when the flavour is objected to.

713

Sherry.—There are several kinds of sherry, as pale and brown, and there are various degrees of each. Sherry is, in general, of an amber-colour, and, when good, has a fine aromatic odour, with something of the agreeable bitterness of the peach kernel. When new, it is harsh and fiery, and requires to be mellowed in the wood for four or five years. Sherry has of late got much into fashion in England, from the idea that it is more free from acid than other wines; but some careful experiments on wines do not fully confirm this opinion.

CANNELONS, or FRIED PUFFS.
(Sweet Entremets.)

1417. Ingredients.—½ lb. of puff-paste No. 1205; apricot, or any kind of preserve that may be preferred; hot lard.

Mode.—Cannelons which are made of puff-paste rolled very thin, with jam inclosed, and cut out in long narrow rolls or puffs, make a very pretty and elegant dish. Make some good puff-paste, by recipe No. 1205; roll it out very thin, and cut it into pieces of an equal size, about 2 inches wide and 8 inches long; place upon each piece a spoonful of jam, wet the edges with the white of egg, and fold the paste over twice; slightly press the edges together, that the jam may not escape in the frying; and when all are prepared, fry them in boiling lard until of a nice brown, letting them remain by the side of the fire after they are coloured, that the paste may be thoroughly done. Drain them before the fire, dish on a d’oyley, sprinkle over them sifted sugar, and serve. These cannelons are very delicious made with fresh instead of preserved fruit, such as strawberries, raspberries, or currants: it should be laid in the paste, plenty of pounded sugar sprinkled over, and folded and fried in the same manner as stated above.

Time.—About 10 minutes.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient,—½ lb. of paste for a moderate-sized dish of cannelons.

Seasonable, with jam, at any time.

CHARLOTTE-AUX-POMMES.

color plate “Charlottes aux Pommes.”

R1. Charlottes aux Pommes.

picture of “CHARLOTTTE-AUX-POMMES.”

CHARLOTTTE-AUX-POMMES.

1418. Ingredients.—A few slices of rather stale bread ½ inch thick, clarified butter, apple marmalade made by recipe No. 1395, with about 2 dozen apples, ½ glass of sherry.

Mode.—Cut a slice of bread the same shape as the bottom of a plain round mould, which has been well buttered, and a few strips the height of the mould, and about 1½ inch wide; dip the bread in clarified butter (or spread it with cold butter, if not wanted quite so rich); place the round piece at the bottom of the mould, and set the narrow strips up the sides of it, overlapping each other a little, that no juice from the apples may escape, and that they may hold firmly to the mould. Brush the interior over with 714 white of egg (this will assist to make the case firmer); fill it with apple marmalade made by recipe No. 1395, with the addition of a little sherry, and cover them with a round piece of bread, also brushed over with egg, the same as the bottom; slightly press the bread down, to make it adhere to the other pieces; put a plate on the top, and bake the charlotte in a brisk oven, of a light colour. Turn it out on the dish, strew sifted sugar over the top, and pour round it a little melted apricot jam.

Time.—40 to 50 minutes.

Average cost, 1s. 9d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from July to March.

AN EASY METHOD OF MAKING A CHARLOTTE-AUX-POMMES.

1419. Ingredients.—½ lb. of flour, ¼ lb. of butter, ¼ lb. of powdered sugar, ½ teaspoonful of baking-powder, 1 egg, milk, 1 glass of raisin-wine, apple marmalade No. 1395, ¼ pint of cream, 2 dessert­spoonfuls of pounded sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice.

Mode.—Make a cake with the flour, butter, sugar, and baking-powder; moisten with the egg and sufficient milk to make it the proper consistency, and bake it in a round tin. When cold, scoop out the middle, leaving a good thickness all round the sides, to prevent them breaking; take some of the scooped-out pieces, which should be trimmed into neat slices; lay them in the cake, and pour over sufficient raisin-wine, with the addition of a little brandy, if approved, to soak them well. Have ready some apple marmalade, made by recipe No. 1395; place a layer of this over the soaked cake, then a layer of cake and a layer of apples; whip the cream to a froth, mixing with it the sugar and lemon-juice; pile it on the top of the charlotte, and garnish it with pieces of clear apple jelly. This dish is served cold, but may be eaten hot, by omitting the cream, and merely garnishing the top with bright jelly just before it is sent to table.

Time.—1 hour to bake the cake.

Average cost, 2s.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from July to March.

A VERY SIMPLE APPLE CHARLOTTE.

1420. Ingredients.—9 slices of bread and butter, about 6 good-sized apples, 1 tablespoonful of minced lemon-peel, 2 tablespoonfuls of juice, moist sugar to taste.

Mode.—Butter a pie-dish; place a layer of bread and butter, without the crust, at the bottom; then a layer of apples, pared, cored, and cut into thin slices; sprinkle over these a portion of the lemon-peel and juice, and sweeten with moist sugar. Place another layer of 715 bread and butter, and then one of apples, proceeding in this manner until the dish is full; then cover it up with the peel of the apples, to preserve the top from browning or burning; bake in a brisk oven for rather more than ¾ hour; turn the charlotte on a dish, sprinkle sifted sugar over, and serve.

Time.—¾ hour.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable from July to March.

CHARLOTTE RUSSE.
(An Elegant Sweet Entremets.)

1421. Ingredients.—About 18 Savoy biscuits, ¾ pint of cream, flavouring of vanilla, liqueurs, or wine, 1 tablespoonful of pounded sugar, ½ oz. of isinglass.

Mode.—Procure about 18 Savoy biscuits, or ladies’-fingers, as they are sometimes called; brush the edges of them with the white of an egg, and line the bottom of a plain round mould, placing them like a star or rosette. Stand them upright all round the edge; carefully put them so closely together that the white of the egg connects them firmly, and place this case in the oven for about 5 minutes, just to dry the egg. Whisk the cream to a stiff froth, with the sugar, flavouring, and melted isinglass; fill the charlotte with it, cover with a slice of sponge-cake cut in the shape of the mould; place it in ice; where let it remain till ready for table; then turn it on a dish, remove the mould, and serve. 1 tablespoonful of liqueur of any kind, or 4 tablespoonfuls of wine, would nicely flavour the above proportion of cream. For arranging the biscuits in the mould, cut them to the shape required, so that they fit in nicely, and level them with the mould at the top, that, when turned out, there may be something firm to rest upon. Great care and attention is required in the turning out of this dish, that the cream does not burst the case; and the edges of the biscuits must have the smallest quantity of egg brushed over them, or it would stick to the mould, and so prevent the charlotte from coming away properly.

Time.—5 minutes in the oven.

Average cost, with cream at 1s. per pint, 2s.

Sufficient for 1 charlotte.

Seasonable at any time.

CREAM A LA VALOIS.

1422. Ingredients.—4 sponge-cakes, jam, ¾ pint of cream, sugar to taste, the juice of ½ lemon, ¼ glass of sherry, 1¼ oz. of isinglass.

Mode.—Cut the sponge-cakes into thin slices; place two together, with preserve between them, and pour over them a small quantity of sherry mixed with a little brandy. Sweeten and flavour the cream 716 with the lemon-juice and sherry; add the isinglass, which should be dissolved in a little water, and beat up the cream well. Place a little in an oiled mould; arrange the pieces of cake in the cream; then fill the mould with the remainder; let it cool, and turn it out on a dish. By oiling the mould, the cream will have a much smoother appearance, and will turn out more easily than when merely dipped in cold water.

Average cost, 3s. 6d.

Sufficient to fill a 1½-pint mould.

Seasonable at any time.

BOILED CUSTARDS.

1423. Ingredients.—1 pint of milk, 5 eggs, 3 oz. of loaf sugar, 3 laurel-leaves, or the rind of ½ lemon, or a few drops of essence of vanilla, 1 tablespoonful of brandy.

picture of “CUSTARDS IN GLASSES.”

CUSTARDS IN GLASSES.

Mode.—Put the milk into a lined saucepan, with the sugar, and whichever of the above flavourings may be preferred (the lemon-rind flavours custards most deliciously), and let the milk steep by the side of the fire until it is well flavoured. Bring it to the point of boiling, then strain it into a basin; whisk the eggs well, and, when the milk has cooled a little, stir in the eggs, and strain this mixture into a jug. Place this jug in a saucepan of boiling water over the fire; keep stirring the custard one way until it thickens; but on no account allow it to reach the boiling-point, as it will instantly curdle and be full of lumps. Take it off the fire, stir in the brandy, and, when this is well mixed with the custard, pour it into glasses, which should be rather more than three-parts full; grate a little nutmeg over the top, and the dish is ready for table. To make custards look and eat better, ducks’ eggs should be used, when obtainable; they add very much to the flavour and richness, and so many are not required as of the ordinary eggs, 4 ducks’ eggs to the pint of milk making a delicious custard. When desired extremely rich and good, cream should be substituted for the milk, and double the quantity of eggs used, to those mentioned, omitting the whites.

Time.—½ hour to infuse the lemon-rind, about 10 minutes to stir the custard.

Average cost, 8d.

Sufficient to fill 8 custard-glasses.

Seasonable at any time.

GINGER APPLES.
(A pretty Supper or Dessert Dish.)

1424. Ingredients.—1½ oz. of whole ginger, ¼ pint of whiskey, 3 lbs. of apples, 2 lbs. of white sugar, the juice of 2 lemons.

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Mode.—Bruise the ginger, put it into a small jar, pour over sufficient whiskey to cover it, and let it remain for 3 days; then cut the apples into thin slices, after paring and coring them; add the sugar and the lemon-juice, which should be strained; and simmer all together very gently until the apples are transparent, but not broken. Serve cold, and garnish the dish with slices of candied lemon-peel or preserved ginger.

Time.—3 days to soak the ginger; about ¾ hour to simmer the apples very gently.

Average cost, 2s. 6d.

Sufficient for 3 dishes.

Seasonable from July to March.

FRENCH PANCAKES.

1425. Ingredients.—2 eggs, 2 oz. of butter, 2 oz. of sifted sugar, 2 oz. of flour, ½ pint of new milk.

Mode.—Beat the eggs thoroughly, and put them into a basin with the butter, which should be beaten to a cream; stir in the sugar and flour, and when these ingredients are well mixed, add the milk; keep stirring and beating the mixture for a few minutes; put it on buttered plates, and bake in a quick oven for 20 minutes. Serve with a cut lemon and sifted sugar, or pile the pancakes high on a dish, with a layer of preserve or marmalade between each.

Time.—20 minutes.

Average cost, 7d.

Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

DUTCH FLUMMERY.

1426. Ingredients.—1½ oz. of isinglass, the rind and juice of 1 lemon, 1 pint of water, 4 eggs, 1 pint of sherry, Madeira, or raisin-wine; sifted sugar to taste.

Mode.—Put the water, isinglass, and lemon-rind into a lined saucepan, and simmer gently until the isinglass is dissolved; strain this into a basin, stir in the eggs, which should be well beaten, the lemon-juice, which should be strained, and the wine; sweeten to taste with pounded sugar, mix all well together, pour it into a jug, set this jug in a saucepan of boiling water over the fire, and keep stirring it one way until it thickens; but take care that it does not boil. Strain it into a mould that has been oiled or laid in water for a short time, and put it in a cool place to set. A tablespoonful of brandy stirred in just before it is poured into the mould, improves the flavour of this dish: it is better if made the day before it is required for table.

Time.—¼ hour to simmer the isinglass; about ¼ hour to stir the mixture over the fire.

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Average cost, 4s. 6d., if made with sherry; less with raisin-wine.

Sufficient to fill a quart mould.

Seasonable at any time.

Pale Sherries are made from the same grapes as brown. The latter are coloured by an addition of some cheap must, or wine which has been boiled till it has acquired a deep-brown tint. Pale sherries were, some time ago, preferred in England, being supposed most pure; but the brown are preferred by many people. The inferior sherries exported to England are often mixed with a cheap and light wine called Moguer, and are strengthened in the making by brandy; but too frequently they are adulterated by the London dealers.

CHOCOLATE SOUFFLE.

1427. Ingredients.—4 eggs, 3 teaspoonfuls of pounded sugar, 1 teaspoonful of flour, 3 oz. of the best chocolate.

Mode.—Break the eggs, separating the whites from the yolks, and put them into different basins; add to the yolks the sugar, flour, and chocolate, which should be very finely grated, and stir these ingredients for 5 minutes. Then well whisk the whites of the eggs in the other basin, until they are stiff, and, when firm, mix lightly with the yolks, till the whole forms a smooth and light substance; butter a round cake-tin, put in the mixture, and bake in a moderate oven from 15 to 20 minutes. Pin a white napkin round the tin, strew sifted sugar over the top of the soufflé, and send it immediately to table. The proper appearance of this dish depends entirely on the expedition with which it is served, and some cooks, to preserve its lightness, hold a salamander over the soufflé until it is placed on the table. If allowed to stand after it comes from the oven, it will be entirely spoiled, as it falls almost immediately.

Time.—15 to 20 minutes.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for a moderate-sized soufflé.

Seasonable at any time.

DARIOLES A LA VANILLE.
(Sweet Entremets.)

1428. Ingredients.—½ pint of milk, ½ pint of cream, 2 oz. of flour, 3 oz. of pounded sugar, 6 eggs, 2 oz. of butter, puff-paste, flavouring of essence of vanilla.

Mode.—Mix the flour to a smooth batter, with the milk; stir in the cream, sugar, the eggs, which should be well whisked, and the butter, which should be beaten to a cream. Put in some essence of vanilla, drop by drop, until the mixture is well flavoured; line some dariole-moulds with puff-paste, three-parts fill them with the batter, and bake in a good oven from 25 to 35 minutes. Turn them out of the moulds on a dish, without breaking them; strew over sifted sugar, and serve. The flavouring of the darioles may be varied by substituting lemon, cinnamon, or almonds, for the vanilla.

Time.—25 to 35 minutes.

Average cost, 1s. 8d.

Sufficient to fill 6 or 7 dariole-moulds.

Seasonable at any time.

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CURRANT FRITTERS.

1429. Ingredients.—½ pint of milk, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 4 eggs, 3 tablespoonfuls of boiled rice, 3 tablespoonfuls of currants, sugar to taste, a very little grated nutmeg, hot lard or clarified dripping.

Mode.—Put the milk into a basin with the flour, which should previously be rubbed to a smooth batter with a little cold milk; stir these ingredients together; add the well-whisked eggs, the rice, currants, sugar, and nutmeg. Beat the mixture for a few minutes, and, if not sufficiently thick, add a little more boiled rice; drop it, in small quantities, into a pan of boiling lard or clarified dripping; fry the fritters a nice brown, and, when done, drain them on a piece, of blotting-paper, before the fire. Pile them on a white d’oyley, strew over sifted sugar, and serve them very hot. Send a cut lemon to table with them.

Time.—From 8 to 10 minutes to fry the fritters.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

CHOCOLATE CREAM.

1430. Ingredients.—3 oz. of grated chocolate, ¼ lb. of sugar, 1½ pint of cream, 1½ oz. of clarified isinglass, the yolks of 6 eggs.

picture of “CREAM-MOULD.”

CREAM-MOULD.

Mode.—Beat the yolks of the eggs well; put them into a basin with the grated chocolate, the sugar, and 1 pint of the cream; stir these ingredients well together, pour them into a jug, and set this jug in a saucepan of boiling water; stir it one way until the mixture thickens, but do not allow it to boil, or it will curdle. Strain the cream through a sieve into a basin; stir in the isinglass and the other ½ pint of cream, which should be well whipped; mix all well together, and pour it into a mould which has been previously oiled with the purest salad-oil, and, if at hand, set it in ice until wanted for table.

Time.—About 10 minutes to stir the mixture over the fire.

Average cost, 4s. 6d., with cream at 1s. per pint.

Sufficient to fill a quart mould.

Seasonable at any time.

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GENEVA WAFERS.

1431. Ingredients.—2 eggs, 3 oz. of butter, 3 oz. of flour, 3 oz. of pounded sugar.

Mode.—Well whisk the eggs; put them into a basin, and stir to them the butter, which should be beaten to a cream; add the flour and sifted sugar gradually, and then mix all well together. Butter a baking-sheet, and drop on it a teaspoonful of the mixture at a time, leaving a space between each. Bake in a cool oven; watch the pieces of paste, and, when half done, roll them up like wafers, and put in a small wedge of bread or piece of wood, to keep them in shape. Return them to the oven until crisp. Before serving, remove the bread, put a spoonful of preserve in the widest end, and fill up with whipped cream. This is a very pretty and ornamental dish for the supper-table, and is very nice and very easily made.

Time.—Altogether 20 to 25 minutes.

Average cost, exclusive of the preserve and cream, 7d.

Sufficient for a nice-sized dish.

Seasonable at any time.

GINGER CREAM.

1432. Ingredients.—The yolks of 4 eggs, 1 pint of cream, 3 oz. of preserved ginger, 2 dessert­spoonfuls of syrup, sifted sugar to taste, 1 oz. of isinglass.

Mode.—Slice the ginger finely; put it into a basin with the syrup, the well-beaten yolks of eggs, and the cream; mix these ingredients well together, and stir them over the fire for about 10 minutes, or until the mixture thickens; then take it off the fire, whisk till nearly cold, sweeten to taste, add the isinglass, which should be melted and strained, and serve the cream in a glass dish. It may be garnished with slices of preserved ginger or candied citron.

Time.—About 10 minutes to stir the cream over the fire.

Average cost, with cream at 1s. per pint, 3s. 6d.

Sufficient for a good-sized dish.

Seasonable at any time.

Preserved Ginger comes to us from the West Indies. It is made by scalding the roots when they are green and full of sap, then peeling them in cold water, and putting them into jars, with a rich syrup; in which state we receive them. It should be chosen of a bright-yellow colour, with a little transparency: what is dark-coloured, fibrous, and stringy, is not good. Ginger roots, fit for preserving, and in size equal to West Indian, have been produced in the Royal Agricultural Garden in Edinburgh.

TO MAKE GOOSEBERRY FOOL.

1433. Ingredients.—Green gooseberries; to every pint of pulp add 1 pint of milk, or ½ pint of cream and ½ pint of milk; sugar to taste.

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Mode.—Cut the tops and tails off the gooseberries; put them into a jar, with 2 tablespoonfuls of water and a little good moist sugar; set this jar in a saucepan of boiling water, and let it boil until the fruit is soft enough to mash. When done enough, beat it to a pulp, work this pulp through a colander, and stir to every pint the above proportion of milk, or equal quantities of milk and cream. Ascertain if the mixture is sweet enough, and put in plenty of sugar, or it will not be eatable; and in mixing the milk and gooseberries, add the former very gradually to these: serve in a glass dish, or in small glasses. This, although a very old-fashioned and homely dish, is, when well made, very delicious, and, if properly sweetened, a very suitable preparation for children.

Time.—From ¾ to 1 hour.

Average cost, 6d. per pint, with milk.

Sufficient.—A pint of milk and a pint of gooseberry pulp for 5 or 6 children.

Seasonable in May and June.

GOOSEBERRY TRIFLE.

1434. Ingredients.—1 quart of gooseberries, sugar to taste, 1 pint of custard No. 1423, a plateful of whipped cream.

Mode.—Put the gooseberries into a jar, with sufficient moist sugar to sweeten them, and boil them until reduced to a pulp. Put this pulp at the bottom of a trifle-dish; pour over it a pint of custard made by recipe No. 1423, and, when cold, cover with whipped cream. The cream should be whipped the day before it is wanted for table, as it will then be so much firmer and more solid. The dish may be garnished as fancy dictates.

Time.—About ¾ hour to boil the gooseberries.

Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient for 1 trifle.

Seasonable in May and June.

INDIAN FRITTERS.

1435. Ingredients.—3 tablespoonfuls of flour, boiling water, the yolks of 4 eggs, the whites of 2, hot lard or clarified dripping, jam.

Mode.—Put the flour into a basin, and pour over it sufficient boiling water to make it into a stiff paste, taking care to stir and beat it well, to prevent it getting lumpy. Leave it a little time to cool, and then break into it (without beating them at first) the yolks of 4 eggs and the whites of 2, and stir and beat all well together. Have ready some boiling lard or butter; drop a dessert­spoonful of batter in at a time, and fry the fritters of a light brown. They should rise so much as to be almost like balls. Serve on a dish, with a spoonful of preserve 722 or marmalade dropped in between each fritter. This is an excellent dish for a hasty addition to dinner, if a guest unexpectedly arrives, it being so easily and quickly made, and it is always a great favourite.

Time.—From 5 to 8 minutes to fry the fritters.

Average cost, exclusive of the jam, 5d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

INDIAN TRIFLE.

1436. Ingredients.—1 quart of milk, the rind of ½ large lemon, sugar to taste, 5 heaped tablespoonfuls of rice-flour, 1 oz. of sweet almonds, ½ pint of custard.

Mode.—Boil the milk and lemon-rind together until the former is well flavoured; take out the lemon-rind and stir in the rice-flour, which should first be moistened with cold milk, and add sufficient loaf sugar to sweeten it nicely. Boil gently for about 5 minutes, and keep the mixture stirred; take it off the fire, let it cool a little, and pour it into a glass dish. When cold, cut the rice out in the form of a star, or any other shape that may be preferred; take out the spare rice, and fill the space with boiled custard. Blanch and cut the almonds into strips; stick them over the trifle, and garnish it with pieces of bright-coloured jelly, or preserved fruits, or candied citron.

picture of “THE CITRON.”

THE CITRON.

Time.—¼ hour to simmer the milk, 5 minutes after the rice is added.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 1 trifle.

Seasonable at any time.

The Citron belongs to the same species as the lemon, being considered only as a variety, the distinction between them not being very great. It is larger, and is less succulent, but more acid: with a little artificial heat, the citron comes to as great perfection in England as in Spain and Italy. The fruit is oblong, and about five or six inches in length. The tree is thorny. The juice forms an excellent lemonade with sugar and water; its uses in punch, negus, and in medicine, are well known. The rind is very thick, and, when candied with sugar, forms an excellent sweetmeat. There are several varieties cultivated in England, one of which is termed the Forbidden Fruit.

ITALIAN CREAM.

1437. Ingredients.—½ pint of milk, ½ pint of cream, sugar to taste, 1 oz. of isinglass, 1 lemon, the yolks of 4 eggs.

Mode.—Put the cream and milk into a saucepan, with sugar to sweeten, and the lemon-rind. Boil until the milk is well flavoured; 723 then strain it into a basin, and add the beaten yolks of eggs. Put this mixture into a jug; place the jug in a saucepan of boiling water over the fire, and stir the contents until they thicken, but do not allow them to boil. Take the cream off the fire, stir in the lemon-juice and isinglass, which should be melted, and whip well; fill a mould, place it in ice if at hand, and, when set, turn it out on a dish, and garnish as taste may dictate. The mixture may be whipped and drained, and then put into small glasses, when this mode of serving is preferred.

Time.—From 5 to 8 minutes to stir the mixture in the jug.

Average cost, with the best isinglass, 2s. 6d.

Sufficient to fill 1½-pint mould.

Seasonable at any time.

THE HIDDEN MOUNTAIN.
(A pretty Supper Dish.)

1438. Ingredients.—6 eggs, a few slices of citron, sugar to taste, ¼ pint of cream, a layer of any kind of jam.

Mode.—Beat the whites and yolks of the eggs separately; then mix them and beat well again, adding a few thin slices of citron, the cream, and sufficient pounded sugar to sweeten it nicely. When the mixture is well beaten, put it into a buttered pan, and fry the same as a pancake; but it should be three times the thickness of an ordinary pancake. Cover it with jam, and garnish with slices of citron and holly-leaves. This dish is served cold.

Time.—About 10 minutes to fry the mixture.

Average cost, with the jam, 1s. 4d.

Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

JAUNEMANGE.

1439. Ingredients.—1 oz. of isinglass, 1 pint of water, ½ pint of white wine, the rind and juice of 1 large lemon, sugar to taste, the yolks of 6 eggs.

Mode.—Put the isinglass, water, and lemon-rind into a saucepan, and boil gently until the former is dissolved; then add the strained lemon-juice, the wine, and sufficient white sugar to sweeten the whole nicely. Boil for 2 or 3 minutes, strain the mixture into a jug, and add the yolks of the eggs, which should be well beaten; place the jug in a saucepan of boiling water; keep stirring the mixture one way until it thickens, but do not allow it to boil; then take it off the fire, and keep stirring until nearly cold. Pour it into a mould, omitting the sediment at the bottom of the jug, and let it remain until quite firm.

724

Time.—¼ hour to boil the isinglass and water; about 10 minutes to stir the mixture in the jug.

Average cost, with the best isinglass, 2s. 9d.

Sufficient to fill a quart mould.

Seasonable at any time.

JELLY MOULDED WITH FRESH FRUIT, or MACEDOINE DE FRUITS.

1440. Ingredients.—Rather more than 1½ pint of jelly, a few nice strawberries, or red or white currants, or raspberries, or any fresh fruit that may be in season.

picture of “JELLY MOULDED WITH CHERRIES.”

JELLY MOULDED WITH CHERRIES.

Mode.—Have ready the above proportion of jelly, which must be very clear and rather sweet, the raw fruit requiring an additional quantity of sugar. Select ripe, nice-looking fruit; pick off the stalks, unless currants are used, when they are laid in the jelly as they come from the tree. Begin by putting a little jelly at the bottom of the mould, which must harden; then arrange the fruit round the sides, of the mould, recollecting that it will be reversed when turned out; then pour in some more jelly to make the fruit adhere, and, when that layer is set, put another row of fruit and jelly until the mould is full. If convenient, put it in ice until required for table, then wring a cloth in boiling water, wrap it round the mould for a minute, and turn the jelly carefully out. Peaches, apricots, plums, apples, &c., are better for being boiled in a little clear syrup before they are laid in the jelly; strawberries, raspberries, grapes, cherries, and currants are put in raw. In winter, when fresh fruits are not obtainable, a very pretty jelly may be made with preserved fruits or brandy cherries: these, in a bright and clear jelly, have a very pretty effect; of course, unless the jelly be very clear, the beauty of the dish will be spoiled. It may be garnished with the same fruit as is laid in the jelly; for instance, an open jelly with strawberries might have, piled in the centre, a few of the same fruit prettily arranged, or a little whipped cream might be substituted for the fruit.

Time.—One layer of jelly should remain 2 hours in a very cool place before another layer is added.

Average cost, 2s. 6d.

Sufficient, with fruit, to fill a quart mould.

Seasonable, with fresh fruit, from June to October; with dried, at any time.

725
JELLY OF TWO COLOURS.

color plate “Jelly of two colours.”

S1. Jelly of two colours.

picture of “JELLY OF TWO COLOURS.”

JELLY OF TWO COLOURS.

1441. Ingredients.—1½ pint of calf’s-feet jelly No. 1416, a few drops of prepared cochineal.

Mode.—Make 1½ pint of jelly by recipe No. 1416, or, if wished more economical, of clarified syrup and gelatine, flavouring it in any way that may be preferred. Colour one-half of the jelly with a few drops of prepared cochineal, and the other half leave as pale as possible. Have ready a mould well wetted in every part; pour in a small quantity of the red jelly, and let this set; when quite firm, pour on it the same quantity of the pale jelly, and let this set; then proceed in this manner until the mould is full, always taking care to let one jelly set before the other is poured in, or the colours would run one into the other. When turned out, the jelly should have a striped appearance. For variety, half the mould may be filled at once with one of the jellies, and, when firm, filled up with the other: this, also, has a very pretty effect, and is more expeditiously prepared than when the jelly is poured in small quantities into the mould. Blancmange and red jelly, or blancmange and raspberry cream, moulded in the above manner, look very well. The layers of blancmange and jelly should be about an inch in depth, and each layer should be perfectly hardened before another is added. Half a mould of blancmange and half a mould of jelly are frequently served in the same manner. A few pretty dishes may be made, in this way, of jellies or blancmanges left from the preceding day, by melting them separately in a jug placed in a saucepan of boiling water, and then moulding them by the foregoing directions. (See coloured plate S1.)

Time.—¾ hour to make the jelly.

Average cost, with calf’s-feet jelly, 2s.; with gelatine and syrup, more economical.

Sufficient to fill 1½-pint mould.

Seasonable at any time.

Note.—In making the jelly, use for flavouring a very pale sherry, or the colour will be too dark to contrast nicely with the red jelly.

LEMON BLANCMANGE.

1442. Ingredients.—1 quart of milk, the yolks of 4 eggs, 3 oz. of ground rice, 6 oz. of pounded sugar, 1½ oz. of fresh butter, the rind of 1 lemon, the juice of 2, ½ oz. of gelatine.

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picture of “BLANCMANGE MOULD.”

BLANCMANGE MOULD.

Mode.—Make a custard with the yolks of the eggs and ½ pint of the milk, and, when done, put it into a basin; put half the remainder of the milk into a saucepan with the ground rice, fresh butter, lemon-rind, and 3 oz. of the sugar, and let these ingredients boil until the mixture is stiff, stirring them continually; when done, pour it into the bowl where the custard is, mixing both well together. Put the gelatine with the rest of the milk into a saucepan, and let it stand by the side of the fire to dissolve; boil for a minute or two, stir carefully into the basin, adding 3 oz. more of pounded sugar. When cold, stir in the lemon-juice, which should be carefully strained, and pour the mixture into a well-oiled mould, leaving out the lemon-peel, and set the mould in a pan of cold water until wanted for table. Use eggs that have rich-looking yolks; and, should the weather be very warm, rather a larger proportion of gelatine must be allowed.

Time.—Altogether, ½ hour.

Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient to fill 2 small moulds.

Seasonable at any time.

LEMON CREAM.

1443. Ingredients.—1 pint of cream, the yolks of 2 eggs, ¼ lb. of white sugar, 1 large lemon, 1 oz. of isinglass.

picture of “LEMON-CREAM MOULD.”

LEMON-CREAM MOULD.

Mode.—Put the cream into a lined saucepan with the sugar, lemon-peel, and isinglass, and simmer these over a gentle fire for about 10 minutes, stirring them all the time. Strain the cream into a jug, add the yolks of eggs, which should be well beaten, and put the jug into a saucepan of boiling water; stir the mixture one way until it thickens, but do not allow it to boil; take it off the fire, and keep stirring it until nearly cold. Strain the lemon-juice into a basin, gradually pour on it the cream, and stir it well until the juice is well mixed with it. Have ready a well-oiled mould, pour the cream into it, and let it remain until perfectly set. When required for table, loosen the edges with a small blunt knife, put a dish on the top of the mould, turn it over quickly, and the cream should easily slip away.

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Time.—10 minutes to boil the cream; about 10 minutes to stir it over the fire in the jug.

Average cost, with cream at 1s. per pint, and the best isinglass, 2s. 6d.

Sufficient to fill 1½-pint mould.

Seasonable at any time.

ECONOMICAL LEMON CREAM.

1444. Ingredients.—1 quart of milk, 8 bitter almonds, 2 oz. of gelatine, 2 large lemons, ¾ lb. of lump sugar, the yolks of 6 eggs.

Mode.—Put the milk into a lined saucepan with the almonds, which should be well pounded in a mortar, the gelatine, lemon-rind, and lump sugar, and boil these ingredients for about 5 minutes. Beat up the yolks of the eggs, strain the milk into a jug, add the eggs, and pour the mixture backwards and forwards a few times, until nearly cold; then stir briskly to it the lemon-juice, which should be strained, and keep stirring until the cream is almost cold: put it into an oiled mould, and let it remain until perfectly set. The lemon-juice must not be added to the cream when it is warm, and should be well stirred after it is put in.

Time.—5 minutes to boil the milk.

Average cost, 2s. 5d.

Sufficient to fill two 1½-pint moulds.

Seasonable at any time.

LEMON CREAMS.
(Very good.)

1445. Ingredients.—1 pint of cream, 2 dozen sweet almonds, 3 glasses of sherry, the rind and juice of 2 lemons, sugar to taste.

Mode.—Blanch and chop the almonds, and put them into a jug with the cream; in another jug put the sherry, lemon-rind, strained juice, and sufficient pounded sugar to sweeten the whole nicely. Pour rapidly from one jug to the other till the mixture is well frothed; then pour it into jelly-glasses, omitting the lemon-rind. This is a very cool and delicious sweet for summer, and may be made less rich by omitting the almonds and substituting orange or raisin wine for the sherry.

Time.—Altogether, ½ hour.

Average cost, with cream at 1s. per pint, 3s.

Sufficient to fill 12 glasses.

Seasonable at any time.

LEMON CREAMS OR CUSTARDS.

1446. Ingredients.—5 oz. of loaf sugar, 2 pints of boiling water, the rind of 1 lemon and the juice of 3, the yolks of 8 eggs.

Mode.—Make a quart of lemonade in the following manner:—Dissolve the sugar in the boiling water, having previously, with part of 728 the sugar, rubbed off the lemon-rind, and add the strained juice. Strain the lemonade into a saucepan, and add the yolks of the eggs, which should be well beaten; stir this one way over the fire until the mixture thickens, but do not allow it to boil, and serve in custard-glasses, or on a glass dish. After the boiling water is poured on the sugar and lemon, it should stand covered for about ½ hour before the eggs are added to it, that the flavour of the rind may be extracted.

Time.—½ hour to make the lemonade; about 10 minutes to stir the custard over the fire.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient to fill 12 to 14 custard-glasses.

Seasonable at any time.

LEMON JELLY.

1447. Ingredients.—6 lemons, ¾ lb. of lump sugar, 1 pint of water, 1¼ oz. of isinglass, ¼ pint of sherry.

Mode.—Peel 3 of the lemons, pour ½ pint of boiling water on the rind, and let it infuse for ½ hour; put the sugar, isinglass, and ½ pint of water into a lined saucepan, and boil these ingredients for 20 minutes; then put in the strained lemon-juice, the strained infusion of the rind, and bring the whole to the point of boiling; skim well, add the wine, and run the jelly through a bag; pour it into a mould that has been wetted or soaked in water; put it in ice, if convenient, where let it remain until required for table. Previously to adding the lemon-juice to the other ingredients, ascertain that it is very nicely strained, as, if this is not properly attended to, it is liable to make the jelly thick and muddy. As this jelly is very pale, and almost colourless, it answers very well for moulding, with a jelly of any bright hue; for instance, half a jelly bright red, and the other half made of the above, would have a very good effect. Lemon jelly may also be made with calf’s-feet stock, allowing the juice of 3 lemons to every pint of stock.

Time.—Altogether, 1 hour.

Average cost, with the best isinglass, 2s. 9d.

Sufficient to fill 1½-pint mould.

Seasonable at any time.

LEMON SPONGE.

1448. Ingredients.—2 oz. of isinglass, 1¾ pint of water, ¾ lb. of pounded sugar, the juice of 5 lemons, the rind of 1, the whites of 3 eggs.

Mode.—Dissolve the isinglass in the water, strain it into a saucepan, and add the sugar, lemon-rind, and juice. Boil the whole from 10 to 15 minutes; strain it again, and let it stand till it is cold and begins to stiffen. Beat the whites of the eggs, put them to it, and 729 whisk the mixture till it is quite white; put it into a mould which has been previously wetted, and let it remain until perfectly set; then turn it out, and garnish it according to taste.

Time.—10 to 15 minutes.

Average cost, with the best isinglass, 3s. 6d.

Sufficient to fill a quart mould.

Seasonable at any time.

LIQUEUR JELLY.

1449. Ingredients.—1 lb. of lump sugar, 2 oz. of isinglass, 1½ pint of water, the juice of 2 lemons, ¼ pint of liqueur.

picture of “OVAL JELLY-MOULD.”

OVAL JELLY-MOULD.

Mode.—Put the sugar, with 1 pint of the water, into a stewpan, and boil them gently by the side of the fire until there is no scum remaining, which must be carefully removed as fast as it rises. Boil the isinglass with the other ½ pint of water, and skim it carefully in the same manner. Strain the lemon-juice, and add it, with the clarified isinglass, to the syrup; put in the liqueur, and bring the whole to the boiling-point. Let the saucepan remain covered by the side of the fire for a few minutes; then pour the jelly through a bag, put it into a mould, and set the mould in ice until required for table. Dip the mould in hot water, wipe the outside, loosen the jelly by passing a knife round the edges, and turn it out carefully on a dish. Noyeau, Maraschino, Curaçoa, brandy, or any kind of liqueur, answers for this jelly; and, when made with isinglass, liqueur jellies are usually prepared as directed above.

Time.—10 minutes to boil the sugar and water.

Average cost, with the best isinglass, 3s. 6d.

Sufficient to fill a quart mould.

Seasonable at any time.

A SWEET DISH OF MACARONI.

1450. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of macaroni, 1½ pint of milk, the rind of ½ lemon, 3 oz. of lump sugar, ¾ pint of custard No. 1423.

Mode.—Put the milk into a saucepan, with the lemon-peel and sugar; bring it to the boiling-point, drop in the macaroni, and let it gradually swell over a gentle fire, but do not allow the pipes to break. The form should be entirely preserved; and, though tender, should be firm, and not soft, with no part beginning to melt. Should the milk dry away before the macaroni is sufficiently swelled, add a little more. Make a custard by recipe No. 1423; place the macaroni on a dish, and 730 pour the custard over the hot macaroni; grate over it a little nutmeg, and, when cold, garnish the dish with slices of candied citron.

Time.—From 40 to 50 minutes to swell the macaroni.

Average cost, with the custard, 1s.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

MERINGUES.

1451. Ingredients.—½ lb. of pounded sugar, the whites of 4 eggs.

picture of “MERINGUES.”

MERINGUES.

Mode.—Whisk the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, and, with a wooden spoon, stir in quickly the pounded sugar; and have some boards thick enough to put in the oven to prevent the bottom of the meringues from acquiring too much colour. Cut some strips of paper about 2 inches wide; place this paper on the board, and drop a tablespoonful at a time of the mixture on the paper, taking care to let all the meringues be the same size. In dropping it from the spoon, give the mixture the form of an egg, and keep the meringues about 2 inches apart from each other on the paper. Strew over them some sifted sugar, and bake in a moderate oven for ½ hour. As soon as they begin to colour, remove them from the oven; take each slip of paper by the two ends, and turn it gently on the table, and, with a small spoon, take out the soft part of each meringue. Spread some clean paper on the board, turn the meringues upside down, and put them into the oven to harden and brown on the other side. When required for table, fill them with whipped cream, flavoured with liqueur or vanilla, and sweetened with pounded sugar. Join two of the meringues together, and pile them high in the dish, as shown in the annexed drawing. To vary their appearance, finely-chopped almonds or currants may be strewn over them before the sugar is sprinkled over; and they may be garnished with any bright-coloured preserve. Great expedition is necessary in making this sweet dish; as, if the meringues are not put into the oven as soon as the sugar and eggs are mixed, the former melts, and the mixture would run on the paper, instead of keeping its egg-shape. The sweeter the meringues are made, the crisper will they be; but, if there is not sufficient sugar mixed with them, they will most likely be tough. They are sometimes coloured with cochineal; and, if kept well covered in a dry place, will remain good for a month or six weeks.

731

Time.—Altogether, about ½ hour.

Average cost, with the cream and flavouring, 1s.

Sufficient to make 2 dozen meringues.

Seasonable at any time.

NOYEAU CREAM.

1452. Ingredients.—1½ oz. of isinglass, the juice of 2 lemons, noyeau and pounded sugar to taste, 1½ pint of cream.

Mode.—Dissolve the isinglass in a little boiling water, add the lemon-juice, and strain this to the cream, putting in sufficient noyeau and sugar to flavour and sweeten the mixture nicely; whisk the cream well, put it into an oiled mould, and set the mould in ice or in a cool place; turn it out, and garnish the dish to taste.

Time.—Altogether, ½ hour.

Average cost, with cream at 1s. per pint and the best isinglass, 4s.

Sufficient to fill a quart mould.

Seasonable at any time.

OPEN JELLY WITH WHIPPED CREAM.
(A very pretty dish.)

1453. Ingredients.—1½ pint of jelly, ½ pint of cream, 1 glass of sherry, sugar to taste.

picture of “OPEN JELLY WITH WHIPPED CREAM.”

OPEN JELLY WITH WHIPPED CREAM.

Mode.—Make the above proportion of calf’s-feet or isinglass jelly, colouring and flavouring it in any way that may be preferred; soak a mould, open in the centre, for about ½ hour in cold water; fill it with the jelly, and let it remain in a cool place until perfectly set; then turn it out on a dish; fill the centre with whipped cream, flavoured with sherry and sweetened with pounded sugar; pile this cream high in the centre, and serve. The jelly should be made of rather a dark colour, to contrast nicely with the cream.

Time.—¾ hour.

Average cost, 3s. 6d.

Sufficient to fill 1½-pint mould.

Seasonable at any time.

ORANGE JELLY.

1454. Ingredients.—1 pint of water, 1½ to 2 oz. of isinglass, ½ lb. of loaf sugar, 1 Seville orange, 1 lemon, about 9 China oranges.

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picture of “OPEN MOULD.”

OPEN MOULD.

Mode.—Put the water into a saucepan, with the isinglass, sugar, and the rind of 1 orange, and the same of ½ lemon, and stir these over the fire until the isinglass is dissolved, and remove the scum; then add to this the juice of the Seville orange, the juice of the lemon, and sufficient juice of China oranges to make in all 1 pint: from 8 to 10 oranges will yield the desired quantity. Stir all together over the fire until it is just on the point of boiling; skim well; then strain the jelly through a very fine sieve or jelly-bag, and when nearly cold, put it into a mould previously wetted, and, when quite set, turn it out on a dish, and garnish it to taste. To insure this jelly being clear, the orange- and lemon-juice should be well strained, and the isinglass clarified, before they are added to the other ingredients, and, to heighten the colour, a few drops of prepared cochineal may be added.

Time.—5 minutes to boil without the juice; 1 minute after it is added.

Average cost, with the best isinglass, 3s. 6d.

Sufficient to fill a quart mould.

Seasonable from November to May.

ORANGE JELLY MOULDED WITH SLICES OF ORANGE.

1455. Ingredients.—1½ pint of orange jelly No. 1454, 4 oranges, ½ pint of clarified syrup.

Mode.—Boil ½ lb. of loaf sugar with a pint of water until there is no scum left (which must be carefully removed as fast as it rises), and carefully peel the oranges; divide them into thin slices, without breaking the thin skin, and put these pieces of orange into the syrup, where let them remain for about 5 minutes; then take them out, and use the syrup for the jelly, which should be made by recipe No. 1454. When the oranges are well drained, and the jelly is nearly cold, pour a little of the latter into the bottom of the mould; then lay in a few pieces of orange; over these pour a little jelly, and when this is set, place another layer of oranges, proceeding in this manner until the mould is full. Put it in ice, or in a cool place, and, before turning it out, wrap a cloth round the mould for a minute or two, which has been wrung out in boiling water.

Time.—5 minutes to simmer the oranges.

Average cost, 3s. 6d.

Sufficient, with the slices of orange, to fill a quart mould.

Seasonable from November to May.

733
TO MAKE A PLAIN OMELET.

1456. Ingredients.—6 eggs, 1 saltspoonful of salt, ½ saltspoonful of pepper, ¼ lb. of butter.

picture of “OMELET.”

OMELET.

Mode.—Break the eggs into a basin, omitting the whites of 3, and beat them up with the salt and pepper until extremely light; then add 2 oz. of the butter broken into small pieces, and stir this into the mixture. Put the other 2 oz. of butter into a frying-pan, make it quite hot, and, as soon as it begins to bubble, whisk the eggs, &c. very briskly for a minute or two, and pour them into the pan; stir the omelet with a spoon one way until the mixture thickens and becomes firm, and when the whole is set, fold the edges over, so that the omelet assumes an oval form; and when it is nicely brown on one side, and quite firm, it is done. To take off the rawness on the upper side, hold the pan before the fire for a minute or two, and brown it with a salamander or hot shovel. Serve very expeditiously on a very hot dish, and never cook it until it is just wanted. The flavour of this omelet may be very much enhanced by adding minced parsley, minced onion or eschalot, or grated cheese, allowing 1 tablespoonful of the former, and half the quantity of the latter, to the above proportion of eggs. Shrimps or oysters may also be added: the latter should be scalded in their liquor, and then bearded and cut into small pieces. In making an omelet, be particularly careful that it is not too thin, and, to avoid this, do not make it in too large a frying-pan, as the mixture would then spread too much, and taste of the outside. It should also not be greasy, burnt, or too much done, and should be cooked over a gentle fire, that the whole of the substance may be heated without drying up the outside. Omelets are sometimes served with gravy; but this should never be poured over them, but served in a tureen, as the liquid causes the omelet to become heavy and flat, instead of eating light and soft. In making the gravy, the flavour should not overpower that of the omelet, and should be thickened with arrowroot or rice flour.

Time.—With 6 eggs, in a frying-pan 18 or 20 inches round, 4 to 6 minutes.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

HAM OMELET.
(A delicious Breakfast Dish.)

1457. Ingredients.—6 eggs, 4 oz. of butter, ½ saltspoonful of pepper, 2 tablespoonfuls of minced ham.

734

Mode. Mince the ham very finely, without any fat, and fry it for 2 minutes in a little butter; then make the batter for the omelet, stir in the ham, and proceed as directed in recipe No. 1456. Do not add any salt to the batter, as the ham is usually sufficiently salt to impart a flavour to the omelet. Good lean bacon, or tongue, answers equally well for this dish; but they must also be slightly cooked previously to mixing them with the batter. Serve very hot and quickly, without gravy.

Time.—From 4 to 6 minutes.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

KIDNEY OMELET.
(A favourite French dish.)

1458. Ingredients.—6 eggs, 1 saltspoonful of salt, ½ saltspoonful of pepper, 2 sheep’s kidneys, or 2 tablespoonfuls of minced veal kidney, 5 oz. of butter.

picture of “OMELET-PAN.”

OMELET-PAN.

Mode.—Skin the kidneys, cut them into small dice, and toss them in a frying-pan, in 1 oz. of butter, over the fire for 2 or 3 minutes. Mix the ingredients for the omelet the same as in recipe No. 1456, and when the eggs are well whisked, stir in the pieces of kidney. Make the butter hot in the frying-pan, and when it bubbles, pour in the omelet, and fry it over a gentle fire from 4 to 6 minutes. When the eggs are set, fold the edges over, so that the omelet assumes an oval form, and be careful that it is not too much done: to brown the top, hold the pan before the fire for a minute or two, or use a salamander until the desired colour is obtained, but never turn an omelet in the pan. Slip it carefully on to a very hot dish, or, what is a much safer method, put a dish on the omelet, and turn the pan quickly over. It should be served the instant it comes from the fire.

Time.—4 to 6 minutes.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

TO MAKE A PLAIN SWEET OMELET.

1459. Ingredients.—6 eggs, 4 oz. of butter, 2 oz. of sifted sugar.

Mode.—Break the eggs into a basin, omitting the whites of 3; whisk them well, adding the sugar and 2 oz. of the butter, which should be broken into small pieces, and stir all these ingredients well together. Make the remainder of the butter quite hot in a small frying-pan, and when it commences to bubble, pour in the eggs, &c. Keep stirring them until they begin to set; then turn the edges of the 735 omelet over, to make it an oval shape, and finish cooking it. To brown the top, hold the pan before the fire, or use a salamander, and turn it carefully on to a very hot dish: sprinkle sifted sugar over, and serve.

Time.—From 4 to 6 minutes.

Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

OMELETTE AUX CONFITURES, or JAM OMELET.

1460. Ingredients.—6 eggs, 4 oz. of butter, 3 tablespoonfuls of apricot, strawberry, or any jam that may be preferred.

Mode.—Make the omelet by recipe No. 1459, only instead of doubling it over, leave it flat in the pan. When quite firm, and nicely brown on one side, turn it carefully on to a hot dish, spread over the middle of it the jam, and fold the omelet over on each side; sprinkle sifted sugar over, and serve very quickly. A pretty dish of small omelets may be made by dividing the batter into 3 or 4 portions, and frying them separately; they should then be spread each one with a different kind of preserve, and the omelets rolled over. Always sprinkle sweet omelets with sifted sugar before being sent to table.

Time.—4 to 6 minutes.

Average cost, 1s. 2d.

Sufficient for 4 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

OMELETTE SOUFFLE.

1461. Ingredients.—6 eggs, 5 oz. of pounded sugar, flavouring of vanilla, orange-flower water, or lemon-rind, 3 oz. of butter, 1 dessert­spoonful of rice-flour.

Mode.—Separate the yolks from the whites of the eggs, add to the former the sugar, the rice-flour, and either of the above flavourings that may be preferred, and stir these ingredients well together. Whip the whites of the eggs, mix them lightly with the batter, and put the butter into a small frying-pan. As soon as it begins to bubble, pour the batter into it, and set the pan over a bright but gentle fire; and when the omelet is set, turn the edges over to make it an oval shape, and slip it on to a silver dish, which has been previously well buttered. Put it in the oven, and bake from 12 to 15 minutes; sprinkle finely-powdered sugar over the soufflé, and serve it immediately.

Time.—About 4 minutes in the pan; to bake, from 12 to 15 minutes.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

BACHELOR’S OMELET.

1462. Ingredients.—2 or 3 eggs, 2 oz. of butter, 1 teaspoonful of flour, ½ teacupful of milk.

736

Mode.—Make a thin cream of the flour and milk; then beat up the eggs, mix all together, and add a pinch of salt and a few grains of cayenne. Melt the butter in a small frying-pan, and, when very hot, pour in the batter. Let the pan remain for a few minutes over a clear fire; then sprinkle upon the omelet some chopped herbs and a few shreds of onion; double the omelet dexterously, and shake it out of the pan on to a hot dish. A simple sweet omelet can be made by the same process, substituting sugar or preserve for the chopped herbs.

Time.—2 minutes.

Average cost, 6d.

Sufficient for 2 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

ORANGE CREAM.

1463. Ingredients.—1 oz. of isinglass, 6 large oranges, 1 lemon, sugar to taste, water, ½ pint of good cream.

picture of “OPEN MOULD.”

OPEN MOULD.

Mode.—Squeeze the juice from the oranges and lemon; strain it, and put it into a saucepan with the isinglass, and sufficient water to make in all 1½ pint. Rub the sugar on the orange and lemon-rind, add it to the other ingredients, and boil all together for about 10 minutes. Strain through a muslin bag, and, when cold, beat up with it ½ pint of thick cream. Wet a mould, or soak it in cold water; pour in the cream, and put it in a cool place to set. If the weather is very cold, 1 oz. of isinglass will be found sufficient for the above proportion of ingredients.

Time.—10 minutes to boil the juice and water.

Average cost, with the best isinglass, 3s.

Sufficient to fill a quart mould.

Seasonable from November to May.

ORANGE CREAMS.

1464. Ingredients.—1 Seville orange, 1 tablespoonful of brandy, ¼ lb. of loaf sugar, the yolks of 4 eggs, 1 pint of cream.

Mode.—Boil the rind of the Seville orange until tender, and beat it in a mortar to a pulp; add to it the brandy, the strained juice of the orange, and the sugar, and beat all together for about 10 minutes, adding the well-beaten yolks of eggs. Bring the cream to the boiling-point, and pour it very gradually to the other ingredients, and beat the mixture till nearly cold; put it into custard-cups, place the cups in a deep dish of boiling water, where let them remain till quite cold. 737 3B Take the cups out of the water, wipe them, and garnish the tops of the creams with candied orange-peel or preserved chips.

Time.—Altogether, ¾ hour.

Average cost, with cream at 1s. per pint, 1s. 7d.

Sufficient to make 7 or 8 creams.

Seasonable from November to May.

Note.—To render this dish more economical, substitute milk for the cream, but add a small pinch of isinglass to make the creams firm.

Seville Orange (Citrus vulgaris).—This variety, called also bitter orange, is of the same species as the sweet orange, and grows in great abundance on the banks of the Guadalquiver, in Andalusia, whence this fruit is chiefly obtained. In that part of Spain there are very extensive orchards of these oranges, which form the chief wealth of the monasteries. The pulp of the bitter orange is not eaten raw. In the yellow rind, separated from the white spongy substance immediately below it, is contained an essential oil, which is an agreeable warm aromatic, much superior for many purposes to that of the common orange. The best marmalade and the richest wine are made from this orange; and from its flowers the best orange-flower water is distilled. Seville oranges are also preserved whole as a sweetmeat.

ORANGE FRITTERS.

1465. Ingredients.—For the batter, ½ lb. of flour, ½ oz. of butter, ½ saltspoonful of salt, 2 eggs, milk, oranges, hot lard or clarified dripping.

Mode.—Make a nice light batter with the above proportion of flour, butter, salt, eggs, and sufficient milk to make it the proper consistency; peel the oranges, remove as much of the white skin as possible, and divide each orange into eight pieces, without breaking the thin skin, unless it be to remove the pips; dip each piece of orange in the batter. Have ready a pan of boiling lard or clarified dripping; drop in the oranges, and fry them a delicate brown from 8 to 10 minutes. When done, lay them on a piece of blotting-paper before the fire, to drain away the greasy moisture, and dish them on a white d’oyley; sprinkle over them plenty of pounded sugar, and serve quickly.

Time.—8 to 10 minutes to fry the fritters; 5 minutes to drain them.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable from November to May.

A PRETTY DISH OF ORANGES.

1466. Ingredients.—6 large oranges, ½ lb. of loaf sugar, ¼ pint of water, ½ pint of cream, 2 tablespoonfuls of any kind of liqueur, sugar to taste.

Mode.—Put the sugar and water into a saucepan, and boil them until the sugar becomes brittle, which may be ascertained by taking up a small quantity in a spoon, and dipping it in cold water; if the 738 sugar is sufficiently boiled, it will easily snap. Peel the oranges, remove as much of the white pith as possible, and divide them into nice-sized slices, without breaking the thin white skin which surrounds the juicy pulp. Place the pieces of orange on small skewers, dip them into the hot sugar, and arrange them in layers round a plain mould, which should be well oiled with the purest salad-oil. The sides of the mould only should be lined with the oranges, and the centre left open for the cream. Let the sugar become firm by cooling; turn the oranges carefully out on a dish, and fill the centre with whipped cream, flavoured with any kind of liqueur, and sweetened with pounded sugar. This is an exceedingly ornamental and nice dish for the supper-table.

Time.—10 minutes to boil the sugar.

Average cost, 1s. 8d.

Sufficient for 1 mould.

Seasonable from November to Hay.

TO MAKE PANCAKES.

1467. Ingredients.—Eggs, flour, milk; to every egg allow 1 oz. of flour, about 1 gill of milk, ⅛ saltspoonful of salt.

picture of “PANCAKES.”

PANCAKES.

Mode.—Ascertain that the eggs are fresh; break each one separately in a cup; whisk them well, put them into a basin, with the flour, salt, and a few drops of milk, and beat the whole to a perfectly smooth batter; then add by degrees the remainder of the milk. The proportion of this latter ingredient must be regulated by the size of the eggs, &c. &c.; but the batter, when ready for frying, should be of the consistency of thick cream. Place a small frying-pan on the fire to get hot; let it be delicately clean, or the pancakes will stick, and, when quite hot, put into it a small piece of butter, allowing about ½ oz. to each pancake. When it is melted, pour in the batter, about ½ teacupful to a pan 5 inches in diameter, and fry it for about 4 minutes, or until it is nicely brown on one side. By only pouring in a small quantity of batter, and so making the pancakes thin, the necessity of turning them (an operation rather difficult to unskilful cooks) is obviated. When the pancake is done, sprinkle over it some pounded sugar, roll it up in the pan, and take it out with a large slice, and place it on a dish before the fire. Proceed in this manner until sufficient are cooked for a dish; then send them quickly to table, and continue to send in a further quantity, as pancakes are never good unless eaten almost immediately they come from the frying-pan. The batter may be flavoured with a little grated lemon-rind, or the pancakes may have preserve rolled in them instead of sugar. Send sifted sugar and a cut 739 lemon to table with them. To render the pancakes very light, the yolks and whites of the eggs should be beaten separately, and the whites added the last thing to the batter before frying.

Time.—From 4 to 5 minutes for a pancake that does not require turning; from 6 to 8 minutes for a thicker one.

Average cost, for 3 persons, 6d.

Sufficient.—Allow 3 eggs, with the other ingredients in proportion, for 3 persons.

Seasonable at any time, but specially served on Shrove Tuesday.

RICHER PANCAKES.

1468. Ingredients.—6 eggs, 1 pint of cream, ¼ lb. of loaf sugar, 1 glass of sherry, ½ teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, flour.

Mode.—Ascertain that the eggs are extremely fresh, beat them well, strain and mix with them the cream, pounded sugar, wine, nutmeg, and as much flour as will make the batter nearly as thick as that for ordinary pancakes. Make the frying-pan hot, wipe it with a clean cloth, pour in sufficient batter to make a thin pancake, and fry it for about 5 minutes. Dish the pancakes piled one above the other, strew sifted sugar between each, and serve.

Time.—About 5 minutes.

Average cost, with cream at 1s. per pint, 2s. 3d.

Sufficient to make 8 pancakes.

Seasonable at any time, but specially served on Shrove Tuesday.

PEACH FRITTERS.

1469. Ingredients.—For the batter: ½ lb. of flour, ½ oz. of butter, ½ saltspoonful of salt, 2 eggs, milk;—peaches, hot lard or clarified dripping.

Mode.—Make a nice smooth batter in the same manner as directed in recipe No. 1393, and skin, halve, and stone the peaches, which should be quite ripe; dip them in the batter, and fry the pieces in hot lard or clarified dripping, which should be brought to the boiling-point before the peaches are put in. From 8 to 10 minutes will be required to fry them, and, when done, drain them before the fire, and dish them on a white d’oyley. Strew over plenty of pounded sugar, and serve.

Time.—From 8 to 10 minutes to fry the fritters, 5 minutes to drain them.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable in July, August, and September.

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picture of “PEACH.”

PEACH.

Peach.—The peach and nectarine are amongst the most delicious of our fruits, and are considered as varieties of the same species produced by cultivation. The former is characterized by a very delicate down, while the latter is smooth; but, as a proof of their identity as to species, trees have borne peaches in one part and nectarines in another; and even a single fruit has had down on one side and the other smooth. The trees are almost exactly alike, as well as the blossoms. Pliny states that the peach was originally brought from Persia, where it grows naturally, from which the name of Persica was bestowed upon it by the Romans; and some modern botanists apply this as the generic name, separating them from Amygdalus, or Almond, to which Linnæus had united them. Although they are not tropical, they require a great deal of warmth to bring them to perfection; hence they seldom ripen in this country, in ordinary seasons, without the use of walls or glass; consequently, they bear a high price. In a good peach, the flesh is firm, the skin thin, of a deep bright colour next the sun, and of a yellowish green next to the wall; the pulp is yellowish, full of highly-flavoured juice, the fleshy part thick, and the stone small. Too much down is a sign of inferior quality. This fruit is much used at the dessert, and makes a delicious preserve.

PEARS A L’ALLEMANDE.

1470. Ingredients.—6 to 8 pears, water, sugar, 2 oz. of butter, the yolk of an egg, ½ oz. of gelatine.

Mode.—Peel and cut the pears into any form that may be preferred, and steep them in cold water to prevent them turning black; put them into a saucepan with sufficient cold water to cover them, and boil them with the butter and enough sugar to sweeten them nicely, until tender; then brush the pears over with the yolk of an egg, sprinkle them with sifted sugar, and arrange them on a dish. Add the gelatine to the syrup, boil it up quickly for about 5 minutes, strain it over the pears, and let it remain until set. The syrup may be coloured with a little prepared cochineal, which would very much improve the appearance of the dish.

Time.—From 20 minutes to ½ hour to stew the pears; 5 minutes to boil the syrup.

Average cost, 1s. 3d.

Sufficient for a large dish.

Seasonable from August to February.

MOULDED PEARS.

1471. Ingredients.—4 large pears or 6 small ones, 8 cloves, sugar to taste, water, a small piece of cinnamon, ¼ pint of raisin wine, a strip of lemon-peel, the juice of ½ lemon, ½ oz. of gelatine.

Mode.—Peel and cut the pears into quarters; put them into a jar with ¾ pint of water, cloves, cinnamon, and sufficient sugar to sweeten the whole nicely; cover down the top of the jar, and bake the pears in 741 a gentle oven until perfectly tender, but do not allow them to break. When done, lay the pears in a plain mould, which should be well wetted, and boil ½ pint of the liquor the pears were baked in with the wine, lemon-peel, strained juice, and gelatine. Let these ingredients boil quickly for 5 minutes, then strain the liquid warm over the pears; put the mould in a cool place, and when the jelly is firm, turn it out on a glass dish.

Time.—2 hours to bake the pears in a cool oven.

Average cost, 1s. 3d.

Sufficient for a quart mould.

Seasonable from August to February.

PINEAPPLE FRITTERS.
(An elegant Dish.)

1472. Ingredients.—A small pineapple, a small wineglassful of brandy or liqueur, 2 oz. of sifted sugar; batter as for apple fritters No. 1393.

Mode.—This elegant dish, although it may appear extravagant, is really not so if made when pineapples are plentiful. We receive them now in such large quantities from the West Indies, that at times they may be purchased at an exceedingly low rate: it would not, of course, be economical to use the pines which are grown in our English pineries for the purposes of fritters. Pare the pine with as little waste as possible, cut it into rather thin slices, and soak these slices in the above proportion of brandy or liqueur and pounded sugar for 4 hours; then make a batter the same as for apple fritters, substituting cream for the milk, and using a smaller quantity of flour; and, when this is ready, dip in the pieces of pine, and fry them in boiling lard from 5 to 8 minutes; turn them when sufficiently brown on one side, and, when done, drain them from the lard before the fire, dish them on a white d’oyley, strew over them sifted sugar, and serve quickly.

Time.—5 to 8 minutes.

Average cost, when cheap and plentiful, 1s. 6d. for the pine.

Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

Seasonable in July and August.

Pineapple.—The pineapple has not been known in Europe above two hundred years, and has not been cultivated in England much above a century. It is stated that the first pineapples raised in Europe were by M. La Cour, of Leyden, about the middle of the 17th century; and it is said to have been first cultivated in England by Sir Matthew Decker, of Richmond. In Kensington Palace, there is a picture in which Charles II. is represented as receiving a pineapple from his gardener Rose, who is presenting it on his knees.

PLAIN FRITTERS.

1473. Ingredients.—3 oz. of flour, 3 eggs, ⅓ pint of milk.

picture of “STAR FRITTER-MOULD.”

STAR FRITTER-MOULD.

Mode.—Mix the flour to a smooth batter with a small quantity of the milk; stir in the eggs, which should be well whisked, and then 742 the remainder of the milk; beat the whole to a perfectly smooth batter, and should it be found not quite thin enough, add two or three tablespoonfuls more milk. Have ready a frying-pan, with plenty of boiling lard in it; drop in rather more than a tablespoonful at a time of the batter, and fry the fritters a nice brown, turning them when sufficiently cooked on one side. Drain them well from the greasy moisture by placing them upon a piece of blotting-paper before the fire; dish them on a white d’oyley, sprinkle over them sifted sugar, and send to table with them a cut lemon and plenty of pounded sugar.

Time.—From 6 to 8 minutes.

Average cost, 4d.

Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

POTATO FRITTERS.

1474. Ingredients.—2 large potatoes, 4 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, 2 ditto of raisin or sweet wine, 1 dessert­spoonful of lemon-juice, ½ teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, hot lard.

picture of “SCROLL FRITTER-MOULD.”

SCROLL FRITTER-MOULD.

Mode.—Boil the potatoes, and beat them up lightly with a fork, but do not use a spoon, as that would make them heavy. Beat the eggs well, leaving out one of the whites; add the other ingredients, and beat all together for at least 20 minutes, or until the batter is extremely light. Put plenty of good lard into a frying-pan, and drop a tablespoonful of the batter at a time into it, and fry the fritters a nice brown. Serve them with the following sauce:—A glass of sherry mixed with the strained juice of a lemon, and sufficient white sugar to sweeten the whole nicely. Warm these ingredients, and serve the sauce separately in a tureen. The fritters should be neatly dished on a white d’oyley, and pounded sugar sprinkled over them; and they should be well drained on a piece of blotting-paper before the fire previously to being dished.

Time.—From 6 to 8 minutes.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

color plate “Raspberry Cream.”

T1. Raspberry Cream.

743
RASPBERRY CREAM.

picture of “RASPBERRY-CREAM MOULD.”

RASPBERRY-CREAM MOULD.

1475. Ingredients.—¾ pint of milk, ¾ pint of cream, 1½ oz. of isinglass, raspberry jelly, sugar to taste, 2 tablespoonfuls of brandy.

Mode.—Boil the milk, cream, and isinglass together for ¼ hour, or until the latter is melted, and strain it through a hair sieve into a basin. Let it cool a little; then add to it sufficient raspberry jelly, which, when melted, would make ⅓ pint, and stir well till the ingredients are thoroughly mixed. If not sufficiently sweet, add a little pounded sugar with the brandy; whisk the mixture well until nearly cold, put it into a well-oiled mould, and set it in a cool place till perfectly set. Raspberry jam may be substituted for the jelly, but must be melted, and rubbed through a sieve, to free it from seeds: in summer, the juice of the fresh fruit may be used, by slightly mashing it with a wooden spoon, and sprinkling sugar over it; the juice that flows from the fruit should then be used for mixing with the cream. If the colour should not be very good, a few drops of prepared cochineal may be added to improve its appearance. (See coloured plate T1.)

Time.—¼ hour to boil the cream and isinglass.

Average cost, with cream at 1s. per pint, and the best isinglass, 3s.

Sufficient to fill a quart mould.

Seasonable, with jelly, at any time.

Note.—Strawberry cream may be made in precisely the same manner, substituting strawberry jam or jelly for the raspberry.

RICE BLANCMANGE.

1476. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of ground rice, 3 oz. of loaf sugar, 1 oz. of fresh butter, 1 quart of milk, flavouring of lemon-peel, essence of almonds or vanilla, or laurel-leaves.

Mode.—Mix the rice to a smooth batter with about ½ pint of the milk, and the remainder put into a saucepan, with the sugar, butter, and whichever of the above flavourings may be preferred; bring the milk to the boiling-point, quickly stir in the rice, and let it boil for about 10 minutes, or until it comes easily away from the saucepan, keeping it well stirred the whole time. Grease a mould with pure salad-oil; pour in the rice, and let it get perfectly set, when it should turn out quite easily; garnish it with jam, or pour round a compôte of 744 any kind of fruit, just before it is sent to table. This blancmange is better for being made the day before it is wanted, as it then has time to become firm. If laurel-leaves are used for flavouring, steep 3 of them in the milk, and take them out before the rice is added: about 8 drops of essence of almonds, or from 12 to 16 drops of essence of vanilla, would be required to flavour the above proportion of milk.

Time.—From 10 to 15 minutes to boil the rice.

Average cost, 9d.

Sufficient to fill a quart mould.

Seasonable at any time.

RICE CROQUETTES.

1477. Ingredients.—½ lb. of rice, 1 quart of milk, 6 oz. of pounded sugar, flavouring of vanilla, lemon-peel, or bitter almonds, egg and bread crumbs, hot lard.

Mode.—Put the rice, milk, and sugar into a saucepan, and let the former gradually swell over a gentle fire until all the milk is dried up; and just before the rice is done, stir in a few drops of essence of any of the above flavourings. Let the rice get cold; then form it into small round balls, dip them into yolk of egg, sprinkle them with bread crumbs, and fry them in boiling lard for about 10 minutes, turning them about, that they may get equally browned. Drain the greasy moisture from them, by placing them on a cloth in front of the fire for a minute or two; pile them on a white d’oyley, and send them quickly to table. A small piece of jam is sometimes introduced into the middle of each croquette, which adds very much to the flavour of this favourite dish.

Time.—From ¾ to 1 hour to swell the rice; about 10 minutes to fry the croquettes.

Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient to make 7 or 8 croquettes.

Seasonable at any time.

RICE FRITTERS.

1478. Ingredients.—6 oz. of rice, 1 quart of milk, 3 oz. of sugar, 1 oz. of fresh butter, 6 oz. of orange marmalade, 4 eggs.

Mode.—Swell the rice in the milk, with the sugar and butter, over a slow fire until it is perfectly tender, which will be in about ¾ hour. When the rice is done, strain away the milk, should there be any left, and mix with it the marmalade and well-beaten eggs; stir the whole over the fire until the eggs are set; then spread the mixture on a dish to the thickness of about ½ inch, or rather thicker. When it is perfectly cold, cut it into long strips, dip them in a batter the same 745 as for apple fritters, and fry them a nice brown. Dish them on a white d’oyley, strew sifted sugar over, and serve quickly.

Time.—About ¾ hour to swell the rice; from 7 to 10 minutes to fry the fritters.

Average cost, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient to make 7 or 8 fritters.

Seasonable at any time.

RICE SNOWBALLS.
(A pretty dish for Juvenile Suppers.)

1479. Ingredients.—6 oz. of rice, 1 quart of milk, flavouring of essence of almonds, sugar to taste, 1 pint of custard made by recipe No. 1423.

Mode.—Boil the rice in the milk, with sugar and a flavouring of essence of almonds, until the former is tender, adding, if necessary, a little more milk, should it dry away too much. When the rice is quite soft, put it into teacups, or small round jars, and let it remain until cold; then turn the rice out on a deep glass dish, pour over a custard made by recipe No. 1423, and, on the top of each ball place a small piece of bright-coloured preserve or jelly. Lemon-peel or vanilla may be boiled with the rice instead of the essence of almonds, when either of these is preferred; but the flavouring of the custard must correspond with that of the rice.

Time.—About ¾ hour to swell the rice in the milk.

Average cost, with the custard, 1s. 6d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 children.

Seasonable at any time.

RICE SOUFFLE.

1480. Ingredients.—3 tablespoonfuls of ground rice, 1 pint of milk, 5 eggs, pounded sugar to taste, flavouring of lemon-rind, vanilla, coffee, chocolate, or anything that may be preferred, a piece of butter the size of a walnut.

Mode.—Mix the ground rice with 6 tablespoonfuls of the milk quite smoothly, and put it into a saucepan with the remainder of the milk and butter, and keep stirring it over the fire for about ¼ hour, or until the mixture thickens. Separate the yolks from the whites of the eggs, beat the former in a basin, and stir to them the rice and sufficient pounded sugar to sweeten the soufflé; but add this latter ingredient as sparingly as possible, as, the less sugar there is used, the lighter will be the soufflé. Now whisk the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth or snow; mix them with the other preparation, and pour the whole into a soufflé-dish, and put it instantly into the oven; bake it about ½ hour in a moderate oven; take it out, hold a salamander or hot 746 shovel over the top, sprinkle sifted sugar over it, and send the soufflé to table in the dish it was baked in, either with a napkin pinned round, or inclosed in a more ornamental dish. The excellence of this fashionable dish entirely depends on the proper whisking of the whites of the eggs, the manner of baking, and the expedition with which it is sent to table. Soufflés should be served instantly from the oven, or they will sink, and be nothing more than an ordinary pudding.

Time.—About ½ hour.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

TO MAKE A SOUFFLE.

1481. Ingredients.—3 heaped tablespoonfuls of potato-flour, rice-flour, arrowroot, or tapioca, 1 pint of milk, 5 eggs, a piece of butter the size of a walnut, sifted sugar to taste, ¼ saltspoonful of salt, flavouring.

picture of “SOUFFLÉ-PAN.”

SOUFFLÉ-PAN.

Mode.—Mix the potato-flour, or whichever one of the above ingredients is used, with a little of the milk; put it into a saucepan, with the remainder of the milk, the butter, salt, and sufficient pounded sugar to sweeten the whole nicely. Stir these ingredients over the fire until the mixture thickens; then take it off the fire, and let it cool a little. Separate the whites from the yolks of the eggs, beat the latter, and stir them into the soufflé batter. Now whisk the whites of the eggs to the firmest possible froth, for on this depends the excellence of the dish; stir them to the other ingredients, and add a few drops of essence of any flavouring that may be preferred; such as vanilla, lemon, orange, ginger, &c. &c. Pour the batter into a soufflé-dish, put it immediately into the oven, and bake for about ½ hour; then take it out, put the dish into another more ornamental one, such as is made for the purpose; hold a salamander or hot shovel over the soufflé, strew it with sifted sugar, and send it instantly to table. The secret of making a soufflé well, is to have the eggs well whisked, but particularly the whites, the oven not too hot, and to send it to table the moment it comes from the oven. If the soufflé be ever so well made, and it is allowed to stand before being sent to table, its appearance and goodness will be entirely spoiled. Soufflés may be flavoured in various ways, but must be named accordingly. Vanilla is one of the most delicate and recherché flavourings that can be used for this very fashionable dish.

Time.—About ½ hour in the oven; 2 or 3 minutes to hold the salamander over.

Average cost, 1s.

Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

747
SNOW EGGS, or ŒUFS A LA NEIGE.
(A very pretty Supper Dish.)

1482. Ingredients.—4 eggs, ¾ pint of milk, pounded sugar to taste, flavouring of vanilla, lemon-rind, or orange-flower water.

Mode.—Put the milk into a saucepan with sufficient sugar to sweeten it nicely, and the rind of ½ lemon. Let this steep by the side of the fire for ½ hour, when take out the peel; separate the whites from the yolks of the eggs, and whisk the former to a perfectly stiff froth, or until there is no liquid remaining; bring the milk to the boiling-point, and drop in the snow a tablespoonful at a time, and keep turning the eggs until sufficiently cooked. Then place them on a glass dish, beat up the yolks of the eggs, stir to them the milk, add a little more sugar, and strain this mixture into a jug; place the jug in a saucepan of boiling water, and stir it one way until the mixture thickens, but do not allow it to boil, or it will curdle. Pour this custard over the eggs, when they should rise to the surface. They make an exceedingly pretty addition to a supper, and should be put in a cold place after being made. When they are flavoured with vanilla or orange-flower water, it is not necessary to steep the milk. A few drops of the essence of either may be poured in the milk just before the whites are poached. In making the custard, a little more flavouring and sugar should always be added.

Time.—About 2 minutes to poach the whites; 8 minutes to stir the custard.

Average cost, 8d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

STONE CREAM OF TOUS LES MOIS.

1483. Ingredients.—½ lb. of preserve, 1 pint of milk, 2 oz. of lump sugar, 1 heaped tablespoonful of tous les mois, 3 drops of essence of cloves, 3 drops of almond-flavouring.

Mode.—Place the preserve at the bottom of a glass dish; put the milk into a lined saucepan, with the sugar, and make it boil. Mix to a smooth batter the tous les mois, with a very little cold milk; stir it briskly into the boiling milk, add the flavouring, and simmer for 2 minutes. When rather cool, but before turning solid, pour the cream over the jam, and ornament it with strips of red-currant jelly or preserved fruit.

Time.—2 minutes.

Average cost, 10d.

Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

748
STRAWBERRY JELLY.

1484. Ingredients.—Strawberries, pounded sugar; to every pint of juice allow 1¼ oz. of isinglass.

Mode.—Pick the strawberries, put them into a pan, squeeze them well with a wooden spoon, add sufficient pounded sugar to sweeten them nicely, and let them remain for 1 hour, that the juice may be extracted; then add ½ pint of water to every pint of juice. Strain the strawberry-juice and water through a bag; measure it, and to every pint allow 1¼ oz. of isinglass, melted and clarified in ½ pint of water. Mix this with the juice; put the jelly into a mould, and set the mould in ice. A little lemon-juice added to the strawberry-juice improves the flavour of the jelly, if the fruit is very ripe; but it must be well strained before it is put to the other ingredients, or it will make the jelly muddy.

Time.—1 hour to draw the juice.

Average cost, with the best isinglass, 3s.

Sufficient.—Allow 1½ pint of jelly for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable in June, July, and August.

SWISS CREAM.

1485. Ingredients.—¼ lb. of macaroons or 6 small sponge-cakes, sherry, 1 pint of cream, 5 oz. of lump sugar, 2 large tablespoonfuls of arrowroot, the rind of 1 lemon, the juice of ½ lemon, 3 tablespoonfuls of milk.

Mode.—Lay the macaroons or sponge-cakes in a glass dish, and pour over them as much sherry as will cover them, or sufficient to soak them well. Put the cream into a lined saucepan, with the sugar and lemon-rind, and let it remain by the side of the fire until the cream is well flavoured, when take out the lemon-rind. Mix the arrowroot smoothly with the cold milk; add this to the cream, and let it boil gently for about 3 minutes, keeping it well stirred. Take it off the fire, stir till nearly cold, when add the lemon-juice, and pour the whole over the cakes. Garnish the cream with strips of angelica, or candied citron cut thin, or bright-coloured jelly or preserve. This cream is exceedingly delicious, flavoured with vanilla instead of lemon: when this flavouring is used, the sherry may be omitted, and the mixture poured over the dry cakes.

Time.—About ½ hour to infuse the lemon-rind; 5 minutes to boil the cream.

Average cost, with cream at 1s. per pint, 3s.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

749
TO MAKE SYLLABUB.

1486. Ingredients.—1 pint of sherry or white wine, ½ grated nutmeg, sugar to taste, 1½ pint of milk.

Mode.—Put the wine into a bowl, with the grated nutmeg and plenty of pounded sugar, and milk into it the above proportion of milk frothed up. Clouted cream may be laid on the top, with pounded cinnamon or nutmeg and sugar; and a little brandy may be added to the wine before the milk is put in. In some counties, cider is substituted for the wine: when this is used, brandy must always be added. Warm milk may be poured on from a spouted jug or teapot; but it must be held very high.

Average cost, 2s.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

TIPSY CAKE.

1487. Ingredients.—1 moulded sponge- or Savoy-cake, sufficient sweet wine or sherry to soak it, 6 tablespoonfuls of brandy, 2 oz. of sweet almonds, 1 pint of rich custard.

picture of “TIPSY CAKE.”

TIPSY CAKE.

Mode.—Procure a cake that is three or four days old,—either sponge, Savoy, or rice answering for the purpose of a tipsy cake. Cut the bottom of the cake level, to make it stand firm in the dish; make a small hole in the centre, and pour in and over the cake sufficient sweet wine or sherry, mixed with the above proportion of brandy, to soak it nicely. When the cake is well soaked, blanch and cut the almonds into strips, stick them all over the cake, and pour round it a good custard, made by recipe No. 1423, allowing 8 eggs instead of 6 to the pint of milk. The cakes are sometimes crumbled and soaked, and a whipped cream heaped over them, the same as for trifles.

Time.—About 2 hours to soak the cake.

Average cost, 4s. 6d.

Sufficient for 1 dish.

Seasonable at any time.

Almond.—The almond-tree is a native of warmer climates than Britain, and is indigenous to the northern parts of Africa and Asia; but it is now commonly cultivated in Italy, Spain, and the south of France. It is not usually grown in Britain, and the fruit seldom ripens in this country: it is much admired for the beauty of its blossoms. In the form of its leaves and blossoms it strongly resembles the peach-tree, and is included in the same genus by botanists; but the fruit, instead of presenting a delicious pulp like the peach, shrivels up us it ripens, and becomes only a tough coriaceous covering to the stone inclosing the eatable kernel, which is surrounded by a thin bitter skin. It flowers early in the spring, and produces fruit in August. There are two sorts of almonds,—sweet and bitter; but they are considered to be only varieties of the species; and though the qualities of the kernels are very different, they are not distinguishable by their appearance.

750
AN EASY WAY OF MAKING A TIPSY CAKE.

1488. Ingredients.—12 stale small sponge-cakes, raisin wine, ½ lb. of jam, 1 pint of custard No. 1423.

Mode.—Soak the sponge-cakes, which should be stale (on this account they should be cheaper), in a little raisin wine; arrange them on a deep glass dish in four layers, putting a layer of jam between each, and pour round them a pint of custard, made by recipe No. 1423, decorating the top with cut preserved fruit.

Time.—2 hours to soak the cakes.

Average cost, 2s. 6d.

Sufficient for 1 dish.

Seasonable at any time.

TO MAKE A TRIFLE.

color plate “Trifle.”

V1. Trifle.

picture of “TRIFLE.”

TRIFLE.

1489. Ingredients.—For the whip, 1 pint of cream, 3 oz. of pounded sugar, the whites of 2 eggs, a small glass of sherry or raisin wine. For the trifle, 1 pint of custard, made with 8 eggs to a pint of milk; 6 small sponge-cakes, or 6 slices of sponge-cake; 12 macaroons, 2 dozen ratafias, 2 oz. of sweet almonds, the grated rind of 1 lemon, a layer of raspberry or strawberry jam, ½ pint of sherry or sweet wine, 6 tablespoonfuls of brandy.

Mode.—The whip to lay over the top of the trifle should be made the day before it is required for table, as the flavour is better, and it is much more solid than when prepared the same day. Put into a large bowl the pounded sugar, the whites of the eggs, which should be beaten to a stiff froth, a glass of sherry or sweet wine, and the cream. Whisk these ingredients well in a cool place, and take off the froth with a skimmer as fast as it rises, and put it on a sieve to drain; continue the whisking till there is sufficient of the whip, which must be put away in a cool place to drain. The next day, place the sponge-cakes, macaroons, and ratafias at the bottom of a trifle-dish; pour over them ½ pint of sherry or sweet wine, mixed with 6 tablespoonfuls of brandy, and, should this proportion of wine not be found quite sufficient, add a little more, as the cakes should be well soaked. Over the cakes put the grated lemon-rind, the sweet almonds, blanched and cut into strips, and a layer of raspberry or strawberry jam. Make a good custard by recipe No. 1423, using 8 instead of 5 eggs to the pint of milk, and let this cool a little; then pour it over the cakes, &c. The whip being made the day previously, and the trifle prepared, there remains nothing to do 751 now but heap the whip lightly over the top: this should stand as high as possible, and it may be garnished with strips of bright currant jelly, crystallized sweetmeats, or flowers; the small coloured comfits are sometimes used for the purpose of garnishing a trifle, but they are now considered rather old-fashioned. (See coloured plate, V1.)

Average cost, with cream at 1s. per pint, 5s. 6d.

Sufficient for 1 trifle.

Seasonable at any time.

VANILLA CREAM.

1490. Ingredients.—1 pint of milk, the yolks of 8 eggs, 6 oz. of sugar, 1 oz. of isinglass, flavouring to taste of essence of vanilla.

picture of “VANILLA-CREAM MOULD.”

VANILLA-CREAM MOULD.

Mode.—Put the milk and sugar into a saucepan, and let it get hot over a slow fire; beat up the yolks of the eggs, to which add gradually the sweetened milk; flavour the whole with essence of vanilla, put the mixture into a jug, and place this jug in a saucepan of boiling water. Stir the contents with a wooden spoon one way until the mixture thickens, but do not allow it to boil, or it will be full of lumps. Take it off the fire; stir in the isinglass, which should be previously dissolved in about ¼ pint of water, and boiled for 2 or 3 minutes; pour the cream into an oiled mould, put it in a cool place to set, and turn it out carefully on a dish. Instead of using the essence of vanilla, a pod may be boiled in the milk instead, until the flavour is well extracted. A pod, or a pod and a half, will be found sufficient for the above proportion of ingredients.

Time.—About 10 minutes to stir the mixture.

Average cost, with the best isinglass, 2s. 6d.

Sufficient to fill a quart mould,

Seasonable at any time.

Vanille, or Vanilla, is the fruit of the vanillier, a parasitical herbaceous plant, which flourishes in Brazil, Mexico, and Peru. The fruit is a long capsule, thick and fleshy. Certain species of this fruit contain a pulp with a delicious perfume and flavour. Vanilla is principally imported from Mexico. The capsules for export are always picked at perfect maturity. The essence is the form in which it is used generally and most conveniently. Its properties are stimulating and exciting. It is in daily use for ices, chocolates, and flavouring confections generally.

VICTORIA SANDWICHES.

1491. Ingredients.—4 eggs; their weight in pounded sugar, butter, and flour; ¼ saltspoonful of salt, a layer of any kind of jam or marmalade.

Mode.—Beat the butter to a cream; dredge in the flour and pounded sugar; stir these ingredients well together, and add the eggs, which 752 should be previously thoroughly whisked. When the mixture has been well beaten for about 10 minutes, butter a Yorkshire-pudding tin, pour in the batter, and bake it in a moderate oven for 20 minutes. Let it cool, spread one half of the cake with a layer of nice preserve, place over it the other half of the cake, press the pieces slightly together, and then cut it into long finger-pieces; pile them in crossbars on a glass dish, and serve.

Time.—20 minutes.

Average cost, 1s. 3d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Seasonable at any time.

WHIPPED CREAM, for putting on Trifles, serving in Glasses, &c.

1492. Ingredients.—To every pint of cream allow 3 oz. of pounded sugar, 1 glass of sherry or any kind of sweet white wine, the rind of ½ lemon, the white of 1 egg.

picture of “PASTRY LEAF.”

PASTRY LEAF.

Mode.—Rub the sugar on the lemon-rind, and pound it in a mortar until quite fine, and beat up the white of the egg until quite stiff; put the cream into a large bowl, with the sugar, wine, and beaten egg, and whip it to a froth; as fast as the froth rises, take it off with a skimmer, and put it on a sieve to drain, in a cool place. This should be made the day before it is wanted, as the whip is then so much firmer. The cream should be whipped in a cool place, and in summer, over ice, if it is obtainable. A plain whipped cream may be served on a glass dish, and garnished with strips of angelica, or pastry leaves, or pieces of bright-coloured jelly: it makes a very pretty addition to the supper-table.

Time.—About 1 hour to whip the cream.

Average cost, with cream at 1s. per pint, 1s. 9d.

Sufficient for 1 dish or 1 trifle.

Seasonable at any time.

WHIPPED SYLLABUBS.

1493. Ingredients.—½ pint of cream, ¼ pint of sherry, half that quantity of brandy, the juice of ½ lemon, a little grated nutmeg, 3 oz. of pounded sugar, whipped cream the same as for trifle No. 1489.

Mode.—Mix all the ingredients together, put the syllabub into glasses, and over the top of them heap a little whipped cream, made in the same manner as for trifle No. 1489. Solid syllabub is made by whisking or milling the mixture to a stiff froth, and putting it in the glasses, without the whipped cream at the top.

Average cost, 1s. 8d.

Sufficient to fill 8 or 9 glasses.

Seasonable at any time.

753 3C
THE CURE’S OMELET.

“Every one knows,” says Brillat Savarin, in his “Physiology of Taste,” “that for twenty years Madame Récamier was the most beautiful woman in Paris. It is also well known that she was exceedingly charitable, and took a great interest in every benevolent work. Wishing to consult the Curé of ———— respecting the working of an institution, she went to his house at five o’clock in the afternoon, and was much astonished at finding him already at his dinner-table.

“Madame Récamier wished to retire, but the Curé would not hear of it. A neat white cloth covered the table; some good old wine sparkled in a crystal decanter; the porcelain was of the best; the plates had heaters of boiling water beneath them; a neatly-costumed maid-servant was in attendance. The repast was a compromise between frugality and luxury. The crawfish-soup had just been removed, and there was on the table a salmon-trout, an omelet, and a salad.

“‘My dinner will tell you,’ said the worthy Curé, with a smile, ’that it is fast-day, according to our Church’s regulations.’ Madame Récamier and her host attacked the trout, the sauce served with which betrayed a skilful hand, the countenance of the Curd the while showing satisfaction.

“And now they fell upon the omelet, which was round, sufficiently thick, and cooked, so to speak, to a hair’s-breadth.

“As the spoon entered the omelet, a thick rich juice issued from it, pleasant to the eye as well as to the smell; the dish became full of it; and our fair friend owns that, between the perfume and the sight, it made her mouth water.

“’It is an omelette au thon’ (that is to say, a tunny omelet), said the Curé, noticing, with the greatest delight, the emotion of Madame Récamier, ‘and few people taste it without lavishing praises on it.’

“‘It surprises me not at all,’ returned the beauty; ‘never has so enticing an omelet met my gaze at any of our lay tables.’

“’My cook understands them well, I think.’

“‘Yes,’ added Madame, ‘I never ate anything so delightful.’”

Then came the salad, which Savarin recommends to all who place confidence in him. It refreshes without exciting; and he has a theory that it makes people younger.

Amidst pleasant converse the dessert arrived. It consisted of three apples, cheese, and a plate of preserves; and then upon a little round table was served the Mocha coffee, for which France has been, and is, so justly famous.

“‘I never,’ said the Curé, ‘take spirits; I always offer liqueurs to my guests, but reserve the use of them, myself, to my old age, if it should please Providence to grant me that.’

“Finally, the charming Madame Récamier took her leave, and told all her friends of the delicious omelet which she had seen and partaken of.”

And Brillat Savarin, in his capacity as the Layard of the concealed 754 treasures of Gastronomia, has succeeded in withdrawing from obscurity the details of the preparation of which so much had been said, and which he imagines to be as wholesome as it was agreeable.

Here follows the recipe:—

OMELETTE AU THON.

1494. Take, for 6 persons, the roes of 2 carp;* bleach them, by putting them, for 5 minutes, in boiling water slightly salted. Take a piece of fresh tunny about the size of a hen’s egg, to which add a small shalot already chopped; hash up together the roe and the tunny, so as to mix them well, and throw the whole into a saucepan, with a sufficient quantity of very good butter: whip it up until the butter is melted! This constitutes the specialty of the omelet. Take a second piece of butter, à discrétion, mix it with parsley and herbs, place it in a long-shaped dish destined to receive the omelet; squeeze the juice of a lemon over it, and place it on hot embers. Beat up 12 eggs, (the fresher the better); throw up the sauté of roe and tunny, stirring it so as to mix all well together; then make your omelet in the usual manner, endeavouring to turn it out long, thick, and soft. Spread it carefully on the dish prepared for it, and serve at once. This dish ought to be reserved for recherché déjeûners, or for assemblies where amateurs meet who know how to eat well: washed down with a good old wine, it will work wonders.

Note.—The roe and the tunny must be beaten up (sauté) without allowing them to boil, to prevent their hardening, which would prevent them mixing well with the eggs. Your dish should be hollowed towards the centre, to allow the gravy to concentrate, that it may be helped with a spoon. The dish ought to be slightly heated, otherwise the cold china will extract all the heat from the omelet.

* An American writer says he has followed this recipe, substituting pike, shad, &c., in the place of carp, and can recommend all these also, with a quiet conscience. Any fish, indeed, may be used with success.

----

Errors

Along with typographical errors, in Chapter XXV I’ve listed places where Mrs. Beeton misspells a name or scientific term. All seem to be transcription errors between Hogg’s Vegetable Kingdom—whose spelling is correct—and the BOHM. Did Isabella’s family consider itself too genteel to make the daughters learn good penmanship?

Chapter XXV. Vegetable Recipes.

1087. At Kynarve Cove, in Cornwall
[Correct spelling: Kynance.]

1088. Thours says
[Correct spelling: Thouars.]

1096. the Borecole oleracea capitula of science
[Correct spelling: capitata.]

1108. the Smyrnium olustratum of science
[Correct spelling: olusatrum.]

1109. Large heads of celery, 25 minutes, small ones, 15 to 20 minutes
text has “smal”

1128. both by MM. Bracannot and Vauquelin
[Half right: it’s Braconnot.]

Chapter XXVII. Pastry Recipes.

1267, 1302. Average cost,
[In both recipes the remainder of the line is blank. In the 1906 edition the line is simply omitted.]

1291. Ingredients.—¾ lb. of suet-crust.
. in “lb.” missing

1305. Average cost, . . . 1s.
text has . for ,

1309. Average cost for this quantity, 8s.
corrected by author from “8d.”

1377. ½ pint of cream, 3 oz. of butter
, invisible

Chapter XXIX. Sweets Recipes

1405. Average Cost, 3s. 6d.
corrected by author from “2s.”
[See Notes and Sources, below.]

1408. Average Cost, 3s. 3d.
corrected by author from “1s. 8d.”

1421. Average Cost, 2s.
corrected by author from “1s. 6d.”

1422. Average Cost, 3s. 6d.
corrected by author from “2d.”

1426. Average Cost, 4s. 6d.
corrected by author from “2s.”

1430. Average Cost, 4s. 6d.
corrected by author from “3s.”

1432. Average Cost, 3s. 6d.
corrected by author from “2s. 3d.”

1482. pounded sugar to taste,
, missing or invisible at line-end

1493. WHIPPED SYLLABUBS.
text has WHIPPPED

Notes and Sources

Chapter XXIV. General Observations on Vegetables.

The main source for this chapter is Hogg, The Vegetable Kingdom.

1069. says Hogg, in his Natural History of the Vegetable Kingdom
[Thanks, Isabella. That saved me some searching. If you want to split hairs, the exact title of Hogg’s book—published 1858—is The Vegetable Kingdom and Its Products: serving as an introduction to the natural system of botany, and as a textbook of all the vegetable substances used in the arts, manufactures, medicine, and domestic economy: arranged according to the system of De Candolle. “A Natural History of the Vegetable Kingdom” is the header of page 1, which opens with the quoted text; see Sources.]

we cannot distinguish whether they are plants or whether they are animals
[It took a few more years before science figured out that there are more than two types of living things. (Take a bow, Ernst Haeckel, who first made the suggestion in 1886.) For a long time there were four “kingdoms”; fungi didn’t get a category of their own until the 1960s. Shortly afterward, all hell broke loose. In much the same way that 9+1=8 for planetary astronomers, 4+1=3 among taxonomists.]

1073. its memory is not sufficiently retentive . . . makes some slips . . . defective memory . . . probably forget
[Then again, all those birds and squirrels could have been eaten by predators before they had a chance to retrieve their buried food stores. But the defective-memory version is admittedly funnier.]

1074. In Major Rooke’s “Sketch of the Forest of Sherwood”
[Widely reprinted in assorted periodicals beginning in 1825, so there’s no telling where the Editress got it. Rooke, incidentally, is the namesake of Sherwood Forest’s “Major Oak”, which is still standing. Mrs Beeton omits the end of of Rooke’s article, which casts doubt on the authenticity of the King John mark.]

one of the French philosophers endeavoured to prove
[This is a dead giveaway that she is cribbing from a much earlier source. By 1859, scientists and naturalists were no longer called “philosophers”; they had names of their own.]

1075. Among the cell-contents of some plants
[Midway through the paragraph, the Editress turns from The Vegetable Kingdom to an entirely different Hogg, Jabez Hogg’s The Microscope, which came out a few years earlier. (In spite of the similarity in dates, Robert and Jabez were no relation to each other. Jabez, born the year before Robert, was the youngest child in his family—which, just to confuse us, included an older brother named Robert. And, as far as we know, neither of the two was any relation to James Hogg, the “Ettrick Shepherd”.) But I can’t swear that the Beetons owned the Microscope book itself; the whole thing may have made its way into some handy encyclopedia.]

1076. a close examination with a powerful microscope, will discover the sap
[The word “discover” is a giveaway that this is from an old—or at least linguistically old-fashioned—source.]

1078. The Root and the Stem now demand a slight notice.
[This passage is lifted almost verbatim from a didactic children’s book, The Vegetable World by Charles Williams. It came out in 1833, so either Isabella herself or some of her younger siblings and half-siblings might have had it sitting around.]

1079. he or she who introduces a useful or an ornamental plant into our island
[Pause here for wild cheers at “he or she”.]

Chapter XXV. Vegetable Recipes.

The main source for the informational passages is again Robert Hogg, The Vegetable Kingdom. But nutritional analyses are generally lifted from Webster, who in turn cribbed from Humphry Davy; see Sources.

1083. the constituent elements of an artichoke
[If she had paid closer attention to her sources, the Editress would have noticed that this is, in fact, an analysis of the Jerusalem artichoke.]

1088. Thours says
[That’s Louis-Marie Aubert du Petit-Thouars (1758–1831).]

1091. keep moving the stewpan, without using a spoon, as that would break the beans
[If stirring with a wooden spoon breaks the beans, they were overcooked to start with. —Ed.]

1094. a good brown bread may be made by rasping down this root with an equal quantity of flour
[Hogg fills in the missing piece, explaining that “six stones of beet, costing one shilling, are equal to one stone of flour, costing two shillings and fourpence”. And that, dear reader, is why obesity is such a problem among the urban poor.]

1096. the Borecole oleracea capitula of science
[The name is really capitata (“having a head”).]

1100. The carrot is said by naturalists not to contain much nourishing matter
[Reminder: Vitamins had not been discovered yet.]

1108. the Smyrnium olustratum of science
[Stop me if you’ve heard this one: the name is correctly olusatrum. But I have to agree that “olustratum” sounds right.]

1116. Endive
[As you can see from the picture, this is “N-dive”, not “on-DEEV”.]

1128. both by MM. Bracannot and Vauquelin
[In full: Henri Braconnot (1780–1855) and Louis Vauqelin (1763–1829). The word “both” means that they weren’t co-researchers; they independently found the same things.]

1136. in an American oven
[The term occurs nowhere else, and no explanation is forthcoming. The Editress may have forgotten that she never got around to pasting-in a section from one of the several sources that do explain it. Webster, for example, says: “The American oven . . . is an improvement on the Dutch. By means of a bottom slanting upwards, and the top slanting downwards, the reflection of heat is still stronger. In this case the meat, or other article, is laid in an iron tray . . . which is movable, and may be lifted out by two handles, the top moving back on hinges; beneath the false bottom is a place for warming plates. This apparatus is coming much into use, being found extremely convenient for roasting and baking bread, cakes, &c.”]

A spirit is also distilled from the [potato] tubers, which resembles brandy, but is milder, and has a flavour as if it were charged with the odour of violets or raspberries.
[Inquiring minds want to know: Has Robert Hogg—the source of this passage—ever tasted, or even seen, vodka?]

1140. TO STEAM POTATOES.
[This is the only mention of steaming in the entire book. A steamer is included among the essential kitchen supplies listed in Sec. 71.]

1141. Potato Bread.
[Most of the Potato material over the next few sections is taken from Webster’s Encyclopædia.]

1142. FRIED POTATOES (French Fashion).
[Really. To add to the confusion, note that these French-fried potatoes are only cut in slices, not into sticks (“chips”).]

1150. Sea-kale.
[At this point, Mrs. Beeton sets aside Hogg and returns to Webster; the rest of the chapter will alternate between the two.]

1152. With a silver knife, cut the lettuces into small pieces
[Unless you are one of those cooks who flies into hysterics at the mere thought of cutting lettuce, in which case you should instead tear it with your hands.]

the cook should always consult the taste of her employer
[That’s the second time our Editress forgot to edit her source; compare No. 520 (Stuffing for Turkey). In the BOHM’s target audience, the cook generally is the employer.]

1154. POTATO SALAD. . . . Seasonable
[The Editress forgot to say how many can be served, and how much it costs. (Salads never have a “Time” component, no matter how long it takes to prepare them, or how many of the ingredients have to be separately cooked beforehand.)]

1155. introduced in 1548
[If Webster’s Encyclopædia is to be believed, at least seven edible plants—all from different places, arriving by different routes—were introduced to England in 1548. In addition to the Oracle variety of spinach, we find garlic, endive, garden cress, mulberry, pomegranate, and guinea pepper. Was everyone trying to tempt the boy-king’s appetite?]

1159. Analysis of the Tomato
[This passage—condensed from Hogg—does not seem calculated to increase the reader’s desire to cook and eat tomatoes.]

1164. slices about the size of a penny-piece
[A penny in Mrs. Beeton’s day was 31mm, or about the size of a U.S. half-dollar. But since we’re talking about slices of a truffle, the description only makes sense if she’s referring to the thickness of a penny—and good luck finding that out. Let’s say: as thin as possible.]

Chapter XXVI. General Observations on Puddings and Pastry.

1179. Indeed, pastry is one of the most important branches of the culinary science.
[“If I do say so myself”—I. Beeton.]

1181. Flour should be . . . sifted before being used
[The historical purpose of sifting was not to make your flour nice and fluffy. It was to remove the bran and chaff, along with any insect fragments or rodent pellets.]

Chapter XXVII. Pastry Recipes.

By the time you are done with this chapter, you will be happy if you never see the word “suet” again for the rest of your natural life. Trust me on this.

1205. Butter
[Galen, Pliny, Dioscorides? Pantropheon again. The next few passages about Butter, through sec. 1208, are from the same source, often taken consecutively.]

1211. Towards the beginning of the 19th century, circumstances having, in France, made sugar scarce
[Once you know that the source for this particular passage was a Frenchman, Brillat-Savarin, it is easier to understand the vagueness about “circumstances”. The following passage, “Qualities of Sugar”, is from the same source.]

1214. Water:—What the Ancients Thought of it.
[Take three guesses. The same goes for sec. 1216, “Water Supply in Rome”, which is a continuation of the passage excerpted for sec. 1214.]

1218. LARD OR FLEAD CRUST.
[The recipe comes from Eliza Acton, who has the decency to explain: “Flead is the provincial name for the leaf, or inside fat of a pig, which makes excellent crust when fresh, much finer, indeed, than after it is melted into lard.”]

1219. Almonds.
[This and the following three sections are lifted—out of order, but otherwise almost verbatim—from a single paragraph in Hogg’s Vegetable Kindom; see Sources.]

1224. Treacle, or Molasses.
[Wearying of Hogg and Soyer, the Editress returns to the ever-reliable Webster.]

1227. Lamaes abhal
[Feeling rushed, are we, Isabella? In the source (Hogg) it’s three words: La maes abhal.]

1229. Constituents of the Apple.
[Most of the Apple section is from Hogg, but this and the following passage (“To Preserve Apples”) are from Webster.]

1233. Quinces.
[This one’s from Pantropheon.]

1236. Apples.
[At this point it looks as if the Editress pulled a fresh book off her shelf; for the rest of the chapter, I couldn’t identify most of her informational sources. It may just be an encyclopedia, though.]

1240. Arrowroot.
[This one, at least, is from Webster.]

1244. Author’s Recipe.
[By the end of the recipe Isabella has backed off and reverted to calling herself the Editress, explaining that her family—not even she herself—got the recipe from an unnamed Baroness.]

1245. Barberries.
[Another Bingley work makes its way onto the Beetons’ bookshelf: not Animal Biography but the later Useful Knowledge.]

1256. a few slices of Savoy cake, sponge cake, a French roll
[The “Mode” section—as well as similar recipes in Acton and Bishop—makes it clear that this means “any or all of these three options”.]

1261. According to Lucullus
[Several of Mrs. Beeton’s sources mention Lucullus in connection with cherries—but always to cast doubt on the story.]

The French distil from cherries a liqueur named kirsch-waser . . . Italians prepare . . . the liqueur named marasquin
[Spellings unchanged. Isabella Mayson (m. Beeton) went to school in Germany, so she had to know how you spell Wasser. (Some of her sources say that the liqueur comes from Lorraine, which explains why it has both French and German names.) She may or may not have known that marasquin is the Spanish spelling; the Italian form would be maraschino.]

1266. Currants.
[Bingley’s Useful Knowledge again.]

1280. Time.—½ to ¾ hour for the sponge to rise; 10 to 15 minutes for the puddings to rise; 10 minutes to bake them in a brisk oven.
[Alert the press! This may be the only time in the whole book where “Time” includes anything other than in-the-oven cooking time.]

1289. vanilla, Curaçoa, or Maraschino
[See? She does know how to spell “Maraschino”. The spelling “Curaçoa” is consistent throughout the book; 19th-century writers didn’t seem to be sure how to spell it: with or without the cedilla, with “ao” or “oa”.]

1266. Lemon.
[The part about the Romans is predictably from Pantropheon.]

In the time of Pliny
[Presumably Pliny the Elder, who died in the aftermath of Vesuvius, and not Pliny the “thanks for the invitation, Uncle, but I’m busy construing Livy so I’m good” Younger. Even Pantropheon’s footnote just says Pliny, without naming a work.]

1309. 1 pottle of apples
[This is the only occurence of “pottle” in the entire BOHM, implying that Isabella Beeton got the recipe from one of her older sources. It’s two quarts, or half a gallon.]

1325-1330 [PLUM PUDDING]
[See Sources for Bishop’s story of a French Plum-Pudding. It has nothing to do with the BOHM, but it’s too good to omit.]

1328. that brought from Andraye
[The same misspelling appears in a possible source, Knight’s Cyclopædia of the Industry of all Nations. Everyone else called it Andaye; today it is spelled Hendaye.]

What is called British brandy
[Uhm . . . Isabella . . . are we talking about whisky?]

1331. almost certain to cause diarrhœa and cholera
[Well, one out of two isn’t bad for 1861. Vibrio cholerae was first described—by an Italian—in 1854, but nobody paid any attention until the research was done all over again—by a German—30 years later.]

1335. Sugar.
[The first part is from Pantropheon.]

giving employment to thousands upon thousands of slaves in the slave countries
[That’s good to hear. I was really worried about those unemployed slaves.]

1336. Introduction of Sugar.
[From Brillat-Savarin, whose own heading is “Uses of Sugar”.]

1339. within the last twenty or thirty years
[That is to say: 20 or 30 years before the 1844 publication of Webster’s Encyclopædia, the source for this passage.]

1342. Rice.
[Most of the Rice information is from Webster.]

1365. Strawberry.
[Also from Webster.]

1367. Sago is the pith of a species of palm (Cycas circinalis).
[You can tell that Webster wasn’t the source for this particular passage, because his version says in part: “Our sago has sometimes been stated erroneously to be the produce of the Cycas circinalis, or revoluta . . .” Webster also makes it clear that the “small round grain” is not the original form. Bingley’s Useful Knowledge, meanwhile, says that sago is “a granulated preparation from the pith of a species of palm-tree (Cycas circinalis)”.]

1379. the vol-au-vent will look very badly
[All linguistic changes began as errors; that’s about as close to tautology as makes no never-mind. Mercifully, the reverse is not true: not all errors are the harbingers of a permanent change. This one has largely gone out of fashion, barring the occasional “feel badly”. —Ed.]

1381. Ovid gives it a tender epithet
[Something got lost in translation, either from Latin to French or from French to English. Ovid’s exact phrase is “mollia fraga” (Metamorphoses xiii.816). So Soyer—or his ghostwriter—ought to have said “Ovid gives it the epithet ‘tender’”. For more fun stuff, see Sources.]

1383. Yeast.
[The chapter winds up with a final borrowing from Webster.]

Chapter XXVIII. General Observations on Creams, Jellies, Souffles, Omelets, & Sweet Dishes.

This chapter is generally from Webster: not one continuous passage, but cherry-picked from various parts of the Encyclopædia.

1386. Gelatine . . . possesses no nutritive value; that
[The seemingly superflous word “that” is an artifact of careless cut-and-paste work. Liebig’s sentence—which runs a good half-page in English—begins “It has now been proved by the most convincing experiments, that gelatine” . . . and so on. Our Editress may not have got it directly from Liebig, though; the quoted passage also appears in an 1859 magazine article that was widely reprinted.]

Chapter XXIX. Sweets Recipes

The informational passages in this chapter are generally from Webster’s Encyclopædia.

1397. a middling-sized gallipot
[The recipe is from Webster, who calls it Turban de riz. He does not explain what a gallipot—a vessel ordinarily used by apothecaries—is doing in a home kitchen.]

1405. Average Cost, 3s. 6d.
[This is the first of seven price corrections—all of them upward—in a single 16-page signature, coinciding with the end of a 48-page leaflet. Did Mrs. Beeton have a quarrel with her milkman?]

1412. Two dozen shank-bones of mutton
[How did we get from cow heels to sheep shanks? It looks an awful lot as if the Editress threw together two different recipes from her source. Kitchiner has a similar note after his recipe for calf’s-foot jelly: “N.B. Ten shank bones of mutton, which may be bought for 2½d., will give as much jelly as a calf’s foot, which costs a shilling.”]

1436. The Citron belongs to the same species as the lemon
[For a given definition of “species”, anyway. Mrs. Beeton’s source, Webster, rattles off six citruses. Using his names: the sweet orange (Citrus Aurantium), the Seville orange (C. vulgaris), the lemon (C. limonum), the citron (C. medica), the shaddock (C. decumana) and finally the lime (C. acida). You say species, I say genus.

The “shaddock”, in case you wondered, is one of many earlier names for what is currently called a pomelo or pummelo (C. maxima or C. grandis). And, just to make sure everyone is thoroughly confused, the term “Forbidden Fruit” was formerly also applied to yet another Citrus species, the accidental orange-pomelo hybrid now known as grapefruit (C. paradisi). Fortunately neither Webster nor Mrs. Beeton seems to have heard of it—unless Webster has got his citrus varieties hopelessly garbled, which is a real possibility. And, finally, the two names C. Aurantium and C. vulgaris are now both applied indifferently to the bitter or Seville orange, while the sweet orange is generally known as C. sinensis. (Fun fact: In most Germanic languages, the word for “orange” breaks down to something like “Chinese apple”.)]

1441. JELLY OF TWO COLOURS.
[If you bought one of those little four-packs of food coloring, and find yourself with bottles of blue and green that you’ll never use, this is your chance to run wild.]

1469. peach and nectarine . . . are considered as varieties of the same species
[We now return to the ordinary definition of “species”, here Prunus persica.]

some modern botanists apply [Persica] as the generic name, separating them from Amygdalus, or Almond, to which Linnæus had united them
[Still more modern botanists have settled on the genus name Prunus, encompassing not only almonds and peaches but also plums, cherries and apricots. But, just to show that Linnaeus wasn’t always wrong, peaches and almonds remain united in the subgenus Amygdalus.]

1472. In Kensington Palace, there is a picture
[Says Webster, anyway. The picture definitely exists. According to the fine print, it dates from 1787, when its artist was 20 years old—and both Rose and Charles were more than a century dead. So a certain artistic license is to be expected. I don’t know where Webster got “Kensington Palace”, though; the painting belonged to the Earls of Dysart (based in Ham House, Surrey) until they unloaded their whole collection on the National Trust.]

1487. the northern parts of Africa and Asia
[If this wording seems familiar, it should: Mrs. Beeton cribbed the identical passage from Webster’s Encyclopædia back in section 110. This time, however, she gets “Africa” and “Asia” in the right order, so all that’s needed is a comma (North Africa and also Asia).]

1490. Vanille, or Vanilla
[Surprisingly, Webster has nothing to say about Vanilla. The word might have been inadvertently omitted from his Index (like “Evolution” from the index of American biology textbooks), but that wouldn’t account for the entire book’s ongoing silence. Perhaps Webster’s coauthor, the late Mrs. Parkes, was killed in a freak vanilla accident, and he just couldn’t bear to see the word mentioned.]

1492. Time.—About 1 hour to whip the cream.
[This is one of the very few times Isabella Beeton acknowledges that cooking is not the only thing that takes time.]

[THE CURE’S OMELET] An American writer says
[Mrs. Beeton’s footnote is a paraphrase of the equivalent footnote in the Philadelphia translation. The wording of this section is otherwise quite different; could it be her own translation?]

1494. Take, for 6 persons, the roes of 2 carp . . . . a piece of fresh tunny about the size of a hen’s egg, to which add a small shalot already chopped
[The Philadelphia translation of this recipe has, “Take for six persons the roe of four cash [italics in the original] . . . . Put in also a fresh tunny about as large as an egg, to which you must add a charlotte minced.” One can picture Isabella saying “Wha—?” and going for the French to prepare her own translation from scratch.]

The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.