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Eskimo Grammar
by Edmund Peck

If you know what you’re doing, you can proceed directly to the text. The rest of you may prefer the scenic route.

Peck and the Grammar

Edmund Peck’s life is pretty well documented. Short version: Family hardship forced him to leave school at ten; he joined the Navy a few years later; eventually he found his true calling as a preacher and missionary. Along the way he picked up assorted languages, including Greek, Cree—and Inuktitut. The Inuit called him uqammaq, “one who speaks well”. There is even a font named after him. I, personally, would consider this the highest pinnacle of human achievement.

But . . .

Full disclosure: I really, really despise this book. It’s linguistically almost worthless, culturally contemptible, even physically unappealing. Almost half of its page count is devoted to inflectional tables that give the same infor­mation over and over—toosa­laukpoonga, toosak­simavoonga, toosang­neakpoonga, toosa­yomavoonga—as if the author had learned how affixes work and then promptly forgot again. Clearly Peck’s lack of formal schooling didn’t keep him from acquiring the linguistic prejudices of a classically educated Englishman.

Orthography and Pronunciation

In the late 1890’s Franz Boas asked Edmund Peck to collect ethnographic infor­mation for him. It’s a pity they didn’t make contact earlier. Maybe Boas could have taught Peck how to spell—or at least introduced him to the concept of “Continental” vowel values.

Vowels

Here is Peck’s own table, with final columns added by me. The “actual” column means that the reality is not always as bad as the expectation.

vowel expected actual
ā as a in fate ee, ei aa
a as a in far aa a
e as e in pen e
ē as e in me ii
i as i in pin i
ī as i in thine ai
o as o in not o
ō as o in note ? uu
u as u in but a a, u
oo as oo in soon uu u
ou as ou in sound au
au as au in caught oo au

Long ā always means aa (“a in far”, not “a in fate”). Plain a generally means the short sound in “idea” or “above”. Note that long a in verb endings such as -pa and -va is rarely marked.

The diphthong au always means au, not the /o/ sound of “caught”. This spelling is used side by side with ou (as in “sound”).

I don’t know how Peck pronounced the word “note”. But all occurrences of ō seem to fit with a reading of uu.

Long ū (not in the table) is rare. It always means uu, not the /yu/ diphthong of English “long” u (union, unicorn).

The occasional w (also not shown) means short u; ew is the diphthong iu.

The letter u—without macron—is a problem. Sometimes it means u: tuktu, -ung, and inflectional endings such as -mut or -kut. At other times it means a (as in “Punjab”): kumik (boot), nusuk (cap), -mut in numbers such as sittamut. In a few places, u even means v: kilauook. Some words are hopelessly mixed: oovumnut.

There is probably no difference between (short) i and e. In the inflectional tables, naglegi- and naglige- both occur; there are even a few naglege-. The recurring word eye is not a translation hiccup but Peck’s rendering of iyi or iji.

Peck, or his typist, often forgets the “long” mark—understandable, since they all had to be added by hand. This is not so crucial when the choice is between o and ō (= uu), a and ā, or e and ē (= ii). But note that i may really be ī, which is to say ai:

īvik walrus (aiviq)

ī- go (ai-), kī- come (qai-), nī- smell (nai-)

tī- (many demonstratives in tai-)

aggī no (aggai)

I’ve tried to flag these when I find them.

Consonants

First, last and foremost there is q—or, as Peck consistently and universally writes it, k. He would not have been the first Englishman who couldn’t hear the difference. But consider this, from the very first page of the Grammar: “K. has often a deep guttural sound, something like we should pronounce the letters ‘rk’ or ‘ak’”. To me this says that acoustically he could hear the difference perfectly well; he simply wouldn’t admit that it was phonemic. This, in turn, means that he could not see patterns such as q + g = r, and couldn’t explain to the reader why final k sometimes changes to r and other times to ng.

The sound written h is not a variant of s. It represents non-final q with the fricative sound the Germans wrote as ch: ohak (uqaq), -hak- (affix -qaq-). So he would have spelled his own epithet ohammak or okammuk.

In the dialects Peck knew best, non-initial j or y was sometimes realized as r:

karak boat

kaure- know

aurak summer

-garuk- (affix) often

-rugelloak- (affix, parallel to -tugelloak-)

I suspect that this was an “English” r, not the heavy velar related to q.

In Peck, unlike the Germans, dl is two separate sounds: nedleak, tedlemut, audlakpok. But rng before n may be a single sound, nasalized q: arngnak, erngnek.

Terminology

Peck was a missionary, not a scholar, so this is a pretty short list.

Active (case) Vialis
Simulative Similis (the form that the Germans identify as “the suffix -tut”)
Direct Form any transitive verb with patient (“object”) in the third person
Inverse Form any transitive verb with patient in the first or second person and agent in the third person
Rel. abbreviation of Relative, but actually means Reflexive or Reflective (now called the third person, while Peck’s third person is the 4th)

Watch out for the “first” and “second” conjugation (of verbs), since the meaning of these terms switches halfway through the book:

first declension of nouns;
first conjugation of transitive verbs
stem ending in a vowel
second declension of nouns;
second conjugation of transitive verbs
stem ending in a consonant
first conjugation of intransive verbs stem ending in a consonant
second conjugation of intransive verbs stem ending in a vowel

In a few places—mainly involving adverbs or pronouns—the book gives two sets of forms, one labeled “Hudson Bay” (Great Whale River area), the other “Baffin Land”.

About the etext

This ebook was made from page images available online at Hathi Trust, based on the physical copy at the University of Michigan. But this is not a conven­tionally typeset and printed book; it’s a copy of a typescript. (I have no idea how this was accomplished. At the time of publication the photostat was just coming into widespread use; was it already cheaper than typesetting?)

The Preface dates the Eskimo Grammar to 1883, while library catalogs give its publication date as 1919. I don’t know what happened in the intervening 36 years, but it can’t have involved much revision or even proofreading. Parts of the book don’t look completely finished. The early pages are littered with authorial memos about things that need to be added; some of the verb tables look for all the world like careless copy-and-paste work.

Peck died in 1924, so it is probably safe to assume the text is out of copyright wherever you live.

Format and Layout

Since the original is typescript rather than a printed book, there wasn’t much to work with stylistically. All text was the same size, and the only form of emphasis was under­lining, some of it added by hand. Capitalization of headers provided no clue. Sometimes—notably the “Etymology” section, which might be either a single paragraph or 90% of the book—I could only guess at which parts were meant to be subordinate to which others.

Italicized section headings such as “Moods of the Verb” were added by me. I’ve shown all original under­lining as boldface, and put the Inuktitut words into italics. Examples originally printed as run-in paragraphs have generally been broken up into separate lines. Some two-column tables—like the one in my OCR example—were reformatted as three columns.

Errors and Inconsistencies

Minor problems such as missing or incorrect punctuation were corrected in the text; changes are listed at the bottom of this page. Bigger problems such as apparent errors in Inuktitut words will be noted as they arise, along with some unavoidable editorial comments.

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Contents

The book has no index or table of contents, and there is no clear pattern of section headings. This is my best guess about which parts are supposed to be important, and what the overall hierarchy looks like.

Page
Preface
1 Orthography
2 Nouns
6 Noun Affixes
7 Pronouns
8 Possessive Pronouns
12 Demonstrative Pronouns
16 Adjectives
19 Verbs
21 Participle
22 Tense
23 Intransitive Verbs
25 Forms of toosak
40 Forms of nerre
43 Intransitive Verb Affixes
49 Transitive Verbs
49 Forms of naglige
77 Forms of toosa (trans.) and arehoktok
82 Transitive Verb Affixes
83 Passive Verbs
84 Middle Voice
86 Adverbs
88 Conjunctions, Prepositions, Interjections
88 Syntax
89 Compound Words
92 The Arrangement of Words in Sentences

ESKIMO GRAMMAR

Preface

The Eskimo although a widely scattered race still retain a striking similarity in language.

Having compared words from Greenland, Labrador and Churchill with those at Little Whale River, I believe, an Eskimo or person well acquainted with the language would find but little difficulty in conversing with the people anywhere.

In the composition of this work I acknowledge with pleasure help received from translational work by Moravian Brethren also from Kleinschmidt’s grammar on the Greenland language. The latter having been ably translated by James L. Cotter, Esq. of Moose. But though receiving help from these means I in no wise wish to lay claim to perfection: six years’ residence amongst a strange people naturally gives but limited time to compose a thorough and exhaustive work on the language.

My motives in writing the following were simply these:

1. To collect any information I already possessed, so that it might prove useful to myself, and perhaps to others also.

2. An Eskimo grammar in the East Main dialect seemed needful. This, I have in some measure tried to supply.

Again, the Eskimos are as yet a benighted race living without “hope and without God in the World.” The isolated state of the people and the peculiar structure of their language are matters which do not tend to open a channel for their being taught the way of salvation. If the writer can only be the means of helping to remove one of these obstacles so that light may shine amidst this dark and much neglected race, he will be abundantly satisfied and rewarded.

Little Whale River,
January 7, 1883.

also from Kleinschmidt’s grammar

This is to forestall anyone saying “Have you even heard of this seminal work?” There is no other hint that the author has ever looked at Kleinschmidt—let alone Bourquin, whose Labradorian grammar came out after 1883 but was translated long before 1919.

as yet a benighted race

Gee, Peck. Could you be more insulting? (Also inaccurate, since the Moravians had been at work since before Peck was born. But maybe it only counts if the missionary is Anglican.)

1

Orthography

In the Eskimo alphabet are the following letters a, b, d, e, g, h, i, k, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, t, u, v, w, and y: of these a, e, i, o, u, are vowels; the rest are consonants.

The sounds to be given to the vowels and diphthongs are as follows:

ā as a in fate
a as a in far
e as e in pen
ē as e in me
i as i in pin
ī as i in thine
o as o in not
ō as o in note
u as u in but
oo as oo in soon
ou as ou in sound
au as au in caught

There are peculiarities in the pronunciation of the Eskimo language which can only be learnt from the natives themselves. In the following pages we have tried to express the sounds as nearly as possible, but in some cases have failed to give the exact sounds required. The learner of language must mix freely with the people, and hear them speak. This plan, he will find, both sure and satisfactory.

The following are some of the sounds peculiar to the language.

K. has often a deep gutteral sound something like we should pronounce the letters ‘rk’ or “ak.”

S and R are often pronounced forcibly.

Ng. is a deep nasal sound and is frequently heard amongst the natives.

The letter a is often heard with a long deep sound for which a circumflex (   ) mark is used; the other consonant and vowel sounds will be expressed as nearly as possible by the alphabet already given.

The Eskimo tongue inclines to simplicity in syllable, but should any harshness arise letters are changed for the sake of euphony, e.g. killak, heaven killangmut, to heaven.

The accent often falls on the heavier syllables, viz. Those composed of three or four letters e.g. kanematyangelanga, — I do not know.

a deep gutteral sound

Spelling unchanged

for which a circumflex (   ) mark

The parentheses are empty. This is the first hint that Peck never quite finished his book. It won’t be the last. The long a is often marked—but with a simple macron (ā), not a circum­flex (â).

Etymology

The parts of speech may be classed as eight, the noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, conjunction, preposition and interjection. In the Eskimo tongue there are no articles but the numeral adjective “attausuk” is used for “A” and the demonstrative pronoun “tamna” for “the” e.g. attausuk innuk, one (man) Eskimo instead 2 of (a man) an Eskimo; tamna napparktok, that tree instead of the tree.

Etymology

It isn’t clear what word Peck had in mind, or what he thought “etymology” meant. I’ve treated it as equivalent to what the Germans called Formen, meaning that everything except the final Syntax section is a subdivision of Etymology.

The parts of speech may be classed as eight

Well, yes. Yes, I suppose they might . . . if you were writing about Latin. Each of the eight listed terms is a chapter heading.

Of the Noun

The noun is a very important part of speech on account of the various affixes which may be attached to it. It is inflected for number, the cases (of which there are nine) express many of our prepositions, it also draws to itself possessive pronouns, and some adjectives. Nouns, which have possessive pronouns affixed have also a transitive and emphatic form, the former being used when the noun is the subject with a transitive verb. e.g. Goodipta nagligevategoot — our God (he) loves us; and the latter being used when the agent acts with or upon his own property e.g. — Goodib erninne nagligeva, God loves his own son. These points will be fully discussed in their proper place.

possessive pronouns, and some adjectives

That is, the words that in English would be separate pronouns and adjectives.

Gender

There is no form to express the gender in the Eskimo tongue; the sex being distinguished when necessary by naming the particular word for the sex required e.g. kingmuk angot, a dog; (lit. a man, male dog) kingmuk arngnak (lit. a woman, female dog.)

(Angot, a man, a male creature)

(Arngnak, a woman, a female creature)

The lines Angot... and Arngnak... were printed immediately after “The dual always ends in K”, below. They seem to belong here instead. The parentheses are in the typescript.

Number

There are three numbers, the singular, the dual and the plural.

Nouns in the singular either end in a vowel or in the consonants K and T.

The dual always ends in K.

The Plural always ends in t.

Singular Singular Dual Plural
Land Noona Noonak Noonāt
Teacher Arehoktueye Arehoktueyēk Arehoktueyēt
Seal hole Aglo Aglook Aglooet
Walrus Īvek Īvēk Īvēt
Boot Kumik Kumēk Kumēt
Stone Ooyarak Ooyarak Ooyarāt
Yellow berry Akpik Akpēk Akpēt
Human Being,
an Eskimo
Innuk Innōk Innooēt
Pillow Akkit Akketēk Akketīt
Gun Kokyoot Kokyootēk Kokyootīt

Human Being, an Eskimo

With rare exceptions the word innuk or innooēt will be glossed as “Eskimo”, using the same form for both singular and plural.

The following rules are to be borne in mind in the inflection of noun.

1. All nouns in the dual have their final vowels lengthened before the addition of the consonant, k.

2. Nouns the singular of which end in o, u, uk or ok have an additional vowel before they take their plural endings e.g.

angakok, a conjurer;

angakoēt, conjurers;

aglo, a seal hole;

aglooēt, seal holes;

tuktu a deer,

tuktooēt, deer.

Nouns the singular of which end in t always have the letter e inserted in the dual before they take their 3 final consonants. In the plural this inserted letter is sometimes changed into i. See the words akkit and kokyoot in examples.

4. Some nouns which we speak of as singular are never used in a singular form by the Eskimo, e.g. aglāt, books, noolooat, nets, instead of a book, a net.

5. Collective noun (add note in other copy.)

note in other copy

Clue #2 that this is not a finished book. The discussion of collective nouns never made it into the present copy.

Cases of Noun

There are nine cases, viz. The Nominative, Vocative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative, Locative, Active, Ablative and Simulative.

The Nominative

The Nominative case when used with intransitive verbs takes its simplest form.

The Vocative

The Vocative singular always ends in k; the dual and plural are the same as the Nominative.

The Genitive

Simple nouns (those without affixes) only take the Genitive in the singular. The dual and plural being the same as the Nominative. The Genitive case is formed by the addition of ub, oob, or eoob, to the Nominative as,—

Noonaub of a land
arehoktueoob of a teacher, a teacher’s
Agloob of a seal hole
Iveoob of a walrus
kumeoob of a boot
Ooyaraub of a stone
Akpeoob of a yellow berry
Innob of a man
Akkiteoob of a pillow
Kokyooteoob of a gun.

The Genitive is also used when a noun in the singular is the agent with a transitive verb e.g.

innob arngnak nagligeva, The man loves the woman;

Goodeob innooēt nagligevāt, God loves the Eskimo.

Iveoob

That is, īveoob with “long” i = aiviub. The word kumik, kumeoob will always be spelled with a u.

The Dative

The Dative is used with the following meanings— to, with, into, for, by, on account of; e.g.

īvok iglomut he goes to a house;

itterkpok iglomut, he enters into a house,

Ootakkevoonga ernimnut, I wait for my son;

Jesusemut ikkaruktauvogoot, we are helped by Jesus,

aggangmenut tiggova, he takes something with his own hand;

Jesusemik tekkoromamut okpekpogoot, on account of desiring to see Jesus we believe.

The Accusative

The Accusative is the same as the Nominative when used with transitive verbs, e.g. Innooēt kukkalat nagligevat, The Eskimo love Children, but when used with intransitive verbs the Accusative terminations 4 are added to the Nominative, as,

iglomik tekkovoonga, I see a house;

innungnik kauremavoonga, I know the Eskimo;

tuktumik ītsevok, he fetches a deer.

The Accusative is also used with the meaning of our word of, as, Goodemik toosalaukket? Hast thou heard of God?

the same as the Nominative

More accurately: constructions that would call for the accusative in Indo-European languages here take the nominative instead.

The Locative

The Locative case is used as our prepositions, in, on, upon, e.g.

nanepa? where is it?

erksukvingme, in a box;

Jesus nevingalauravit keyungme senninga­yolingme pivlunga pewle­yomav­lunga, innonimne pooegongnea­tyangelagit! O Jesus because Thou didst hang upon the cross for my sake wishing to save me, I will not forget Thee in my life!

Some words which are used for the names of times and seasons such as okkeok, winter, aurak, summer; oonoak, night, do not take the locative case unless they are used in connection with (some) words of a similar nature and when special stress is laid upon it e.g. okkeome innooēt netsungnik pingashooakpoot, timaktauk innooēt tuktunik pingashooaktut auramein winter, the Eskimo work at (i.e. endeavor to catch) the seals, so also they work at (i.e. hunt) the deer in the summer.

in winter

In the original, “work at” was underlined while “in winter” was not. I changed it to agree with the underlining of -me.

The Active

The Active case is used with the meanings of our prepositions through, over, e.g.

immukkub pissukpoonga, I walk through the water;

Jesuse immaub kangagoot pissulaukkok (or p). Jesus walked over the top of the water (lit. through the water’s top).

pissulaukkok (or p)

Underlined as shown, but I think the intended sense was “kk or kp”.

Ablative Case

The Ablative case has the meaning of our preposition from, and the comparative particle than e.g.

Jesuse killangmit tikkelaukkok, Jesus came from Heaven;

aglangnik illitsenuksouvēt akkanemit? Dost thou know thy books better than last year?

Simulative Case

The Simulative case stands for our adverbial expressions like, in the same manner e.g.

Johnasetoot Jesuse nagligeyuksaregalloakkavoot innoniptinne; like John (in the same manner as John) indeed we ought to love Jesus in our lives.

Simulative

In much the same way that a stopped clock is right twice a day, Peck got this right. The Germans had it wrong, insisting on calling this form “the affix -tut” even while discussing it together with the other cases.

On the Declension of Nouns

Singular

Nouns ending in a vowel have their cases added to the vowel, as noona, land; noonamut, to a land. Nouns ending in a consonant generally change their consonants into ng. The cases are then added thereto e.g. innuk, a man; innungmut, to a man; ooyarak, a stone, ooyarangmik, a stone (Acc’ve).

Dual

In the Dual the letter K in the Dative, Accusative, Locative, and Ablative cases is always 5 changed into ng. and the letter N takes the place of m e.g. Noonangnut, to two lands. In the Active and Simulative cases the final consonant k is retained and the cases are added to it, e.g. noonakut, through two lands; noonaktoot, like two lands.

Plural

The letter n is the plural sign in the Dative, Accusative, Locative and Ablative cases e.g. Arehoktueyenik, teachers, (acc’e) aglone, by, at seal holes. Some nouns take an additional letter before taking their cases, as, noonannut, to lands &c. The Active and Simulative cases are formed by inserting the syllable te before their final additions, and in the active case the letter k is changed into g., e.g. illuverktegoot, through graves; illuverktetoot, like graves.

Two Declensions

Nouns may be divided into two declensions. The first, the singular of which ends in a vowel and the second those ending in a consonant.

First Declension

Noona — A Land.

Singular Dual Plural
N. Noona, a land Noonāk, two lands Noonāt, lands
V. Noonak! O Land Noonāk, O! two Lands Noonāt, O Lands
G. Noonaub, of a land Noonāk, of two lands Noonāt, of lands
D. Noonamut, to a land Noonāngmut, to two lands Noonannut, to lands
A. Noonamik, a land Noonāngnik, two lands Noonannik, lands
L. Nooname, in a land Noonāngne, in two lands Noonanne, in lands
Act. Noonakut, through a land Noonākkut, through two lands Noonategoot, through lands.
Ab. Noonamit, From a land Noonāngnit, from two lands Noonannit, from lands.
Sim. Noonatut, like a land Noonāktut, like two lands Noonatetut, like lands.
Second Declension
Singular Dual Plural
N. Innuk, An Eskimo Innōk, Two Eskimo Innooēt, Eskimo
V. Innuk! O! Eskimo Innōk! O! Two Eskimo Innooēt O! Eskimo
G. Innob, of an Eskimo Innōk of two Eskimo Innooēt of Eskimo
D. Innungmut, to an Eskimo Innōngmut to two Eskimo Innungnut to Eskimo
A. Innungmik Innōngnik, two Eskimo Innungnik, Eskimo
L. Innungme in, by, an Eskimo. Innōngne, in two Eskimo Innongne in Eskimo
Act. Innukkut through an Eskimo Innōkkut, through two Eskimo Innuktegoot through Eskimo
Abl. Innungmit, from an Eskimo Innōngnit, from two Eskimo Innungnit, from Eskimo
Sim. Innuktoot, like an Eskimo Innōktoot, like two Eskimo Innuktetoot like Eskimo

There are some exceptions to the above especially in nouns ending in ak and ok. These drop their final consonants, and are declined as nouns in the first declension e.g.

angerokak, a master, chief;

angerokamut, to a master;

aurak, summer;

aurame, in the summer,

angakok, a conjurer;

angakomit, from a conjuror;

okkeok, winter, a year,

okkeome, in the winter.

(Note regarding our article, the -a-)

Note regarding our article

Clue #3. The article was explained on pages 1-2 under Etymology.

6

Noun Affixes

Nouns of different kinds have different terminations. These terminations partake of the nature of nouns and adjectives as—

Meok, inhabitant;

kittuktak, an island;

kittuktangmeok, an islander, inhabitant of an island;

killeleakseokvik, Little Whale River,

Killeleakseokvingmeok, an inhabitant of Little Whale River.

Vik, the time or place (of action) as

arehoktueyevik, a church, place of teaching;

Kooveasukvik, Christmas, time of rejoicing.

Venuk, meat, as

netsuk, a seal;

netsevenuk, seal’s meat,

tuktu, a deer,

tuktuvenuk, deer’s meat.

Avenuk, skin, as,

tuktu, a deer;

tuktuavenuk, deer’s skin.

lik, possessor of, as

kingmek, a dog;

kingmelik, one possessing a dog.

Kut, family, relatives of person named, as

Johnasekut, the family of John.

kut

That is, -qat-. See also footnote on pg. 14 under Interrogative Pronouns.

Ut or yoot cause, means, instrument for action,

kokkokpok, he shoots with a gun;

kokyoot, an instrument for shooting a gun;

aglakpok, he writes,

aglaut, pen, pencil, meant to write with.

Sak, material for future article, as,

karak, a canoe, karaksak, material for a canoe,

annorak, a garment, piece of clothing, annoraksak, material for clothing.

Katte, a companion, as

nerrekattega, my table companion.

Nek, is the termination of abstract nouns, as

naglikpok, he loves;

naglingnek, love;

miksehakpok, it has truth

miksehangnek, truth.

rēk, denotes the relation of persons named, as

noolearēk husband and wife;

ernerēk, father and son.

Affixes Partaking of the Nature of Adjectives.

Seak, beautiful, as

noonatseak, a beautiful land

Rak, great, very, as

iglo, house

iglokrāk, a great house,

saglovok, he lies;

saglorukrak, a great liar; (lit. one who lies a great deal.)

kingikpok, it is high;

kingiktokrāk it is a very high thing (lit. that which is very high).

Aluk, very large, largest size, as

oocusheāluk, a very large kettle;

kautāluk, the largest hammer.

Raluk, small, as

kingmeatraluk, a small dog, a pup.

kingmeatraluk

This is clearly a mistake (see below) but I don’t know what the intended form would be.

Atraluk, very small, extremely small, as

oonatraluk; This extremely small thing;

kingmeatraluk, a very small pup (one just born)

Marik, full grown, able bodied, as

arngnak, a woman,

arngnamarik, a full grown woman;

kingmuk, a dog,

kingmemarik, a full grown dog.

Tokak, old, as

oocushek, a kettle;

oocushetokak, an old kettle;

nusuk, a cap;

nusutokak, an old cap.

Tākkamik, new, as

oocushek, a kettle,

oocushetakkamik, a new kettle;

nusuk, a cap;

nusuktakkamik, a new cap.

Tuenak, only such a thing, nothing else but such a thing, as

keyuk, wood;

keyutwenak only wood;

attausuk, one;

attausetwenak, only one.

Tuak, an only one, as

erngnek, a son;

erngnetuak, an only son;

pannik, daughter,

oona tegga pannetuara, this one here (is) my only daughter.

Kasak, almost such a thing, almost like such a thing, as,

attausekasak, almost one;

nusukssak, almost a cap, almost like a cap.

7

Many nominal particles are also used in much the same manner as those already given, e.g.

angot, a man,

angotitseariktok, a good man, a beautiful man; (lit. a man who is beautiful);

ohakpok, he speaks;

ohadloriktok a correct speaker; (one who speaks well, correctly)

ēyelukpok, he has bad sore eyes,

eyeluktok, a sore eyed person (one who has sore, diseased eyes).

See the Adjective and Participles.

Of the Pronouns

The Personal

The Personal Pronouns are:—

Singular Dual Plural
Oovoonga I Oovagook we two Oovagoot we
Igvit thou Illiptik you two Illipse you
Oona he Tapkoa, they two Tapkoa they

N.B. Oona and Tapkoa are demonstrative pronouns, but they are also used as personal. It will be wise to learn them with the Demonstrative pronouns on account of their similarity of declension.

On the Cases of Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns take cases similar to the noun but with a more limited signification. There are also no vocative or genitive cases used with this part of speech.

The Nominative

The Nominative case is sometimes used in connection with a verb to point out in an emphatic manner the agent used, e.g. Oovoonga, toosakpoonga, I, I hear. It also has the meaning of the possessive pronoun mine, e.g. kenaub aglanget? whose books? (are these) Oovoonga, mine.

The Dative Case

This case is heard with the following meanings, by, to e.g. oovumnut kilekkok, he is coming to me; okautyauyok oovumnut, one who is told, spoken to by me.

The Accusative Case

Ikkaruktok oovumnik, he helps me (lit, he who helps me)

The Locative Case

Aglatit nauk? Where are thy books? oovumne, by, at me.

The Active Case

Oovapkut ikkaruktauneakkok (or p), he will be helped through me.

The Ablative Case

Toosalaukkok (or p) oovumnit, he heard from me.

(or p)

Some k-or-p alternatives look as if they were added after the fact:

page image

The Simulative Case

Oovaptoot pingashooarit, Work thou like me.

8

Declension of Personal Pronouns

N. Oovoonga, I, mine, Igvit, thou, thine, Oona, He
G. Ooma, of him, his
D. Oovumnut, to me, Illingnut, to thee, Omunga, to him
A. Oovumnik, me Illingnik thee Ōminga, him
I. Oovumne, in me Illingne, in thee Ōmane, in him
Act. Oovapkut, through me Illipkit, through thee Ōmoona, through him.
Abl. Oovumnit, from me Illingnit, from me, Ōmungat, from him
Sim. Oovaptoot, like me Illiktoot, like me, Ōmatoot, like him
Dual
N. Illiptik You two
D. Illiptingnut to you two
A. Illiptingnik you two
L. Illiptingne in you two
Act. Illiptegoot through you two
Abl. Illiptingnit from you two
Sim. Illiptetoot like you two
Plural
N. Oovagoot we. Illipse you, tapkoa, they
D. Oovaptingnut to us Illipsingnut to you, tapkonunga, to them
A. Oovaptingnik us, Illipsingnik, you tapkoninga, them
L. Oovaptingne, in us, Illipsingne, In you, tapkonanne, in them
Act. Oovaptegoot through us. Illipsegoot, through you, tapkonoona, through them
Abl. Oovaptingnit, from us. Illipsingnit, from you tapkonungat from them.
Sim. Oovaptetoot like us, Illipsetoot, like you, Tapkoatetoot, like them

Possessive Pronouns

The Possessive Pronouns (which are perhaps contractions of the personal pronouns) are affixed to the nouns to which they belong, as—

Singular Dual Plural
Noonaga, my land Noonāka, my two lands Noonakka, my lands
Noonāt thy land Noonākik, thy two lands Noonatit, thy lands
Noonanga, his land Noonāgik, his two lands Noonanget, his lands
Noonavook, our (2) land Noonākpook, our (2) two lands Noonavoot, our two lands
Noonavoot, our land Noonavook, our two lands Noonavoot, our lands
Noonatik, your (2) land Noonātik, your (2) two lands Noonattit, your two lands.
Noonase, your land Noonatik, your two lands Noonase, your lands
Noonagik, their (2) land Noonangāk, their two lands Noonangāk, their two lands
Noonangāt, their land Noonangāk, their two lands Noonanget, their lands.

our two lands, your two lands, their two lands

That is: two owners, multiple lands.

Variations are found in nouns the singular of which end in ek, as,

īvek, a walrus;

erngnek, a son;

these take ra instead of ga, but only when the possessive affix for my is used, e.g.

īvek, a walrus;

īvera, my walrus;

erngnek, a son;

ernera, my son.

Nouns ending in t as kokyoot, a gun; take an additional letter viz. e before the affixes are attached as,

ōmat, the heart;

ōmatega, my heart;

kokyoot, a gun;

kokyootega, my gun, kokyootevoot, our gun or guns &c.

9

On the Cases of Possessive Pronouns

The Possessive Pronoun takes cases with meanings similar to those which are attached to the noun and personal pronouns.

The Nominative

This is the simplest form of possessive pronoun. See opposite page.

See opposite page

Table above.

The Genitive

This points out the Genitive relation, and is used in cases where we in written discourse should use the apostrophe e.g.

ernema kingminga, my son’s dog;

pannipta erninga, our daughter’s son.

Should three nouns be in use with which we should use two apostrophes then there must be changes in two of the nouns to point out their genitive relation e.g.

ernipta panningeta aglanget, our son’s daughter’s books.

pannipta etc.

All emphasis printed as shown. Expected forms: pannipta and ernipta panningeta.

The Genitive case is not only used to point out the Possessive formation, but it is also used with transitive verbs to point out the agent e.g. Goodipta naglige­vātegoot Our God (he) loves us.

In a sentence where two nouns are used with a transitive verb, one being used as possessor and the other as agent, then one noun is changed to point out its possessive relation, and the other to mark it as the agent, e.g. ernipse panningeta nagligevātegoot, your son’s daughter (she) loves us.

In a sentence where three nouns are used with a transitive verb, two being possessors and the other the agent, then two of the nouns must take the genitive form, and the other must be treated in a similar manner to mark it as the agent e.g. Johnasib erningeta panningeta, John’s son’s daughter (she) loves us.

The Genitive Case Declined

Singular. Dual Plural
Ernema of my son Ernēngma, of my two sons Ernema, of my sons
Ernepit of thy son Ernēkpit, of thy two sons Ernepit, of thy sons
Erningeta, of his son Ernegēkta, of his 2 sons Erningeta, of his sons
Ernipta, of our son Ernēpta, of our 2 sons Ernipta, of our sons
Erniptik, of your two sons. Ernēptik, of your 2 sons Erniptik, of your 2 sons
Ernipse, of your son Ernēpse, of your 2 sons Ernipse of your sons
Erningeta, of their Ernegēkta, of their 2 sons. Erningeta, of their sons.

Ernegēkta

Expected form Ernēgekta.

10

The Dative Case Declined

Singular Dual Plural
Noonamnut, To my land Noonāmnut to my 2 lands Noonamnut to my lands.
Noonangnut to thy land Noonāngnut to thy 2 lands Noonangnut to thy lands
Noonanganut to his land Noonagingnut to his 2 lands Noonangenut to his lands
*Noonaptingnut to our land Noonāptingnut to our 2 lands Noonaptingnut to our land
Noonapsingnut to your land Noonāpsingnut to your 2 lands Noonapsingnut to your lands
Noonangānut to their land (Doubtful) Noonangenut to their lands

* Noonaptingnut is also used in the dual as,

N. Noonatik your two land
G. Noonaptik of your two land
D. Noonaptingnut to your two land

Nouns ending in e, ek, ik, or oot, take their dative cases as follows:—

Arehoktueye, a teacher;

arehoktueyiptingnut to our teacher, or teachers,

Ernek, a son;

ernipsingnut, to your son or sons,

kumik, a boot;

kumingnut, with thy boots or boots,

kokyoot, a gun;

kokyootinganut, with his gun.

Of the Accusative, Locative and Ablative cases

These cases are formed as the Dative, e.g.

Locative

Singular Dual Plural
Noonamne, in my land Noonāmne, in my 2 lands Noonamne in my lands
Noonangne, in thy land Noonāngne, in thy 2 lands Noonangne, in thy lands
Noonangane, in his land Noonāgingne, in his 2 lands Noonangene, in his lands

Accusative

Singular Dual Plural
Noonamnik, my land Noonāmnik, my two lands. Noonamnik, my lands
Noonangnik thy land Noonāngnik, thy 2 lands Noonangnik, thy lands
Noonanganik, his land Noonāgingnik, his 2 lands Noonangenik, his lands

Ablative

Singular Dual Plural
Noonamnit, from my land Noonāmnit, from my 2 lands. Noonamnit from my lands
Noonangnit, from thy land Noonāngnit, from thy 2 lands Noonangnit from thy lands
Noonanganit, from his land Noonāgingnit, from his 2 lands Noonangenit, from his lands
Of the Active Case

This case differs from the Dative, Accusative, Locative, and Ablative cases in the following ways—

In the first and second persons pkut is added to the noun instead of mnut as in the Dative Case.

In the first and second persons plural the active sign viz. goot is attached without the addition of the letters ng as in the words noonapsingnut and noonaptingnut.

In the third persons dual and plural the particle te is inserted before goot.

Active Case Declined

Singular Dual Plural
Noonapkut, through my land Noonāpkut, through my 2 Lands Noonapkut, through my lands.
Noonapkut, through my land, Noonāpkut, through thy 2 lands Noonapkut through thy lands.
11 Noonangagoot, through his land Noonāgiktegoot, Through his 2 lands. Noonangetegoot, through his lands.
Noonaptegoot, through our land Noonāptegoot, through our two lands Noonaptegoot, through our lands.
Noonapsegoot, through your land Noonāpsegoot, through your two lands Noonapsegoot, through your lands
Noonangāgoot, through their land Noonangātegoot, through their two lands Noonangetegoot, (through their lands)
The Simulative Case

This case is formed like the Active e.g.

Singular Dual Plural
Noonaptoot, like my land Noonāptoot, like my two lands, Noonaptoot, like my lands
Noonaptoot, like thy land Noonāptoot, like thy two lands. Noonaptoot, like thy lands.
Noonangatoot, like his land Noonagiktetoot, like his two lands Noonangetetoot, like his lands.

The following is an example of possessive pronoun declined in all cases in the first person singular.

Singular Dual Plural
R. Noonaga, my land Noonāka, my two lands Noonakka, my lands
G. Noonama, of my land Noonāngma, of two lands Noonama, of my lands
D. Noonamnut to my land Noonāmnut to two lands Noonamnut to my lands
A. Noonamnik my land Noonāmnik my two lands Noonamnik my lands
Loc. Noonamne in my land Noonāmne in my two lands Noonamne, in my lands
Acc. Noonapkut, through my land Noonāpkut, through my two lands, Noonapkut through my lands.
Abl. Noonamnit, from my land Noonāmnit, from my two lands. Noonapnit, from my lands
Sim. Noonaptoot, like my land Noonāptoot, like my 2 lands. Noonaptoot, like my lands.

Examples

īnealekkoonga iglonganut, I will be going to his house;

īneakkoonga annukrangnut, I will go to thy house (lit, thy home),

ineakkagoot noonangagoot, we will go through (returning place) his land.

Jesuse tamounga noonaptingnut tikkelaukpok pivlute pewleyomavlute, Jesus came this way to our land for our sakes wishing to save us.

Tekkoneakkapse noonapsingne, I will see you in your land (i.e. hunting ground)

itteritse iglomnut, enter ye into my house;

ernema aglanganik tekkolaukkēt, Hast thou seen my son’s books?

ineakkagoot

That is, īneakkagoot (ai-)

Reflective Possessive

This form is used when the agent acts with or upon his own property, e.g. erninne nagligeva, he loves his own son. Should the ordinary possessive form be used an Eskimo would understand the agent to act with the property of another person e.g. erninga nagligeva, he loves his son, viz. not his own son but the son of some other person.

N.B. This form is only used in the third person.

The Reflective Possessive Form Declined
Singular Dual Plural
N. Ernine, His own son Ernēngne, his own 2 sons Erninne, his own sons
G. Erneme, of his own son Ernēngme, of his own 2 sons Erneme, of his own sons
D. Ernimenut to his own son Ernēngmenut to his own 2 sons Ernimenut to his own sons
12 A. Ernimenik, his own son Ernēngmenik, his own two sons. Ernimenik, his own sons
L. Ernimene, in his own son Ernēngmene, in his own 2 sons Ernimene, in his own sons
Act. Ernimegoot, through his own son Ernēngmegoot, through his own two sons Ernimetegoot, through his own sons
Abl. Ernimenit, from his own son Ernēngmenit, from his own two sons Ernimenit, from his own sons
Sim. Ernimetoot, like his own son (Doubtful) Ernimetetoot, like his own sons

Examples.

Illame Ōhōksanganik pingashooalekkok, she is making her own relative’s new clothing,

iglomenut kemmavok, he flees to his own house;

ikpegosukpok ōmatimegoot, he feels pain or pleasure through his own heart;

timna angot ittolektok, ernimetoot pingashooaongnatyangettok, that man (invisible) who is getting old (lit. beginning to get old) he is not able to work like his own son.

Goode ernimenik noonaptingnut tilleyelungnekkok innooēt pewleyomavlugit God sent his own son to our land wishing to save the Eskimo

Compound Personal Pronouns

These are—1st—

Oovumnik myself oovaptingnik ourselves
Illingnik thyself Illipsingnik yourselves
Ingmenik himself, Ingmingnik themselves

Of these Ingmenik is sometimes heard with cases, as ingmenut to himself &c. The Plural ingmingnik is seldom used, ingmenik being used instead. The remainder are the accusative cases of personal pronouns.

2nd. Nangmenuk, self, own, this is but seldom heard but when used it generally takes the same formation as possessive pronoun e.g.

nangmenera, my son;

nangmenēt, thy own;

nangneninga, his own;

nangmeninget, their own.

3rd. Kisseane, alone. This is sometimes used with the sense of a pronoun, but more often with adverbial meaning and as adverb. It takes the following form—this will be fully discussed in its proper place (see adverb).

this will be fully discussed in its proper place

The discussion’s proper place must be in that other copy; there is no other mention of kisseane in the present book. Clue #4.

Kisseane, Alone
Kissema I alone
Kissevēt thou alone
Kisseme he alone
Kissipta we alone
Kissipse you alone
kissemik they alone

Demonstrative Pronouns

These are—

Ūna—this, he, this one here, quite visible

Tamna—That, that one, used in both senses, as this one, that one

Ookkoa—These and these two if quite close (if at some little distance ukkoa is used)

Tapkoa—Those, they, also used for these

ukkoa is used

Since the word can’t possibly be liukkoa or Uukkoa I simply ignored the obscure part:

page image

The resemblance of the splodge to a pointing finger is purely coincidental.

Besides these there are others which are used when the object or objects are invisible, or at some particular distance or place, as,

Imna That one in the distance but still visible
Ipkoa Those in the distance but still visible
Timna That one invisible
Tipkoa those invisible
13 Muna This one here (close at hand) if on some particular place
Tamunna This one here, quite here, this.
Kuna, That one below
Pangna That one in the west, above, up there westward.
tingna, that one in the east, below.

Imna ... Ipkoa ... Timna ... Tipkoa

The first letter in imna and ipkoa is “true” i, but the longer forms have to be read as tīmna and tīpkoa (tai-).

On the Cases of Demonstrative Pronouns

(Takkumna, he that inside; kingna, that one outside.)

(Takkumna ... kingna)

If the parentheses mean “insert declension here”, this is Incompleteness Clue #5.

The Demonstrative Pronouns are declined in a somewhat different manner to the other parts of speech already treated of. They have no genitive cases in the plural.

Demonstrative Pronouns Declined
N. Oona, This, he Tamna, that, that one
G. Ōma, this one’s, his Tapsoma, of that, of that one
D. Omunga, to this, to him Tapsomunga, to that, to that one
A. Ominga, this, him. Tapsominga, that, that one,
I. Ōmane, in this, in him Tapsomane, in that, in that one
Act. Omoona, through this, through him. Tapsomoona, through that, through that one.
Ab. Ōmungat, from this, from him. Tapsomungat, from that, from that one
Sim. Ōmatoot, like this, like him. Tapsomatoot, like that, like that one.

Dual

Ookkoa is the only dual form. It is used in the Nominative case for either dual or plural.

It is declined as follows:—

N. Ookkoa these or these two
D. Ookungnunga to these two
A. Ookungninga these two
I. Ookungnangne, in, by these two
Act. Ookungnoona, through these two
Abl. Ookungnungat, from these two
Sim. Ookkotetunak
Plural
N. Ookkoa these Tapkoa Those
D. Ookkununga to these Tapkonunga to those
A. Ookkuninga these Tapkoninga those
L. Ookkunane, in these Tapkonanne in those
Act. Ookkunoona through these Tapkonoona through those
Abl. Ookkunungat from these Tapkonungat from those
c.s. tapkoatetunak
Sim. Doubtful Tapkoatetoot, like those

c.s. tapkoatetunak

Well, I take it back. Peck must have glanced at one of the Germans, because nobody else said “c.s.” for “Genitive”. What it’s doing under the Ablative case form is not clear, though.

The Genitive Cases in timna, imna, muna and kuna are formed as follows

Tīmna that one invisible Tīpsoma of that one invisible
Imna That one in the distance Ipsoma of that one in the distance
Muna This one here Muttoma Of this one here
Kuna That one below Kuttoma of that one below

timna

In the following table—and the prose above and below—all forms printed Ti- should be read as Tī- (tai-), whether or not the macron is visible.

These together with the plural forms ipkoa and tipkoa are declined in just the same manner as tamna and ookkoa e.g.

N. Tīmna That one invisible
G. Tīpsoma of that one invisible
D. Tīpsomunga to that one invisible
14 A. Tīpsominga That one invisible
L. *Tipsomane in, by that one invisible
Act. Tipsomoona Through that one invisible
Abl. Tipsomungat from that one invisible
Sim. Tipsomatoot Like that one invisible
Plural
N. Tīpkoa Those invisible
D. Tīpkonunga to those invisible
A. Tīpkoninga those invisible
L. Tīpkonane in those invisible
Act. Tīpkonoona through those invisible
Abl. Tipkonungat from those invisible
Sim. Tipkoatetoot like those invisible

* Tipsomane is also used with the meaning in, that time, then at that time, that time.

Examples

Tamna kīlekka? That one, is he coming?

tapsoma aglanget nauk? Where are his books?

ileritse tapsomunga, go ye to that one;

tapsomungat peyara, my acquired gotten thing from him; (i.e. that which I got from him)

muttoma senneane, by the side of this;

ōma nagligevānga, he (this one) loves me.

ileritse

That is, īleritse (ai-)

Relative Pronouns

There are no separate words with meanings quite similar to our relative pronouns, but the Nominal, Active and Passive participles supply their place e.g.

timna kannemayok, ikkublaumevā? That one (invisible) who is sick, is he better?

Pidloridlakpok innuk illisemanerangmik navgaktok innuglo illisemanerngmik sillatunehaktetauyok. Happy is the man who findeth wisdom, and the man that getteth understanding.”

Innooēt tikkelauktut nanepāt? Where are the Eskimo who arrived?

Oona tegga aglautega attokputara, this here (is) my pen which I generally use;

Oona tegga kīlauktanga, This here which he brought; (lit. his brought article).

In the above examples the words kannemarok, he who is sick, nagvaktok, he who finds &c. supply the place of our relative pronouns who and that, while the passive participles attokputara and kilauktanga supply the place of our relative pronoun which. See participles.

Interrogative Pronouns

These are—

Sing. Dual Plural
Kēna? Who? Kikook Kikoot
Baffin Land Dialect kishyoomik What Kishoot Kishoot
Hudson Bay Dialect Soona? What (Soonak Soonat)
Which?
(one of two)
Nedleak Nedleēt

Of these only nedleak is declined in the dual.

Interrogative Pronouns Declined
Singular Plural
N. Kena who? *Kikoot? Who?
c.s. Kea
G. Kenaub of whom Kikoot of whom
D. Kenamut to whom Kikoonut to whom
A. Kenamik whom Kikoonik whom
L. Kename in whom Kikoone in whom
Act. Kenakut through whom doubtful kekootegoot
Abl. Kenamit from whom kikoonit from whom
Sim. Kenatoot like whom kikootetoot like whom

* also used in the sense of company, party, especially when used as an affix to names of persons, e.g. Johanasekut, the family, party of John.

c.s. Kea

The Germans again.

doubtful kekootegoot

Printed as shown. The different spelling (kekoo- as opposed to kikoo- in the rest of the table) suggests that this line was added later.

company, party

Peck may have forgotten where in the book he was, and confused this form with the affix he spells kut (-qat-).

Kena is also verbalized. On account of its frequent use it is inserted here.

15
Singular
kenauvoongā who am I?
kenauvēt who art thou?
Kenauvā who is he?
Dual
kenauvēnook? who are we two?
kenauvētik who are you two?
kenauvāk who are they two?
Plural
kenauvētā who are we?
kenauvēse who are you?
kenauvāt who are they?

From here on, I will use small type for anything that’s redundant, generally involving an affix that is fully explained elsewhere. Here it’s the interrogative pronoun kena with the noun-to-verb affix u and intransitive interrogative endings (“second conjugation”, given later).

Hudson Bay Baffin Land
N. Soona? (kishyoo) What?
G. Soonaub of what
D. Soonamut (kishyumut) to what
A. Soonamik what
L. Sooname in what
Act. Soonakut through what
Abl. Soonamit from what
Sim. Soonatoot like what

The table layout is my best guess about what the author meant.

page iamge

Kena and soona are often used with the Demonstrative pronoun oona attached e.g.

kenaunā? Who is this one?

Soonaunā What is this?

Nedleak? and nedleēt are declined as follows

Dual Plural
N. Nedleak? Which? (one of two) Nedleēt which one? (of several)
G. Nedleak of which? Nedleēta of which
D. Nedleanut to which Nedlengenut to which
A. Nedleanik which Nedlengenik which
L. Nedleane in which Nedlengene in which
Act. Nedleagoot through which Nedlengetegoot through which
Abl. Nedleanit from which Nedlengenit from which
Sim. Nedleatoot like which Nedlengetetoot like which

They have also forms for the first and second persons plural. In these persons they are declined as Possessive Pronouns, e.g.

nedlevoot which of us?

nedliptingnut, to which of us?

Nedlese, which of you,

nedlipsingnut, to which of you?

nedlipsingnit, from which of you?

Examples

Kenaub kingminga? Whose dog? (is this)

kenamut īneakkoongā to whom shall I go?

kikoot tikkepāt? Who has arrived?

Soonamik pinneakket? What wilt thou do?

nedlengenik peyomavēt? which (one of several) dost thou want?

nedliptingnut kīneakkā? to which one of us will he come?

Nedlese tikkepā, which of you arrived?

Distributive Pronouns

These are—

attoonēt, each one, every one by himself, as attoonet attelēt, each one by himself has a name (i.e. each person has a separate name, is named different).

nedleak, one of two; nedleēt one of several, these with their changes are used for distributive as well as interrogative pronouns e.g.

īlerit nedlingenut, go (thou) to one of them;

īneakoonga nedlipsingnut, I will go to one of you.

Tamat, every, e.g. ooblo tamat, every day.

The Distributive Pronoun either is expressed by the particle lonēt affixed to the words in question e.g. igvelonēt oovoongalonēt, either I or thou.

16

Indefinite Pronouns

These are—

Hudson Bay Baffin Land
Soona (kishu) something Point out cases as in interrogative form.
Soonamik (kishumik) do.
Illunga some, a part (only one)
Illagek do. dual
Illunget do. plural
Oonooktoot many, used in Labrador & N.E. shore of Hudsons Bay, amashut, being used in Cumberland Sound
Oonooktoonik many (Acc’ve)
Ikkittoot (Innusuktut) few amashungetut often heard
Ikkittoonik (Innesaktunik) Few (acc.)
Tamungmik adjective quantity
(Illoonatik) All Tamungmik
Illoonīnik All Tamānik
(treat with adverb) or it may be used as Adjective as a similar person & point out other cases (adverb).
Imāttomik such an one, a similar one
Imāttoonik such things, like things
Tamungmik tamamnook both (can be used as Adverb)
Asseanik another, other, a different one.
(Ipunga another) its other
(Ipunganik another) (acc.)
(Amashoot A lot, great number, heap, crowd)
Amashoonik A lot, heap, crowd (Acc.)
Soonatuenangmik anything (all the same what it is) Acc.
C.S. Soonatuenennik Sundry things (Acc.)
Adj. Soonatuenāt Sundry things (nom.)
(tamungmik)

This table is pretty hopelessly garbled. As before, I shifted the recurring “Baffin Land” to a separately headed column. The very last tamungmik seems especially out of place; was there confusion with page breaks in the original MS?

page iamge

Point out cases

Clue #6

Soonamik

These are presumably the accusative forms, but the text doesn’t say.

(treat with adverb)

Aaannd ... Clue #7

Illoonatik, Ipunga, and Asseanik are declined.

Illoonatik takes the following form in the first and second persons.

N. Illoonata we all Illoonase you all
G. Illoonapta of us all Illoonapse of you all
D. Illoonaptingnut to us all Illoonapsingnut to you all
A. Illoonaptingmik us all Illoonapsingnik you all
L. Illoonaptingne in us all Illoonapsingne, in you all
Act. Illoonaptegoot through us all Illoonapsegoot through you all
Abl. Illoonaptingnit from us all Illoonapsingnit from you all
Sim. Illoonaptetoot like us all Illoonapsetoot like you all

Īpunga means literally his other and is declined as possessive pronoun in the third person singular as,

N. Īpunga Another
G. Īpungata of another
L. Īpunganut to another
A. Īpunganik another
L. Īpungane in another
Act. Īpungagoot through another
Abl. Īpunganit from another
Sim. Īpungatoot like another

Asseanik is declined in all persons like the Possessive Pronoun, e.g.

assega my other
assēt thy other
assea his other
assinga his other
assevoot our other or others
assinget their others
assema of my other
assimnut to my other
asseanut
or assingenut
to his other
&c.

(Point out how Eskimo always use his other &c. where we should simply say another.) Illunga is sometimes used as follows: illungenut to some of them, illungenit, from some of them, illategoot, some of us. The others can also take cases when necessary e.g. īmāttonut, with such an one, amashoonut, to a lot, with a lot &c.

Asseanik is declined

This table was printed as a single run-in paragraph: assega, my other; assēt, thy other; etc.

(Point out how ...)

Clue #8.

17

Examples

Illategoot okpekpogoot, some of us believe;

innooet illunget tikkeneakkoot (or p) Some Eskimo will arrive;

oonuktoonik tekkolaukkoonga (or p) I saw many;

Goodib innooet illoonatik nagligevāt, God loves all the Eskimo;

imatomik tekkolaukkoonga (or p) I saw such an one;

soonatuenennik peyomavoonga; I want sundry things; anything;

savik īpunga kilauook, fetch another knife.

Of the Adjective

Adjectives of quality are expressed as follows:—

1st. some are separable as,

keyuk silliktok, which wood;

savik ipiktok a sharp knife.

2nd. Some are expressed by particles affixed to the nouns they qualify as,

oocushik, a kettle,

oocushetākkamik, a new kettle,

oomeak, a boat;

oomeakrāk, a great boat, a ship.

See the terminations of noun.

3rd. Many adjectives are formed from verbs, as

eyelukpok, he has bad sore eyes;

eyeluktok, one who has sore, diseased eyes,

angotitsearikpok, he is a good, beautiful man;

angotitseariktok, a good man, a beautiful man.

4th. Some nouns which we should qualify by using adjectives are in the Eskimo tongue entirely changed e.g.

arngnak, a woman,

ningeok, an old woman;

angot, a man, male;

ittok, an old man.

ningeok ... ittok

These may not be the most fortunately chosen examples. The Greek language—which Peck managed to learn at some point—includes the words γραῦς, old woman, and γέρων, old man. But you don’t see him arguing that Greek doesn’t use adjectives.

Comparison of Adjectives

The comparative is formed by adding the particle neksak to the root of the positive, as

angeyok, large,

angeneksak, larger,

mikkeyok, small;

mikkeneksak, smaller.

The Superlative is formed by adding the particle nekpāk to the root of the positive, as

angeyok, large

angenekpāk largest;

mikkeyok, small;

mikkenekpāk, smallest.

Adjectives of this class are also verbalized e.g.

angeneksak, larger;

angeneksauvok, it is larger;

mikkeneksak, smaller;

mikkeneksauvok, it is smaller;

angenekpāk, largest;

angenekpaūvok, it is the largest,

mikkenekpāk, smallest;

mikkenekpauvok, it is the smallest.

angenekpaūvok

Error for angenekpauvok.

Examples

Savik ipiktok kilauook, bring a sharp knife;

oomeakrangmik tekkolaukkēt? Didst thou see a ship?

Omungat angeneksamik savingmik aitselaurit, bring a larger knife than this;

omungat mikkeneksauvok, it is smaller than this (the thing with which the object is compared is put in the Ablative)

Numeral Adjectives

The Eskimo have names for the numbers to five only; beyond that they use a system of addition and multiplication which is cumbrous to an extreme, and little adapted for large numbers. This system is only used or understood by the most intelligent, many of the Eskimo seeming to have but little idea of numbers above twenty or forty. These remarks of course, apply to the Eskimo living on the Eastern shores of Hudson Bay and also those of Baffin Land.

only ... by the most intelligent

Good one, Peck.

These remarks of course

Of course. Perhaps Peck would be happier with a language like Hindi, where the number words are so heavily synthe­sized that every number up to 99 has to be separately learned.

The numeral adjectives are —

Attausuk One
Maggook Two
Pingashoot three
sittamut four
tedlemut five
18 pingashoorooktoot or ikkaktoot
(arkvenelēt in Baffin Land)
Six 3×2
pingashoorooktoot attausuglo seven 3×2 + 1
Sittamaurooktoot (tedlemaurooktoot) eight 4×2
Tedlemulo sittamulo or
sittamaurooktoolo attausuglo
nine 5 + 4 or 4×2 + 1
tedlemaurooktoot ten 5×2
tedlemaurooktoot attausuglo eleven 5×2 + 1
tedlemaurooktoot maggooglo twelve 5×2 + 2
tedlemaurooktoot pingashoolo thirteen 5×2 + 3
tedlemaurooktoot sittamulo fourteen 5×2 + 4
tedlemaurooktoot tedlemulo fifteen 5×2 + 5
tedlemaurooktoot pingashoorooktoolo sixteen 5×2 + 3×2
tedlemaurooktoot pingashoorooktoot attausuglo seventeen 5×2 + 3×2 + 1
tedlemaurooktoolo sittamaurooktoolo eighteen 5×2 + 4×2
avatoongegaktoot or tedlemaurooktoolo sittamaurooktoolo attausuglo twenty 20 - 1 or 5×2 + 4×2 + 1

I have given the list as printed—adding the last column (“3×2”) for cross-checking—but I’m not certain all of it is what the author meant to say.

The element -urook- comes through as -ujuq- in some dialects.

Sittamaurooktoot (tedlemaurooktoot)

It is not clear what the tedlemaurooktoot is doing here.

twenty

So printed, but the words suggest 19.

Avatit means the outer members or the body, the toes and fingers. Even numbers of twenty such as forty, sixty &c. are expressed by naming the number of persons (Eskimo’s toes and fingers) as will make the number required. The numbers already given, that is from one to twenty are used when necessary to express any numbers coming between e.g.

innooēt pingashoot avatinget tedlema­urooktoolo sittama­urooktoolo attausuglo, seventy-nine = Three Eskimo’s toes and fingers, and ten and eight and one.

Innooet sittamut avatinget = eighty, i.e. four Eskimo’s toes and fingers.

The numbers forty, sixty, eighty and one hundred can also be expressed by the following combinations.

Avate maggooēt forty
Avate pingashooēt sixty
Avate sittamāt eighty
Avate tedlemāt one hundred
The Ordinals
Sivordluk the first
Ipunga the second
pingarooāt the third
sittamungāt the fourth
tedlemungāt the fifth
pingashoorooktoongāt the sixth
maggoongnut ikaktoongāt the seventh
sittamaurooktoongāt the eighth
tedlemaurooktoongāt the tenth

Ipunga

That is, Īpunga (ai-).

Numeral Adverbs
Attauseaksune Once
maggooaktaksune twice
pingashooaktaksune thrice
sittsumauerksune four times
tedlemauerksune five times
arkvineleraksune six times
maggoongnut ikaksune seven times
sittamaurooktooerksune eight times
tedlemulo sittamuloerksune nine times
tedlemaurooktooerksune ten times.

sittsumauerksune

Expected form sittamauerksune.

Numeral adjectives are also verbalized, as,

Attauseōvok It is one
maggōvook they are two
pingashōvoot they are three
sittamauvoot they are four
tedlemauvoot they are five
19

Iglonik pingashoonik tekkolaukkoonga, I saw three houses;

innooet sittamut tikkeneakkoot, four Eskimo will arrive;

soomik goode sennalaukkā ooblooēt pingarooane? What did God make on the third day?

Kapseovāt? How many are they?

tedlemauvoot, they are five.

Names of fingers are used in counting especially in games used by children and also by adults.

soomik goode

Expected form: capital Goode as elsewhere.

The Verb

The verb may be almost called the language. Not only does it draw to itself the agent and object, but it can express through various particles a sentence which in the English tongue could only be expressed by four, eight or ten words. These particles partake of the nature of adjectives, adverbs &c. and are embodied in the verb, while conjunctions &c. are affixed; thus a word may be formed of a length truly astonishing. To verbs belong voice, mood, tense, number and person. Verbs have two voices, the active and passive.

The verb may be almost called the language.

I’ll be darned, Peck. Didn’t know you had it in you.

a length truly astonishing

My favorite phrase in the whole book.

voice, mood, tense ... active and passive

Well, that didn’t last long. While “voice” and “tense” are named, the existence of negatives as a separate conjugation is withheld until the moment we meet them in inflectional tables.

Moods of the Verb

Verbs have five moods, the indicative, interrogative, imperative, subjunctive and infinitive.

Indicative

The Indicative simply declares or affirms as goodib nagligevātegoot, God loves us.

five moods

This number is arrived at by counting the Conditional and (Be)causative as two kinds of subjunctive.

Indicative

Throughout this section, I have added headers for clarity.

goodib

Expected form: capital Goodib as elsewhere.

Interrogative

The Interrogative is used in asking a direct or indirect question, as

illetarevingā? Dost thou know me?

kunga tikkeneakkā? When will he arrive?

Imperative

The Imperative commands, exhorts, entreats and in the first and second persons desires, as,

Kīlerit Come thou

kilaugle Pray let him come

tekkolauook See thou him (pray do)

okperelavoot Let us believe him

in the first and second persons

Error for “first and third”.

kilaugle

That is, kīlaugle (qai-).

Subjunctive

The Subjunctive Mood is used in the following ways.

1st. When a condition or uncertainty is expressed; as,

Jesuse okperegooptego peuleneakkategoot, if we believe in Jesus, he will save us.

Tikkitgooma tekkolakkagit, if I arrive I will see thee;

Goode innungnik illuninik kauyemarukrogame peuleongnakkite, because God knows all the Eskimo he is able to save them (succour them)

2nd. Where the person addressed can form some idea of what the speaker wants or means without the use of the principal verb e.g.

ahikyehatyangemut, because there are no partridges, (therefore I have got none)

kaktokrogama, because I am very hungry; (therefore I want something to eat)

iglo pukkaktokrongmut, because the house is very warm (therefore make it cooler)

the house is very warm

The writers of an early Lonely Planet guide once got hold of a Hindi phrasebook. Among other useful utterances for travelers in India was the essential line “I suffer from severe constipation.”

3rd. This mood has also a relative form which is used when there are two verbs in a sentence (one being in the subjunctive and the other in the indicative Mood) and when the agent in both verbs is the same e.g. netsuk innungmik tekkogame, akkakpok, when the seal sees the man, he (the seal) dives, goes under water. On the other hand the ordinary form is used when the agent in one verb is different from the agent in the other e.g. innooēt tikkepetta tekkoneakkavoot if the Eskimo arrive, we shall see them.

The same formation takes place should there be three or more verbs in use, as—

20

Relative Form

Innooēt Jesusemut sagealeroonik arongnimenik omisuleroonik peuleyouneaktoogelloat, If the Eskimo turn to Jesus, if they hate their sins, indeed they will be saved.

General Form

Innooēt nootamik innonashooakpetta okpemarelekpetta nakoreneakkite Jesuseoob. If the Eskimo endeavor to live new lives, if they believe completely Jesus will be pleased with them.

The relative form is also used in the following manner; tikkelauramik tokkovok, when they arrived, he died. viz. one of the comers. Here the person who died being one of the comers, the relative form is used to point out this connection.

Infinitive

The Infinitive is of much more extensive use in the Eskimo than in the English tongue. It not only expresses the action in a general manner, but it takes the place of our participles. There are also other ways of using this mood, e.g.

1st. As the participle—

angot ilekkok ottumut pangoksune, the man goes crawling to the seal (one basking in the sun on the ice).

ilekkok

That is, īlekkok (ail-)

2nd. To express our words while, wishing &c. This is done by inserting particles in the infinitive verb, as

tid, while, Jesuse kikkeaktok taulaukkok omatidlugo, Jesus was crucified while he was alive.

Yomav, wishing, desiring, Jesuse sillakroarmut tikkelaukpok innooet pivloogit peuleyomavlugit. Jesus came to the world for the Eskimo sakes wishing to save them.

kov that (it) might, that (he) might, that (we) may, as

Goodib erninne tillelaungmago noonaptingnut tokkotaukovlugo, aune koveyoukovlugo innooēt pivloogit peuleyoukovlugit, God sent his own son to our land, that he might die, his (own) blood that it might be shed for the Eskimo sakes that they might be saved.

Kannok pinneaktuksouveta Goodemut īrkovluta? What must we do that we may go to God?

The particle kov changed into kon is also used with the negative form of infinitive verb with the following meaning.

Goodib innok sivudlivenet okoutelungnekkāk napparktomit attautsemit nerrenearatik tokkoruksoukonatik, God told the two first people ye must not eat from one tree lest ye die (that ye may not die).

3rd. For my sake, for thy sake &c. is expressed by the infinitive of the verb pevok or its transitive form peva, as,

Sing.
Pivloonga for my sake
pivlutit for thy sake
pivlugo for his sake
Dual
pivloonook for our two
pivlutik for your two
pivlugik for their two
Plural
pivloota for our
pivluse for your
pivlugit for their

4th. As an adverb of quality or manner, as soolivlune ohakpok he speaks truly; tuaverglune pissukpok, he walks quickly &c.

21

The Infinitive can also be used for our word before and negatively for while not, not wishing, that it might not, and also with negative adverbial meaning.

Of the Participles

There are two participles of most frequent use in the Eskimo tongue, viz. The Nominal and the Passive.

The Nominal Participle

1st. This participle may be formed from intransitive verbs by omitting the letters p and v and inserting t for the former and y for the latter e.g.

kannepok, he or it is near,

kannetok he who is near, that which is near;

mikkevok, he or it is small;

mikkeyok, he who is small, that which is small.

Some verbs ending in vok take rok instead of yok e.g.

kummavok, he takes care;

kummarok, he who minds, takes care.

2nd. It is often heard in place of a verb e.g. tikkeneaktoot they who will arrive, instead of tikkeneakkoot, they will arrive. When used in this manner it can be used in all persons and is declined as an intransitive verb e.g.

Sing.
Toosaktoonga I who hear
Toosaktotit thou who hearest
Toosaktok he who hears
Dual
Toosaktogook we two who hear
Toosaktotik you two who hear
Toosaktook they two who hear
Plural
Toosaktogoot we who hear
Toosaktose you who hear
Toosaktoot they who hear

3rd. It is often used as a noun, e.g. tigliktok, a thief; saglurok, a liar. When used in this manner they take cases like nouns of the first declension. e.g. tigliktomik a thief (acc) tigliktomut to a thief; sagluromit, from a liar. The Accusative cases of nouns formed in this manner are sometimes used as adverbs as,

sooleyomik okaroovit, if thou speakest truly;

nekoktomik pingashooaroovit, if thou doest well &c.

Passive Participle

This participle is derived from transitive verbs, and verbalized nouns which denote the acquisition of animals &c. e.g.

netsuk a seal;

netsukpok, he gets, catches a seal;

netsuktanga, his acquired, gotten seal;

mittek, an eider duck,

mittekpok, he catches an eider duck;

mittektanga, his eider duck which he caught;

nagligeva, he loves him;

nagligeyak, a person or thing loved;

kellepa, he tows it;

kelletak, a thing which is towed.

This participle takes affixes like the possessive pronoun e.g.

kelletara, mine which I tow;

nagligeyet, thine whom thou lovest;

nagligeyanga, his loved one, who is loved by him;

nagligeyavoot, our loved ones &c.

It is often used in this manner and takes the place of a transitive verb. e.g.

oona tegga pautigeneaktara, this here I will have for a paddle.

N.B. Both the nominal and passive participles may be used to supply the place of the relative pronouns, as,

kannetok, he who is near, that which is near;

kelletuk, a thing which is towed;

nagligeyet, thine whom thou lovest &c.

22

Of Tense

Time is expressed in the Eskimo tongue by the insertion of participles, which correspond in some measure to our Auxiliary verbs. e.g.

Present

tikkepok he arrives

Past

tikkelaukkok or tikkelaukpok he arrived

Perfect

tikkesimavok he has arrived

Future

tikkeneakkok he will arrive

tikkeyomākkok or tikkitsomākkok he shall arrive well in the future.

Besides these there are others which are used in a more extensive manner like our compound tenses, as,

Present Progressive

tikkelekkok he is arriving

Past Progressive

tikkelaukekpok or kok he was arriving

Past Indefinite

*Tikkelungnekkok he arrived

Future Definite

Tikkelākkok he will arrive

Future Progressive

Tikkenealekkok he will be arriving

* This is only used in the third persons.

the insertion of participles

Probably an error for “particles”.

Remarks

Both the past and future may be used in a definite or indefinite manner, as,

tikkelaukkok, he arrived

or ikpuksak tikkelaukpok, he arrived yesterday;

tikkeneakkok, he will arrive

or ooblome tikkeneakkok, he will arrive to-day.

The past indefinite is used when the action occurred some considerable time ago, and when no particular period of time is mentioned, as Jesuse illineaktimenut okalungnekkok, Jesus said to his disciples.

The future forms tikkeyomākkok and tikkelākkok are strictly speaking variations of future time or conditional future tenses. The particle Yomāk being used for time well in futurity, while the particle lāk is generally applied to time some little period in advance e.g.

innogooma akkago tikkeyomākkoonga, If I live, I shall arrive next year;

kaukput audlalākkoonga to-morrow (lit. when it is daylight, when the day breaks) I shall go away;

takkaub ipungane imukka tikkelākkoonga, in another month perhaps I shall arrive.

The particle yomāk is also used in an indefinite manner, without any relation to time, as

innob erninga Engelinne tilleyomakpāt, the Son of Man shall send forth his angels.

The Eskimo do not invariably use the past and perfect tenses. In narration the present is sometimes used for the past especially if the time may be understood by the context. Again, past time may be expressed by words quite peculiar to the language, e.g. tikketivenuk, something which arrived formerly, someone who arrived; instead of tikkelaukkok, he arrived; Jesusib sillakroarmēnimene, in Jesus’ own time of being in the world, instead of when Jesus was in the world.

The perfect is also sometimes omitted and the present used instead especially in cases where the action has recently been accomplished, as tikkepok, he arrives instead of tikkesimavok, he has arrived.

23

The Potential Particle is ongnak sometimes yongnak as attuarkseongnakket? Art thou able to read?

Yoma or roma is the optative particle as,

arehoktueyemik tekkeromavogoot, We wish to see the minister;

ooblome tapsomunga īyomavoonga, I desire to go to him to-day.

innob erninga Engelinne tilleyomakpāt

Error for tilleyomākpāt (or -pat or -pait; this ending is a little unpredictable).

Of the Verb “To Be”.

The verbal idea of being, existence &c. is expressed in the following ways.—

1st. In its simplest form it is expressed by the verb ēpok he is. This may be declined like any intransitive verb, but in reality is not often heard.

2nd. Ōvok sometimes uvok is attached to nouns to express their state of being e.g.

Goodeovok, he is God;

annerngnek, spirit;

annerngneōvok, he is a spirit;

noona, a land,

noonauvok, it is a land;

īvek, a walrus,

īveovok, it is a walrus;

ooyarak, a stone;

ooyarauvok, it is a stone;

innuk, an Eskimo, human being;

innuōvok, he is an Eskimo, human being;

kokyoot, a gun;

kokyooteovok, it is a gun.

3rd. The verbal termination pok attached to the locative cases of nouns (also) personal, demonstrative and possessive pronouns denote the place, location of persons or things in question e.g.

killangme in heaven;

killangmēpok, he is in heaven;

iglome in a house;

iglomepok he or it is in a house;

oovumne, in, by, at me,

oovumnēpok, he is by, at me;

oovaptingne, in, by, at us;

oovaptingnēpok, he is by, with us, in our locality;

manē, here, on this spot;

manēpok, he is here, on this spot,

ikkane, there;

ikkanēpok, he is there;

akkeane, on the other side; (lit. on its other side)

akkeanēpok, he is on the other side;

noonaptingne, in our land;

noonaptingnēpok, he is in our land.

4th. Hakpok (or k) denotes that there is such a person or thing e.g.

innohakkā (or k) is there somebody?

Ah, innohakkok, yes there is someone,

savik, a knife;

savehakkā? Is there a knife? savehangelak, there is not a knife.

This particle also denotes the possession of article in question, and stands in that sense for our words has, possesses, e.g.

orksuk, blubber, fat;

orksukakpok, he has, posseses blubber, fat;

kokyoot, a gun, kokyootehakkēt? Hast thou a gun? kokyootehatyangelanga, I have not got a gun.

(or k)

Or, for that matter, -ĸaĸ- or -qaq-.

This affix is discussed again, with most of the same examples, under Intransitive Verbs.

5th. Impersonal verbs expressing states of weather are expressed by verbal terminations, as

perkselekkā? is it (the snow) drifting?

Ah, perkselekkok, yes it is drifting;

silla kanwepā? How is the weather (lit. how is the air)

niptarukrōvok it is nice and clear, very fine.

Of Intransitive Verbs

Intransitive verbs are those in which the action of the verb is confined to the subject, or is not regarded as going beyond the subject, as, sinnikpok, he sleeps.

Many intransitive verbs may be changed into transitive by changing pok into pa, and vok into va, as

naglikpok, he loves;

naglikpa, he loves him,

nīvok, he smells,

nīva, he smells him.

Intransitive verbs may be divided into two conjugations, the first, the inflection of which ends in a consonant and the second in a vowel, as, (give also the root letter, i.e. k̄, k, e, and a, as okakpok, mallikpok, tikkepok and sennavok.)

(give also the root letter ...)

Clue #9

k̄, k

This is literally the only place in the entire book that hints at a difference between k and not-k. Unless the overline is a flyspeck. Erdmann’s dictionary uses k̇ (k with over-dot).

24 1st Conjugation. Ohakpok he speaks
pissukpok he walks
eyokpok he laughs
2nd Conjugation. Nerrevok he eats
kauremavok he knows
issumavok he thinks

In the first conjugation the first and second persons are formed by dropping the final letter k, and then affixing contracted forms of personal pronouns as,

Personal Pronouns Singular
Oovoonga, I Ohakpoonga I speak
Igvit thou Ohakpotit thou speakest
Ohakpok he speaks
Dual
Oovagook we two Ohakpogoot we two speak
Illiptik you two Ohakpotik you two speak
Ohakpook they two speak
Plural
Oovagoot we Ohakpogoot we speak
Illipse you ohakpose you speak
ohakpoot they speak

the final letter k

Not the “k” of the stem, but the “k” of the dictionary form ohakpok or nerrevok.

In the second conjugation the first and second persons are formed in the same manner as the above as,

Singular
Nerrevoonga I eat
nerrevotit thou eatest
nerrevok he eats
Dual
nerrevogook we two eat
nerrevotik you two eat
nerrevook they two eat
Plural
nerrevogoot we eat
nerrevose you eat
nerrevoot they eat

On The Formation of the Subjunctive Mood

First Conjugation

Verbs of the first conjugation are formed by dropping the final consonant of their roots; two particles viz. ra and roo are then affixed, ra being used with the meaning of our words when, because, that and for, and roo for if. These particles are not retained in the third persons. To ra and roo are also added the genitive terminations of possessive pronouns e.g.

Genitive case of Possessive Pronoun. Sing.
Of my son Ernema Okarama When I speak
of my son Ernepit Okaravit when thou speakest
Okangmut when he speaks
Relative Okarame when he speaks
Dual
Okaramnook when we two speak
Of your two sons Erniptik okaraptik when you two speak
okaramik or okangmenik when they two speak
Plural
of our son or sons Ernipta okarapta when we speak
of your son or sons Ernipse okarapse when you speak
okangmetta when they speak
Relative Okaramik when they speak

of my son Ernepit

Error for “of your son”.

25
The Second Conjugation

Verbs of the second conjugation viz. those the root of which end in a vowel, retain their vowels and the particles ra and roo are changed into ga and goo e.g.

Singular
Nerregama because, when I eat
nerregavit because, when thou eatest
nerringmut because, when he eats
Relative nerregame because, when he eats
Dual
nerregamnook because, when we two eat
nerregaptik because, when you two eat
nerregamik or
nerringmenik
because, when they two eat
Plural
nerregapta because, when we eat
nerregapse because, when you eat
nerringmetta because, when they eat
Relative nerregamik because, when they eat

nerregamik or nerringmenik

Printed as shown. If the second form is meant to be the “Relative”, it seems backward.

Subjunctive—Second Form

The particles roo and goo are inserted in just the same manner as ra and ga but in the third persons, verbs of the first conjugation retain their final consonants while those of the second conjugation take a consonant before taking their final inflections e.g.

First Conjugation
Sing.
Okarooma If I eat
okaroovit if thou eatest
okakput if he eats
Relative okaroone if he eats
Dual
Okaroomnook if we two eat
Okarooptik if you two eat
Okaroonik or if they two eat
Okakpennik if they two eat
Plural
Okaroopta if we eat
Okaroopse if you eat
Okakpetta if they eat
Relative Okaroonik if they eat

if I eat, if we eat etc.

See elsewhere about lack of proofreading between 1883 and 1919.

Okaroonik or Okakpennik

Again, printed as shown, this time with separate glosses. (Neither form is labeled “Relative”; this is typical of all duals in conjugation tables.)

Second Conjugation
Sing. Dual Plural
nerregooma Nerregoomnook Nerregoopta
nerregoovit nerregooptik nerregoopse
nerrikput nerrikpennik nerrikpetta
Rel. nerregoone nerrikpennik nerregoonik

N.B. Irregular forms are occasionally found in such words as tikkepok and nālakpok, these either retain or take a final consonant, e.g. tikkitgama because I arrive; nalakkama, because I obey.

Second Conjugation

The table was misaligned in typing, and as usual the Dual includes a seemingly superfluous “or”:

page image

nerrikpennik (second time)

Expected form nerregoonik

Of the Other Moods

The other moods are formed much after the manner of the Indicative and Subjunctive and a remarkable regularity takes place in the first and second persons, the difficulty lying with the third. See the interrogative, Imperative, and Infinitive Moods. I now give a verb of the first conjugation in full.

26

Toosakpok, he heard

Indicative Mood
Present Tense
Singular
Toosakpoonga I hear
Toosakpotit thou hearest
Toosakpok he hears
Dual
Toosakpogook we two hear
Toosakpotik you two hear
Toosakpook they two hear
Plural
Toosakpogoot we near
Toosakpose you hear
Toosakpūt they hear

From here on the book goes rapidly downhill. Almost half the remaining space will be taken up with tables that simply repeat the same material with various affixes, labeled “Past Tense”, “Potential” and so on. There can be up to ten sets of duplicate tables. Scroll down to the Negative for the next new material.

Past Tense
Sing.
Toosalaukpoonga I heard
Toosalaukpotit thou heard
Toosalaukpok he heard
Dual
Toosalaukpogook we two heard
Toosalaukpotik you two heard
Toosalaukpook they two heard
Plural
Toosalaukpogoot we heard
Toosalaukpose you heard
Toosalaukpūt they heard
Perfect Tense
Sing.
Toosaksimavoonga I have heard
Toosaksimavotit thou hast heard
Toosaksimavok he has heard
Dual
Toosaksimavogook we two have heard
Toosaksimavotik you two have heard
Toosaksimavook they two have heard
Plural
Toosaksimavogoot we have heard
Toosaksimavose you have heard
Toosaksimavūt they have heard
Future Tense
Sing.
Toosangneakpoonga I shall or will hear
Toosangneakpotit thou wilt hear
Toosangneakpok he will hear
Dual
Toosangneakpogook we two shall or will hear
Toosangneakpotik you two will hear
Toosangneakpook they two will hear
27 Plural
Toosangneakpogoot we shall or will hear
Toosangneakpose you shall or will hear
Toosangneakpūt they shall or will hear
Variations of Future—First Form
Singular
Toosaromākpoonga I shall or will hear
Toosaromākpotit thou shalt or wilt hear
Toosaromākpok he shall or will hear
Dual
Toosaromākpogook we two shall or will hear
Toosaromākpotik you two shall or will hear
Toosaromākpook they two shall or will hear
Plural
Toosaromākpogoot we shall or will hear
Toosaromākpose you shall or will hear
Toosaromākpūt they shall or will hear
Second Form
Sing.
Toosalākpoonga I will or shall hear
Toosalākpotit thou shalt or wilt hear
Toosalākpok he shall or will hear
Dual
Toosalākpogook we two shall or will hear
Toosalākpotik you two shall or will hear
Toosalākpook they two shall or will hear
Plural
Toosalākpogoot we shall or will hear
Toosalākpose you shall or will hear
Toosalākpūt they shall or will hear

The Potential, Optative, and remaining time particles are inserted in much the same manner as those already given, e.g.

Present Progressive
Sing.
Toosalekpoonga I am hearing
Toosalekpotit thou art hearing
Toosalekpok &c. he is hearing &c.
Past Progressive
Sing.
Toosalaukekpoonga I was hearing
Toosalaukekpotit thou wast hearing
Toosalaukekpok &c. he was hearing
Future Progressive
Toosangnealekpogook we two will be hearing
Toosangnealekpotik you two will be hearing
Toosangnealekpook they two will be hearing
Potential Form
Toosaongnakpoonga I can hear, I am able to hear
Toosaongnakpotit thou canst hear
Toosaongnakpok &c. he can hear
28 Optative Form
Toosayomavoonga I wish to hear
Toosayomavotit thou wishest to hear
Toosayomavok &c. he wishes to hear
The Negative Form
Toosangelanga (Toosatyangelanga) see below.* I do not hear at all (Emphatic negative)
Toosangelatit Toosatyangelatit thou dost not hear
Toosangelak Toosatyangelak he does not hear
Dual
Toosangelagook Toosatyangelagook we two do not hear
Toosangelatik Toosatyangelatik you two do not hear
Toosangelāk Toosatyangelāk they two do not hear
Plural
Toosangelagoot Toosatyangelagoot we do not hear
Toosangelase Toosatyangelase you do not hear
Toosangelet Toosatyangelet they do not hear

* There are two forms of negation used by the Eskimo, one (the longer form) being used to emphasize the negative sense, as toosatyangelanga, I do not hear at all.

Next new material: Interrogative.

Past Tense
Sing.
Toosalaungelanga Toosalautyangelanga I did not hear
Toosalaungelatit Toosalautyangelatit thou didst not hear
Toosalaungelak Toosalautyangelak he did not hear
Dual
Toosalaungelagook Toosalautyangelagook we two did not hear
Toosalaungelatik Toosalautyangelatik you two did not hear
Toosalaungelāk Toosalautyangelāk they two did not hear
Plural
Toosalaungelagoot Toosalautyangelagoot we did not hear
Toosalaungelase Toosalautyangelase you did not hear
Toosalaungelet Toosalautyangelet they did not hear
29 Perfect Tense
Sing.
Toosaksimangelanga Toosaksimatyangelanga I have not heard
Toosaksimangelatit Toosaksimatyangelatit thou hast not heard
Toosaksimangelak Toosaksimatyangelak he has not heard
Dual
Toosaksimangelagook Toosaksimatyangelagook we two have not heard
Toosaksimangelatik Toosaksimatyangelatik you two have not heard
Toosaksimangelāk Toosaksimatyangelāk they two have not heard
Plural
Toosaksimangelagoot Toosaksimatyangelagoot we have not heard
Toosaksimangelase Toosaksimatyangelase you have not heard
Toosaksimangelet Toosaksimatyangelet they have not heard
Future Tense
Sing.
Toosangneangelanga Toosangneatyangelanga I will or shall not hear
Toosangneangelatit Toosangnoatyangelatit thou wilt not hear
Toosangnoangelak Toosangneatyangelak he will not hear
Dual
Toosangneangelagook Toosangneatyangelagook we two will not hear
Toosangneangelatik Toosangneatyangelatik you two will not hear
Toosangneangelāk Toosangneatyangelāk they two will not hear
Plural
Toosangneangelagoot Toosangneatyangelagoot we will or shall not hear
Toosangneangelase Toosangneatyangelase you will will not hear
Toosangneangelet Toosangneatyangelet they will will not hear

The other forms are all conjugated after the same scheme. Examples are here given in first person singular.

Variations of Future—First Form
Toosaromātyangelanga &c. Toosaromāngelanga I will or shall not hear
Second Form
Toosalāngelanga Toosalātyangelanga &c. I will or shall not hear
Present Progressive
Toosalingelanga Toosaletyangelanga &c. I am not hearing
30 Past Progressive
Toosalaulingelanga Toosalauketyangelanga &c. I was not hearing
Future Progressive
Toosangnealingelanga Toosangnealetyangelanga & c. I will not be hearing
Potential Form
Toosaongnangelanga Toosaongnatyangelanga &c. I am not able to hear
Optative Form
Toosayomangelanga Toosaromatyangelanga I do not wish to hear
Interrogative Mood
Sing.
Toosakpoongā? Do I hear?
Toosakpēt? Dost thou hear?
Toosakpā? Does he hear?
or sometimes toosakkēt &c.
Dual
Toosakpēnook Do we two hear?
Toosakpētik Do you two hear?
Toosakpāk Do they two hear?
Plural
Toosakpētā Do we hear?
Toosakpēse Do you hear?
Toosakpāt Do they hear?

N.B. The k is used frequently amongst the Hudson Bay Eskimo.

Sometimes Toosakpoongā Do I hear? toosakpēt, Dost thou hear? &c. is used instead of other form.

Next new material: Imperative.

Past Tense
Sing.
Toosalaukpoonga? Did I hear?
Toosalaukpēt? Didst thou hear?
Toosalaukpā? Did he hear?
Dual
Toosalaukpēnook Did we two hear?
Toosalaukpētik Did you two hear?
Toosalaukpāk Did they two hear?
Plural
Toosalaukpēta Did we hear?
Toosalaukpēse Did you hear?
Toosalaukpāt Did they hear?
Perfect Tense
Sing.
Toosaksimavoonga? Have I heard?
Toosaksimavēt Hast thou heard?
Toosaksimava Has he heard? Dual
Dual
Toosaksimavēnook Have we two heard
Toosaksimavētik Have you two heard?
Toosaksimavāk Have they two heard? Plural
Plural
Toosaksimavētā Have we heard
Toosaksimavese Have you heard?
Toosaksimavat Have they heard?

-sima-

In the original, only the syllable si is underlined. It made more sense to mark the whole affix, though it isn’t clear why it is emphasized here at all.

Toosaksimava ... Toosaksimavese, Toosaksimavat

Expected forms: -vā, -vēse, -vāt.

Future Tense
Toosangneakpoonga Will or shall I hear?
Toosangneakpēt Wilt or shalt thou hear?
Toosangneakpā Will or shall he hear?
31 Dual
Toosangneakpēnook Will or shall we two hear
Toosangneakpētik. Will or shall you two hear?
Toosangneakpāk Will or shall they two hear?
Plural
Toosangneakpēta Will or shall we hear
Toosangneakpēse Will or shall you hear?
Toosangneakpāt Will or shall they hear?

The other forms are conjugated in the same manner e.g.

Variations of Future—First Form
Toosaromākpoongā? Will or shall I hear?
Toosaromākpēt Wilt or shalt thou hear?
Toosaromākpā Will or shall he hear?
Second Form
Sing.
Toosalākpoongā? Will or shall I hear?
Toosalākpēt Wilt or shalt thou hear ?
Toosalākpā Will or shall he hear
Present Progressive
Toosalekpoongā Am I hearing?
Toosalekpēt Art thou hearing?
Toosalekpā Is he hearing?
Past Progressive
Toosalaukekpoongā? Was I hearing
Toosalaukekpēt Wast thou hearing
Toosalaukekpā Was he hearing?
Future Progressive
Toosangnealekpoongā Will or shall I be hearing?
Toosangnealekpēt Wilt or shalt thou be hearing?
Toosangnealekpā Will or shall he be be hearing?
Potential Form
Toosaongnakpoongā? Am I able to hear, can I hear?
Toosaongnakpēt Art thou able to hear?
Toosaongnakpā Is he able to hear?
Optative Form
Toosaromavoongā? (or y) Do I wish to hear?
Toosaromavēt Dost thou wish to hear?
Toosaromavā Does he wish to hear?
Negative Form

This is just the same as in the indicative mood, interrogative emphasis being laid on the end of words, as,

Sing.
Toosangelanga Toosatyangelanga? Do I not hear?
Toosangelatit Toosatyangelatit Dost thou not hear?
Toosangelak Toosatyangelak &c. Does he not hear?

The same formation takes place should we use the time particles e.g.

Toosalaungelanga Toosalautyangelanga? Did I not hear?
Toosalaungelatit Toosalautyangelatit Didst thou not hear?
Toosalaungelāk Toosalautyangelāk Did he not hear?
Perfect
Toosaksimangelanga Toosaksimatyangelanga? Have I not heard?
Toosaksimangelatit Toosaksimatyangelatit Hast thou not heard
Toosaksimangelāk Toosaksimatyangelāk Has he not heard?
32 Future
Toosangneangelanga Toosangneatyangelanga? Shall or will I not hear?
Toosangneangelatit Toosangneatyangelatit Shalt or wilt thou not hear?
Toosangneangelak Toosangneatyangelak Shall or will he not hear?

This is just the same

... which won’t prevent Peck from devoting another eight pages to it. How to answer negative questions is not explained until the end of the section on adverbs.

Toosangneangelak ... Toosangneatyangelak

Expected form: -lāk

Imperative Mood
Sing.
Toosarit Hear thou
Toosagle Let him hear
Dual
Toosaretik Hear ye two
Toosaglik Let (those two) hear
Plural
Toosaritse Hear ye
Toosaglit Let them hear

Besides these there are others which are used in the first persons, and which partake more of the nature of optative forms than imperative e.g.

Toosaglanga Let me hear
Toosakta Let us hear

The Indicative Mood with future tense is sometimes used with an Imperative sense, as,

Sing.
Toosangneakkotit thou wilt hear
Dual
Toosangneakkotik you two will hear
Plural
Toosangneakkose you will hear

There are also other forms which are in frequent use and which modify the possible harshness of imperative form, e.g. tussalourit. Pray hear thou, do hear.

Toosangneakkotit etc.

In earlier conjugations these forms were written -kp-.

See nerre for negative imperative forms.

Subjunctive Mood

1st Form.

Because, when, for that he hears.

Sing.
Toosarama because I hear
Toosaravit because thou hearest
Toosangmut because he hears
Toosarame (Rel.) because he hears
Dual
Toosaramnook because we two hear
Toosaraptik or sik because you two hear
Toosaramik or Toosangmetik because they two hear
Plural
Toosarapta because we hear
Toosarapse because you hear
Toosangmetta because they hear
Toosaramik (Rel.) because they hear

Next new material: Subjunctive, Second Form.

Past Tense
Toosalaurama because I heard
Toosalauravit because thou heard
Toosalaungmut because he heard
Toosalaurame (Rel.) because he heard
Dual
Toosalauramnook because we two heard
Toosalauraptik or sik because you two heard
Toosalaungmetik
(Toosalaungmenik)
because they two heard
Plural
Toosalaurapta because we heard
Toosalaurapse because you heard
Toosalaungmetta because they heard
Toosalauramik (Rel.) because they heard
33 Perfect Tense
Sing.
Toosaksimagama because I have heard
Toosaksimagavit because thou hast heard
Toosaksimangmut because he has heard
Toosaksimagame (Rel.) because he has heard
Dual
Toosaksimagamnook because we two heard
Toosaksimagaptik or sik because you two heard
Toosaksimagamik
or Toosaksimangmenik
because they two heard
Plural
Toosaksimagapta because we heard
Toosaksimagapse because you heard
Toosaksimangmetta because they heard
Toosaksimagamik (Rel.) because they heard
Future Tense
Toosangnearama because I will or shall hear
Toosangnearavit because thou wilt or shalt hear
Toosangneangmut because he will or shall hear
Toosangnearame (Rel.) because he will or shall hear
Dual
Toosangnearamnook because we two will or shall hear
Toosangnearaptik because you two will or shall hear
Toosangneangmetik
or Toosangneangmenik
because they two will or shall hear
Plural
Toosangnearapta because we will or shall hear
Toosangnearapse because you will or shall hear
Toosangneangmetta because they will or shall hear
Toosangnearamik (Rel.) because they will or shall hear

Examples of other forms are here given in first, second, and third persons singular.

Variations of Future—First Form
Sing.
Toosaromāgama because I will or shall hear
Toosaromāgavit because thou wilt or shalt hear
Toosaromāngmut because he will or shall hear
Toosaromāgame (Rel.) because he will or shall hear
Second Form
Toosalārama because I will or shall hear
Toosalāravit because thou wilt or shalt hear
Toosalāngmut because he will hear
Toosalārame because he will hear
Present Progressive
Toosalerama because I am hearing
Toosaleravit because thou art hearing
Toosalungmut because he is hearing
Toosalerame because he is hearing
Past Progressive
Toosalaukekgama because I was hearing
Toosalaukekgavit because thou wast hearing
Toosalaukengmut because he was hearing
Toosalaukekgame (Relative) because he was hearing
Past Indefinite
Toosalungnemut because he heard
Toosalungnerame (Rel.) because he heard
Future Progressive
Toosangnealerama because I will be hearing
Toosangnealeravit because thou wilt be hearing
Toosangnealungmut because he will be hearing
Toosangnealerame (Rel.) because he will be hearing
Potential Form
Toosaongnarama Because I am able to hear
34 Toosaongnaravit because thou art able to hear
Toosaongnangmut because he is able to hear
Toosaongnarame (Rel.) because he is able to hear
Optative Form
Toosayomagama because I wish to hear
Toosayomagavit because thou wishest to hear
Toosayomangmut because he wishes to hear
Toosayomagame (Rel.) because he wishes to hear
Negative Form
Toosangenama Toosatyangenama
emphatic form.
because I do not hear
Toosangenavit Toosatyangenavit because thou dost hear
Toosangemut Toosatyangemut because he does not hear
Toosangename Toosatyangename (Rel.) because he does not hear
Dual
Toosangenamnook Toosatyangenamnook because we two do not hear
Toosangenaptik or sik Toosatyangenaptik because you two do not hear
Toosangemetik because they two do not hear
Plural
Toosangenapta Toosatyangenapta because we do not hear
Toosangenapse Toosatyangenapse because you do not hear
Toosangemetta Toosatyangemetta because they do not hear
Toosangenamik Toosatyangenamik (Rel.) because they do not hear
Past Tense
Toosalaungenama Toosalautyangenama because I did not hear
Toosalaungenavit Toosalautyangenavit because thou didst not hear
Toosalaungemut Toosalautyangemut because he did not hear
Toosalaungenane Toosalautyangename (Rel.) because he did
Dual
Toosalaungenamnook Toosalautyangenamnook because we two did not hear
Toosalaungenaptik or sik Toosalautyangenaptik because you two did not hear
Toosalaungemetik because they two did not hear
Plural
Toosalaungenapta Toosalautyangenapta because we did not hear
Toosalaungenapse Toosalautyangenapse because you did not hear
Toosalaungemetta Toosalautyangemetta because they did not hear
Toosalaungenamik Toosalautyangenamik (Rel.) because they did not hear
35 Perfect Tense
Toosaksimangenama Toosaksimatyangenama because I have not heard
Toosaksimangenavit Toosaksimatyangenavit because thou hast not heard
Toosaksimangemut Toosaksimatyangemut because he has not heard
Toosaksimangename Toosaksimatyangename (Rel.) he has not heard
Dual
Toosaksimangenamnook Toosaksimatyangenamnook because we two have not heard
Toosaksimangenaptik or sik Toosaksimatyangenaptik because you two have not heard
Toosaksimangenamik Toosaksimatyangenamik because they two have not heard
Plural
Toosaksimangenapta Toosaksimatyangenapta because we have not heard
Toosaksimangenapse Toosaksimatyangenapse because you have not heard
Toosaksimangemetta Toosaksimatyangemetta because they have not heard
Toosaksimangenamik Toosaksimatyangenamik (Rel.) because they have not heard
Future Tense
Toosangneangenama Toosangneatyangenama because I will or shall not hear
Toosangneangenavit Toosangneatyangenavit thou wilt not hear
Toosangneangemut Toosangneatyangemut because he will or shall not hear
Toosangneangename Toosangneatyangename (Rel.) because he will or shall not hear
Dual
Toosangneangenamnook Toosangneatyangenamnook because we two will or shall not hear
Toosangneangenaptik or sik Toosangneatyangenaptik because you two will or shall not hear
Toosangneangemetik because they two will or shall not hear
Plural
Toosangneangenapta Toosangneatyangenapta because we will not hear
Toosangneangenapta Toosangneatyangenapse because you will not hear
Toosangneangemetta Toosangneatyangemetta because they will or shall not hear
Toosangneangenamik Toosangneatyangenamik (Rel.) because will or shall not hear

The following compound forms are also heard.

Variations of Future—First Form
Toosaromāngenama Toosaromātyangenama because I will or shall not hear
Toosaromāngenavit Toosaromātyangenavit because thou wilt or shalt not hear
Toosaromāngemut Toosaromātyangemut because he will or shall not hear
Toosaromāngename Toosaromātyangename (Rel.) because he will or shall not hear
Second Form
Toosalāngenama Toosalātyangenama because I will or shall not hear
Toosalāngenavit Toosalātyangenavit because thou wilt or shalt not hear
Toosalāngemut Toosalātyangemut because he will or shall not hear
36 Toosalāngename Toosalatyangename (Rel.) because he will or shall not hear
Past Progressive
Toosalauketyangenama because I was not hearing
Toosalauketyangenavit because thou wast not hearing
Toqsalauketyangemut because he was not hearing
Toosalauketyangename (Rel.) because he was not hearing
Potential Form
Toosaongnangenama Toosaongnatyangenama because I am not able to hear
Toosaongnangenavit Toosaongnatyangenavit because thou art not able to hear
Toosaongnangemut Toosaongnatyangemut because he is not able to hear
Toosaongnangename Toosaongnatyangename (Rel.) because he not able to hear
Optative Form
Toosayomangenama Toosayomatyangenama because I do not wish to hear
Toosayomangenavit Toosayomatyangenavit because thou dost not wish to hear
Toosayomangemit Toosayomatyangemit because he does not wish to hear
Toosayomangename Toosayomatyangename because he does not wish to hear
Second Form—if he hears.
Sing.
Toosarooma If I hear
Toosaroovit if thou hearest
Toosakput if he hears
Toosaroone (Rel.)
Dual
Toosaroomnook if we two hear
Toosarooptik or sik if you two hear
Toosaroonik or
Toosakpennik
if they two hear
Plural
Toosaroopta if we hear
Toosaroopse if you
Toosakpette if if they hear
Toosaroonik (Rel.) if they hear

Next new material: Infinitive.

Past Tense
Sing.
Toosalaurooma if I heard
Toosalauroovit if thou heard
Toosalaukput if he heard
Toosalauroone (Rel.) if he
Dual
Toosalauroomnook if we two heard
Toosalaurooptik (sik) if you two heard
Toosalauroonik or
Toosalaukpennik
if they two heard
Plural
Toosalauroopta if we heard
Toosalauroopse if you heard
Toosalaukpetta if they heard
Toosalauroonik (Rel.) if they heard
Perfect Tense
Sing.
Toosaksimagooma if I have heard
Toosaksimagoovit if thou hast heard
Toosaksimakput if he has heard
Toosaksimagoone (Rel.) if he has heard
37 Dual
Toosaksimagoomnook if we two have heard
Toosaksimagooptik if you two have heard
Toosaksimagoonik or if they two have heard
Toosaksimakpennik if they two have heard
Plural
Toosaksimagoopta if we have heard
Toosaksimagoopse if you have heard
Toosaksimakpetta if they have heard
Toosaksimagoonik (Rel.) if they have heard

Toosaksimagoonik or Toosaksimakpennik

Printed as shown. Here as elsewhere, the dual forms don’t seem to follow the same sequence as the singular and plural.

Future Tense
Sing.
Toosangnearooma if I shall or will hear
Toosangnearoovit if thou shalt or wilt hear
Toosangneakput if he shall or will hear
Toosangnearoone (Rel.) if he shall or will hear
Dual
Toosangnearoomnook if we two shall or will hear
Toosangnearoopsik if you two shall or will hear
Toosangnearoonik or
Toosangneakpennik
if they two shall or will hear
Toosangneakpennik if they two shall or will hear
Plural
Toosangnearoopta if we shall hear
Toosangnearoopse if you shall or will hear
Toosangneakpetta if they shall or will hear
Toosangnearoonik if they shall or will hear

The following compound forms are also heard.

Variations of Future—First Form
Toosaromāgooma if I shall or will hear
Toosaromāgoovit if thou shalt or wilt hear
Toosaromakput if he shall or will hear
Toosaromagoone (Rel.) if he will or shall hear
Second Form
Toosalārooma if I will or shall hear
Toosalāroovit if thou wilt or shalt hear
Toosalākput if he will or shall hear
Toosalāroone (Rel.) if he will or shall hear
Past Progressive
Toosalaukekgooma if I was hearing
Toosalaukekgoovit if thou wast hearing
Toosalaukekput if he was hearing
Toosalaukekgoona (Rel.) if he was hearing
Future Progressive
Toosangnealerooma if I will be hearing
Toosangnealeroovit if thou wilt be hearing
Toosangnealekput if he will be hearing
Toosangnealeroone (Rel.) if he will be hearing
Potential Form
Toosaongnarooma if I am able to hear
Toosaongnaroovit if thou art able to hear
Toosaongnakput if he is able to hear
Toosaongnaroone (Rel.) if he is able to hear
Optative Form
Toosaromagooma if I wish to hear
Toosaromagoovit if thou wishest to hear
Toosaromakput if he wishes to hear
Toosaromagoone (Rel.) if he wishes to hear
38 Negative Form
Toosangegooma if I do not hear
Toosangegoovit if thou dost not hear
Toosangeput if he does not hear
Toosangegoone (Rel.) if he does not hear
Dual
Toosangegoomnook if we two do not hear
Toosangegooptik if you do not hear
Toosangegoonik or
Toosangepennik
if they do not hear
Toosangepennik if they do not hear
Plural
Toosangegoopta if we do not hear
Toosangegoopse if you do not hear
Toosangepetta if they do not hear
Toosangegoonik (Rel.) if they do not hear
Past Tense
Sing.
Toosalaungegooma if I did not hear
Toosalaungegoovit if thou didst not hear
Toosalaungeput if he did not hear
Toosalaungegoone (Rel.) if he did not hear
Dual
Toosalaungegoomnook if we two did not hear
Toosalaungegooptik (or sik) if you two did not hear
Toosalaungegoonik or if they two did not hear
Toosalaungepennik if they two did not hear
Plural
Toosalaungegoopta if we did not hear
Toosalaungegoopse if you did not hear
Toosalaungepetta if they did not hear
Toosalaungegoonik (Rel.) if they did not hear
Perfect Tense
Toosaksimangegooma if I have not heard
Toosaksimangegoovit if thou hast not heard
Toosaksimangeput if he has not heard
Toosaksimangegoone (Rel.) if he has not heard
Dual
Toosaksimangegoomnook if we two have not heard
Toosaksimangegooptik (sik) if you two have not heard
Toosaksimangegoonik or if they two have not heard
Toosaksimangepennik if they two have not heard
Plural
Toosaksimangegoopta if we have not heard
Toosaksimangegoopse if you have not heard
Toosaksimangepetta if they have not heard
Toosaksimangegoanik (Rel.) if they have not heard
Future Tense
Sing.
Toosangneangegooma if I shall or will not hear
Toosangneangegoovit if thou shalt or will not hear
Toosangneangeput if he shall or will not hear
Toosangneangegoone (Rel.) if he shall or will not hear
Dual
Tooeangneangegoomnook if we two shall or will not hear
Toosangneangegooptik if you two shall or will not hear
Toosangneangegoonik or if they two shall or will not hear
Toosangneangepennik if they two shall or will not hear
Plural
Toosangneangegoopta if we shall or will not hear
Toosangneangegoopse if you shall or will not hear
Toosangneangepetta if they shall or will not hear
Toosangneangegoonik (Rel.) if they shall or will not hear

Toosangneangegoonik or

This line was printed twice:

page image

39 Variations of Future—First Form
Toosaromāngegooma if I shall or will not hear
Toosaromāngegoovit if thou wilt or shalt not hear
Toosaromāngeput if he shall or will not hear
Toosaromāngegoone (Rel.) if he shall or will not hear
Second Form
Toosalāngegoama if I shall or will not hear
Toosalāngegoovit if thou shalt or wilt not hear
Toosalāngeput if he shall or will not hear
Toosalāngegoone (Rel.) if he shall or will not hear

The present, past and future progressive forms are seldom heard.

Potential Form
Toosaongnangegooma if I am not able to hear
Toosaongnangegoovit if thou art not able to hear
Toosaongnangeput if he is able to hear
Toosaongnangegoone (Rel.)
Optative Form
Toosayomangegooma if I do not wish to hear
Toosayomangegoovit if thou dost not wish to hear
Toosayomangeput if he does not wish to hear
Toosayomangegoone (Rel.) if he does not wish to hear
Infinitive or Participial Mood.
Sing.
Toosaglunga (I) to hear or hearing
Toosaglutit (thou) to hear or hearing
Toosaglune he to hear or hearing
Dual
Toosaglunook we two to hear or hearing
Toosaglutik you two to hear or hearing
Toosaglutik they two to hear or hearing
Plural
Toosagluta we to hear or hearing
Toosagluse you to hear or hearing
Toosaglutik they to hear or hearing

Another form is often heard particularly in the third persons in which the letter l is changed into t and the final consonant of verbal root is retained e.g.

Sing.
Toosaktune he to hear or hearing
Dual
Toosaktutik they two to hear or hearing
Plural
Toosaktutik they to hear or hearing

Tense has, of necessity, a very limited use in this mood, but when used the ordinary time particles are inserted as follows:

Toosalauglunga I having heard
Toosalauglutit thou having heard
Toosalauglune he having heard

Negative

Toosangnanga I not hearing or not to hear
Toosangnak thou not hearing or not to hear
Toosangnane he not hearing or not to hear
Dual
Toosangnamnook we two not hearing or not to hear
Toosangnatik or sik you two not hearing or not to hear
Toosangnatik they two not hearing or not to hear
Plural
Toosangnata we not hearing or not to hear
Toosangnase you not hearing or not to hear
Toosangnatik they not hearing or not to hear

The Second Conjugation

This conjugation differs but little from the first. The changes are pointed out under the various moods.

The changes are pointed out

Almost all changes have already been illustrated in the course of showing Toosak- with affixes such as -sima- or -roma- that end in a vowel.

The Indicative
40

1st. In the present tense the final rowel of root is retained e.g.

Sing.
Nerrevoonga I eat
Nerrevotit thou eatest
Nerrevok &c. he eats

2nd. The tenses are all regularly formed by being added to verbal root e.g.

Past
Nerrelaukkoonga (or p.) I ate
Future
Nerreneakpoonga (or k.) I will or shall eat
Variations of Future—First Form
Nerreyomākpoonga I will or shall eat
Second Form
Nerrelakpoonga I will or shall eat
Potential Form
Nerreongnakponga I can eat
Optative Form
Nerreyomavoonga I wish to eat

Nerrelakpoonga

Error for Nerrelākpoonga

3rd. The present tense of negative verb is declined as in the first conjugation, but the past and other tenses are all regularly added to verbal root e.g.

Present
Nerringelanga Nerretyangelanga I do not eat
Past
Nerrelaungelanga Nerrelautyangelanga I did not eat
Perfect
Nerresimangelanga Nerresimatyangelanga I have not eaten
Future
Nerreneangelanga Nerreneatyangelanga I will or shall not eat
Potential Form
Nerreongnangelanga Nerreongnatyangelanga I cannot eat
Optative Form
Nerreyomangelanga Nerreyomatyangelanga I do not wish to eat
The Interrogative Mood

In the present tense this mood is formed, as follows:

Sing.
Nerrevoongā? Do I eat?
Nerrevēt Dost thou eat?
Nerrevā Does he eat?
Dual
Nerrevēnook Do we two eat?
Nerrevetik Do you two eat?
Nerrevāk Do they two eat?
Plural
Nerrevēta Do we eat?
Nerrevese Do you eat?
Nerrevāt Do they eat?

The other tenses are formed as follows:—

Past
Nerrelaukpoonga? Did I eat &c. as
Nerrelaukpēt (or k) Didst thou eat?
Perfect
Nerresimavoonga? Have I eaten?
Future
Nerreneakpoonga? or k Will or shall I eat
41 Variations of Future—First Form
Nerreyomākpoonga? Will or shall I eat
Second Form
Nerrelakpoonga? Will or shall I eat
Present Progressive
Nerrelekpoonga Am I eating
Past Progressive
Nerrelaukekpoonga Was I eating?
Future Progressive
Nerrenealekpoonga? Will or shall I be eating
Potential Form
Nerreongnakpoonga? Can I eat?
Optative
Nerreyomavoonga? Do I wish to eat?

Nerrelakpoonga

Error for Nerrelākpoonga

The Imperative Mood
Nerregit Eat thou
Nerrele Let him eat
Dual
Nerregetik (or sik) Eat ye two
nerrelik Let those (two) eat
Plural
Nerregitse Eat ye
Nerelit Let them eat

Nerelit

Expected form Nerrelit

Negative Form

Nerringnak Don’t eat thou
Nerritsarane Let him not eat
Dual
Nerritsātik Don’t eat ye two
Nerritsātik Let those (two) not eat
Plural
Nerringnase
Nerritsaāse
Don’t eat ye
Nerritsaātik Let them not eat

The conjugation of toosak (“first conjugation”, stem in consonant) did not say anything about a negative imperative.

Subjunctive Mood

First Form

The present tense of this form is as follows:—

Sing.
Nerregama Because I eat
Nerregavit because thou eatest
Nerringmut because he eats
Nerregame (Rel.) because he eats
Dual
Nerregamnook because we two eat
Nerregaptik because you two eat
Nerregamik or because they two eat
Nerringmenik because they two eat
Plural
Nerregapta because we eat
Nerregapse because you eat
Nerringmetta because they eat
Nerregamik (Rel.) because they eat

Nerregamik or

Here as in toosak, the dual forms feature a great many spurious or misplaced “or”.

Next new material: Subjunctive, Second Form.

The other tenses are formed as follows:—

Past
Nerrelaurama because I ate &c.
Perfect
nerresimagama because I have eaten
Future
Nerrenearama because I will or shall eat
Variations of Future—First Form
Nerreyomāgama because I will or shall eat
Second Form
Nerrelārama because I will or shall eat
Present Progressive
Nerrelerama because I am eating
Past Progressive
Nerrelaukekgama because I was eating
Future Progressive
nerrenealerama because I will be eating
42 Potential Form
Nerreongnarama because I can eat
Optative Form
Nerreyomagama because I wish to eat

Negative Form

This form is regularly conjugated e.g.

Present
Nerringenama Nerrityangenama because I do not eat
Past
Nerrelaungenama nerrelautyangenama because I did not eat
Perfect
nerresimangenama nerresimatyangenama because I have not eaten
Future
nerreneangenama nerreneatyangenama because I will or shall not eat
Variations of Future—First Form
nerreyomāngenama nerreyomatyangenama because I will or shall not eat
Second Form
nerrelāngenama nerrelātyangenama because I will or shall not eat
Potential Form
nerreongnangenama nerreongnatyangenama because I cannot eat
Optative Form
nerreyomangenama nerreyomatyangenama because I wish to eat

[Future Variation First Form]
nerreyomatyangenama

Error for nerreyomātyangenama (affix -jumaaq, not -juma). The preceding form, nerreyomāngenama, collided with the underlining of the line above, so I gave it the benefit of the doubt.

Second Form of Subjunctive Mood

Present

Sing.
Nerregooma if I eat
nerregoovit if thou eatest
nerrikput if he eats
nerregoone (Rel.) if he eats
Dual
nerregoomnook if we two eat
nerregooptik or sik if you two eat
nerregoonik or if they two eat
nerrikpennik if they two eat
plural
nerrigoopta if we eat
nerregoopse if you eat
nerrikpetta if they eat
nerregoonik (Rel.) if they eat

nerregoonik or nerrikpennik

The third person dual is once again mixed up. Next new material: Infinitive.

The other tenses are thus formed:—

Past
nerrelaurooma if I ate
Perfect
nerresimagooma if I have eaten
Future
nerrenearooma if I shall or will eat
Variations of Future—First Form
nerreyomāgooma if I shall or will eat
Second Form
nerrelārooma if I shall or will eat
Past Progressive
nerrelaukekgooma if I was eating
Future Progressive
nerrenealerooma if I will or shall be eating
Potential Form
nerreongnarooma if I am able to eat
Optative Form
nerreyomagooma if I wish to eat
Negative Form
Present
nerringegooma if I do not eat
Past
nerrelaungegooma if I did not eat
43 Perfect
nerresimangegooma if I have not eaten
Future
nerreneangegooma if I shall or will not eat
Variations of Future—First Form
nerreyomāngegooma if I shall or will not eat
Second Form
nerrelāngegooma if I shall or will not eat
Potential Form
nerreongnangegooma if I am not able to eat
Optative Form
nerreyomangegooma if I do not wish to eat
Infinitive Mood
Sing.
nerrivlunga I eating or to eat
nerrivlutit thou eating or to eat
nerrivlune he eating or to eat
Dual
nerrivlunook we two eating or to eat
nerrivlutik you two eating or to eat
nerrivlutik they two eating or to eat
Plural
nerrivluta we eating or to eat
nerrivluse you eating or to eat
nerrivlutik they eating or to eat

Another Form

Sing.
nerriksunga I eating or to eat used sometimes
nerriksutit thou eating or to eat
nerriksune he eating or to eat
Dual
nerriksunook we two eating or to eat
nerriksutik you two eating or to eat
nerriksutik they two eating or to eat
Negative Form
nerrenanga I not eating or not to eat
nerrenak thou not eating or to eat
nerringnak
nerrenane he not eating or to eat
Dual
nerrenamnook we two not eating or to eat
nerrenatik you two not eating or to eat
nerrenatik they two not eating or to eat
Plural
nerrenata we not eating or not to eat
nerrenase you not eating or to eat
nerrenatik they not eating or to eat
Another Form.
Sing.
nerrityennanga I not eating or not to eat
nerrityennak thou not eating or to eat
nerrityeggane he not eating or to eat
Dual
nerrityegganook we two not eating or to eat
nerrityeggatik you two not eating or to eat
nerrityeggatik they two not eating or to eat
Plural
nerrityeggata we not eating or not to eat
nerrityeggase you not eating or to eat
nerrityeggatik they not eating or to eat

Each row under “Another Form” was printed in parentheses.

Varieties of Intransitive Verb Formed by Affixes

A few useful forms are given here but the subject will be fully treated under syntax.

These may be divided into two classes—

1st. Those which are formed by adding verbal terminations to nouns.

2nd. Those which have verbal roots, but which are variously qualified by the addition of particles partaking of the nature of adverbs &c.

the subject will be fully treated

In that elusive other copy, possibly. The Syntax section covers order and combination of affixes, but has nothing further to say about the individual affixes. Instead, it refers the reader back to this section, and to the equivalent in transitive verbs.

44
First Class—

Nouns with verbal terminations:

Ōvok or uvok, it is such a thing, he is such a person, as,

Jesuse, Jesus,

Jesuseōvok, He is Jesus;

kokyoot, a gun;

kokyooteōvok, it is a gun;

arngak, a woman, female creature;

arngnauvok, she is a woman, female creature

(but see the verb “to be.”)

arngak

Expected spelling arngnak.

The verbal termination Pok attached to the names of animals and birds denotes the acquisition of such, as

netsuk, a seal;

netsukpok, he gets, catches a seal,

mittek an eider duck,

mittekpok, he gets, catches an eider duck.

Seokpok, hunts, pursues, seeks for, as

tuktu, a deer,

tuktuseokpok, he hunts, seeks deer;

netsuk, a seal,

netsuseokpok, he hunts seals;

īvek, a walrus;

ivekseokpok, he hunts walrus.

Leokpok, makes, builds, as

iglo, a house

igloleokpok, he makes, builds a house;

kumik, a boot,

kumeleokpok, he makes boots.

Kakpok, has, possesses, or there is such a person or thing, as

orksuk, blubber, fat,

orksukakpok, he has blubber, fat;

kokyoot, a gun,

kokyootekakkēt? Hast thou a gun?

noona, a land,

noonakakpok, there is a land;

innuk, an Eskimo, human being,

innukakkā? Is there someone, is there an inhabitant?

Ah, innokakkok, yes there is someone, there is an inhabitant.

innukakkā?

Peck may have forgotten that he used these same examples to illustrate the same affix back on page 23 under “to be”. That time he offered a variant spelling -hak-.

Tokpok eats, as,

mittek, an eider duck;

mittektokpok, he eats (an) eider duck.

Leakpok travels to, as

kokrāk, Great Whale River;

kokraleakpok, he travels to Great Whale River;

killak, heaven,

killaleakpok, he goes, ascends to heaven.

Maukpok, goes to, as,

silla, the air,

sillamaukpok, he goes into the open air;

noona, land;

noonamaukpok, he goes to the land.

This generally differs from leakpok in being applied to objects which are not distant; leakpok on the other hand is used to convey the idea of travelling to a place well in the distance.

Oyakpok, is like, resembles, as

innuk, an Eskimo, human being,

innuoyakpok, he is like an Eskimo;

iglo a house;

igloūyakpok, it is like a house;

kokyoot, a gun;

kokyooteōyakpok, it is like a gun, resembles a gun.

Tuenauvok, is only such a thing or person, is nothing else but such a thing or person, as,

keyuk, wood,

keyutwenauvok it is only wood;

angot, a man, male creature;

angotetwenauvok, he is only a man;

kokyoot, a gun;

kokyootetwenauvok, it is only a gun; nothing else but a gun.

Gikpok, large, as

tablo, the chin;

tablogikpok, he has a large chin;

seoot, the ear,

seootegikpok, he has large ears, he is large eared;

eye, the eye;

eyegikpok, he has large eyes, he is large eyed.

Kitpok, small, as

kablokitpok, he has a small chin;

seootekitpok, he has small ears, he is small eared;

eyekitpok he has small eyes, is small eyed.

These are generally used as nominal particles, as

eyegiktok, one who has large eyes;

eyekittok, one who has small eyes.

Gikpok ... Kitpok

The affixes are glossed as “large” and “small” respectively, but are consistently translated as “has large (or small)”.

Searikpok, beautiful, as

angot, a man,

angotitsearikpok, a beautiful man;

eye, the eye,

eyetsearikpok, he has good, beautiful looking eyes;

noona, land,

noonatsearikpok, it is a beautiful land;

Lukpok, bad, evil, diseased, as

eye, the eye,

eyelukpok he (has) sore diseased eyes;

noonalukpok, it is a poor land.

Second Class—

(Verbal roots with adverbial affixes—

sarivok, soon, quickly as

tikkesarīvok, he arrives soon, quickly,

kauyemavok, he knows, 45 kauyematsarivok, he knows soon).

Kaprea is used much in Hudson Bay, as

tikkekapreakpok, he arrives soon.

If the parentheses ( ) mean that Peck meant to fill in this section further—and perhaps give a definition for kaprea—this is the tenth and last Incompleteness Clue.

Kattakpok, several times, frequently, as

tikkepok, he arrives;

tikkekattakpok, he arrives frequently;

itterkpok, he enters (somewhere)

itterkattakpok, he enters frequently several times.

Garukpok, often, as,

keavok, he cries, weeps;

keagarukpok, he often weeps, cries;

ohakpok, he speaks,

okagarukpok, he speaks often;

tiglikpok, he steals;

tiglegarukpok, he often steals.

Garooēpok, seldom, as

keagarooepok, he seldom weeps;

okarooepok, he seldom speaks,

tiglegarooepok, he seldom steals.

Swetpok, never, as

tokkovok, he dies;

tokkosuetpok, he never dies;

ohakpok, he speaks;

okarswetpok, he never speaks.

Pukpok (to verbs in second conjugation) vukpok generally, is accustomed to do so and so, as

tikkepukpok, he is accustomed to arrive, generally arrives;

issumavok, he thinks

issumavukpok, he is accustomed to think;

nerrevok, he eats,

nerrevukpok, he generally eats, is accustomed to eating.

Signakpok always, in the same manner, as usual, as,

pingashooatsignakpok, he always works, works the same as usual.

okpekpok, he believes,

okpetsignakpok, he believes the same;

issumavok, he thinks,

issumatsignakpok, he thinks as usual, he thinks the same.

Kākpok, first, (i.e. before another person or event) as,

tikkepok he arrives,

tikkekākpok, he arrives first;

audlakpok, he goes away;

audlakākpok, he goes away first,

nerrevok, he eats;

nerrekākpok, he eats first.

Tignakpok, the first time, as

tikketignakpok, he arrives for the first time;

tekkovok, he sees (something)

tekkotignakpok, he sees (something) for the first time;

nerrevok, he eats;

nerretignakpok, he eats for the first time (i.e. after long abstinence.)

Kammerkpok, recently, as

tikkepok, he arrives,

tikkekammerkpok, he arrived recently;

toosakpok, he hears;

toosakkammerkpok he heard recently;

nerrevok, he eats;

nerrekammerkpok, he ate recently.

Yarērkpok, has already done so and so, as,

nerrevok, he eats,

nerreyarerkpok; he has already eaten, has quite finished eating,

tikkepok, he arrives,

tikkeyarerkpok, he has already arrived.

Re with the first conjugation ge with the second has the meaning of also, too, again, as,

tikkepok, he arrives,

tikkegevok, he arrives again;

persukpok, it drifts; (the snow)

perksugevok, it is drifting again;

nerrevok, he eats

nerregevok, he eats again.

Re and Ge, too, also, as,

toosakpok, he hears,

tussarevok, he hears again;

audlakpok, he goes away;

audlarevok, he also goes away;

nerrevok, he eats;

nerregevok, he also eats.

Yongnerkpok, no more (no longer) as,

issumavok, he thinks,

issumatyongnerkpok, he thinks no longer, no more;

innovok, he lives,

innotyongnerkpok, he is no longer alive, is dead;

pingashooakpok, he works, endeavors to do something;

pingashooatyongnerkpok, he works no more.

Pidleavok (to verbs in second conjugation) vidleavok almost as

kauremavok, he knows;

kauremavidleavok, he almost knows;

pissukpok, he walks,

pissukpidleavok, he almost walks;

tussakpok, he hears,

tussakpidleavok, he almost hears.

Marikpok, completely, ably, altogether, as,

pingashooatpok, he works,

pingashooamarikpok, he (endeavors to) work hard; is an able workman;

kauremavok, he knows,

kauyemamarikpok, he knows (it) completely altogether;

Seak well, aright, correctly, as

ohakpok, he speaks,

ohatseakpok he speaks well;

kauremavok, he knows;

kaurematseakpok, he knows well, is well acquainted with (it),

issumavok, he thinks,

issumatseakpok, he thinks aright, well.

The negative form of this is used to express opposite qualities (to those given) as

ohatseangelak, he does not speak correctly;

kaurematseangelak, he does not know well.

46

Nashooakpok, endeavors to do so and so, as

meroakpok, he climbs, goes up hill &c.

meroangnashooakpok, he endeavors to climb;

issumavok, he thinks;

issumanashooakpok, he endeavors to think.

Gosukpok, is inclined, disposed to do so and so, as

naglikpok he loves;

naglegosukpok, he is inclined, disposed to love;

eyokpok, he laughs;

eyrosukpok, he is inclined to laugh.

eyrosukpok

Expected form eyorosukpok. The expected “first conjugation” variant rosukpok is also not listed.

Tuenauvok, only does (such a thing) as,

issumavok, he thinks;

issumatuenauvok, he only thinks;

okpekpok, he believes;

okpektuenauvok, he only believes,

iksevavok, he sits down;

iksevatuenauvok, he only sits down (does nothing else, does not move about)

Tuenauvok

This form was previously given in the First Class, noun-to-verb affixes. The expected verb-to-verb form would be tuenakpok (issumatuenakpok, okpektuenakpok, iksevatuenakpok in Peck’s spelling).

Orkpok, is tired of doing so and so, as

pissukpok, he walks,

pissungorkpok, he is tired of walking;

nerrevok, he eats,

nerringorkpok, he is tired of eating;

akpungerkpok, he runs;

akpungerngorkpok, he is tired of running.

Loakpok, much, a good deal, as

nerrevok, he eats,

nerridloakpok he eats a good deal;

sinnikpok, he sleeps,

sinnidloakpok, he sleeps a good deal, much.

The negative is used to express an opposite meaning, as

nerridloangelek he eats but little, not much.

Tokrōvok (to verbs in second conjugation) yukrōvok, very much, great, greatly, as

nerrevok, he eats,

nerreyukrovok, he eats a great deal;

issuepok, it is awkward, hard;

issuetokrovok, it is very awkward, hard;

arokpok, he sins;

aroktokrovok, he sins greatly; he sins very much; he is a great sinner.

Kōkpok, probably, perhaps, as,

kauremavok, he knows;

kauremakokpok, he probably knows;

issumavok, he thinks;

issumakokpok, perhaps, probably he thinks;

toosakpok, he hears,

toosakkokpok, probably he hears.

Tuksauvok (to verbs in second conjugation) yuksauvok, ought, should, as,

kauremavok, he knows,

kauremayuksauvok, he ought to know;

okpekpok, he believes;

okpektuksauvok, he ought to believe;

ohakpok, he speaks;

ohaktuksauvok, he ought to speak, should speak.

Kalloakpok (to verbs in second conjugation) galloakpok, certainly, indeed, as,

kauremavok, he knows;

kauremagalloakpok, indeed he knows;

eyokpok, he laughs,

eyerralloakpok, indeed he laughs;

toosakpok, he hears,

toosarralloakpok, indeed he hears.

eyerralloakpok

Expected form eyorralloakpok. (The typewriter is dirty, but the printed letter is definitely an e.)

Tugelloak, indeed (to verbs in second conjugation) rugelloak, as,

okpekpok, he believes;

okpektugelloak, indeed he believes;

kauremavok, he knows;

kauremarugelloak, indeed he knows.

This differs from ralloakpok in only being used in the third persons. It is used as follows:

Sing. Okpektugelloak Indeed he believes
Dual Okpektugelloāk Indeed they two believe
Plural Okpektugelloat indeed they believe.

The Eskimo often pronounce the above as follows:—

Sing. Okpektugelwak
Dual Okpektugelwāk
Plural Okpektugelwat

Netsauvok is the comparative verbal particle, as

kauremavok, he knows;

kauremaneksauvok, he knows better; more than such a person &c.;

okpekpok, he believes;

okperneksauvok, he believes more than so and so.

Nekpāūvok is the superlative verbal particle, as

mikkevok, it is small,

mikkenekpāuvok, it is the smallest;

angevok, it is large,

angenekpāuvok, it is the largest.

Nekpāūvok

Error for Nekpāuvok.

47

The various forms of intransitive verb already treated of are conjugated in most cases as the verbs toosakpok and nerrevok e.g.

First Class

Indicative Mood—Present Tense
Ikkarukteovoonga I am a helper
Past
Ikkarukteolaukpoonga I was a helper
Negative Form Present
ikkarukteongelanga I am not a helper
Past
ikkarukteolaungelanga I was not a helper
Subjunctive Mood
ikkarukteogama because I am a helper
Past
ikkarukteolaurama because I was a helper
Negative Form Present
ikkarukteongenama because I am not a helper
Past
ikkarukteolaungenama because I was not a helper
Infinitive Mood
ikkarukteovlunga I being a helper

Verb of First Conjugation

Tuktuseokpok, he hunts Arctic Deer, Cariboo

Indicative Mood—Present Tense
Tuktuseokpok he hunts deer
Past
Tuktuseolaukpok he hunted deer
Negative Form Present
Tuktuseongelak he does not hunt deer
Past
Tuktuseolaungelak he did not hunt deer
Subjunctive Mood Present
tuktuseongmut because he hunts deer
tuktuseorame (Rel.) because he hunts deer
Past
tuktuseolaungmut because he hunted deer
tuktuseolaurame (Rel.) because he hunted deer
Negative Form Present
tuktuseongemut because he does not hunt deer
tuktuseongename (Rel.) because he does not hunt deer
Past
tuktuseolaungemut because he did not hunt deer
tuktuseolaungename
tuktuseolautyangename (Rel.) because he did not hunt deer
Verbal Roots with Adverbial Affixes

These are regularly conjugated in the Indicative Mood, but irregularities are found in the subjunctive, especially in verbs having Adverbial particles ending in ek and uk, these retain their final consonants and are conjugated as verbs of second conjugation as—

tikkepukpok he generally arrives
Indicative Mood Present Tense
tikkepukpoonga I generally arrive
tikkepukpotit thou generally arrivest
tikkepukpok he generally arrives
Subjunctive Mood Present Tense
tikkepukgama because I generally arrive
tikkepukgavit because thou generally arrivest
tikkepungmut because he generally arrives
tikkepukgame (Rel.) because he generally arrives

conjugated as verbs of second conjugation

Peck himself can’t decide which conjugation is which. The verb tikke- ends in a vowel, while the affix -puk- ends in a consonant. He probably means the consonant conjugation—whichever number that may be.

Both the negative form and other tenses are regular.

Indicative
tikkepungelanga I do not generally arrive
Past
tikkepulaungelanga I did not generally arrive
Subjunctive
tikkepungenama because I do not generally arrive.
48 Past
tikkepulamigenama
tikkepulautyangenama because I did not generally arrive

We can not only conjugate such compound words as the above, but the adverbial and other particles may be joined together and a word may be formed of a surprising length.

Root—Tikke

with verbal termination pok i.e.

tikkepok he arrives

With adverbial particle sarī,

tikkesarivok, he arrives soon.

With verbal comparative particle neksau—

tikkesārineksauvok—he arrives sooner than so and so.

With future tense neak—

tikkesarineksauneakpok—he will arrive sooner.

With negative particle nge.—

tikkesarineksauneangelak, he will not arrive sooner.

With adverbial termination “tugelloak”—

tikkesarineksauneangettugelloak, Indeed he will not arrive sooner.

With verbal affix rōk or gōk he says so and so—

tikkesarineksouneangettugelloakgōk, Indeed he will not arrive sooner he says.

tikkesārineksauvok

Error for tikkesarīneksauvok.

kauyemavok he knows

with auxiliary verbal particle “nashooak

kauyemanashooakpok, he endeavors, tries to know

With adverbial Particle “puk”—

kauremanashooakpukpok he generally tries to know.

With future tense neak

kauremanashooakpungneakpok—he will generally try to know.

With negative particle nge.

kauyematnashooakpungneangelāk—he will not always try to know.

The formation of such compound words will be more fully treated of under syntax.

kauye- : kaure-

Variant spellings in the original.

Examples of Intransitive Verb

Indicative Mood

Goode innungnik tamainik kauremavok, God knows all the Eskimo.

Ikpuksak pingashooalaukpoonga, I worked yesterday;

innuēt okkeok tikkelaramik iglovegalleongneakpoot, when the Eskimo arrive (in) the winter they will build snow houses;

kaukput persingeput audlalākpoonga, if the snow is not drifting I shall go away to-morrow;

tapsoma noonangagoot ineakpok, he will go through that one’s land;

innuēt illunget tikkeneangelet, some of the Eskimo will not arrive.

ineakpok

That is, īneakpok (ai-)

Interrogative Mood

Tukkesevet? Dost thou understand?

ernimnik tekkolaukpet? (or k) Didst thou see my son?

kunga innooet tikkeneakpat? When will the Eskimo arrive?

pannimnik tekkolaukpēse? Did you see my daughter?

Did you see my daughter?

My goodness, Edmund. What a question to ask a missionary.

Imperative Mood

Savingmik tapsoma iglonganit aitselaurit, Pray bring me a knife from that one’s house;

attai nalatsealeritse, now then (do) pay proper attention.

Attai arehoktueyevingmut aileritse, now then go ye to the church;

angerokab iglonganut aileretik, go ye two to the master’s house.

Subjunctive Mood, First Form

Innooēt tuktunik tekkogamik kuveleneakput, When the Eskimo see the deer, they will be pleased.

Gūde innungnik tamainik kauyemagame ikkayuongnakpait, because God knows all the Eskimo, he is able to help them;

innungnik tekkolaurama kuyelevoonga, I am glad, because I saw the Eskimo.

Second Form

Innogooma akkago tikkeyomākpoonga, if I live I shall arrive next year;

innuet okpekpetta goodemut sageakpetta arongnimenik kimmesuglutik Gudib peuleneakpait, if the Eskimo believe, if they turn to God hating their sins, God will save them.

49

Amashunik netsakangeput, innooet kāneakpoot, if there are not many seals, the Eskimo will be hungry.

Infinitive Mood

Ikpuksak pissuklunga padlalaukpoonga, walking yesterday I fell down;

Goode innungnik naglegosuklune ernimenik tamounga tikketitselaukpok peuleyomavlugit, loving the Eskimo God sent his son this way (into the world) wishing to save them.

Tamounga kailuta amashūnik tuktunik tekkolaukpogoot, coming this way we saw a great many deer.

Variations of Intransitive Verb

Gudib erninga kenauva? Who is God’s son,

Jesuseovok, He is Jesus;

ikpuksak iglovegalleolaukpoonga, I made a snow house yesterday;

savekakkēt? Hast thou a knife?

tikkesarineakpet? Wilt thou arrive soon?

Audlakāngneakpā? Will he go away first?

tamounga tikketignalaukpēse? Is this the first time you came this way?

nerreyarērkpēse, have you finished eating?

aglangnik kauvematseakpēt? Dost thou know thy books well?

Ikpuksak pissuktokrolaukpogoot, we walked a great deal yesterday;

illūnata kuyalegalloakpogoot, indeed we are all pleased;

tamounga tikkeneaktugelloak, indeed he will come this way.

Transitive Verbs

Transitive verbs are those in which the action passes on from the subject to an object, as tingmeak tekkovara, I see a bird.

Transitive verbs may be formed by adding transitive affixes to the roots of intransitive verbs as,

naglikpok, he loves;

naglikpa, he loves him;

naivok, he smells;

naiva, he smells him or it.

Some verbs are of an exclusively transitive nature and cannot be treated as in the above instance; e.g. nagligeva, he loves him, but not nagligevok, he loves, as it would then mean he loves himself.

Transitive verbs have various inflections which express both subject and object, e.g.

Gūde nagligevēook Dost thou love God?

Ah, nagligevara, yes I love him;

innuēt tekkolaukpegit? Didst thou see the Eskimo?

Ah, tekkolaukpukka. Yes, I saw them;

illetarevinga? Dost thou know me?

Ah, illetarevagit, yes I know thee.

Again, various adverbial and other particles may be joined together after the verbal root so that much may be said in one word with force and precision. See varieties of intransitive verb.

The conjugations of transitive verb may be classed as two, the first ending in va and the second in pa, as, nagligeva, he loves him, but see note regarding the classes of verbal roots under intransitive verb.

naglikpa

But see conjugations; the form naglikpa (as opposed to nagligiva) never actually occurs.

the first ending in va and the second in pa

This is the opposite of the terminology Peck has been using up to this point (first conjugation in p, second in v). But it agrees with the “first” and “second” declensions of nouns (vowel and consonant, in that order).

much may be said ... with force and precision

Hey, not bad, Peck.

The Transitive Verb Nagligeva, he loves him

Indicative Mood

Present Tense
Sing.
nagligevara I love him
nagligevat thou lovest him
(almost pronounced like nagligevut)
nagligeva he loves him.
Dual
nagligevavook we two love him
nagligevatik you two love him
nagligevak they two love him
Plural
nagligevavoot we love him
nagligevase you love him
nagligevat they love him

almost pronounced like nagligevut

Throughout the book, Peck has been using a and u interchangeably, so I don’t know why he suddenly needs to draw attention to it.

Dual Objective Form

Here we have a dual object, and to mark this change the verb is inflected, as follows:—

50 nagligevāka* I love those two
nagligevakit thou lovest those two
nagligevak he loves those two
Dual
nagligevavook we two love those two
nagligevatik you two love those two
nagligevakik they two love those two
plural
nagligevavoot we love those two
nagligevase you love those two
nagligevagik they love those two

(* perhaps the terminations of Sing. & Plural in 1st persons may have some connection with Demonstrative pronouns such as, tamna and tapkoa.)

the terminations of Sing. & Plural

This footnote, and the emphasized ending ka, was printed on page 51, among forms with the -lauk- (past) affix: naglige­laukpāka I loved those two.

Plural Objective Form

Here the inflection of verb is again changed to mark the plural object, as,

Sing.
nagligevukka I love them
nagligevatit thou lovest them
nagligevait he loves them.
Dual
nagligevavook we two love them
nagligevatik you two love them
nagligevakik they two love them
Plural
nagligevavoot we love them
nagligevase you love them
nagligevait they love them

Inverse Form

In the direct form of verb already treated of the agents were either in the first, second or third persons, but in this form the agent or agents are only in the third e.g.

nagligevara, I love him, but nagligevānga, he loves me;

nagligevat, thou lovest him, but nagligevātit, he loves thee.

Nouns and demonstrative pronouns in the singular, together with all possessive pronouns when used as agents with this form must be treated the same as if used as genitives e.g.

Goodib nagligevānga, God loves me,

tapsoma nagligevātit, that one loves thee.

must be treated the same as if

Peck had probably never heard the term “Ergative”, but it still seems a convoluted way to avoid saying “they take the genitive”.

Inverse Form Declined

Sing.
nagligevānga he loves me
nagligevātit he loves thee
Dual
nagligevātegook he loves us two
nagligevātik he loves you two
Plural
nagligevātegoot he loves us
nagligevāse he loves you

The dual and plural inverse forms are just the same as regards the inflection of verb but the dual or plural forms of noun are used when required to point out the agents in question e.g.

innuēt nagligevātit, the Eskimo love thee;

innōk tekkovātegoot, two men Eskimo see us.

The First and Second Persons or Direct Form

Here we do not consider the third persons, this direct form being only used when the personal pronouns I and thou, we and you, come into use. In speaking direct to a person we should say, I love thee, we love you &c. thus using the first and second personal pronouns in conjunction with the verb; to express similar forms of speech the verb in Eskimo is inflected in many ways.

1st Person singular and 2nd Person sing., dual and plural
nagligevagit I love thee
nagligevaptik I love you two
nagligevaptinga you two love me
nagligevapse I love you
nagligevapsinga you love me.
51 2nd Person singular and 1st Person sing., dual and plural
nagligevangma thou lovest me
nagligevaptegook thou lovest us two
nagligevaptegik we two love thee
nagligevaptegoot thou lovest us
nagligevaptegit we love thee
1st Person dual and plural and 2nd Person dual and plural
nagligevaptik we two love you two
nagligevaptegook you two love us two
nagligevapse we love you
nagligevapsegoot you love us
2nd Person dual and plural and 1st Person dual and plural
nagligevaptegoot you two love us
nagligevaptik we love you two
nagligevaptegook you love us two
nagligevapse we two love you
Of Tense

The time particles are inserted as in the intransitive verb. The transitive inflection of verb being retained. The perfect tense is not used as frequently as in the English language but the past takes its place. Past Tense, I loved, did love, or have loved him:

“And the rest is just the same, right?” —Mozart to Salieri in Amadeus.

Next new material: Negative Indicative.

Sing.
nagligelaukpara I loved him
nagligelaukpat thou loved him
nagligelaukpa he loved him
Dual
nagligelaukpavook we two loved him
nagligelaukpatik you two loved him
nagligelaukpak they two loved him
plural
nagligelaukpavoot we loved him
nagligelaukpase you loved him
nagligelaukpāt they loved him
Dual Objective Form
nagligelaukpāka I loved those two
nagligelaukpakit thou loved those two
nagligelaukpak he loved those two
Dual
nagligelaukpavook we two loved those two
nagligelaukpatik you two loved those two
nagligelaukpakik they two loved those two
Plural
nagligelaukpavoot we loved those two
nagligelaukpase you loved those two
nagligelaukpagik they loved those two
Plural Objective Form
Sing.
nagligelaukpukka I loved them
nagligelaukpatit thou loved them
nagligelaukpait he loved them
Dual
nagligelaukpavook we two loved them
nagligelaukpatik you two loved them
nagligelaukpakik they two loved them
Plural
nagligelaukpavoot we loved them.
nagligelaukpase you loved them
nagligelaukpait they loved them.
Inverse Form
Sing.
nagligelaukpānga he loved me
nagligelaukpātit he loved thee
52 Dual
nagligelaukpātegook he loved us two
nagligelaukpatik he loved you two
Plural
nagligelaukpātegoot he loved us
nagligelaukpāse he loved you
The First and Second Persons
1st Person singular and 2nd Person sing., dual and plural
nagligelaukpagit I loved thee
nagligelaukpaptik I loved you two
nagligelaukpaptinga you two loved me
nagligelaukpapse I loved you
nagligelaukpapsinga you loved me
2nd Person singular and 1st Person sing., dual and plural
nagligelaukpungma thou loved me
nagligelaukpaptegook thou loved us two
nagligelaukpaptegik we two loved thee
nagligelaukpaptegoot thou loved us
nagligelaukpaptegit we loved thee
1st Person dual and plural and 2nd Person dual and plural
nagligelaukpaptik we two loved you two
nagligelaukpaptegook you two loved us two
nagligelaukpapse we loved you
nagligelaukpapsegoot you loved us
2nd Person dual and plural and 1st Person dual and plural
nagligelaukpaptegoot you two loved us
nagligelaukpaptik we loved you two.
nagligelaukpaptegook you loved us two
nagligelaukpapse we two loved you

Of the Other Tenses &c.

These are formed in the same manner as the past. Some examples are here given.

Future
nagligeneakpara I will or shall love him
nagligeneakpat thou wilt or shalt love him
nagligeneakpa &c. he will or shall love him
Inverse Form
nagligeneakpānga he will love me
nagligeneakpatit &c. he will love thee
The First and Second Persons
nagligeneakpagit I will love thee
nagligeneakpaptik I will love you two
nagligeneakpaptinga you two will love me
nagligeneakpapse I will love you
nagligeneakpapsinga &c. you will love me
Variations of Future—Second Form
nagligelākpara I will or shall love him
nagligelakpat thou will or shall love him
nagligelakpa he will or shall love him
Inverse Form
nagligelakpānga he will or shall love me
nagligelākpatit he will or shall love thee
The First and Second Persons
nagligelakpagit I will or shall love thee
nagligelakpaptik I will or shall love you two
nagligelakpaptinga you two will or shall love me
nagligelakpapse I will or shall love you
nagligelakpapsinga you will or shall love me.

nagligelakpat etc.

Error for -lāk- throughout.

Potential Form
nagligeongnakpara I can love him
nagligeongnakpat thou canst love him
nagligeongnakpa he can love him
Inverse Form
nagligeongnakpānga he can love me
nagligeongnakpātit he can love thee
The First and Second Persons
nagligeongnakpagit I can love thee
nagligeongnakpaptik I can love you two
nagligeongnakpaptinga you two can love me
nagligeongnakpapse I can love you
nagligeongnakpapsinga you can love me
53 Optative Form
nagligeyomavara I wish to love him
nagligeyomavat thou wishest to love him
nagligeyomava he wishes to love him
Inverse Form
nagligeyomavānga he wishes to love me
nagligeyomavātit he wishes to love thee
The First and Second Persons
nagligeyomavagit I wish to love thee
nagligeyomavaptik I wish to love you two
nagligeyomavaptinga you two wish to love me
nagligeyomavapse I wish to love you
nagligeyomavapsinga you wish to love me
The Negative Form

The Negative particle of the transitive verb is inserted as in the contracted manner used in the second form of subjunctive mood, as naglegengelara, I do not love him.

Negative Form Declined.

naglegingelara I do not love him
naglegingelat naglegetyangelat thou dost not love him
naglegingela nagligetyangela he does not love him
Dual
naglegingelavook nagligetyangelavook we two do not love him
naglegingelatik nagligetyangelatik you two do not love him
naglegingelak nagligetyangelak they two do not love him
Plural
naglegingelavoot nagligetyangelavoot we do not love him
naglegingelase nagligetyangelase you do not love him
naglegingelāt nagligetyangelāt they do not love him
Dual Objective Form
Sing.
naglegingelāka nagligetyangelāka I do not love those two
naglegingelakit nagligetyangelakit thou dost not love those two
naglegingelak nagligetyangelak he does not love those two
Dual
naglegingelavook nagligetyangelavook we two do not love those two
naglegingelatik nagligetyangelatik you two do not love those two
naglegingelakik nagligetyangelakik they two do not love those two
Plural
naglegingelavook nagligetyangelavook we do not love those two
naglegingelase nagligetyangelase you do not love those two
naglegingelagik nagligetyangelagik they do not love those two
Plural Objective Form
naglegingelakka nagligetyangelakka I do not love them
naglegingelatit nagligetyangelatit thou dost not love them
naglegingelait nagligetyangelat he does not love them
54 Dual
naglegingelavook nagligetyangelavook we two do not love them
naglegingelatik nagligetyangelatik you two do not love them
naglegingelakik nagligetyangelakik they two do not love them
Plural
naglegingelavoot nagligetyangelavoot we do not love them
naglegingelase nagligetyangelase you do not love them
naglegingelait nagligetyangelāt they do not love them
Inverse Form
naglegingelānga nagligetyangelānga he does not love me
naglegingelātit nagligetyangelātit he does not love thee
Dual
naglegingelategook nagligetyangelātegook he does not love us two
naglegingelātik nagligetyangelātik he does not love you two
Plural
naglegingelātegoot nagligetyangelātegoot he does not love us
naglegingelase nagligetyangelāse he does not love you

nagligetyangelat (he ... them, they ... them)

Expected form -lait both times

naglegingelategook

Expected form -lātegook

The First and Second Persons

1st Person singular and 2nd Person sing., dual and plural
naglegingelagit nagligetyangelagit I do not love thee
naglegingelaptik nagligetyangelaptik I do not love you two
naglegingelaptinga nagligetyangelaptinga you two do not love me
naglegingelapse nagligetyangelapse I do not love you
naglegingelapsinga nagligetyangelapsinga you do not love me
2nd Person singular and 1st Person sing., dual and plural
naglegelangma thou dost not love me
naglegingelaptegook nagligetyangelaptegook thou dost not love us two
naglegingelaptegik nagligetyangelaptegik we two do not love thee
naglegingelaptegoot nagligetyangelaptegoot thou dost not love us
naglegingelaptegit nagligetyangelaptegit we do not love thee
1st Person dual and plural and 2nd Person dual and plural
naglegingelaptik nagligetyangelaptik we two do not love you two
naglegingelaptegook nagligetyangelaptegook you two do not love us two
naglegingelapse nagligetyangelapse we do not love you
naglegingelapsegoot nagligetyangelapsegoot you do not love us
55 2nd Person dual and plural and 1st Person dual and plural
naglegingelaptegoot nagligetyangelaptegoot you two do not love us
naglegingelaptik nagligetyangelaptik we do not love you two
naglegingelaptegook nagligetyangelaptegook you do not love us two
naglegingelapse nagligetyangelapse we two do not love you

Next new material: Interrogative.

Tense and Negation
Past
Sing.
nagligelaungelara nagligelautyangelara I did not love him
nagligelaungelat nagligelautyangelat thou didst not love him
nagligelaungela nagligelautyangela he did not love him
Dual
nagligelaungelavook nagligelautyangelavook we two did not love him
nagligelaungelatik nagligelautyangelatik you two did not love him
nagligelautyangelakik nagligelaungelakik they two did not love him
Plural
nagligelaungelavoot nagligelautyangelavoot we did not love those two
nagligelaungelase nagligelautyangelase you did not love those two
nagligelaungelagik nagligelautyangelagik they did not love those two
Plural Objective Form
nagligelaungelakka nagligelautyangelakka I did not love them
nagligelaungelatit nagligelautyangelatit thou didst not love them
nagligelaungelait nagligelautyangelāt he did not love them.
Dual
nagligelaungelavook nagligelautyangelavook we two did not love them
nagligelaungelatik nagligelautyangelatik you two did not love them
nagligelaungelakik nagligelautyangelakik they two did not love them
Plural
nagligelaungelavoot nagligelautyangelavoot we did not love them
nagligelaungelase nagligelautyangelase you did not love them
nagligelaungelait nagligelautyangelat they did not love them
Inverse Form
nagligelaungelānga nagligelautyangelānga he did not love me
nagligelaungelātit nagligelautyangelātit he did not love thee
Dual
nagligelaungelātegook nagligelautyangelātegook he did not love us two
nagligelaungelātik nagligelautyangelātik he did not love you two
Plural
nagligelaungelātegoot nagligelautyangelātegoot he did not love us
nagligelaungelāse nagligelautyangelāse he did not love you

Plural Objective Form

Table layout garbled:

page image

nagligelautyangelāt (he ... them), nagligelautyangelat (they ... them)

Expected forms -lait both times

56

The First and Second Persons

1st Person singular and 2nd Person sing., dual and plural
nagligelaungelagit nagligelautyangelagit I did not love thee
nagligelaungelaptik nagligelautyangelaptik I did not love you two
nagligelaungelaptinga nagligelautyangelaptinga you two did not love me
nagligelaungelapse nagligelautyangelapse I did not love you
nagligelaungelapsinga nagligelautyangelapsinga you did not love me
2nd Person singular and 1st Person sing., dual and plural
nagligelaungelemma or lengma nagligelautyangelemma thou didst not love me
nagligelaungelaptegook nagligelautyangelaptegook thou didst not love us two
nagligelaungelaptegik nagligelautyangelaptegik we two did not love thee
nagligelaungelaptegoot nagligelautyangelaptegoot thou didst not love us
nagligelaungelaptegit nagligelautyangelaptegit we did not love thee
1st Person dual and plural and 2nd Person dual and plural
nagligelaungelaptik nagligelautyangelaptik we two did not love you two
nagligelaungelaptegook nagligelautyangelaptegook you two, did not love us two
nagligelaungelapse nagligelautyangelapse we did not love you
nagligelaungelapsegoot nagligelautyangelapsegoot you did not love us
2nd Person dual and plural and 1st Person dual and plural
nagligelaungelaptegoot nagligelautyangelaptegoot you two did not love us
nagligelaungelaptik nagligelautyangelaptik we did not love you two
nagligelaungelaptegook nagligelautyangelaptegook you did not love us two
nagligelaungelapse nagligelautyangelapse we two did not love you

nagligelaungelapse ... nagligelautyangelapsinga

Two lines of table transposed:

page image

The other tenses together with the Potential and Optative forms are inserted in a similar manner e.g.

in a similar manner

YES. WE GET IT, PECK. Go on to something else, willya?

Future
Sing.
nagligeneangelara nagligeneatyangelara I will or shall not love him
nagligeneangelat nagligeneatyangelat thou wilt or shalt not love him
nagligeneangela nagligeneatyangela he will or shall not love him
Inverse Form
nagligeneangelānga nagligeneatyangelānga he will or shall not love me
nagligeneangelātit nagligeneatyangelātit he will or shall not love thee
The First and Second Persons
nagligeneangelagit nagligeneatyangelagit I will or shall not love thee
nagligeneangelaptik nagligeneatyangelaptik I will or shall not love you two
nagligeneangelaptinga nagligeneatyangelaptinga you two will or shall not love me
nagligeneangelapse nagligeneatyangelapse I will or shall not love you
57 nagligeneangelapsinga nagligeneatyangelapsinga you will or shall not love me.
Variations of Future—First Form
nagligeyomangelara nagligeyomatyangelara I will or shall not love him
nagligeyomangelat nagligeyomātyangelat thou wilt or shalt not love him
nagligeyomāngela nagligeyomatyangela he will or shall not love him
Inverse Form
nagligeyomāngelānga nagligeyomātyangelānga he will or shall not love me
nagligeyomāngelātit nagligeyomatyangelātit he will or shall not love thee.
The First and Second Persons
nagligeyomangelagit nagligeyomātyangelagit I will or shall not love thee
nagligeyomāngelaptik nagligeyomātyangelaptik I will or shall not love you two.
nagligeyomāngelaptinga nagligeyomātyangelaptinga you two will or shall not love me
nagligeyomāngelapse nagligeyomātyangelapse I will or shall not love you
nagligeyomāngelapsinga nagligeyomātyangelapsinga you will or shall not love me

[Future Variation First Form]
nagligeyomangelara etc.

All forms in -yoma- are errors for -yomā-.

Potential Form
nagligeongnangelara nagligeongnatyangelara I am not able to love him
nagligeongnangelat nagligeongnatyangelat thou art not able to love him
nagligeongnangela nagligeongnatyangela he is not able to love him
Inverse Form
nagligeongnangelānga nagligeongnatyangelānga he is not able to love me
nagligeongnangelatit nagligeongnatyangelatit he is not able to love thee
The First and Second Persons
nagligeongnangelagit nagligeongnatyangelagit I am not able to love thee
nagligeongnangelaptik nagligeongnatyangelaptik I am not able to love you two.
nagligeongnangelaptinga nagligeongnatyangelaptinga you two are not able to love me
nagligeongnangelapse nagligeongnatyangelapse I am not able to love you
nagligeongnangelapsinga nagligeongnatyangelapsinga you are not able to love me
Optative Form
nagligeyomangelara nagligeyomatyangelara I do not wish to love him
nagligeyomangelat nagligeyomatyangelat thou dost not wish to love him
nagligeyomangela nagligeyomatyangela he does not wish to love him
Inverse Form
nagligeyomangelānga nagligeyomatyangelānga he does not wish to love me
nagligeyomangelatit nagligeyomatyangelātit he does not wish to love thee
The First and Second Persons
nagligeyomangelagit nagligeyomatyangelagit I do not wish to love thee
nagligeyomangelaptik nagligeyomatyangelaptik I do not wish to love you two
58 nagligeyomangelaptinga nagligeyomatyangelaptinga you two do not wish to love me
nagligeyomangelapse nagligeyomatyangelapse I do not wish to love you
nagligeyomangelapsinga nagligeyomatyangelapsinga you do not wish to love me

The Interrogative Mood

Sing.
nagligevēgo
& nagligevāra?
Do I love him?
nagligevēook Dost thou love him?
nagligevauk
& nagligevā?
Does he love him?
Dual
nagligevetego
& nagligevavook
Do we two love him?
nagligeveteko Do you two love him?
nagligevakko
& nagligevak
Do they two love him?
Plural
nagligevetego
& nagligevavoot
Do we love him?
nagligevisseook Do you love him?
nagligevatyook
& nagligevāt
Do they love him?
Dual Objective Form
nagligevākka Do I love those two?
nagligevēgik Dost thou love those two?
nagligevagik
& nagligevak
Does he love those two?
Dual
nagligevittegik
& nagligevavook
Do we two love those two?
nagligevisekik Do you two love those two?
nagligevakik Do they two love those two?
Plural
nagligevittego
& nagligevavook?
Do we love those two?
nagligevissegik Do you love those two?
nagligevakit Do they love those two?
Plural Objective Form
Sing.
nagligevukka? Do I love them?
nagligevegit Dost thou love them?
nagligevagit
& nagligevait
Does he love then?
Dual
nagligevittegik
& nagligevavook?
Do we two love them?
nagligevissekik Do you two love them?
nagligevittegik Do they two love them?
Plural
nagligevavoot Do we love them?
nagligevisegik Do you love them?
nagligevagit
& nagligevait
Do they love them?
Inverse Form

This is the same as the inverse form of indicative Mood, as,

Sing.
nagligevānga Does he love me?
nagligevātit Does he love thee?
Dual
nagligevātegook? Does he love us two?
nagligevātik Does he love you two?
Plural
nagligevātegoot? Does he love us?
nagligevāse Does he love you?
The First and Second Persons
1st Person singular and 2nd Person sing., dual and plural
nagligevagit? Do I love thee?
nagligevaptik Do I love you two?
nagligevettinga Do you two love me?
nagligevapse Do I love you?
nagligevissinga Do you love me?
2nd Person singular and 1st Person sing., dual and plural
nagligevinga Dost thou love Me?
nagligevittegook Dost thou love us two?
nagligevittegit
& nagligevaptegit
Do we two love thee?
nagligevittegoot Dost thou love us?
nagligevittegit
& nagligevaptegit
Do we love thee.
59 1st Person dual and plural and 2nd Person dual and plural
nagligevaptik Do we two love you two?
nagligevittegook Do you two love us two?
nagligevapse Do we love you?
nagligevittegoot Do you love us two?
2nd Person dual and plural and 1st Person dual and plural
nagligevittegoot Do you two love us?
nagligevaptik Do we love you two?
nagligevittegook Do you love us two?
nagligevapse Do we two love you?
Of Tense

The time particles are inserted as in the Indicative Mood. The Interrogative formation being retained, as,

Oh. My. God. It is at this point that I wished I had the physical book in hand, so I might throw it across the room.

Next new material: Imperative.

Past Tense
nagligelaukpego
& nagligelaukpara?
Did I love him?
nagligelaukpēook Didst thou love him?
nagligelaukpauk
& nagligelaukpa
Did he love him?
Dual
nagligelaukpettego
& nagligelaukpavook
Did we two love him?
nagligelaukpetteko Did you two love him?
nagligelaukpakko
& nagligelaukpāk
Did they two love him?
Plural
nagligelaukpettego
& nagligelaukpavoot
Did we love him?
nagligelaukpisseook Did you love him?
nagligelaukpatyook
& nagligelaukpāt
Did they love him?
Dual Objective Form
Sing.
nagligelaukpāka Did I love those two?
nagligelaukpēgik Didst thou love those two?
nagligelaukpagik
& nagligelaukpak
Did he love those two?
Dual
nagligelaukpittegik
& nagligelaukpavook?
Did we two love those two?
nagligelaukpissekik Did you two love those two?
nagligelaukpakik Did they two love those two?
Plural
nagligelaukpittego
& nagligelaukpavook
Did we love those two?
nagligelaukpissekik Did you love those two?
nagligelaukpakit Did they love those two?
Plural Objective Form
Sing.
nagligelaukpukka? Did I love them?
nagligelaukpēgit Didst thou love them?
nagligelaukpagit
& nagligelaukpait,
Did he love them?
Dual
nagligelaukpittegik
& nagligelaukpavook?
Did we two love them?
nagligelaukpissēkik Did you two love them?
nagligelaukpittegik
Plural
nagligelaukpavoot Did we love them?
nagligelaukpisēgik Did you love them?
nagligelaukpagit
& nagligelaukpait?
Did they love them?
Inverse Form
Sing.
nagligelaukpānga? Did he love me?
nagligelaukpātit Did he love thee?
60 Dual
nagligelaukpātegook? Did he love us two?
nagligelaukpātik Did he love you two?
Plural
nagligelaukpātegoot Did he love us?
nagligelaukpāse Did he love you?
The First and Second Persons
1st Person singular and 2nd Person sing., dual and plural
nagligelaukpagit Did I love thee?
nagligelaukpaptik Did I love you two?
nagligelaukpettinga Did you two love me?
nagligelaukpapse Did I love you?
nagligelaukpissinga Did you love me?
2nd Person singular and 1st Person sing., dual and plural
nagligelaukpinga Didst thou love me?
nagligelaukpittegook Didst thou love us two?
nagligelaukpittegit
& nagligevaptegit
Did we two love thee?
nagligelaukpittegoot Didst thou love us?
nagligelaukpittegit
& nagligelaukpaptegit,
Did we love thee?
1st Person dual and plural and 2nd Person dual and plural
nagligelaukpaptik? Did we two love you two?
nagligelaukpittegook Did you two love us two?
nagligelaukpapse Did we love you?
nagligelaukpittegoot Did you love us?
2nd Person dual and plural and 1st Person dual and plural
nagligelaukpittegoot? Did you two love us?
nagligelaukpaptik Did we love you two?
nagligelaukpittegook Did you love us two?
nagligelaukpapse Did we two love you?
Future
nagligeneakpego Will or shall I love him?
nagligeneakpeook Wilt or shalt thou love him?
nagligeneakpauk? Will or shall he love him?
Variations of Future—First Form
nagligeyomākpego I will or shall love him.
nagligeyomākpēook Wilt or shalt thou love him?
nagligeyomākpauk Will or shall he love him?
Second Form
nagligelākpego Will or shall I love him?
nagligelakpēook Wilt or shalt thou love him?
nagligelakpauk Will or shall he love him
Potential Form
nagligeongnakpego Can I love him?
nagligeongnakpēook Canst thou love him?
nagligeongnakpauk Can he love him?
Optative Form
nagligeyomavego? Do I wish to love him? s?
nagligeyomavēook? Dost thou wish to love him?
nagligeyomavauk Does he wish to love him?

Inverse Form; First and Second Persons

The last two “First and Second Persons” tables were printed out of sequence. As printed:
Inverse Form header only
last two First and Second Persons tables
Inverse Form tables
First and Second Persons header
first two First and Second Persons tables

nagligevaptegit? (Past Tense: we two ... thee)

Expected form nagligelaukpaptegit?

nagligelakpēook, nagligelakpauk (Future Second Form)

Error for -lāk-

Negative Form of Interrogative Mood

In the form for first and second persons the interrogative formation is retained, but in other cases there is no difference between this (form) and the negative form of indicative mood, as,

Sing.
nagligetyangelara? Do I not love him?
nagligetyangelat? Dost thou not love him?
nagligetyangela Does he not love him?
Dual
nagligetyangelavook? Do we two not love him?
nagligetyangelatik Do you two not love him?
nagligetyangelāk Do they two not love him?
Plural
nagligetyangelavoot? Do we not love him?
nagligetyangelase Do you not love him?
nagligetyangelāt Do they not love him?
Dual Objective Form
Sing.
nagligetyangelāka? Do I not love those two?
nagligetyangelakit Dost thou not love those two?
nagligetyangelak Does he not love those two?
61 Dual
nagligetyangelavook? Do we two not love those two?
nagligetyangelatik Do you two not love those two?
nagligetyangelakik Do they two not love those two?
Plural
nagligetyangelavoot? Do we not love those two?
nagligetyangelase Do you not love these two?
nagligetyangelagik Do they not love those two?
Plural Objective Form
nagligetyangelakka? Do I not love them?
nagligetyangelatit Dost thou not love them?
nagligetyangelāt Does he not love them?
Dual
nagligetyangelavook? Do we two not love them?
nagligetyangelatik Do you two not love them?
nagligetyangelakik Do they two not love them?
Plural
nagligetyangelavoot? Do we not love them?
nagligetyangelase Do you not love them?
nagligetyangelāt Do they not love them?
Inverse Form
nagligetyangelānga Does he not love me?
nagligetyangelākit Does he not love thee?
Dual
nagligetyangelātegook? Does he not love us two?
nagligetyangelātik Does he not love you two?
Plural
nagligetyangelātegoot? Does he not love us?
nagligetyangelāse Does he not love you?
The First and Second Persons
1st Person singular and 2nd Person sing., dual and plural
nagligetyangelagit Do I not love thee?
nagligetyangelaptik Do I not love you two?
nagligetyangeletinga Do you two not love me?
nagligetyangelapse Do I not love you?
nagligetyangelissinga Do you not love me?
2nd Person singular and 1st Person sing., dual and plural
nagligetyangelamma Dost thou not love me?
nagligetyangelitegook Dost thou not love us two?
nagligetyangelaptegik Do we two not love thee?
nagligetyangelissegoot Dost thou not love us?
nagligetyangelaptegit Do we not love thee?
1st Person dual and plural and 2nd Person dual and plural
nagligetyangelaptik? Do we two not love you two?
nagligetyangelategook Do you two not love us two?
nagligetyangelapse Do we not love you?
nagligetyangelitegoot Do you not love us?
2nd Person dual and plural and 1st Person dual and plural
nagligetyangelitegoot? Do you two not love us?
nagligetyangelaptik Do we not love you two?
nagligetyangelissegook Do you not love us two?
nagligetyangelapse? Do we two not love you?
Tense and Negation

When the time and negative particles are used the inflection of verb is the same as the Indicative but in the form for first and second persons the interrogative formation is retained.

Past Tense
Sing
nagligelautyangelara? Did I not love him?
nagligelautyangelat Didst thou not love him?
nagligelautyangela Did he not love him?
Dual
nagligelautyangelavook? Did we two not love him?
nagligelautyangelatik Did you two not love him?
nagligelautyangelāk Did they two not love him?
Plural
nagligelautyangelavoot? Did we not love him?
62 nagligelautyangelase Did you not love him?
nagligelautyangelat Did they not love him?
Dual Objective Form
nagligelautyangelāka Did I not love those two?
nagligelautyangelakit Didst thou not love those two?
nagligelautyangelak Did he not love those two?
Dual
nagligelautyangelavook? Did we two not love those two?
nagligelautyangelatik Did you two not love those two?
nagligelautyangelakik Did they two not love those two?
Plural
nagligelautyangelavoot? Did we not love those two?
nagligelautyangelase Did you not love those two?
nagligelautyangelagik Did they not love those two?
Plural Objective Form
Sing.
nagligelautyangelakka Did I not love them?
nagligelautyangelatit Didst thou not love them?
nagligelautyangelāt Did he not love then?
Dual
nagligelautyangelavook Did we two not love them?
nagligelautyangelatik Did you two not love them?
nagligelautyangelakik Did they two not love them?
Plural
nagligelautyangelavoot Did we not love them?
nagligelautyangelase Did you not love them?
nagligelautyangelāt Did they not love them?
Inverse Form
nagligelautyangelānga Did he not love me?
nagligelautyangelātit Did he not love thee?
Dual
nagligelautyangelātegook Did he not love us two?
nagligelautyangelātik Did he not love you two?
Plural
nagligelautyangelātegoot Did he not love us?
nagligelautyangelāse Did he not love you?
The First and Second Persons
1st Person singular and 2nd Person sing., dual and plural
nagligelautyangelagit? Did I not love thee?
nagligelautyangelaptik Did I not love you two?
nagligelautyangelatinga Did you two not love me?
nagligelautyangelapse Did I not love you?
nagligelautyangelissinga Did you not love me?
2nd Person singular and 1st Person sing., dual and plural
nagligelautyangelemma Didst thou not love me?
nagligelautyangelitegook Didst thou not love us two?
nagligelautyangelaptegik Did we two not love thee?
nagligelautyangelissegoot Didst thou not love us?
nagligelautyangelaptegit Did we not love thee?
1st Person dual and plural and 2nd Person dual and plural
nagligelautyangelaptik? Did we two not love you two?
nagligelautyangelitegook Did you two not love us two?
nagligelautyangelapse Did we not love you?
nagligelautyangelitegoot Did you not love us?
2nd Person dual and plural and 1st Person dual and plural
nagligelautyangelitegoot? Did you two not love us?
nagligelautyangelaptik Did we not love you two?
nagligelautyangelissegook Did you not love us two?
nagligelautyangelapse Did we two not love you?

The future, Potential and Optative forms are conjugated as the past e.g.

Future
nagligeneatyangelara? Will or shall I not love him?
nagligeneatyangelat Wilt or shalt thou not love him?
nagligeneatyangela Will or shall he not love him?
63 Variations of Future—First Form
nagligeyomātyangelara Will or shall I not love him?
nagligeyomātyangelat Wilt or shalt thou not love him?
nagligeyomātyangela Will or shall he not love him?
Second Form
nagligelātyangelara Will or shall I not love him?
nagligelātyangelat Wilt or shalt thou not love him?
nagligelātyangela Will or shall he not love him?
Potential Form
nagligeongnatyangelara? Am I not able to love him?
nagligeongnatyangelat? Art thou not able to love him?
nagligeongnatyangela Is he not able to love him?
Optative Form
nagligeyomatyangelara? Do I not wish to love him?
nagligeyomatyangelat Dost thou not wish to love him?
nagligeyomatyangela Does he not wish to love him?

The Imperative Mood

nagligelara Let me or pray let me love him
nagligelauook Love thou him
nagligeleook Let him love him
Dual
—doubtful—
Plural
nagligelavoot Let us love him
nagligisseook Love ye him
nagligelityook Let them love him
Dual Objective Form
nagligelāka Let me love those two
nagligelaukik Love thou those two
nagligelegik Let him love those two
Dual
—doubtful—
Plural
nagligelavoot Let us love those two
Nagligissegik Love ye those two
nagligeluksegik Let them love those two
Plural Objective Form
Sing.
nagligelakka Let me love them
nagligelaukit Love thou them
nagligelegit Let him love them
Dual
—doubtful—
Plural
nagligelavoot Let us love them
nagligissegik Love ye them
nagligeluksegik Let them love them
Inverse Form
Sing.
nagligelānga Let him love me
nagligelātit Let him love thee
Dual
nagligelātegook Let him love us two
nagligelātik Let him love you two
Plural
nagligelātegoot Let him love us
nagligelāse Let him love you
The First and Second Persons
1st Person singular and 2nd Person sing., dual and plural
nagligelagit Let me love thee
nagligelaptik Let me love you two
naglegittinga Ye two love me
nagligelapse Let me love you
naglegissinga Love ye me
2nd Person singular and 1st Person sing., dual and plural
nagligelaunga Love thou me
nagligittegook Love thou us two
nagligittegoot love thou us
nagligelaptegit, Let us love thee
nagligelaptekit Let us two love thee
64 1st Person dual and plural and 2nd Person dual and plural
nagligelaptik Let us two love you two
nagligittegook you two love us two
nagligelaptegit Let us love you
naglegissegoot Love ye us
2nd Person dual and plural and 1st Person dual and plural
naglegittegoot you two love us
nagligelaptik Let us love you two
naglegissegook Love ye us two
nagligelapse Let us two love you

[Dual] doubtful

This surprises me. Doesn’t the Anglican marriage service, for example, include joint instructions to both spouses? One would think someone would have figured it out.

Negative Form

The Imperative, strictly speaking, but the negative form of infinitive is sometimes used instead, e.g.

aktornago, Do not touch him;

oopkuarngnago, Do not shut it &c.

Of Tense

There is no future inflected form for imperative mood as in the language of the Cree Indians, but the future tense of Indicative Mood is used e.g.

nagligeneakkat Thou wilt love him,

nagligeneakkase, you (will) love him.

Query: What have the Cree Indians got to say to anything? Is Peck just showing off? Or is he pointing out that even benighted savages are capable of having a future imperative, just like civilized languages such as Latin?

Subjunctive Mood
1st form.

because, when, for, that, he loves him.

Sing.
nagligegapko because I love him.
nagligegaveook because thou lovest him
naglegingmago because he loves him
nagligegameook (Rel.) because he loves him
Dual
nagligegapteko because we two love him
nagligegapteko because you two love him
naglegingmako because they two love him
Plural
nagligegaptego because we love him
nagligegapseook because you love him
naglegingmatyook
nagligegamityook because they love him
nagligegameko (Rel.) because they love him
Dual Objective Form
Sing.
nagligegapkik because I love those two
nagligegavekik because thou lovest those two
naglegingmagik because he loves those two
nagligegamegik (Rel.) because he loves those two
Dual
nagligegaptekik because we two love those two
nagligegaptekik because you two love those two
naglegingmakik because they two love those two
Plural
nagligegaptekik because we love those two
nagligegapsekik because you love those two
naglegingmatekik because they love those two
nagligegamekik (Rel.) because they love those two
Plural Objective Form
nagligegapkit because I love them
nagligegavekit because thou lovest them
naglegingnagit because he loves them
nagligegamegit (Rel.) because he loves them
Dual
nagligegaptekik because we two love them
nagligegaptekik because you two love them
naglegingmakik because they two love them
Plural
nagligegaptegik because we love them
nagligegapsegik because you love them
naglegingmategik because they love them
nagligegamegit (same as 3rd person sing. rel. form)
nagligegamekik (Rel.) because they love them.
65 Inverse Form
naglegingmānga because he loves me
naglegingmātit because he loves thee
Dual
naglegingmātegook because he loves us two
naglegingmātik because he loves you two
Plural
naglegingmātegoot because he loves us
naglegingmāse because he loves you
Relative Inverse Form

This is used in a similar manner to the relative form before spoken of viz. when both verbs in a sentence (one being in the subjunctive and the other in Indicative Mood) have the same agent e.g. Goodeob naglige­gaminga, kummagene­akkānga, because God loves me, he (God) will care for me. This form is conjugated as follows:

Sing.
nagligegaminga because he loves me
nagligegametit because he loves thee
Dual
nagligegametegook because he loves us two
nagligegametik because he loves you two
Plural
nagligegametegoot because he loves us
nagligegamese because he loves you
The First and Second Persons
1st Person singular and 2nd Person sing., dual and plural
nagligegapkit because I love thee
nagligegaptik because I love you two
nagligegaptinga because you two love me
nagligegapse because I love you
nagligegapsinga because you love me
2nd Person singular and 1st Person sing., dual and plural
nagligegavinga because thou lovest me
nagligegaptegook because thou lovest us two
nagligegaptekit because we two love thee
nagligegaptegoot because thou lovest us
nagligegaptegit because we love thee
1st Person dual and plural and 2nd Person dual and plural
nagligegaptik because we two love you two
nagligegaptegook because you two love us two
nagligegapse because we love you
nagligegaptegoot because you love us
2nd Person dual and plural and 1st Person dual and plural
nagligegaptegoot because you two love us
nagligegaptik because we love you two
nagligegaptegook because you love us two
nagligegapse because we two love you
Of Tense

Tense is formed in much the same manner as in the first form of subjunctive Mood, Intransitive verb, as,

Next new material: Subjunctive, Second Form.

Past Tense
Sing.
nagligelaurapko because I loved him
nagligelauraveook because thou loved him
nagligelaungmago because he loved him
nagligelaurameook (Rel.) because he loved him
Dual
nagligelaurapteko because we two loved him
nagligelaurapteko because you two loved him
nagligelaungmako because they two loved him
Plural
nagligelauraptego because we loved him
nagligelaurapseook because you loved him
nagligelaungmityook because they loved him
nagligelaurameko (Rel.) because they loved him
66 Dual Objective Form
Sing.
nagligelauraptik because I loved those two
nagligelauravekik because thou loved those two
nagligelaungmagik because he loved those two
nagligelauramegik because he loved those two
Dual
nagligelauraptekik because we two loved those two
nagligelauraptekik because you two loved those two
nagligelaungmakik because they two loved those two
Plural
nagligelauraptekik because we loved those two
nagligelaurapsekik because you loved those two
nagligelaungmatekik because they loved those two
nagligelauramekik (Rel.) because they loved those two
Plural Objective Form
Sing.
nagligelaurapkit because I loved them
nagligelauravekit because thou loved them
nagligelaungmagit because he loved them
nagligelauramegit (Rel.) because he loved them
Dual
nagligelauraptekik because we two loved them
nagligelauraptekik because you two loved them
nagligelaungmakik because they two loved them
Plural
nagligelauraptegik because we loved them
nagligelaurapsegik because you loved them
nagligelaungmategik because they loved them
nagligelauramekik (Rel.) Because they loved them
Inverse Form
Sing.
nagligelaungmānga because he loved me
nagligelaungmātit because he loved thee
Dual
nagligelaungmātegook because he loved us two
nagligelaungmātik because he loved you two
Plural
nagligelaungmātegoot because he loved us
nagligelaungmāse because he loved you
The First and Second Persons
1st Person singular and 2nd Person sing., dual and plural
nagligelaurapkit because I loved thee
nagligelauraptik because I loved you two
nagligelauraptinga because you two loved me
nagligelaurapse because I loved you
nagligelaurapsinga because you loved me.
2nd Person singular and 1st Person sing., dual and plural
nagligelauravinga because thou loved me
nagligelauraptegook because thou loved us two
nagligelauraptekit because we two loved thee
nagligelauraptegoot because thou loved us
nagligelauraptegit because we loved thee
1st Person dual and plural and 2nd Person dual and plural
nagligelauraptik because we two loved you two
nagligelauraptegook because you two loved us two
nagligelaurapse because we loved you
nagligelauraptegoot because you loved us
2nd Person dual and plural and 1st Person dual and plural
nagligelauraptegoot because you two loved us
nagligelauraptik because we loved you two
nagligelauraptegook because you loved us two
nagligelaurapse because we two loved you
67

The future tenses and other forms are all regular as,

Future
nagligenearapko because I shall or will love him
nagligenearaveook because thou shalt or wilt love him
nagligeneangmago because he will or shall love him
nagligenearameook (Rel.) because he will or shall love him
Variations of Future—First Form
nagligeyomāgapko because I shall or will love him
nagligeyomāgaveook because thou shalt or wilt love him
nagligeyomāngmago because he shall or will love him
nagligeyomāgameook (Rel.) because he will or shall love him
Second Form
nagligelārapko because I shall or will love him
nagligelāraveook because thou wilt or shalt love him
nagligelāngmago because he will or shall love him
nagligelārameook (Rel.) because he will or shall love him
Potential Form
nagligeongnarapko because I am able to love him
nagligeongnaraveook because thou art able to love him
nagligeongnangmago because he is able to love him
nagligeongnarameook (Rel.) because he is able to love him
Optative Form
nagligeyomagapko because I wish to love him
nagligeyomagaveook because thou wishest to love him
nagligeyomangmago because he wishes love him
nagligeyomagameook (Rel.) because he wishes love him
Negative Form*
Sing.
nagligetyangenapko because I do not love him
nagligetyangenaveook because thou dost not love him
nagligetyangemago because he does not love him
nagligetyangenameook because he does not love him
Dual
nagligetyangenapteko because we two do not love him
nagligetyangenapteko because you two love him
nagligetyangemako because they two love him
Plural
nagligetyangenaptego because we do not love him
nagligetyangenapseook because you do not love him
nagligetyangenamityook because they do not love him
nagligetyangenameko (Rel.) because they do not love him

* These negative forms can be contracted as in other places where the negative verb is used e.g. naglegingenapko because I do not love him; naglegingenaveook, because thou dost not love him &c.

can be contracted

That is, the form with -nngit- alone can be used instead of the longer -jjaa- + -nngit.

Dual Objective Form
Sing.
nagligetyangenapkik because I do not love those two
nagligetyangenavekik because thou dost not love those two
nagligetyangemagik because he does not love those two
nagligetyangenamegik (Rel.) because he does not love those two
Dual
nagligetyangenaptekik because we two do not love those two
nagligetyangenaptekik because you two do not love those two
nagligetyangemakik because they two do not love those two
Plural
nagligetyangenaptekik because we do not love those two
nagligetyangenapsekik because you do not love those two
nagligetyangematekik because they do not love those two
nagligetyangenamekik (Rel.) because they love those two
68 Plural Objective Form
Sing.
nagligetyangenapkit because I do not love them
nagligetyangenavekit because thou dost not love them
nagligetyangemagit because he does not love them
nagligetyangenamegit (Rel.) because he does not love them
Dual
nagligetyangenaptekik because we two do not love them
nagligetyangenaptekik because you two do not love them
nagligetyangemakik because they two do not love them
Plural
nagligetyangenaptegik because we do not love them
nagligetyangenapsegik because you do not love them
nagligetyangemategik because they do not love them
nagligetyangenamekik because they do not love them
Inverse Form
Sing.
nagligetyangemānga because he does not love me
nagligetyangemātit because he does not love thee
Dual
nagligetyangemātegook because he does not love us two
nagligetyangemātik because he does not love you two
Plural
nagligetyangemātegoot because he does not love us
nagligetyangemāse because he does not love you
Relative Inverse Form
nagligetyangenaminga because he does not love me
nagligetyangenametit because he does not love thee
Dual
nagligetyangenametegook because he does not love us two
nagligetyangenametik because he does not love you two
Plural
nagligetyangenametegoot because he does pot love us
nagligetyangenamese because he does not love you
The First and Second Persons
1st Person singular and 2nd Person sing., dual and plural
nagligetyangenapkit because I do not love thee
nagligetyangenaptik because Ido not love you two
nagligetyangenaptinga because you two do not love me
nagligetyangenapse because I do not love you
nagligetyangenapsinga because you do not love me
2nd Person singular and 1st Person sing., dual and plural
nagligetyangenavinga because thou dost not love me
nagligetyangenaptegook because thou dost not love us two
nagligetyangenaptekit because we two do not love thee
nagligetyangenaptegoot because thou dost not love us
nagligetyangenaptegit because we do not love thee
1st Person dual and plural and 2nd Person dual and plural
nagligetyangenaptik because we two do not love you two
nagligetyangenaptegook because you do not love us two
nagligetyangenapse because we do not love you
nagligetyangenaptegoot because you do not love us
2nd Person dual and plural and 1st Person dual and plural
nagligetyangenaptegoot because you two do not love us
nagligetyangenaptik because we do not love you two
nagligetyangenaptegook because you do net love us two
nagligetyangenapse because we two do not love you
Tense and Negation

The time and negative particles are inserted as in the intransitive form of subjunctive mood as,

Past Tense
Sing.
nagligelautyangenapko
or nagligelaungenapko
because I did not love him
nagligelautyangenaveook because thou didst not love him
nagligelautyangemago because he did not love him
nagligelautyangenameook (Rel.) because he did not love him
Dual
nagligelautyangenapteko because we two did not love him
69 nagligelautyangenapteko because you two did not love him
nagligelautyangemako because they two did not love him
Plural
nagligelautyangenaptego because we did not love him
nagligelautyangenapseook because you did not love him
nagligelautyangenataityook because they did not love him
nagligelautyangemeko because they did not love him
Dual Objective Form
Sing.
nagligelautyangenapkik because I did not love those two
nagligelautyangenavekik because thou didst not love those two
nagligelautyangemagik because he did not love those two
nagligelautyangenamegik (Rel.) because he did not love those two
Dual
nagligelautyangenaptekik because we two did not love those two
nagligelautyangenaptekik because you did not love those two
nagligelautyangemakik because they did not love those two
Plural
nagligelautyangenaptekik because we did not love those two
nagligelautyangenapsekik because you did not love those two
nagligelautyangematekik because they did not love those two
nagligelautyangenamekik (Rel.) because the did not love those two
Plural Objective Form
nagligelautyangenapkit because I did not love them
nagligelautyangenavekit because thou didst not love them
nagligelautyangemagit because he did not love them
nagligelautyangenamegit (Rel.) because he did not love them
Dual
nagligelautyangenaptekik because we two did not love them
nagligelautyangenaptekik because you two did not love them
nagligelautyangemakik because they two did not love them
Plural
nagligelautyangenaptegik Because we aid not love them
nagligelautyangenapsegik because you did hot love them
nagligelautyangemategik because they did not love them
nagligelautyangenamekik (Rel.) because they did not love them
Inverse Form
Sing.
nagligelautyangemānga because he did not love me
nagligelautyangemātit because he did not love thee
Dual
nagligelautyangemātegook because he did not love us two
nagligelautyangemātik because he did not love you two
Plural
nagligelautyangemātegoot because he did not love us
nagligelautyangemāse because he did not love you
Relative Inverse Form
Sing.
nagligelautyangenaminga because he did not love me
nagligelautyangenametit because he did not love thee
Dual
nagligelautyangenametegook because he did not love us two
nagligelautyangenametik because he did not love you two
Plural
nagligelautyangenametegoot because he did not love us
nagligelautyangenamese because he did not love you
The First and Second Persons
1st Person singular and 2nd Person sing., dual and plural
nagligelautyangenapkit because I did not love thee
nagligelautyangenaptik because I did not love you two
nagligelautyangenaptinga because you two did not love me
nagligelautyangenapse because I did not love you
nagligelautyangenapsinga because you did not love me
2nd Person singular and 1st Person sing., dual and plural
nagligelautyangenavinga because thou didst not love me
nagligelautyangenaptegook because thou didst not love us two
nagligelautyangenaptekit because we two did not love thee
nagligelautyangenaptegoot because thou didst not love us
nagligelautyangenaptegit because we did not love thee
70 1st Person dual and plural and 2nd Person dual and plural
nagligelautyangenaptik because we two did not love you two.
nagligelautyangenaptegook because you two did not love us two.
nagligelautyangenapse because we did not love you
nagligelautyangenaptegoot because you did not love us
2nd Person dual and plural and 1st Person dual and plural
nagligelautyangenaptegoot because you two did not love us
nagligelautyangenaptik because we did not love you two
nagligelautyangenaptegook because you did not love us two
nagligelautyangenapse because we two did not love you

The future tenses &c. are regular as,

Future
nagligeneatyangenapko because I will not or shall not love him
nagligeneatyangenaveook because thou wilt or shalt not love him
nagligeneatyangemago because he will or shall not love him
nagligeneatyangenameook (Rel.) because he will not love him
Variations of Future—First Form
nagligeyomātyangenapko because I will or shall not love him
nagligeyomātyangenaveook because thou wilt or shalt not love him
nagligeyomātyangemago because he will or shall not love him
nagligeyomatyangenameook (Rel.) because he will or shall not love him
Second Form
nagligelātyangenapko because I will or shall not love him
nagligelātyangenaveook because thou wilt or shalt not love him
nagligelātyangemago because he will or shall not love him
nagligelātyangenameook (Rel.) because he will or shall not love him
Potential Form
nagligeongnatyangenapko because I cannot love him
nagligeongnatyangenaveook because thou canst not love him
nagligeongnatyangemago because he cannot love him
nagligeongnatyangenameook (Rel.) because he cannot love him
Optative Form
nagligeyomatyangenapko because I do not wish to love him
nagligeyomatyangenaveook because thou dost not wish to love him
nagligeyomatyangemago because he does not wish to love him
nagligeyomatyangenameook (Rel.) because he does not wish to love him

[Future Variation First Form]
nagligeyomatyangenameook

Error for -yomā-.

Second Form of Subjunctive Mood
If he loves him

Sing.
nagligegoopko if I love him
nagligegooveook if thou lovest him
naglegikpago if he loves him
nagligegooneook (Rel.) if he loves him
Dual
nagligegoopteko if we two love him
nagligegoopteko if you two love him
naglegikpako if they two love him
Plural
nagligegooptego if we love him
nagligegoopseook if you love him
naglegikpatyook if they love him
nagligegooneko (Rel.) if they love him
Dual Objective Form
Sing.
nagligegoopkik if I love those two
nagligegoovekik if thou lovest those two
naglegikpagik if he loves those two
nagligegoonegik if he loves those two
Dual
nagligegooptekik if we two love those two
nagligegooptekik if you two love those two
naglegikpakik if they two love those two
plural
nagligegooptekik if we love those two
nagligegoopsekik if you love those two
71 naglegikpatekik if they love those two
nagligegoonekik (Rel.) if they love those two
Plural Objective Form
nagligegoopkit if I love them
nagligegoovegit if thou lovest them
naglegikpagit if he loves them
nagligegoonegit (Rel.) if he loves them
Dual
nagligegooptekik if we two love them
nagligegooptekik if you two love them
naglegikpukik if they two love them
Plural
nagligegooptegik if we love them
nagligegoopsegik if you love them
naglegikpategik if they love them
nagligegoonekik (Rel.) if they love them
Inverse Form
Sing.
naglegitpānga if he loves me
naglegitpatit if he loves thee
Dual
naglegitpātegook if he loves us two
naglegitpātik if he loves you two
plural
naglegitpātegoot if he loves us
naglegitpāse if he loves you
Relative Inverse Form
Sing.
nagligegooninga if he loves me
nagligegoonetit if he loves thee
Dual
nagligegoonetegook if he loves us two
naglegegoonetik if he loves you two
Plural
nagligegoonetegoot if he loves us
nagligegoonese if he loves you
The First and Second Persons
1st Person singular and 2nd Person sing., dual and plural
nagligegoopkit if I love thee
nagligegooptik if I love you two
nagligegooptinga if you two love me
nagligegoopse if I love you
nagligegoopsinga if you love me
2nd Person singular and 1st Person sing., dual and plural
nagligegoovinga if thou lovest me
nagligegooptegook if thou lovest us two
nagligegooptekit if we two love thee
nagligegooptegoot if thou lovest us
nagligegooptegit if we love thee
1st Person dual and plural and 2nd Person dual and plural
nagligegooptik if we two love you two
nagligegooptegook if you two love us two
nagligegoopse if we love you
nagligegooptegoot if you love us
2nd Person dual and plural and 1st Person dual and plural
nagligegooptegoot if you two love us
nagligegooptik if we love you two
nagligegooptegook if you love us two
nagligegoopse if we two love you

Next new material: Infinitive.

Past Tense
nagligelauroopko if I loved him
nagligelaurooveook if thou loved him
nagligelaukpago if he loved him
nagligelaurooneook (Rel.) if he loved him
Dual
nagligelauroopteko if we two loved him
nagligelauroopteko if you two loved him
nagligelaukpako if they two loved him
Plural
nagligelaurooptego if we loved him
nagligelauroopseook if you loved him
nagligelaukpetyook if they loved him
72 nagligelaurooneko (Rel.) if they loved him
Dual Objective Form
nagligelauroopkik if I loved those two
nagligelauroovekik if thou loved those two
nagligelaukpagik if he loved those two
nagligelauroonegik (Rel.) if he loved those two
Dual
nagligelaurooptekik if we two loved those two
nagligelaurooptekik if you two loved those two
nagligelaukpakik if they two loved those two
Plural
nagligelaurooptekik if we loved those two
nagligelauroopsekik if you loved those two
nagligelaukpatekik if they loved those two
nagligelauroonekik (Rel.) if the loved those two
Plural Objective Form
Sing.
nagligelauroopkit if I loved them
nagligelauroovegit if thou loved them
nagligelaukpagit if he loved them
nagligelauroonegit (Rel.) if he loved them
Dual
nagligelaurooptekik if we two loved them
nagligelaurooptekik if you two loved them
nagligelaukpukik if they two loved them
Plural
nagligelaurooptegik if we loved them
nagligelauroopsegik if you loved them
nagligelaukpategik if they loved them
nagligelauroonekik (Rel.) if they loved then
Inverse Form
nagligelaukpānga if he loved me
nagligelaukpātit if he loved thee
Dual
nagligelaukpātegook if he loved us two
nagligelaukpātik if he loved you two
Plural
nagligelaukpātegoot if he loved us
nagligelaukpāse if he loved you
Relative Inverse Form
nagligelaurooninga if he loved me
nagligelauroonetit if he loved thee
Dual
nagligelauroonetegook if he loves us two
nagligelauroonetik if he loves you two
Plural
nagligelauroonetegoot if he loves us
nagligelauroonase if he loves you
The First and Second Persons
1st Person singular and 2nd Person sing., dual and plural
nagligelauroopkit if I loved thee
nagligelaurooptik if I loved you two
nagligelaurooptinga if you two loved me
nagligelauroopse if I loved you
nagligelauroopsinga if you loved me
2nd Person singular and 1st Person sing., dual and plural
nagligelauroovinga if thou loved me
nagligelaurooptegook if thou loved us two
nagligelaurooptekit if we two loved thee
nagligelaurooptegoot if thou loved us
nagligelaurooptegit if we loved thee
1st Person dual and plural and 2nd Person dual and plural
nagligelaurooptik if we two loved you two
nagligelaurooptegook if you two loved us two
nagligelauroopse if we loved you
nagligelaurooptegoot if you loved us.
73 2nd Person dual and plural and 1st Person dual and plural
nagligelaurooptegoot if you two loved us
nagligelaurooptik if we loved you two
nagligelaurooptegook if you loved us two
nagligelauroopse if we two loved you

The other forms are regular as—

Future
nagligenearoopko if I will or shall not love him
nagligenearooveook if thou wilt or shalt not love him
nagligeneakpago if he will or shall not love him
nagligenearooneook (Rel.) if he will or shall not love him
Variations of Future—First Form
nagligeyomāroopko if I will or shall not love him
nagligeyomārooveook if thou wilt or shalt not love him
nagligeyomākpago if he will or shall not love him
nagligeyomagooneook (Rel.) if he will or shall not love him
Second Form
nagligelāroopko if I will or shall not love him
nagligelārooveook if thou wilt or shalt not love him
nagligelākpago if he will or shall not love him
nagligelārooneook (Rel.) if he will or shall not love him
Potential Form
nagligeongnaroopko if I am able to love him
nagligeongnarooveook if thou art able to love him
nagligeongnakpago if he is able to love him
nagligeongnarooneook (Rel.) if he is able to love him
Optative Form
nagligeyomagoopko if I wish to love him
nagligeyomagooveook if thou wishest to love him
nagligeyomakpago if he wishes to love him
nagligeyomagooneook (Rel.) if he wishes to love him

[Future Variation First Form]
nagligeyomagooneook

Error for -yomā-.

Negative Form

Sing.
naglegingegoopko if I do not love him
naglegingegooveook if thou dost not love him
naglegingepago if he does not love him
naglegingegooneook (Rel.) if he does not love him
Dual
naglegingegoopteko if we two do not love him
naglegingegoopteko if you two do not love him
naglegingepako if they two do not love him
Plural
naglegingegooptego if we do not love him
naglegingegoopseook if you do not love him
naglegingepatyook if they do not love him
naglegingegooneko if they do not love him
Dual Objective Form
naglegingegoopkik if I do not love those two
naglegingegoovekik if thou dost not love those two
naglegingepagik if he does not love those two
naglegingegoonegik if he does not love those two
Dual
naglegingegooptekik if we two do not love those two
naglegingegooptekik if you two do not love those two
naglegingepakik if they two do not love those two
Plural
naglegingegooptekik if we do not love those two
naglegingegoopsekik if you do not love those two
naglegingepatekik if they do not love those two
naglegingegoonekik if they do not love those two
Plural Objective Form
naglegingegoopkit if I do not love then
naglegingegoovegit if thou dost not love then
naglegingepagit if he does not love them
naglegingegoonegit (Rel.) if he does not love them
74 Dual
naglegingegooptekik if we two do not love them
naglegingegooptekik if you two do not love them
naglegingepukik if they two do not love them
Plural
naglegingegooptegik if we do not love them
naglegingegoopsegik if you do not love them
naglegingepategik if they do not love them
naglegingegoonekik (Rel.) if they do not love them
Inverse Form
Sing.
naglegingepānga if he does not love me
naglegingepatit if he does not love thee
Dual
naglegingepātegook if he does not love us two
naglegingepatik if he does not love you two
Plural
naglegingepategoot if he does not love us
naglegingepāse if he does not love you
Relative Inverse Form
Sing.
naglegingegooninga if he does not love me
naglegingegoonetit if he does not love thee
Dual
naglegingegoonetegook if he does not love us two
naglegingegoonetik if he does not love you two
Plural
naglegingegoonetegoot if he does not love us
naglegingegoomase if he does not love you
The First and Second Persons
1st Person singular and 2nd Person sing., dual and plural
naglegingegoopkit if I do not love thee
naglegingegooptik if I do not love you two
naglegingegooptinga if you two do not love me
naglegingegoopse if I do not love you
naglegingegoopsinga if you do not love me
2nd Person singular and 1st Person sing., dual and plural
naglegingegoovinga if thou dost not love me
naglegingegooptegook if thou dost not love us two
naglegingegooptekit if we two do not love thee
naglegingegooptegoot if thou dost not love us
naglegingegooptegit if we do not love thee
1st Person dual and plural and 2nd Person dual and plural
naglegingegooptik if we two do not love you two
naglegingegooptegook if you two do not love us two
naglegingegoopse if we do not love you
naglegingegooptegoot if you do not love us
2nd Person dual and plural and 1st Person dual and plural
naglegingegooptegoot if you two do not love us
naglegingegooptik if we do not love you two
naglegingegooptegook if you do not love us two
naglegingegoopse if we two do not love you
Tense and Negation
Sing.
nagligelaungegoopko if I did not love him
nagligelaungegooveook if thou didst not love him
nagligelaungepago if he did not love him
nagligelaungegooneook (Rel.) if he did not love him
Dual
nagligelaungegoopteko if we two did not love him
nagligelaungegoopteko if you two did not love him
nagligelaungepuko if they two did not love him
Plural
nagligelaungegooptego if we did not love him
nagligelaungegoopseook if you did not love him
nagligelaungepatyook if they did not love him
nagligelaungegooneko (Rel.) if they did not love him
75 Dual Objective Form
nagligelaungegoopkik if I did not love those two
nagligelaungegoovekik if thou didst not love those two
nagligelaungepagik if he did not love those two
nagligelaungegoonegik (Rel.) if he did not love those two
Dual
nagligelaungegooptekik if we two did not love those two
nagligelaungegooptekik if you two did not love those two
nagligelaungepakik if they two did not love those two
Plural
nagligelaungegooptekik if we did not love those two
nagligelaungegoopsekik if you did not love those two
nagligelaungepatekik if they did not love those two
nagligelaungegoonekik (Rel.) if they did not love those two
Plural Objective Form
Sing.
nagligelaungegoopkit if I did not love them
nagligelaungegoovegit if thou didst not love them
nagligelaungepagit if he did not love them
nagligelaungegoonegit (Rel.)
Dual
nagligelaungegooptekik if we two did not love them
nagligelaungegooptekik if you two did not love them
nagligelaungepakik if they two did not love them
Plural
nagligelaungegooptegik if we did not love them
nagligelaungegoopsegik if you did not love them
nagligelaungepategik if they did not love them
nagligelaungegoonekik (Rel.) if they did not love them
Inverse Form
nagligelaungepānga if he did not love me
nagligelaungepātit if he did not love thee
Dual
nagligelaungepātegook if he did not love us two
nagligelaungepātik if he did not love you two
Plural
nagligelaungepategoot if he did not love us
nagligelaungepāse if he did not love you
Relative Inverse Form
Sing.
nagligelaungetgooninga if he did not love me
nagligelaungetgoonetit if he did not love thee
Dual
nagligelaungetgoonitegook if he did not love us two
nagligelaungetgoonetik if he did not love you two
Plural
nagligelaungetgoonitegoot if he did not love us
nagligelaungetgoonese if he did not love you

nagligelaungetgooninga etc.

The anomalous t at the end of the affix (nget) is in the original.

The First and Second Persons
1st Person singular and 2nd Person sing., dual and plural
nagligelaungegoopkit if I did not love thee
nagligelaungegooptik if I did not love you two
nagligelaungegooptinga if you two did not love me
nagligelaungegoopse if I did not love you
nagligelaungegoopsinga if You did not love me
2nd Person singular and 1st Person sing., dual and plural
nagligelaungegoovinga if thou didst not love me
nagligelaungegooptegook if thou didst not love us two
nagligelaungegooptekit if we two did not love the*e
nagligelaungegooptegoot if thou didst not love us
nagligelaungegooptegit if we did not love thee
1st Person dual and plural and 2nd Person dual and plural
nagligelaungegooptik if we two did not love you two
nagligelaungegooptegook if you two did not love us two
nagligelaungegoopse if we did not love you
nagligelatungegooptegoot if you did not love us
76 2nd Person dual and plural and 1st Person dual and plural
nagligelaungegooptegoot if you two did not love us
nagligelaungegooptik if we did not love you two
nagligelaungegooptegook if you did hot love us two
nagligelaungegoopse if we two did not love you

The future, Potential and Optative forms are regular as,

Future
nagligeneangegoopko if I will or shall not love him
nagligeneangegooveook if thou wilt or shalt not love him
nagligeneangepago if he will or shall not love him
nagligeneangegooneook (Rel.) if he will or shall not love him
Variations of Future—First Form
nagligeyomāngegoopko if I will or shall not love him
nagligeyomangegooveook if thou wilt or shalt not love him
nagligeyomāngepago if he will or shall not love him
nagligeyomāngegooneook (Rel.) if he will or shall not love him
Second Form
nagligelāngegoopko if he will or shall not love him
nagligelāngegooveook if thou wilt or shalt not love him
nagligelangepago if he will or shall not love him
nagligelāngegooneook if he will or shall not love him
Potential Form
nagligeongnangegoopko if I am not able to love him
nagligeongnangegooveook if thou art not able to love him
nagligeongnangepago if he is not able to love him
nagligeongnangegooneook (Rel.) if he is not able to love him
Optative Form
nagligeyomangegoopko if I do not wish to love him
nagligeyomangegooveook if thou dost not wish to love him
nagligeyomangepago if he does not wish to love him
nagligeyomangegooneook (Rel.) if he does not wish to love him

[Future Variation First Form]
nagligeyomangegooveook

Error for -yomā-.

The Infinitive or Participial Mood

Sing.
nagligelugo I to love or loving him
nagligelugo thou to love or loving him
nagligelugo he to love or loving him
The dual and plural are the same
Dual Objective Form
nagligelugik I to love or loving those two
nagligelugik thou to love or loving those two
nagligelugik he to love or loving those two
dual and plural do.
Plural Objective Form
nagligelugit I to love or loving them
nagligelugit thou to love or loving them
nagligelugit he to love or loving them
dual and plural do.
Inverse Form
Sing.
nagligelunga he to love or loving me
nagligelutit he to love or loving thee
Dual
nagligelunook he to love or loving us two
nagligelutik he to love or loving you two
Plural
nagligeluta he to love or loving us
nagligeluse he to love or loving you
The First and Second Persons
1st Person singular and 2nd Person sing., dual and plural
nagligelutit I to love or loving thee
nagligelutik I to love or loving you two
nagligelunga you two to love or loving me
nagligeluse I to love or loving you
nagligelunga you to love or loving me
2nd Person singular and 1st Person sing., dual and plural
nagligelunga thou to love or loving me
nagligelunook thou to love or loving up two
nagligelutit we two to love or loving thee
77 nagligeluta thou to love or loving us
nagligelutit we to love or loving thee
1st Person dual and plural and 2nd Person dual and plural
nagligelutik we two to love or loving you two
nagligelunook you two to love or loving us two
nagligeluse we to love or loving you
nagligeluta you to love or loving us
2nd Person dual and plural and 1st Person dual and plural
nagligeluta you two to love or loving us
nagligelutik we to love or loving you two
nagligelunook you to love or loving us two
nagligeluse we two to love or loving you

The dual and plural are the same

—as are all four persons. He doesn’t seem to have noticed the redundancy in the First and Second Person tables (18 rows, giving the same six forms listed under “Inverse Form”).

Negative Form
Sing.
nagleginnago or nagligetyennago, I not loving or not to love him
nagleginnago or nagligetyennago thou not loving or not to love him
nagleginnago or nagligetyennago he not loving or not to love him
dual and plural do.
Dual Objective Form
nagleginnagik or nagligetyennagik I not loving or not to love those two
nagleginnagik or nagligetyennagik thou not loving or not to love those two
nagleginnagik or nagligetyennagik he not loving or not to love those two
dual and plural do.
Plural Objective Form
nagleginnagit or nagligetyennagit I not loving or not to love them
nagleginnagit or nagligetyennagit thou not loving or not to love them
nagleginnagit or nagligetyennagit he not loving or not to love them
dual and plural do.

Er, Peck, you’re not finished. You forgot the remaining six forms (... me, us two, us; ... thee, you two, you). You would have had room if you hadn’t given each form three times.

Transitive Verb, Second Conjugation
Arehoktokpa—he teaches him

This differs but little from first conjugation. Tense is formed as in the intransitive verb toosakpok. Examples are here given in each mood.

The Indicative Mood

Present Tense
(Toosakpara) Arehoktokpara I teach him
(Toosakpat) Arehoktokpat thou teachest him
(Toosakpa) Arehoktokpa he teaches him
Inverse Form
(Toosakpānga) Arehoktokpānga he teaches me
(Toosakpātit) Arehoktokpātit he teaches thee
The First and Second Persons
(Toosakpagit) Arehoktokpagit I teach thee
(Toosakpaptik) Arehoktokpaptik I teach you two
Past Tense
(Toosalaukpara) Arehoktolaukkara I taught him
(Toosalaukpat) Arehoktolaukkat thou taught him
(Toosalaukpa) Arehoktolaukka he taught him
Inverse Form
(Toosalaukpānga) Arehoktokputtinga he taught me
(Toosalaukpatit) Arehoktolaukkātit he taught thee
78 The First and Second Persons
(Toosalaukpagit) Arehoktolaukkagit I taught thee
(Toosalaukpaptik) Arehoktolaukkaptik I taught you two
Negative Form
Present Tense
Toosatyangelara arehoktutyangelara I do not teach him
Toosatyangelat arehoktutyangelat thou dost not teach him
toosatyangela arehoktutyangela he does not teach him
Inverse Form
toosatyangelānga arehoktutyangelānga he does not teach me
toosatyangelātik arehoktutyangelātit he does not teach me
The First and Second Persons
toosatyangelagit arehoktutyangelagit I do not teach thee
toosatyangelaptik arehoktutyangelaptik I do not teach you two
Past Tense
toosalautyangelara arehoktulautyangelara I did not teach him
toosalautyangelat arehoktulautyangelat thou didst not teach him
toosalantyangela arehoktulautyangela he did not teach him.
Inverse Form
toosalautyangelānga arehoktulautyangelanga he did not teach me
toosalautyangelātit arehoktulautyangelātit he did not teach thee
The First and Second Persons
toosalautyangelagit arehoktulautyangelagit I did not teach thee
toosalautyangelaptik arehoktulautyangelaptik I did not teach you two

Interrogative Mood

Present Tense
arehoktokpara? Do I teach him?
arehoktokpēook? Dost thou teach him?
arehoktokpa? Does he teach him?
Inverse Form
arehoktokpānga Does he teach me?
arehoktokpātit Does he teach thee?
The First and Second Persons
arehoktokpagit? Do I teach thee?
arehoktokpaptik Do I teach you two?
arehoktokpetinga Do you two teach me?
Past Tense
arehoktolaukkara? Did I teach him?
arehoktolaukkaeook Didst thou teach him?
arehoktolaukka Did I teach him?
Inverse Form
arehoktolaukkānga Did he teach me?
arehoktolaukkātit Did he teach thee?
The First and Second Persons
arehoktolaukkagit Did I touch thee?
arehoktolaukkaptik Did I teach you two?
arehoktolaukketinga Did you two teach me?
Negative Form
Present Tense
arehoktutyangelara? Do I not teach him?
arehoktutyangelat? Dost thou not teach him?
arehoktutyangela? Does he not teach him?
79 arehoktutyangelānga Does he not teach me?
arehoktutyangelātit Does he not teach thee?
The First and Second Persons
arehoktutyangelagit Do I not teach thee?
arehoktutyangelaptik Do I not teach you two?
arehoktutyangeletinga Do you two not teach me?
Past Tense
arehoktulautyangelara? Did I not teach him?
arehoktulautyangelat? Didst thou not teach him?
arehoktulautyangela Did he not teach him?
Inverse Form
arehoktulautyangelānga Did he not teach me?
arehoktulautyangelātit Did he not teach thee?
The First and Second Persons
arehoktulautyangelagit? Did I not teach thee?
arehoktulautyangelaptik Did I not teach you two?
arehoktulautyangeletinga Did you two not teach me?

The Imperative Mood

First person wanting.
Toosalanook arehoktolauook teach thou him
toosagleook arehoktoleook Let him teach him
Plural
toosaglavoot arehoktolavoot Let us teach him
toosakseook arehoktokseook teach ye him
toosaklityook arehoktolityook Let them teach him
Inverse
toosaglānga arehoktolānga Let him teach me
toosaglātit arehoktolātit Let him teach thee
The First and Second Persons
toosaglagit arehoktorlagit Let me teach thee
toosaglaptik arehoktorlaptik Let me teach you two
toosaktinga arehoktoktinga Ye two teach me
toosaglapse arehoktorlapse Let me teach you
toosaksinga arehoktoksinga Teach ye me.

First person wanting.

The first line of the table gives the first-person forms; it is the second-person forms that are missing. See naglik for the rest of the conjugation.

Table layout garbled, with a superflous “teach”:

page image

Toosalanook

Error for uook (i.e. vook).

Subjunctive Mood—First Form

toosarapko arehoktorapko because I teach him
toosaraveook arehoktoraveook because thou teachest him
toosangmago arehoktongmago because he teaches him
toosarameook arehoktorameook (Rel.) because he teaches him
Inverse Form
toosangmānga arehoktongmānga because he teaches me
toosangmātit ārehoktongmātit because he teaches thee
80 Relative Inverse Form
Toosaraminga arehoktoraminga because he teaches me
toosarametit arehoktorametit because he teaches thee
The First and Second Persons
toosarapkit arehoktorapkit because I teach thee
toosaraptik arehoktoraptik because I teach you two
Past Tense
toosalaurapko arehoktolaurapko because I taught him
arehoktolauraveook because thou taught him
arehoktolaungmago because he taught him
arehoktolaurameook because he taught him
Inverse Form
toosalaungmānga arehoktolaungmānga because he taught me
arehoktolaungmātit because he taught thee
Relative Inverse Form
toosalauraminga arehoktolauraminga because he taught me
arehoktolaurametit because he taught thee
The First and Second Persons
toosalaurapkit arehoktolaurapkit because I taught thee
arehoktolauraptik because I taught you two
Negative Form
arehoktutyangenapko because I do not teach him
arehoktutyangenaveook because thou dost not teach him
arehoktutyangemago because he does not teach him
arehoktutyangemameook (Rel.) because he does not teach him
Inverse Form
arehoktutyangemānga because he does not teach me
arehoktutyangemātit because he does not teach thee
Relative Inverse Form
arehoktutyangenaminga because he does not teach me
arehoktutyangemametit because he does not teach thee
The First and Second Persons
arehoktutyangenapkit because I do not teach thee
arehoktutyangenaptik because I do not teach you two
Past Tense
arehoktulautyangenapko because I did not teach him
arehoktulautyangenaveook because thou didst not teach him
arehoktulautyangemago because he did not each him
arehoktulautyangenameook (Rel.) because he did not teach him
Inverse Form
arehoktulautyangemānga because he did not teach me
arehoktulautyangemātit because he did not teach thee
Relative Inverse Form
arehoktulautyangenaminga because he did not teach me
arehoktulautyangemametit because he did not teach thee
The First and Second Persons
arehoktulautyangenapkit because I did not teach thee
arehoktulautyangenaptik because I did not teach you two

arehoktutyangemameook

Error for -nameook

arehoktutyangemametit ... arehoktulautyangemametit

Error for -nametit

Second Form of Subjunctive Mood

Present Tense
arehoktoroopko if I teach him
arehoktorooveook if thou teachest him
arehoktokpago if he teaches him.
arehoktorooveook (Rel.) if he teaches him.
Inverse Form
arehoktokpānga if he teaches me
arehoktokpātit if he teaches thee
Relative Inverse Form
arehoktorooninga if he teaches me
arehoktoroonetit if he teaches thee
81 The First and Second Persons
arehoktoroopkit if I teach thee
arehoktorooptik if I teach you two
Past Tense
arehoktolauroopko if I taught him
arehoktolaurooveook if thou taught him
arehoktolaukpago if he taught him
arehoktolaurooneook (Rel.) if he taught him
Inverse Form
arehoktolaukpānga if he taught me
arehoktolaukpātit if he taught thee
Relative Inverse Form
arehoktolaurooninga if he taught me
arehoktolauroonetit if he taught thee
The First and Second Persons
arehoktolauroopkit if I taught thee
arehoktolaurooptik if I taught you two
Negative Form
Present Tense
arehoktongegoopko if I do not teach him
arehoktongegooveook if thou dost not teach him
arehoktolaungepago if he does not teach him
arehoktongegooneook (Rel.) if he does not teach him
Inverse Form
arehoktongepānga if he does not teach me
arehoktongepātit if he does not teach thee
Relative Inverse Form
arehoktongegooninga if he does not teach me
arehoktongegoonetit if he does not teach thee
The First and Second Persons
arehoktongegoopkit if I do not teach thee
arehoktongegooptik if I do not teach you two
Past Tense
arehoktolaungegoopko if I did not teach him
arehoktolaungegooveook if thou didst not teach him
arehoktolaungepago if he did not teach him
arehoktolaungegooneook if he did not
Inverse Form
arehoktolaungepānga if he did not teach me
arehoktolaungepātit if he did not teach thee
Relative Inverse Form
arehoktolaungegooninga if he did not teach me
arehoktolaungegoonetit if he did not teach thee
The First and Second Persons
arehoktolaungegoopkit if I did not teach thee
arehoktolaungegooptik if I did not teach you two

The Infinitive or Participial Mood

arehoktorlugo I to teach or teaching him
arehoktorlugo thou to teach or teaching him
arehoktorlugo he to teach or teaching him
dual and plural do.
Dual Objective Form
arehoktorlugik I to teach or teaching those two
remaining persons do.
Plural Objective Form
arehoktorlugit I to teach or teaching them
Negative Form
arehoktorngnago I not teaching or not to teach him
remainder do.
Dual Objective Form
arehoktorngnagik I not teaching or not to teach those two
remainder do.
Plural Objective Form
arehoktorngnagit I not teaching or not to teach them

Again, as with naglik, he forgets the remaining Infinitive forms (first and second person “object”), both positive and negative.

82

Varieties of Transitive Verb

The action of transitive verbs may be variously qualified by the use of the following adverbial and other particles.

kova commands, orders him (to do so and so) as,

nerreva, he eats it;

nerrekova, he orders him to eat it;

aglakpa, he writes it;

aglakkova, he orders, commands him to write it.

yoreva, thinks, considers that he does so and so, or that it is such a person or thing, as,

innuk, a human being, an Eskimo;

innuyoreva, he thinks he is an Eskimo,

tekkova he sees him;

tekkoyoreva, he thinks, imagines he sees him.

yuksareva (to verbs in second conjugation) tuksareva, ought, should, do so and so to him, as

nagligeva, he loves him;

nagligeyuksareva, he ought to love him;

arehoktokpa, he teaches him;

arehoktutuksareva, he ought to teach him;

toosakpa, he hears him,

toosaktuksareva, he ought to hear him.

verbs in second conjugation

Here and below, the meaning of “first” and “second” conjugation is opposite to that used in the Intransitive Verbs section.

Vukpa (to verbs in second conjugation) pukpa, generally does so and so to him, as,

tekkova, he sees him,

tekkovukpa, he generally sees him; is accustomed to see him;

erkaumava, he remembers him,

erkaumavukpa, he generally remembers him;

toosakpa, he hears him,

toosakpukpa, he generally hears him

signakpa, always does — to him, as

nagligeva, he loves him;

nagligetsignakpa, he always loves him;

ikkarukpa, he helps him,

ikkaruksignakpa, he always helps him, he helps him as usual.

kākpa, does — to him first, as,

tekkova, he sees him,

tekkokākpa, he sees him first (i.e. before he saw another person.)

sennava he makes it,

sennakākpa, he makes it first.

Tignakpa does — to him for the first time, as

tekkova, he sees him,

tekkotignakpa, he sees him for the first time.

Nashooakpa, endeavors to do — to him, as

tekkova, he sees him;

tekkonashooakpa, he endeavors, tries to see him;

kauremava, he knows him;

kauremanashooakpa, he endeavors to know it or him

seakpa, does — to him correctly, well, as

tekkova, he sees him,

tekkotseakpa, he sees him well;

kauremava, he knows him;

kaurematseakpa, he knows it well;

toosakpa, he hears it;

toosatseakpa, he hears it correctly, well.

galloakpa, indeed does — to him, as

okpereva, he believes him;

okperegalloakpa, indeed he believes him;

arehoktokpa, he teaches him;

arehoktogalloakpa, indeed he teaches him.

Kapetpa, does — to him soon, as

kauremava, he knows him;

kauremakapetpa, he knows him soon.

yangnērkpa, does — to him no more, no longer, as

issumageva, he thinks of him;

issumagetyangnērkpa, he thinks of him no more.

Tuenakpa, only does — to him, as

nagligeva, he loves him;

nagligetwenakpa, he only loves him;

issumageva, he thinks of him;

issumagetuenakpa, he only thinks of him.

The different kinds of transitive verbs here treated of are conjugated as the verbs nagligeva and arehoktokpa. A few examples are here given in first person singular.

Nerrekovara I command him to eat it

Inverse

nerrekovānga he commands me to eat it

Past

nerrekolaukkara I commanded him to eat it

Negative

nerrekongegoopko If I do not command him to eat it

83

Past

nerrekolaungegoopko If I did not command him to eat it

Infinitive Mood

nerrekolugo to command or commanding him to eat it.

The particles may also be joined together as in the intransitive verb e.g.

kauremava he knows him

with auxiliary verbal particle nashooak.

kauremanashooakpa he endeavors to know him or it

with adverbial particle puk

kauremanashooakpukpa he generally tries to know him

With future particle neak

kauremanashooakpungneakpa he will usually try to know him

with negative particle yange

kauremanashooakpungneatyangela he will not generally try to know him.

with conjunctive particle lo

kauremanashooakpungneatyangelalo, And he will not generally try to know him.

nagligeva he loves him

with optative particle yoma

nagligeyomava he wishes to love him

with adverbial particle signakpa

nagligeyomatsignakpa he always wishes to love him

with negative particle yange

nagligeyomatsignatyangela he does not always wish to love him.

Of the Passive Verb

Passive verbs are generally formed by the addition of the particles tou and you to the roots of transitive verbs, the transitive inflection is also dropped, and the verbs are then conjugated after the manner of intransitive verbs e.g.

peuleva, he saves him;

peuleyouvok, he is saved;

nagligeva, he loves him;

nagligeyouvok, he is loved,

ikkarukpa, he helps him;

ikkaruktouvok, he is helped.

The Passive verb is here conjugated in the Singular

Next new material: Middle Voice.

peuleyouvoonga I am saved
peuleyouvotit thou art saved
peuleyouvok he is saved
Past
peuleyoulaukkoonga or p. I was saved
peuleyoulaukotit thou wast saved
peuleyoulaukkok he was saved
Future
peuleyouneakkoonga I shall or will be saved
peuleyouneakkotit thou shalt or wilt be saved
peuleyouneakkok he shall or will be saved
Negative Form
peuleyoutyangelanga I am not saved
peuleyoutyangelatit thou art not saved
peuleyoutyangelak he is not saved
Tense & Negation
peuleyoulautyangelanga I was not saved
peuleyoulautyangelatit thou wast not saved
peuleyoulautyangelak he was not saved
Interrogative Mood
peuleyouvoonga? Am I saved?
peuleyouvēt? Art thou saved?
peuleyouva? Is he saved?
Imperative Mood
peuleyoule Let him be saved
84 Subjunctive Mood First Form
peuleyougama because I am saved
peuleyougavit because thou art saved
peuleyoungmut because he is saved
peuleyougame (Rel.) because he is saved
Past
peuleyoulaurama because I was saved
peuleyoulouravit because thou wast saved
peuleyoulaungmut because he was saved
peuleyoulaurame (Rel.) because he was saved
Negative Form
peuleyoutyangenama because I am not saved
peuleyoutyangenavit because thou art not saved
peuleyoutyangemut because he is not saved
peuleyoutyangename because he is not saved
Tense and Negation
peuleyoulautyangenama because I was not saved
peuleyoulautyangenavit because thou wast not saved
peuleyoulautyangemut because he was not saved
peuleyoulautyangename because he was not saved
Subjunctive Mood Second Form
peuleyougooma if I am saved
peuleyougoovit if thou art saved
peuleyoukput if he is saved
peuleyougoone (Rel.) if he is saved
Past Tense
peuleyoulaurooma if I was saved
peuleyoulauroovit if thou wast saved
peuleyoulaukput if he was saved
peuleyoulauroone (Rel.) if he was saved
Negative Form
peuleyoungegooma if I am not saved
peuleyoungegoovit if thou art not saved
peuleyoungeput if he is not saved
peuleyoungegoone (Rel.) if he is not saved
Tense and Negation
peuleyoulaungegooma if I was not saved
peuleyoulaungegoovit if thou was not saved
peuleyoulaungeput if he was hot saved
peuleyoulaungegoone (Rel.) if he was not saved
Infinitive Mood
peuleyouvloonga I being saved or to be saved
peuleyouvlutit you being saved or to be saved
peuleyouvlune he being saved or to be saved
The Reciprocal Form

This is conjugated as the Passive Verb. The particle hattoute expressing the reciprocal action as,

Dual
peulerhattoutevogook we two save each other
peulerhattoutevotik you two save each other
peulerhattoutevook they two save each other
Plural
peulerhattoutevogoot we save each other
peulerhattoutevose you save each other
peulerhattoutevoot they save each other

Of the Middle Voice

This is formed by dropping the terminations of purely (exclusively) transitive verbs and substituting intransitive terminations instead as,

omigeva, he hates him;

omigevok, he hates himself,

peuleva, he saves him;

peulevok, he saves himself.

The compound personal pronouns (oovamnik myself &c.) are also often used with this voice e.g.

85
Sing.
peulevoonga oovumnik I save myself
peulevotit illingnik thou savest thyself
peulevok ingmenik he saves himself
Dual
peulevogook oovaptingnik we two save ourselves
peulevotik illiptingnik you two save yourselves
peulevook ingmenik they two save themselves
Plural
peulevogoot oovaptingnik wo save ourselves
peulevose illipsingnik you save yourselves
peulevoot ingmenik they save themselves

This verb may be conjugated throughout as an intransitive verb of second conjugation, as,

peulegama oovumnik because I save myself
peulegooma oovamnik if I save myself &c. &c.

an intransitive verb of second conjugation

That is, reverting to the Intransitive definition of “second conjugation” (stem in a vowel).

Examples of Transitive Verb

Innooēt illoonatik kauremayukka, I know all the Eskimo;

tamounga kītsuta tuktooēt sittamut tekkelaukkavoot, Coming this way we saw four deer;

Goode okperegooptego kumageneakkatēgoot, If we believe in God, he will care for us;

kaukput tekkolakkagit, I shall see thee tomorrow;

Goode Innooēt illoonatik peuleyomavāt, God wishes to save all the Eskimo.

Interrogative Mood

Innooēt illoonatik kauremavātegoot? Do all the Eskimo know us?

Arehoktueye tekkolaukkēook? Didst thou see the minister?

innooēt illunget arehoktongneakkegit? Wilt thou teach some of the Eskimo?

Goode Innooēt illoonatik peuleongnakkīte? Is God able to save all the Eskimo?

Imperative Mood

Goodib nagligelaungmase attai naglegisseook, because God loved you, now then love ye him;

Goodib okousinget arehoktolaukit, teach them God’s word;

tamukkoa ahikyēt āloukit neooverashooakvingmut, put these partridges into the trading shop;

arehoktueye ikkarulauook innooēt arehoktorlugit, help the minister to teach the Eskimo.

Subjunctive Mood, First Form

Goodib innooet illoonatik nagligegamegit ernimenik tamounga tikketitselaukkok innooēt peuleyomavlugit, because God loved all the Eskimo he sent his son this way (to the world) wishing to save them.

Goode kau tamat kumagingmātegoot nagligetsignaglutalo, Goode timak nagligeyuksaregalloakkavoot innoniptinne, Because God cares for us every day and always loves us, so we ought to love God in our lives.

timak

That is, tīmak (tai-)

Second Form

Goode okperegooptego mallingnashooarooptego, Goode nakoreneakkātegoot, if we believe in God, if we endeavor to obey him, God will be pleased with us;

angerokak killeleakseokvingmētok tekkogooveook, okouteneakkat innooēt kaktokrongmetta, If thou seest the master (H. B. Co.’s officer) who is at G. W. R.* thou wilt tell him that the Eskimo are very hungry;

arehoktueye tekkogooveook arehoktorngneakkātit, if thou seest the minister, he will teach thee;

innooēt tekkegoopsegik okouteneakkase Jesusemik, if you see the Eskimo you will tell them of Jesus.

* G. W. R. means Great Whale River.

Infinitive Mood

Tamounga tikkesimavoonga innooēt arehoktorlugit Jesusemik, I have come this way to teach the Eskimo of Jesus;

Goode nagligelugo issumagelugolo okperelugolo timak pegoovit (illupkut) oolapirksoutehangneakkotit, loving God and thinking of him and believing in him, so if thou doest (this) thou wilt have peace,

kannok pinneaktukeouvētā? Goode nakorelugo? What must we do to please God?

pinneaktukeouvētā?

The mid-sentence question mark may be a mistake.

86
Varieties of Transitive Verb

Illoonata Goode nagligeyuksaregalloakkavoot, indeed we all ought to love God;

Goode okpekseaktut kumagitsignangneakkite, God will always care for the true believers; (lit, those who believe well)

attā tamna sennakālanook now then make that first (i.e. before something else)

tekkotignakkēook? Is this the first tine thou seest it?

aglatit kaurematseakkēgit? Dost thou know thy books well?

The Passive Voice

peuleyougoopta Jesusib aunganut, issuaktomik innonashooaroopta innoniptinne tegga tokkogoopta Goodemut īneakkogoot, if we are saved with Jesus’ blood, if we endeavor to live well in our lives, then if (when) we die we will go to God;

tapsomunga ikkaruktoulakkēt? by whom shall thou be helped?

The Reciprocal Form

nagligerhattoutegoopta ikkaruktoutegooptalo innoniptinne pidloreneakkogoot, if we love each other, and if we help each other in our lives, we will be happy,

attā nagligerhattouteleritse, now then love (ye) each other;

innooēt nagligerhattoutevāt? Do the Eskimo love each other?

The Middle Voice

Innooēt illunget innokatimenik ikkarutyangelet, kisseane ingmenik issumagsvoot, some of the Eskimo do not help their neighbors; they only think of themselves;

arongnemik pingashooarooma, omigevoonga, if I sin (lit. endeavor to sin) I hate myself (am grieved with myself.)

The Adverb

In the table of adverbs, all “Baffin Land“ forms have been shifted to a separate column. As with the pronouns, the default (unmarked) forms are “Hudson Bay”.

Hudson Bay Baffin Land
1st. Adverbs of Interrogation
Kunga? when?
Nauk? where?
Nanepā where is he?
kannok? how?
kannogle? but how?
kapsinik? jow many?
sōg? why?
2nd. Adverbs of Time—Present
tīma manna now
teggategga manakuluk now, just now,
ooblome to-day (lit. into day)
3rd. Adverbs of Time—Past
tīmongāt since
nootaungetome formerly
akkono a long time ago
akkoneāluk a very long time ago
sivorngane before
kingorngane afterwards
ooblāk this morning
ikpuksak or ikpukshak yesterday
ikpuksāne (or ikpusāne) the day before yesterday
akkane last year
akkanipsāne the year before last
4. Adverbs of time—Future
manna Ouatsearo by and by
killamekuluk or killemeatrāluk Ouatsea­kunuk a very little while
(manakrook) presently
killame soon
koukput to-morrow
koukputsākput the day after to-morrow
5. Adverbs of Time—Indefinite
issohangetomit issohangetomut for ever and ever
illāne sometimes
87 Ooblokut throughout the day
6. Adverbs of Place
ikkane there
manē or tamāne here
tavane there (in the north)
tarreob senneāne near the water (sea)
kanniktome near
Ongatānut beyond
illoonāne everywhere
Attāne below
Ongasiktoraut far off
kollāne above
7. Adverbs of Quantity
Mikkeyomik a little
Illoonāt Tamungmik the whole
illanga part
8. Adverbs of Quality and Manner
adyegēktomik (or adyegēk) alike
adyegē­ngetomik different
tīmak right, so, thus
Ama again
Twave quickly
imāk in this manner (as one says or does)
sorglo even
9. Adverbs of Affirmation
Illa amilak just so, as you say, truly
Illale Amīlatseak truly, certainly, to be sure.
Ahila yes (used by northern Eskimo)
Ah yes
akshoot quite right, certainly, just as you say.
ahouna do.
10. Adverbs of Negation
(aukak) auka Aggī no
peyahatya­ngelak none at all (lit. it has nothing)
11. Adverbs of Doubt.
(Atchuk) (shogame) I don’t know
(Atchugle) but I don’t know
Immukka perhaps

[Time—Indefinite]
issohangetomit issohangetomut

I had to look this up. It breaks down to: isu (end) + -qaq- + -nngit- + -tuq + case endings.

N.B. Many adverbs of manner &c. are expressed by particles inserted in the verb, or by the use of verb in the infinitive Mood. See the varieties of transitive and intransitive verb and infinitive verb mood.

When answering negative questions the Eskimo use the negative or affirmative adverbs (yes or no) in just the opposite manner to ourselves e.g. netseha­tyangelatit? Hast thou not got a seal? aukak, netsehakkoonga, No. I have got a seal or Ah, netseha­tyangelanga, yes, I have not got a seal instead of yes, I have got a seal or no, I have not got a seal.

N.B. The affirmation or negation must be looked for in the verb not in the Adverbs of negation or affirmation. This note will help one in reference to this peculiar idiomatic formation.

Many adverbs of manner

As with adjectives, this means: many concepts that in English would be expressed with etc.

Examples of the Adverb

kunga tikkeneakkēt? When wilt thou arrive?

ernēt nanepā Where is thy son?

Kapinik tuktunik tekkolaukkēse, How many deer did you see?

Kunga tikkelaukkēt When didst thou arrive?

ikpuksak tikkelaukkoonga, I arrived yesterday;

tikkeneatyangelak manna, he will not arrive (until) by and by;

ongasiktoraut ineakkogoot, he will go far away (lit. to the distance)

nerkemik mikkeyomik peyomavoonga, I want a little food, meat;

twave akpungelerit run thou quickly;

imāk pingashooangneakkotit, in this manner thou wilt work.

88

Conjunctions

Tīmāmet therefore
tegga then

The following conjunctions are affixed to the words to which they belong:—

Lo, and; oovoonga, I; oovoongalo, and I
Le, but; oona, this; oonale, but this
tauk, also; timak, so; timaktauk, so also.
lōnēt, or; Oovoonga, I; Oovoongalōnēt, or I

A verbal conjunctive affix gōk, (he says so and so) is also joined to words as the above e.g.

tikkeneakkogōk, he will arrive, he says;

kaurematyangelarōk he does not know, he says;

timak, so that is, right.

timagōk, he says so; he says it is right;

oovoonga, I,

oovoongagōk, he says I.

Prepositions

Illuāne inside
kangāne on the top
kollāne above
attane beneath, under
Avatā outside, around
kanniktome close, near
akkorngane between
kittingane in the middle
senneane by the side of
sāngane in the front of
tunnoane at the back of
akkeane on the other side
sillame outside
Oonunga
(Baffin Land)
seaward, downward
(Samunga)
takpounga landward, upward.

Samunga and takpounga may be used as demonstrative pronouns and the remainder (sometimes) take cases as possessive pronouns e.g.

kanganut, to the top;

avatāgoot, through (the) outside;

senneanut to the side;

samungat, from the sea;

pangat, from the land.

Examples

Attā ilekta akkeanut, now then, let us go to the other side;

namut ineakkēt, where wilt thou go?

samunga, seaward, towards the sea;

takpounga noonakut ineakkēt Wilt thou go upward through the land?

Ah, neakkoonga, yes I will.

ilekta ... ineakkēt

That is, īlekta, īneakkēt (ai-).

The Interjections

Ē, Ē! How good, thanks!
nakkongmēk! Thanks! How thankworthy!
(Innukko) How sad! How unpleasant
Toosoonamēk How pleasant (i.e. to hear)
Alleanī! How pleasant
Kooranī! How kind! How agreeable!
Nāla. Listen!
(Ōk). Behold
tekkoēt (Baffin Land) Look! See!
(Auka-teggane!) How provoking! it is too bad!
Nange Danger!
Attai Now then! Come along (do so and so)
(tappaninmik) How wonderful! How awful!
Tappanit­twatralooēt! What wonderful things!
(Ālatralooēt) What vexatious things!
Neārāme How surprising! How wonderful!
(Neāmut) What next! How strange!
Aneanī How painful!
Kappeanakto­haktak­tugelloak How awful!

Auka-teggane!

Hyphen in the original.

Syntax

In the Eskimo tongue we have not only to arrange words in sentences but we have also to form compound words by the insertion of adverbial and other particles; syntax 89 therefore may be divided into two parts— 1st the formation of compound words; 2nd— the arrangement of words in sentences.

Syntax

Oh, oops, we’ve only got four sheets of paper left. Better say something about how to use this language.

On the Formation of Compound Words

Compound words are formed by the addition of particles to verbal root, or the particles themselves may be joined together as required, as,

kauremavok, he knows;

kaurematseakpok, he knows (something) correctly, well,

kaurematseangneakkok, he will know (something) correctly, well.

The verbal roots are divided into two classes— 1st. Those ending in a vowel— 2nd— those ending in a consonant.

In what follows, I think Peck is factually incorrect. Phonetic behavior at morpheme boundaries is generally determined by the second element, not the first. The Germans understood this.

1st Class: Verbal Roots Ending in a Vowel

Verbal roots ending in a vowel take the particles as follows:—

1. Many are added to the vowel, as

nerrevok, he eats;

nerreneakkok, he will eat;

nerreva, he eats it;

nerrekova, he commands him to eat it,

kīvok, he comes;

kinashooakpok, he endeavors to come;

kinashooarame, because he endeavors to come.

2. Some add consonants to verbal root before the addition of particles as,

kauremavok, he knows;

kaurematyangelak, he does not know;

kaurematyangename, because he does not know;

issumavok, he thinks;

issumatseakpok, he thinks well, correctly;

nerrevok, he eats;

nerretsignakpok, he always eats;

nerringorkpok, he is tired of eating;

2nd Class: Verbal Roots Ending in a Consonant

These take the particles as follows:

1. Some drop their final consonants before taking the particles, as,

toosakpok, he hears;

toosalaukpok, he heard;

pingashooakpok, he works;

pingashooamarikpok, he works ably;

pingashooamarikgame, because he works ably.

2. Some retain final consonant, as,

okpekpok, he believes

okpektuksouvok, he ought to believe;

pissukpok, he walks,

pissukpidleavok, he almost walks;

pissukpidlearame, because he almost walks.

3. Some change final consonant, as

ohakpok, he speaks,

ohatyangelak, he does not speak;

ohatseakpok, he speaks correctly;

toosakpok he hears;

toosangneakkok, he will hear;

meroakpok, he climbs;

meroangnashooakpok, he endeavors to climb;

On the Combination of Particles

These are joined together in the following manner. Should the final letter of first particle be a vowel then the other particle is attached as if joined to verbal root ending in a vowel. The opposite being the case should the particle end in a consonant e.g.

1st. Particles Ending in a Vowel

Root—Nerre

With transitive verbal inflection

Nerreva he eats it

With verbal particle ko

Nerrekova he commands him to eat it

With future particle neak

Nerrekoneakka he will command him to eat it

Example of particle which adds to final vowel—

Root—Issuma

With intransitive verbal inflection—

issumavok He thinks

With adverbial particle tuenau

issumatuenauvok he only thinks.

With negative particle yange

issumatuenautyangelak he does not only think

2. Particles Ending in a Consonant

A. Those which drop final consonant.

Root—toosak

with verbal formation.

toosakpok, he hears

with past tense lauk

toosalaukkok (or pok) he heard

90

With adverbial partible re

Toosalaurevok he heard again

B. Particles retaining final consonant.

Root—Okpek

with verbal formation

okpekpok, he believes

With adverbial particle puk.

Okpekpukpok He generally believes,

With auxiliary verbal particle tuksou

Okpekpuktuksouvok he ought generally to believe

C. Particles changing final consonant.

Root—Toosak

With verbal formation:

Toosakpok he hears

With future tense neak:

Toosangneakkok (or pok) he will hear

With negative particle yange

Toosangneatyangelak he will not hear

The same formation takes place should three or more particles be inserted e.g.

Root—issuma

With verbal formation

issumavok he thinks

With adverbial particle tuenau

issumatuenauvok he only thinks

With future particle neak

issumatuenauneakkok (or pok) he will only think.

With Neg. Particle yange,

issumatuenauneatyangelak he will not only think

With adverbial particle tugelloak

issumatuenauneatyangettugelloak, Indeed he will not only think.

Root—Kaurema

With verbal formation:

kauremavok he knows.

With verbal particle nashooak

kauremanashooakpok, he tries to know

With adverbial particle puk

kauremanashooakpungnoakkok, he will generally try to know.

With negative particle yange,

kauremanashooakpungneatyangelak he will not generally try to know,

With verbal conjunctive particle rōk, he says (so and so)

kauremanashooakpungneatyangelarōk he will not generally try to know he says.

See other examples under varieties of transitive and intransitive verb.

Of the Order in which Particles are Placed

1. The verbal particles nashooak, ork and gosuk stand before the adverbial as

Meroakpok he climbs

With verbal particle nashooak

Meroangnashooakpok he tries to climb

With adverbial particle puk.

Meroangnashooakpukpok he generally tries to climb.

nerrevok he eats,

With verbal particle ork

nerringorkpok he is tired of eating

With adverbial particle sīgnak

nerringorksīgnakpok he is always tired of eating.

naglikpok he loves

With verbal particle gosuk

naglegosukpok he is inclined to love.

With adverbial particle puk

naglegosukpukpok he is generally inclined to love.

91

2. The adverbial particles stand before the time, as,

tikkepok he arrives

With adverbial particle—

tikkepukpok he generally arrives, is accustomed to arrive.

With future particle neak

tikkepungneakkok (or pok) he will generally arrive

kauremavok he knows

With adverbial particle Seak.

kaurematseakpok he knows well, correctly.

With future particle neak

kaurematseangnoakkok (or pok) he will know well, correctly

3. The time particles are placed before the negative as,

tekkova he sees him

With future tense neak

tekkoneakka (or pa) He will see him

With negative particle yange

tekkoneatyangela he will not see him

4. Conjunctions always come after verbal inflections, as,

tekkovalo And he sees him

tekkoneakkalo But he will see him

tekkonoatyangelalotauk and he will not also see him.

2nd Part—The Arrangement of Words in Sentences

General Rules

1. An intransitive verb must agree with its nominative in number, and person, as,

Tamna innuk tikkepok That Eskimo (man) he arrives
Tapkoa innok tikkepook Those two Eskimo they (two) arrive
Tapkoa innooēt tikkepoot Those Eskimo they arrive.

2. Two singular nouns connected by the conjunction lo (and) require the verb to be in the dual, as,

Johnase Jameselo audlaneakkook (or p)— John and James they (two) will go away.

3. Three or more singular nouns connected by the conjunction lo require the verb to be in the plural as,

Johnase, Jameselo Josephelo audluneakkoot (or p.)—John and James and Joseph they will go away.

4. If two verbs are used (one being in the subjunctive and the other in the Indicative Mood) and each verb has the same agent then the verb in the Subjunctive Mood takes the relative form, as

innooēt kabloonanik tekkogamik nakuksangneakkoot (or p). When the Eskimo see the foreigners they (viz. the Eskimo) will be pleased.

5. If two verbs are used (one being in the subjunctive and the other in the Indicative Mood) and the agent in one verb is different from the agent in the other, then the general form of subjunctive mood is used, as,

Innooēt tikkipetta, nakuksalakkogoot (or p) when the Eskimo arrive we will be pleased.

6. Singular nouns when used as agents with transitive verbs take the genitive form, as,

Goodib innooēt nagligevāt, God loves the Eskimo.

7. Demonstrative pronouns in the singular and all possessive pronouns take the genitive form when used with transitive verbs, as

tapsoma nagligevāt, that one loves them;

peuleyipta Jesusib innooēt illoonatik peuleyomavāt, Jesus our Saviour wishes to save all the Eskimo.

Singular nouns

Also dual and plural; the forms just happen to be identical. So items 6 and 7 are all the same rule.

all possessive pronouns

Here as elsewhere, “possessive pronouns” means nouns with possessive endings.

On the other hand, Peck gets points for saying “agent” instead of the more common but less accurate “subject”.

Of the Order of Words in Sentences

The position of words in the Eskimo tongue may be changed without weakening the sense of statement. This is particularly the case in short sentences like the following:

Innungmik tekkovoonga I see an Eskimo

tekkovoonga innungmik do.

Innuk tekkovara I see an Eskimo

Tekkovara innuk do.

92

Ineakkoonga (or p.) tapsomunga I will go to that one

Tapsomunga Ineakkoonga (or p.) do.

pissungneakkok (or p) noonapkut he will walk through my land.

noonapkut pissungneakkok (or p) do.

2. Should such sentences be enlarged by the addition of Nominative, Accusative or other words then they generally stand before the verb, as,

John innungmik illangenik tekkolaukkok (or pok), John saw some Eskimo;

innooēt amashoot tamounga noonaktalingmut killeleakseokvingmik attelingmik tikkepukput, a great many Eskimo generally come (arrive) this way to the acquired land named Little Whale River.

N.B. This is rendered after Eskimo idiom.

3. The same formation takes place should there be several verbs in use viz. accusative and other words are placed before the verbs to which they belong as,

tamna Jesuse pivluta tokkolaungmut, atatamenut tilleyougame tamane noonaptingne tokkolauksune (or tokkolauglune,) Jesuse, timak malliglugo okperitsearlugolo pinneaksignakta; that one Jesus because he died for our sakes, because he was sent by his (own) father, having died here in our land, so (we) loving Jesus, and believing well in him, let us ever (always) do (this).

4. The last verb in a sentence may have object words after it especially where the dative cases of nouns come into use, as

okkeaksak tessēt sikkolukpetta, ootelakkut (or p) atatame iglonganut, in the autumn when the lakes begin to freeze (lit. when they begin to have ice) they will return to their (own) father’s house.

5. Adjectives stand after the nouns they qualify, as

iglomik kingiktomik tekkolaukkogoot, we saw a high house;

savik angenurksak tekkolaukpara, I saw a larger knife.

The various uses of Infinitive Mood, nominal and Passive particles &c. have already been treated of under Etymology. Various examples of verb are also given under that head which, will doubtless, be of use to the student.

have already been treated of under Etymology

This line only makes sense if the first 90% of the book—including the Verbs section—is all considered as part of “Etymology”.

which, will doubtless, be of use to the student

And that was all he wrote. Punctuation unchanged.

Errata

The more serious problems were pointed out along the way and will not be repeated here. Conversely, some types of error or anomaly were silently corrected:

In the conjugation tables for transitive verbs, this recurring group of headers was regularized:

The original (eighteen sets of five) varied randomly among “1st” and “First”, “2nd” and “Second”, “person” and “persons”, “&” and “and”, and used a variety of punctuations and capital­izations.

Any remaining unambiguous or unimportant changes are listed below. In general, punctuation and capital­ization in the body text are unchanged except where the original would be confusing or distracting. Punctuation was especially likely to be missing at line end. Typographical errors include a few u-for-n misreadings. This is not an especially likely mistake on a typewriter keyboard; maybe the typist misread Peck’s handwriting.

Page As printed
Pref. with those at Little Whale River, River.
1 often pronounced forcibly. . missing
expressed as nearly as possible possibly
noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, conjunction, preposition adverb conjunction preposition
2 of (a man) an Eskimo; of a (man)
Teacher Arehoktueye ... Seal hole Aglo gloss misplaced:

page image

3 The Genitive case is formed by if formed
4 cases added to the vowel, as noona, land; noona; land;
ooyarangmik, a stone (Acc’ve). . missing
5 plural sign in the Dative, Accusative, Locative and Ablative Dative Accusative Locative
6 pen, pencil, meant to write with. pen pencil,
oocusheāluk, a very large kettle; oochsheāluk,
the largest hammer. hammer,
7 oovumne, by, at me. by at
8 Oovoonga, I, mine, I mine,
[Personal Pronouns]
Dual
header missing
Illipsegoot, through you, through, you
ōmat, the heart; the heart
9 John’s son’s daughter (she) loves us. John’s sons daughter
10 [Dative]
Dual ... Plural
headers missing

The Locative-Accusative-Ablative table on page 10 was rotated to match the layout of the other cases’ tables. Original layout (“Plural” headers missing):

The Locative The Accusative The Ablative
Sing. Sing. Sing.
Noonamne, in my land Noonamnik, my land Noonamnit, from my land
Noonangne, in thy land Noonangnik thy land Noonangnit, from thy land
Noonangane, in his land Noonanganik, his land Noonanganit, from his land
&c.
Dual Dual Dual
Noonāmne, in my 2 lands Noonāmnik, my two lands. Noonāmnit, from my 2 lands.
Noonāngne, in thy 2 lands Noonāngnik, thy 2 lands Noonāngnit, from thy 2 lands
Noonāgingne, in his 2 lands Noonāgingnik, his 2 lands Noonāgingnit, from his 2 lands
Noonamne in my lands Noonamnik, my lands Noonamnit from my lands
Noonangne, in thy lands Noonangnik, thy lands Noonangnit from thy lands
Noonangene, in his lands Noonangenik his lands Noonangenit from his lands
Noonāpkut, through my 2 Lands Noonāpkut, my 2 Lands
11 Noonāptoot, like my 2 lands. lime my
I will go to thy house (lit, thy home), closing ) missing
pivlute pewleyomavlute, Jesus came this way pewleyomavlute Jesus
N. Ernine, “N.” missing
His own son ownson
12 3rd. Kisseane, alone. alone,
13 Plural added header
Muna This one here (close at hand) Muna & This one
Oona, This, he This he
14 Oona tegga kīlauktanga, This here which he brought; kīlauktanga This here
also used in the sense of company, party, company party,
15 kenauvēse who are you? ? missing
(i.e. each person has a separate name, is named different). . missing
nedleak, one of two; Run-in with previous paragraph, and no emphasis
ooblo tamat, every day. . missing
16 A lot, heap, crowd (Acc.) heap crowd
The others can also take cases when necessary e.g. e.g
17 savik īpunga kilauook, fetch another knife. . missing
angeneksak, larger; ; missing
Didst thou see a ship? Did’st
Omungat angeneksamik savingmik aitselaurit, Omungat
The ' sign is often used as a footnote marker, but here it seems to be a mistake.
numbers to five only; beyond that five only beyond
18 tedlemaurooktoolo tedlemaurook toolo
of persons (Eskimo’s toes and fingers) as will make the number required. fingers as ... required.)
20 To express our words while, wishing &c. while wishing
Goodib erninne tillelaungmago noonaptingnut nonnaptingnut
nerrenearatik tokkoruksoukonatik, God told tokkoruksoukonatik God told
4th. As an adverb of quality or manner, 4th As an
21 mittek, an eider duck, mittekpok, eider duck mittekpok,
23 ēpok he is. This may be declined he is; This
he is an Eskimo, human being; Eskimo human being;

Admittedly it’s funnier without the comma, but I doubt that was the author’s intention.

  oovumne, in, by, at me, in by,
oovaptingne, in, by, at us; in by,
orksuk, blubber, fat; blubber fat;
kokyootehatyangelanga, -tyaugelauga,
27 [Future, First form]
we shall or will hear
you shall or will hear
they shall or will hear
 
we two
you two
they two
[Future, Second form]
thou shalt or wilt hear
 
shalt or will
they two shall or will hear gloss missing
28 Toosalautyangelagook
Toosalautyangelagoot
Toosalautyangelase
Toosalautyangelet
-lautyauge-
(four times).
negation used by the Eskimo, one by the Eskimo one
29 Toosaromātyangelanga &c. &c
30 Toosakpēt? ? missing

On pages 30-32, all future-tense glosses (five total) were corrected to “wilt or shalt thou” from “will or shall thou”.

32 Pray hear thou, do hear. . missing
33 because he will hear he wilt
I guess that explains where all the “wilt”s went.
34 Toosalaungemetta Toosalaugnemetta
37 if we have heard if we heard (have)
Toosangneakpetta Toosangneakpetta or
The following compound forms the following
39 Tense has, of necessity, a very limited use Tense, has of necessity,
43 These may be divided into two classes—
1st. Those which are formed by adding ...
1st. These may ...
Those which ...
44 verbal terminations:
Ōvok or uvok
Run-in with preceding paragraph, no punctuation and no emphasis.
he has blubber, fat; blubber fat;
he goes to the land.
This generally differs
Punctuation and capitalization added to go with added paragraph break.
Oyakpok, is like, resembles, added emphasis
eye, the eye, theeye,
kauyemavok, he knows, second , missing
45 Kaprea is much used Kaprea, is
Run-in with preceding text, and printed without emphasis
Garukpok, often, as, often as,
Re with the first conjugation ge added emphasis to ge
Pidleavok added emphasis
46 Orkpok, is tired of Run-in with preceding paragraph
Loakpok, much, a good deal, much a
very much, great, greatly, much great
Kōkpok, probably, perhaps, probably perhaps,
perhaps, probably he thinks; perhaps probably
Tuksauvok (to verbs in second conjugation) yuksauvok, added emphasis to yuksauvok
he ought to speak, should speak. speak should
Kalloakpok (to verbs in second conjugation) galloakpok, kalloakpok (To verbs
also added emphasis to galloakpok
Tugelloak, indeed (to verbs in second conjugation) rugelloak, added emphasis to rugelloak
indeed he knows;
This differs ... in the third persons;
; for . both times

Page 46 is exactly halfway through the book. But after this flurry of careless typing, errors drop off dramatically. Maybe Peck changed typists in midstream.

47 Tuktuseolaukpok he hunted deer Tutuseolaukpok
48 pannimnik tekkolaukpēse? tekkolaukpēse- (with - hyphen for ? question mark)
49 we walked a great deal yesterday; walked, a
50 innuēt nagligevātit, the Eskimo love thee; innūet
56 nagligelaungelagit naglelaungelagit
58 Dual Objective Form Objective Form
59 nagligelaukpego
& nagligelaukpara?
naglelaukpego
62 Didst Did’st
Did you not love us? Did you not love us? ”
(Gloss written out in full, so ditto mark is superfluous.)
65 [Inverse form]
Plural
header missing
nagligelaurameook (Rel.) (Rel)
66 nagligelauramekik (Rel.) (Rel)
70 nagligelātyangenameook (Rel.) (Rel)
72 nagligelauroonegik (Rel.)
nagligelauroonekik (Rel.)
(Rel.) label missing both times
73 nagligenearooneook (Rel.) naglinearooneook
76 1st Person singular and 2nd Person sing., dual and plural and 1st person
79 because he teaches thee gloss printed twice
80 [Inverse form]
[Relative Inverse Form]

because he did not teach thee
both rows printed with ditto marks implying “because he did not teach me
81 Past Tense header missing
82 yuksareva (to verbs in second conjugation) tuksareva, emphasis added to tuksareva
Vukpa (to verbs in second conjugation) pukpa, emphasis added to pukpa
83 peuleyouvēt? ? missing
85 tuktooēt sittamut tekkelaukkavoot tuktooēt sittamut, tekkelaukkavoot
if we believe in God, if we endeavor to obey him, in God if we
86 4. Adverbs of time—Future number missing
87 8. Adverbs of Quality and Manner number missing
(Atchugle) but I don’t know (At chugle)
When answering negative questions Added line break
88 he will arrive, he says; arrive; he says,
he does not know, he says; know he says;
(Samunga) Samunga) opening ( missing
89 A. Those which drop final consonant. (A) Those which drop final consonant
Initial format changed and final . added to match B. and C. (printed on a different page)
90 See other examples under varieties of transitive and intransitive verb. final . missing
1. The verbal particles 1st—The verbal particles
As above, cosmetic change for consistency across page break
91 Innungmik tekkovoonga Innungnik

The Punch Line

Want to know who really, really hated Peck’s Grammar? That would be ABBYY FineReader. It didn’t bat an eye at the typescript; when you’re an established OCR program, monospaced text can hold no terrors, even if the typewriter is severely overdue for cleaning. But the page layout had the program utterly stumped, as if it had never set eyes on an inflectional table before:

OCR partitions: raw and corrected

The original of this text has been in the public domain for years
in the U.S. and most other parts of the world.
All I’ve done is put it online.