ᓄᓇᕗᑦ Nunavut ’99

ᓯᕗᕚᕗᑦ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐊᒻᒪ ᓯᕗᓪᓖ ᐅᑭᐅᕐᑕᖅᑐᖅᒥ ᓄᓇᖃᓂᑯ ᓄᓇᒥᓐ ᓯᓚᒥᓪᓗ
ᓱᖏᐅᑎᓂᑰᕗᑦ ᐊᕐᕌᒍᒐᓵᓗᖕᓂᑦ. ᑭᖑᓂᐊᒍᑦ ᐃᐅᕈᑉᒥᐅᑕᑦ ᑎᑭᓕ­ᓚᐅᕐᓯᒪᕗᑦ 1500-ᖏᓐᓂ,
ᐊᒻᒪ ᑭᖑᓂᐊᒍᑦ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐃᓅᓯᖃᑐᐃᓐᓇᕈᓃᓚᐅᕐᐳᑦ ᐊᖑᓇᓱᖕᓂᒃᑯᑦ

inuksuk

ᐊᕐᕌᒍᐃᑦ
ᐱᒋᐊᕈᑎᐅᔪᑦ

ᓯᓚᕐᔪᐊᖃᓚᐅᖅᓯᒪᔪᖅ ᑕᒪᑐᒪ ᓯᕗᐊᓂ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓄᖃᖅᖢᓂ ᐅᕙᑦᑎᓐᓂᐅᙱᑦᑐᖅ. ᑭᓯᐊᓂᓕ ᓯᓚᕐᔪᐊᑉ ᓇᑉᐸᖅᑯᑎᖏᑦ ᐅᕐᕈᖕᒪᑕ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓱᓇᑐᐃᓐᓇᐃᑦ ᓱᕋᒃᖢᑎᒃ. ᑕᐃᒪᓕ ᓯᓚᕐᔪᐊᖅ ᐃᓗᓕᖃᙱᓕᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ. ᒪᕐᕉᒡᓕ ᐊᖑᑎᒃ ᐱᕈᓚᐅᖅᑐᒃ ᓇᒥᒃᑭᐊᖅ ᓄᓇᒥᑦ. ᐃᕐᓂᐊᕆᔭᐅᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐃᓅᓕᓵᖅᖢᑎᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓐᓇᐅᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐊᑕᐅᑦᑎᒃᑯᑦ. ᓄᑕᕋᖃᕈᒪᓕᖅᑐᒃ. ᐱᓯᕐᒧᑦ ᐊᑕᐅᓯᖅ ᐊᕐᓇᕐᖑᖅᑎᑕᐅᓪᓗᓂ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓄᑕᖃᕋᖅᖢᑎᒃ. ᑕᐃᒃᑯᑲ ᓯᕗᓪᓕᕕᓂᕆᓚᐅᖅᑕᕗᑦ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑕᐃᑲᕐᖓᑦ ᐃᓄᓗᒃᑖᑦ ᐱᒋᐊ­ᓚᐅᖅᓯᒪᔪᑦ.
— ᑐᒡᓕᒃ, ᐃᒡᓗᓕᖕᒥ, 1922

ᑎᑎᕋᖅᑐᖅ ᕌᐳᕐᑦ ᒪᒌ ᐊᒻᒪ ᑮᑦ ᑯᕉ

ᑕᐃᑦᓱᒪᓂᑐᖃᖅ

ᑎᑎᕋᖅᑐᖅ ᕌᐳᕐᑦ ᒪᒌ

ᑕ ᒪᓐᓇ ᐅᓂᒃᖅᑐᐊᖅ ᐅᓂᒃᑲᐅᓯᓕᒃ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐱᒋᐊᕐᓂᕆᓚᐅᖅᑕᖓᓐᓂᒃ. ᐊᓯᖏᑦ ᐅᓂᒃᕆᔭᐅᓯᒪᔪᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖃᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓯᕗᓪᓕᕕᓂᖏᑦ ᑎᑭᓕᓵᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓄᓇᖓᓐᓄᑦ, ᓱᓇᐅᕝᕙ ᐃᓄᖄᓂᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ ᑐᓂᕐᓂᒃ ᑕᐃᔭᐅᔪᓂᒃ. ᒃᑯᐊ ᓯᕗᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᐅᓂᒃᑲᐅᓯᓖᑦ ᒪᕐᕉᖕᓂᒃ ᑐᑭᓯᓐᓇᖅᑐᒃ: ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓯᕗᓪᓕᖏᑦ ᑎᑭᓚᐅᖅ­ᓯᒪᖕᒪᑕ ᓄᓇᕗᒧᑦ ᐊᓯᖓᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᖏᕐᕋᕆᓚᐅᖅᑕᒥᖕᓂᑦ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓯᕗᓪᓖᑦᑑᓚᐅᕋᑎᒃ ᑕᒡᕗᖓ ᑎᑭᑦᑐᑦ ᒫᓐᓇᐅᔪᖅ ᓄᓇᕗᒥᒃ ᑕᐃᔭᐅᓕᖅᑐᒥᒃ. ᐊᕐᕌᒎᔪᓂ ᖁᓕᑦ ᐅᖓᑦᑐᓂ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔨᕐᔪᐊᑦ ᑕᒪᒃᑯᓂᖓ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᖅᓯᓯᒪᖃᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᓱᓕᓂᖓᓐᓂᒃ ᑐᑭᓯᓐᓇᖅᖢᑎᒃ ᐅᖃᖅᑲᐅᔭᒃᑲ. ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᖃᐅᔨᓯᒪᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᖃᓄᖅ ᐱᑕᖃᓚᐅᕐᓂᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᓯᕗᓂᐊᒍᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔭᐅᓚᐅᙱᑦᑐᓂᒃ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥ ᓯᕗᓂᕆᓚᐅᖅᑕᖓᓐᓂ.

ᓯᑯᕐᔪᐊᖑᓚᐅᖅᑐᑉ ᐃᓚᖓ
(35,000-ᒥᑦ 10,000-ᒧᑦ ᐊᕐᕌᒎᓚᐅᖅᑐᓂ ᑕᐃᑦᓱᒪᓂ)

ᑭᖑᓪᓖᑦᑐᒥ ᓯᑯᕐᔪᐊᖅᓯᒪᓂᐅᓚᐅᖅᑐᒥ, ᑕᒪᕐᒥᑲᓴᒃ ᓄᓇᕗᑦ ᓴᐅᓯᒪᓚᐅᖅᐅᑐᖅ ᓯᑯᕐᔪᐊᒧᑦ ᐊᐅᓱᐃᑦᑐᒧᑦ, ᐃᓚᖓᓂ ᐳᖅᑐᓂᓕᖕᓂᒃ ᖃᑦᓯᒐᓚᖕᓂᒃ ᑭᓗᒦᑕᓂᒃ. ᓯᑯᕐᔪᐊᖃᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᐃᒪᖃᒻᒪᕆᐊᓗᒃᑐᕕᓂᖅ ᓯᑯᕐᔪᐊᖅᓯᒪᔪᓂᒃ ᐊᐅᔪᐃᑦᑐᓂ ᑕᕆᐅᑉ ᐳᖅᑐᓂᖓ ᑲᑕᒻᒪᕆᒃᑎᑕᐅᓪᓗᓂ. ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑕᕆᐅᑉ ᐃᒃᑲᑦᑐᑦ ᒪᓂᕋᖏᑦ ᐸᓂᒻᒪᕆᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ. ᑕᐃᒪᓐᓇ ᐱᕐᖑᕈᑎᒋᓚᐅᖅᑕᖓ ᐃᑳᕐᕕᒃᓴᐅᒍᓐᓇᖅᑐᖅ ᑕᕆᐅᖑᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ Bering Sea-ᖑᓂᕋᖅᑕᐅᔪᖅ, ᐳᓂᑕᕿᑭᓂᖑ-ᒥᑦ ᐊᕕᒃᓯᓯᒪᓪᓗᓂ ᐊᓚᓯᑲᒥᑦ. ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓯᑯᖃᙱᑦᑐᒃᑯᑦ ᒪᓂᖅᑲᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᖅᑭᓖᓯᑦ ᓯᕗᓪᓕᖏᑦ ᐃᑳᕈᓐᓇᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ North America-ᒧᑦ. ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑕᐅᓄᖓ ᑎᑭᑉᐸᓪᓕᐊᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐸᓯᕕᒃ ᑕᕆᐅᕐᔪᐊᑉ ᓯᒡᔭᖓᓐᓄᑦ ᑲᓇᖕᓇᖓᓐᓄᑦ ᓯᑯᕐᔪᐊᖅᓯᒪᔪᑉ.

ᓯᑯᕐᔪᐊᖑᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᐊᐅᔪᐃᑦᑐᑦ ᖄᕆᔭᐅᔪᑦ ᓄᓇᕗᒥ ᐊᐅᓚᐅᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐊᕐᕌᒍᐃᑦ ᖃᓂᒋᔭᖓᓂ 15,000-ᒥᑦ 10,000-ᒧᑦ ᐊᕐᕌᒎᓚᐅᖅᑐᓂ ᑕᐃᑦᓱᒪᓂ, ᓴᖅᑮᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ ᓄᓇᐃᓐᓇᕐᒥᒃ ᐆᒪᔪᖃᙱᑦᑐᒥᒃ. ᑭᓯᐊᓂᓕ, 10,000-ᐃᑦ ᐊᕐᕌᒎᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᖄᖏᕐᒪᑕ, ᓄᓇᕗᑦ ᐅᓪᓗᒥᑎᑐᑦ ᑕᐅᑦᑐᖃᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ, ᑐᒃᑐᖃᐅᖅᖢᓂ ᐅᒥᖕᒪᖃᐅᖅᖢᓂᓗ ᓂᕆᐅᔭᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᓄᓇᐃᓐᓇᕐᒥ. ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᐃᕖᑦ, ᓇᑦᓰᑦ ᕿᓚᓗᒐᐃᓪᓗ ᓂᕆᔪᑦ — ᐃᓚᒋᔭᐅᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐊᕐᕖᑦ — ᓂᕆᔪᑦ ᐃᑭᕋᓴᖏᓐᓂ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥ ᕿᑭᖅᑕᖏᑕ ᖃᓂᒋᔭᖏᓐᓂ. ᐃᖅᑭᓖᑦ ᒪᖃᐃᑎᑦ ᒪᓕᒃᓯᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᑐᒃᑐᓂᒃ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᑉ ᒥᒃᓵᓄᕐᖓᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᓄᓇᐃᓐᓇᒃᑰᖅᖢᑎᒃ, ᓲᕐᓗ ᐅᓪᓗᒥᒥᐅᑎᑐᑦ ᐃᖅᑭᓕᑐᑦ ᐱᕙᖕᓂᖓᑐᑦ, ᑎᑭᑉᐸᒐᑎᒃ ᑕᕆᐅᑉ ᓯᒡᔭᖓᓄᑦ ᕿᑭᖅᑕᓄᓪᓐᓃᑦ. ᐊᕐᕌᒎᔪᓂ ᖃᐃᔪᓂ 5,000-ᓂᒃ, ᓄᓇᕗᑦ ᐃᓚᒋᔭᖓ ᐱᓱᒃᑕᐅᒍᓐᓇᖅᑐᖅ ᐅᓪᓗᒧᑦ ᐊᑕᐅᓯᕐᒧᑦ ᐅᖓᑖᓂ ᑎᑭᑕᐅᕙᓚᐅᙱᑦᑐᖅ ᓇᐸᖅᑐᖃᕐᓇᖅᑐᑉ ᖃᓂᒋᔭᖓᓂ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓄᖃᓚᐅᕋᓂ ᑭᓇᒥᒡᓐᓃᑦ.

ᑐᓃᑦ, Dorset-ᖑᓂᕋᖅᑕᐅᔪᑦ
(5,000-ᒧᑦ 1,000-ᒧᑦ ᐊᕐᕌᒎᓚᐅᖅᑐᓂ ᑕᐃᑦᓱᒪᓂ)

ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᑎᑭᕐᖓᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᑐᓃ-ᖑᓂᕋᖅᑕᐅᔪᑦ. ᐃᑦᑕᕐᓂᑕᐃᑦ ᓄᓇᖃᕐᕕᕕᓃᑦ ᑕᑯᔭᐅᔪᓐᓇᖅᓯᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᑕᒫᓂ 5,000 ᐊᕐᕌᒍᐃᑦ ᖄᖏᖅᓯᒪᓕᖅᑐᑦ ᖃᓂᒋᔭᖓᓐᓂ ᑕᐃᑲᓂ Siberia-ᒥ. ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓯᐊᒥᑉᐸᓪᓕᐊᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᓱᑲᔪᒥᒃ ᐅᐊᓕᓂᕐᒥ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥ, ᓄᓇᕗᒥ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᑯᑭᑦᑐᒥ ᓯᒡᔭᖁᑎᖓᓐᓂ ᓛᐸᑐᐊᕆᒥᓗ. ᓴᓇᕐᕈᑎᖏᑦ ᓇᓂᔭᐅᓯᒪᔪᑦ North America-ᒥ ᖃᓂᒋᔭᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᔾᔨᖃᕈᔭᖅᑐᑦ ᓇᓂᔭᐅᓯᒪᔪᓂ ᐃᑦᓴᕐᓂᑕᓂ Siberia-ᒥᑦ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑐᐱᕐᕕᕕᓂᖏᑦ ᓱᓕᑦᑕᐅᖅ ᐊᔾᔨᒋᔭᖃᕐᒥᔪᑦ Siberia-ᒥᐅᓂᒃ. ᐅᔭᖃᐃᑦ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓯᒪᓂᖏᑦ ᐊᔾᔨᒋᔭᐅᔪᑦ ᐳᓂᑕᕿᑭᓂᖑ-ᒥᐅᓂᒃ ᐃᒪᓐᓇ ᕿᑎᖓᒍᑦ ᐃᒡᓕᕐᕕᖃᐅᖅᖢᑎᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᕿᑎᖓᓂᑦᑕᐅᖅ ᐃᑯᒪᖃᕐᕕᖃᖅᖢᑎᒃ. ᐃᓱᒪᔪᒍᑦ ᑕᐃᒃᑯᐊ ᑎᑭᓕᓵᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᑐᓃᑦ ᐊᒡᔭᖅᓯᓚᐅᕐᒪᑕ ᐊᓛᓯᑲᐅᑉ ᑲᓇᖕᓇᖓᓄᑦ ᒪᕐᕉᖕᓂᒃ ᐊᑐᖅᐸᒃᑕᒥᖕᓂᒃ ᐊᓐᓇᐅᒪᔾᔪᑎᒋᓚᐅᖅᑕᒥᖕᓂᒃ: ᐱᑎᓰᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᓐᓄᕌᓂᒃ ᓴᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅᓯᒪᔪᓂᒃ. ᐊᓐᓄᕌᖏᑦ ᒥᖅᑯᓕᖕᓂᒃ ᓴᓇᓯᒪᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᑕᐃᒃᑯᓂᖓᕐᒥᐅᑦ Siberia-ᒥᐅᑎᑐᑦ ᓴᓇᓯᒪᓂᖃᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐅᓪᓗᒥᒧᑦ ᓱᓕ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᕙᒃᖢᑎᒃ. ᑎᑭᓪᓗᒍ 1,000 ᐊᕐᕌᒍᐃᑦ, ᑐᓃᑦ, (Dorset-ᖑᓂᕋᖅᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᐃᑦᑕᕐᓂᑕᓕᕆᔨᓄᑦ) ᐃᓄᑐᐊᖑᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᑕᐃᑲᓃᑦᑐᑐᖃᐅᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᑲᓇᑕᐅᑉ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᖓᓂ.

map of migrations

35,000-ᒥᑦ 10,000-ᒧᑦ ᐊᕐᕌᒎᓚᐅᖅᑐᓂ
ᐃᖅᑭᓖᑦ ᓯᕗᓪᓕᖏᑦ ᐃᑳᖅᑐᑦ ᓄᓇᒃᑯᑦ ᐄᓴᒥᑦ

10,000-ᒥᑦ 5,000-ᒧᑦ ᐊᕐᕌᒎᓚᐅᖅᑐᓂ
ᐅᓪᓗᒥᐅᓕᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᖅᑭᓕᐅᔪᑦ ᑲᓇᖕᓇᒧᑦ ᐃᖏᕐᕋᔪᒃ ᓯᑯᕐᔪᐊᑉ ᐊᐅᒃᐸᓪᓕᐊᓂᖓᓂᒃ ᒪᓕᒃᖢᑎᒃ ᓇᐸᖅᑐᓕᕐᒧᑦ

5,000-ᒥᑦ 4,000-ᒧᑦ ᐊᕐᕌᒎᓚᐅᖅᑐᓂ
ᑐᓃᑦ, (Dorset-ᖑᓂᕋᖅᑕᐅᔪᑦ) ᐃᑳᖅᑐᑦ Bering Strait-ᒥᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓂᒋᕐᒧᑦ ᐃᖏᕐᕋᓪᓗᑎᒃ

3,000-ᒥᑦ 2,000-ᒧᑦ ᐊᕐᕌᒎᓚᐅᖅᑐᓂ
South Bering Sea ᐃᓄᖏᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ North Pacific people ᐃᓄᖏᑦ ᐊᓛᓯᑲᒥᐅᑕᐅᓕᖅᑐᑦ ᑲᓇᖕᓇᒥ ᐃᓄᖏᓐᓂᒃ

1,000 ᐊᕐᕌᒎᓚᐅᖅᑐᓂ
ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓯᕗᓪᓕᕕᓂᖏᑦ (ᐊᓛᓯᑲᒥᐅᑦ ᑲᓇᖕᓇᒥᑦ) ᓅᑉᐸᓪᓕᐊᔪᑦ ᓂᒋᕐᒧᑦ ᐃᓇᖏᖅᓯᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᑐᓂᕐᓂᒃ

ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓯᕗᓂᕕᓂᖓᑦ ᐊᓯᖓᓐᓄᑦ ᑭᖑᒧᑦ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᔭᖅᑕᐅᔪᓐᓇᖅᑐᖅ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥ — ᐅᕗᖓᐅᙱᑦᑐᖅ Siberia-ᒥᐅᓂᒃ, ᑭᓯᐊᓂᓕ ᐱᖓᖕᓇᖓᓄᑦ Bering Sea-ᖑᓂᕋᖅᑕᐅᔪᑉ ᐅᕝᕙᓐᓃᑦ ᐸᓯᕕᒃ ᑕᕆᐅᖓᑕ ᑲᓇᖕᓇᖓᓄᑦ. ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓯᕗᓪᓕᖏᑕ ᐃᓱᒪᑦᑎᐊᖅᐸᖕᓂᖓᑦ ᑕᑯᔭᐅᔪᓐᓇᖅᑐᖅ ᒪᓕᖃᑦᑕᓚᐅᕐᓂᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᕐᕌᒍᑉ ᓯᓚᖓᑕ ᖃᓄᐃᓐᓂᖓᓂᒃ ᐊᖑᓇᓱᒃᐸᖕᓂᖏᓐᓄᑦ. ᑕᐃᑲᓂ Bering Sea-ᖑᓂᕋᖅᑕᐅᔪᑉ ᑕᕆᐅᖓᓂ. ᑕᒪᓐᓇ ᐊᕐᕌᒍᒥᒃ ᒪᓕᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᖅ ᐊᑐᓕᖅᑕᐅᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ 3000-ᒥᑦ 2000-ᒥᓗ ᐊᕐᕌᒎᔪᓂ ᖄᖏᖅᑐᓂ. ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑭᖑᓪᓕᕐᒥ ᐅᓪᓗᒋᔭᐅᔪᒥ, ᐃᓄᒋᐊᒃᑐᓂᒃ ᓄᓇᖃᕐᕕᖃᖃᑦᑕᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᓯᕗᓪᓖᑦ ᓯᒡᔭᕆᔭᐅᔪᓂ ᓇᒥᑐᐃᓐᓇᖅ Bering Sea-ᖑᓂᕋᖅᑕᐅᔪᑉ ᑕᕆᐅᖓᓂ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ Chukchi-ᖑᓂᕋᖅᑕᐅᔪᑉ ᑕᕆᐅᖏᓐᓂ. ᓴᓇᕐᖑᐊᒐᑦ ᒥᑭᑦᑐᑯᓗᐃᑦ ᓇᓂᔭᐅᓂᑰᑦᑕᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᓄᓇᒋᔭᐅᕙᖕᓂᑯᓂ. ᓱᓇᐅᕝᕙᒎᖅ ᑐᑭᓯᒍᑕᐅᓯᒪᔪᑦ ᐃᓅᓯᖃᓚᐅᕐᓂᖏᑦ ᐱᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᒃᓱᐃᓪᖢᑎᒃ ᐃᓕᖅᑯᓯᖏᓐᓂᓗ ᐅᒃᐱᕐᓂᖃᖅᖢᑎᒃ. ᓴᕕᖕᓂᒃ ᐊᑐᖃᑦᑕᓕᕐᓂᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐅᔭᕋᖕᓂᖑᒃ ᓴᓇᓯᒪᔪᓂᒃ ᐱᔪᓐᓇᐅᑎᓂᒃ ᐊᑐᖅᑲᑦᑕᙱᓕᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᓱᓇᑐᐃᓐᓇᕕᓂᖏᑦ ᓇᓂᔭᐅᓯᒪᔪᑦ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᖏᔪᓂᒃ ᐳᐃᔨᓂᒃ ᐃᒪᕐᒥᐅᑕᓂᒃ ᓴᐅᓂᖏᑦᑕᐅᖅ ᓇᓂᔭᐅᓯᒪᖕᒥᔪᑦ ᓂᕿᒋᕙᓚᐅᖅᑕᕕᓂᖏᑦ ᐃᓱᒪᒋᔭᐅᔪᓪᓗ ᑕᐃᒃᑯᐊ ᓄᓇᓕᖕᒥᐅᑕᐅᕙᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᐊᔪᖅᓴᖅᐸᙱᓚᐅᕐᓂᖏᑦ.

ᑐᓃᑦ ᐃᓕᖅᑯᓯᖓᑦ
(1,000-ᒥᑦ 500-ᒧᑦ ᐊᕐᕌᒎᓚᐅᖅᑐᓂ ᑕᐃᑦᓱᒪᓂ)

ᕿᑎᖓᓂ 1500-ᒥᑦ 1000-ᒥᓗ ᐊᕐᕌᒎᔪᓂ ᖄᖏᖅᑐᓂ ᐃᓚᖏᑦ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᖃᓄᖅ ᐊᖑᓇᓱᖃᑦᑕᕆᐊᒃᓴᖅ ᐊᐃᕕᕐᓂᒃ, ᐊᖏᓂᖅᐸᐅᔪᖅ ᐳᐃᔨ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᑉ ᑕᕆᐅᖏᓐᓂ. ᐃᓄᒋᐊᒃᑐᓂᒃ ᓄᓇᓕᖃᐅᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᓄᕗᖕᓂ ᐊᓛᓯᑲᐅᑉ ᓯᒡᔭᖏᓐᓂ, ᐊᐃᕖᑦ ᐊᖑᓇᓱᒃᑕᐅᕙᓚᐅᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ. ᐅᐱᕐᖕᒑᒥ ᐋᔪᕋᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᐅᓪᓛᓕᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ. ᖃᓂᒋᔭᖓᓂ ᑕᒫᓂ, 1000 ᐊᕐᕌᒍᓂ, ᐃᓚᖏᑦ ᑕᒪᒃᑯᐊ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐊᓛᓯᑲᒥᐅᑦ ᐊᒥᓲᓕᕙᓪᓕᐊᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᐅᑉ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᖓᒍᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᑯᑭᑦᑐᒧᑦ. ᐃᓇᖏᖅᓯᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᑐᓂᕐᓂᒃ ᑕᐃᑲᓂ ᓄᓇᖃᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓄᖃᓕᖅᑎᑎᕙᓪᓕᐊᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᓄᓇᕗᒥᒃ.

toolsᑕᒃᑯᐊ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓯᕗᕚᖏᑦ ᑕᐃᔭᐅᔪᑦ Thule ᖃᓪᓗᓈᑎᑐᑦ ᐃᑦᑕᕐᓂᑕᓕᕆᔨᖏᓐᓄᑦ, ᒪᓕᒃᖢᑎᒃ ᕿᒪᒐᕕᓂᖏᑕ ᓇᓂᔭᐅᖄᓚᐅᕐᓂᖏᓐᓄᑦ Thule-ᒥ ᐊᑯᑭᑦᑐᑉ ᑲᓇᖕᓇᖓᓂ ᐅᐊᖕᓇᖓᓂᓗ. ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓯᕗᕚᖏᑦ ᓇᒃᓴᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᐊᓛᓯᑲᒥᑦ ᐱᓇᓲᑎᒋᕙᓚᐅᖅᑕᒥᖕᓂᒃ ᐊᖑᓇᓱᒍᑎᓂᒃ ᐳᐃᔨᓂᒃ: ᖃᔭᓂᒃ ᐅᓈᓕᖕᓂᒃ ᐊᑕᓯᒪᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐳᒃᑕᑎᓄᑦ; ᐅᒥᐊᓂᒃ ᐊᖏᔪᓂᒃ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᔪᓐᓇᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᓄᓇᖅᑲᑎᒌᓗᒃᑖᖅᑐᓂᒃ. ᐅᕝᕙᓐᓃᑦ ᐊᕐᕕᖅᓯᐅᕐᕕᐅᔪᓐᓇᖅᑐᓂᒃ; ᐊᖑᓇᓱᒍᓐᓇᐅᑎᓂᒃ ᓯᑯᒥ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᖏᕐᕋᑕᕈᑎᓂᒃ; ᓴᙱᔪᓂᒃ ᐱᑎᒃᓯᓂᒃ ᐃᕙᓗᓄᑦ ᓴᙱᖅᑎᓯᒪᔪᓂᒃ ᐊᖑᓇᓱᒍᑕᐅᒍᑎᓂᒃ ᓄᓇᒥ; ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐅᑭᐅᒥ ᖃᒻᒪᓂᒃ ᓴᓇᓯᒪᔪᓂᒃ ᐅᔭᖅᑲᓂᒃ ᐃᔾᔪᒥᒡᓗ. ᓴᐅᓂᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᕐᕖᑦ ᐊᕙᓗᓕᐅᖅᓯᒪᓪᓗᑎᒃ. ᓱᑲᔪᒥᒃ, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐊᑐᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᑰᓚᐅᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐊᓛᓯᑲᒥ ᐊᑐᓕᖅᑕᐅᑎᑎᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᓄᓇᕗᒥ. ᕿᓚᒥᒃᑯᑦᑕᐅᖅ ᓄᓇᓕᖃᑎᖃᖅᐸᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᓇᓕᑭᐅᕿ-ᖑᔪᓂᒃ, ᐱᕈᖅᓰᔨᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᐊᑯᑭᑦᑑᑉ ᐱᖓᖕᓇᖓᓂ ᑕᐃᑦᓱᒪᓂ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓂᐅᕕᖃᑦᑕᐅᑎᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᓴᕕᕋᔭᖕᓂᒃ ᐊᑐᖅᖢᑎᒃ ᓴᓇᕐᕈᑎᓂᒃ ᐃᓄᖕᓄᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᐅᓕᖅᓯᒪᔪᕕᓂᕐᓂᒃ.

ᓯᑯᕐᔪᐊᖑᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ ᒥᑭᑦᑐᖅ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ
(500-ᑦ ᐊᕐᕌᒎᓚᐅᖅᑐᓂ ᑭᖑᓂᐊᓂ)

500-ᒥᑦ ᐊᕐᕌᒎᓚᐅᖅᑐᓂ ᑭᖑᓂᐊᓂ ᖃᓂᒋᔭᖓᓂ, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐃᓕᖅᑯᓯᖓᑦ ᐊᒥᓱᓂ ᓄᓇᕗᒥ ᐊᓯᔾᔨᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ ᐊᖏᔪᒥᒃ. ᐊᒥᓱᑦ ᖁᑦᓯᒃᑐᒥ ᓄᓇᒋᔭᐅᓂᑯᑦ ᕿᒪᒃᑕᐅᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᒥᓱᑦ ᕿᑎᕐᒥᐅᑦ ᓄᓇᕗᒥ ᐊᖑᓇᓱᒃᐸᙱᓕᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᕿᓚᓗᒃᑲᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᓇᓱᒃᐸᓕᖅᖢᑎᒃ ᒥᑭᓐᓂᖅᓴᓂᒃ ᐳᐃᔨᓂᒃ, ᑐᒃᑐᓂᒃ ᐃᖃᓗᖕᓂᒡᓗ. ᓂᕿᒃᓴᖃᐃᓐᓇᕈᓐᓇᙱᓐᓇᒥᒃ ᐅᑮᒍᑎᔪᓐᓇᖅᑕᒥᖕᓂᒃ ᖃᒻᒪᓕᐅᖅᐸᙱᓕᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᓄᓇᖃᙱᓕᖅᖢᑎᒃ ᓲᕐᓗ ᓯᕗᓪᓕᑎᑐᑦ. ᐅᑮᕙᓕᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᒡᓗᓂ ᑲᑎᕐᖓᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐊᖑᓇᓱᒍᓐᓇᕐᓂᐊᕋᒥᒃ ᓇᑦᓯᓂᒃ ᓯᑯᒥ.

ᑕᒪᓐᓇ ᐊᓯᔾᔨᕈᑕᐅᔪᖅ ᑕᐃᒪᐃᑐᐃᓐᓇᕆᐊᖃᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ ᓯᓚᐅᑉ ᐃᒃᑮᓇᖅᐸᓪᓕᐊᓂᖓᓄᑦ. ᐃᓛᓐᓂᒃᑯᑦ ᑕᐃᔭᐅᓱᖅᑐᖅ ᓯᑯᕐᔪᐊᖑᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ ᒥᑭᑦᑐᖅ, ᑕᒫᓂ ᖃᓂᒋᔭᖓᓂ 1500-ᒥᑦ ᐊᒻᒪ 1850-ᑦ A.D., ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᔪᓐᓇᕈᑕᐅᓚᐅᖅᖢᓂ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓯᕗᕚᖏᑕ ᐱᕙᓪᓕᐊᒍᓐᓇᕐᓂᖏᓐᓄᑦ. ᐊᒻᒪᓗᑦᑕᐅᖅ ᐃᑲᔪᕈᑕᐅᓚᐅᕐᒥᔪᖅ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐅᖅᑰᓂᖅᓴᓄᑦ ᓅᑉᐸᖕᓂᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᖃᓪᓗᓈᑦ ᑎᑭᒻᒪᑕ ᓱᑲᓂᖅᓴᐅᔪᒥᒃ ᐱᕙᓪᓕᐊᑎᑕᐅᓂᖏᓐᓂᒃ. ᒪᑯᐊ ᑎᑭᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᖃᓪᓗᓈᓂᑦ ᐃᖃᓗᒃᓯᐅᖅᑎᑦ, ᕿᓂᖅᑎᑦ, ᕿᓚᓗᒐᖅᓯᐅᖅᑎᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓂᐅᕕᖅᑎᑦ. ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐃᓅᓯᖏᓐᓂ ᐃᓚᐅᒍᓐᓇᕈᑕᐅᓚᐅᕐᒪᑦ.

ᓄᓇᕗᑦ ᓯᕗᓂᕕᓂᕆᓚᐅᖅᑕᖓ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓄᖕᓄᑦ, ᐅᓂᒃᑲᐅᓯᐅᙱᑦᑐᖅ ᐃᓄᖃᙱᑦᑐᒦᓚᐅᕐᓂᕐᒥ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᕙᑎᒧᑦ ᐊᓐᓇᒍᓐᓇᐅᑎᖃᕐᓂᐅᓚᐅᖅᑐᒥᒃ. ᑭᓯᐊᓂᓕ, ᖃᓄᑐᐃᓐᓇᕈᓘᔭᖅ ᓅᑉᐸᓪᓕᐊᓂᐅᑦᑕᓚᐅᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐊᒥᓱᓂᒃ ᓄᓇᖃᑎᒌᒃᑐᓂᒃ, ᐊᒥᓱᒻᒪᕆᖕᓂᒃ ᑲᒪᓇᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐊᔪᙱᓐᓂᖃᕐᓂᐅᓚᐅᖅᑐᓂᒃ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᔾᔨᒋᔭᐅᙱᑦᑐᓂᒃ ᐃᓄᖕᓂᒃ ᑕᑯᖃᑦᑕᓚᐅᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ. ᑕᐃᒪᓐᓇ ᐅᓂᒃᑲᐅᓯᐅᑎᓪᓗᒍ, ᓲᕐᓗ ᐊᒥᓱᑎᑐᑦ ᐊᓯᖏᓐᓂ ᓯᓚᕐᔪᐊᕐᒥ ᖃᓄᑐᐃᓐᓇᖅ ᐃᓄᖁᑎᖏᑎᑐᑦ ᐊᔾᔨᒋᔭᐅᔪᖅ.


ᐱᒋᐊᓕᓵᕈᑎᑦ ᐊᓂᒍᖅᓯᒪᓂᑯᐃᑦ

ᑎᑎᕋᖅᑐᖅ ᑭᑦ ᑯᕉ

ᓯᕗᓪᓖᑦᑐᒥᒃ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᖃᓪᓗᓈᓪᓗ ᑕᑯᔭᕆᐅᕈᑎᓚᐅᕐᓂᖓᑦ ᐱᔪᒃᓴᐅᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ ᖃᓂᒋᔭᖓᓂ 1500 AD-ᒥ, ᑎᑭᓕᓵᖅᑐᒃᓴᐅᓚᐅᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐃᖃᓗᒃᓯᐅᖅᑎᑦ ᕿᓚᓗᒐᖅᓯᐅᖅᑎᓪᓗ Basque ᐅᕝᕙᓐᓃᑦ ᐳᐊᑐᒌᑦ (Portuguese). ᑎᑭᓚᐅᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᓛᐸᑐᐊᕆᑉ ᐱᖓᖕᓇᖓᓄᑦ. ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᑎᑭᓕᓵᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐊᑦᑏᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᖃᓪᓗᓈᓂᒃ ᖃᓪᓗᖏᑦ ᑐᕐᕈᓂᖅᓴᐅᔪᑦ ᐱᔾᔪᑎᒋᓪᓗᒋᑦ.

ᑕᐃᑦᓱᒪᓂᐅᔪᖅ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᒫᓐᓇᐅᓕᖅᑐᖅ ᑲᓇᑕᒥᒃ ᑕᐃᔭᐅᖃᑦᑕᓕᖅᑐᒦᑦᑐᑦ ᐃᓚᒌᒃᑐᓂ 9-ᖑᔪᓂ ᑲᑎᕐᖓᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ. ᐊᕕᒃᑐᖅᓯᒪᔪᓃᑦᑐᓂ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᙱᑦᑐᓂ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖏᑦ, ᐊᓐᓄᕌᙱᓪᓗ ᐃᓛᒃᑰᖅᑐᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᓕᑕᕐᓇᖅᖢᑎᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᖃᓄᑎᒋ ᓱᖏᐅᑎᓯᒪᓂᖏᑦ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᙱᑦᑐᓂ ᓄᓇᐅᑉ ᖃᓄᐃᓐᑑᓂᖏᓐᓂ. ᐃᓄᓗᒃᑕᑦ, ᑭᓯᐊᓂᓕ, ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖃᑎᒌᒃᑐᑦ, ᐅᓂᒃᑲᐅᓯᖃᑎᒌᒃᖢᑎᒡᓗ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐅᒃᐱᕐᓂᖃᐅᖅᖢᑎᒃ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᒥᒃ.

ᕿᓇᓗᒐᕐᓂᐊᖅᑎᑦ, ᕿᓂᖅᑎᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓂᐅᕕᖅᑎᑦ

ᑎᑭᑉᐸᓪᓕᐊᔪᓂ ᐊᕐᕌᒍᐃᑦ 100 ᓯᑕᒪᐃᖅᖢᒋᑦ, ᖃᓪᓗᓈᑦ ᑕᕆᐅᑉ ᐊᑭᐊᓂᒥᕐᖕᒑᖅᑐᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᒥᐊᕆᒃᑲᑦ ᕿᓚᓗᒐᕐᓂᐊᖅᑎᑦ ᐱᓇᓱᒃᐸᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᐊᕐᕕᕐᓂᒃ ᐱᔪᒪᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐅᖅᓱᖓᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓗᓕᐊᕈᓯᖓᓂᒃ. ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᑉ ᑕᕆᐅᖏᓐᓂ ᐊᕐᕕᖅᓯᐅᖅᖢᑎᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᕿᓂᖅᑎᑦ ᐃᑭᕋᓴᖏᓐᓂ ᕿᓂᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐊᖅᑯᑎᒥᒃ ᓱᓪᓗᐊᓗᖕᒥᒃ ᐅᐊᓕᓂᕐᒥᑦ ᕿᑭᖅᑖᓗᖕᒧᑦ ᐃᖏᕐᕋᔪᒥᒃ. ᕿᓂᖅᑎᑦ ᐃᖏᕐᕋᕙᓚᐅᕐᒥᔪᑦ ᓄᓇᒃᑯᑦ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐅᐊᓕᓂᕐᒥᐅᑦ ᑰᖓᒍᑦ (Mackenzie River).

ᑕᒪᒃᑭᖕᓂᒃ ᐃᑖᖅᑏᒃ ᑎᑭᒍᔾᔨᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᓄᖕᓂᒃ ᒪᑯᓂᖓᕋᓗᒃ ᖁᑭᐅᑎᓂᒃ, ᖃᓪᓗᓈᖅᑕᓂᒃ, ᓴᕕᒃ, ᓴᓇᕐᕈᑎᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᑐᐊᒐᐃᑦ, ᑐᓴᕐᓇᐅᑎᑦ ᒧᒥᕐᓂᕐᓗ, ᐃᒥᐊᓗᒃ ᑎᕝᕚᑭᓗ, ᐋᓐᓂᐊᓂᒃ ᓄᑖᓂᒡᓗ ᑕᐅᑦᑐᓂᒃ. ᐃᓚᖏᑦ ᕿᓚᓗᒐᕐᓂᐊᖅᑎᑦ, ᐱᓗᐊᖅᑐᒥᒃ ᕼᐊᑦᓴᓐ ᐲᒥ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑎᓄᔾᔭᕐᕕᖕᒥ, ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᑎᕙᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐃᓚᒌᓂᒃ. ᐊᕐᕌᒍᑕᒫᑦ ᓴᓇᕕᒃᓴᐅᓇᔭᖅᑐᒥᒃ ᓄᑖᒥᒃ ᒪᓕᒃᖢᑎᒃ ᒪᕐᕉᖕᓂᒃ ᐃᓕᖅᑯᓰᖕᓂᒃ ᑲᑐᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ.

ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᑐᖃᕆᓚᐅᖅᑕᖓ ᓂᐅᕕᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᖅ ᐱᔪᓐᓇᐅᑕᐅᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ ᖃᓪᓗᓈᖅᑕᓂᒃ ᐊᑐᖕᒑᓕᖅᖢᑎᒃ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᒥᖅᑯᓖᑦ ᐊᒃᓱᕈᕈᑕᐅᓕᓚᐅᖅᖢᑎᒃ. ᐊᕐᕕᖅᓯᐅᓂᖅ ᑲᑕᒃᐸᓪᓕᐊᑎᓪᓗᒍ, ᒥᖅᑯᓕᖕᓂᒃ ᓂᐅᕕᐅᑎᖃᖅᐸᖕᓂᖅ ᐱᕈᖅᐸᓪᓕᐊᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ, ᓂᐅᕕᕐᕕᖃᐅᓕᖅᖢᓂ ᓇᒥᑐᐃᓐᓇᖅ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥ.

photograph of Edmund Peck

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ᐃᖕᓚᓐᒥᐅᑕᖅ ᐊᒻᒪ ᐋᖕᓕᑲᓐᑯ ᐊᔪᕆᖅᓱᐃᔨᖓ ᐊᑦᒪᓐᑦ ᐸᒃ, ᐅᖃᒻᒪᖅ ᐅᓂᕋᕐᑕᐅᔪᕕᓂᖅ, ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑑᓕᕆ­ᓚᐅᕐᓯᒪᕗᖅ ᒎᑎᐅᑉ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖏᓐᓂ ᐊᒻᒪ 1894-ᒥ ᓴᖅᑭᑦᑎᓚᐅᕐ­ᓯᒪᕗᖅ ᕿᑭᖅᑖᓗᖕᒥ ᑐᒃᓯᐊᕐᕕᖕᒥ ᐸᖕᓂᖅᑑ ᖃᓂᒋᔭᖓᓂ, ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕐᑎᑦᑎᓪᓗᓂ ᐃᐅᐊᓂ ᐃᓄᖕᓄ

ᐃᒃᓯᕋᕐᔪᐊᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᔪᕆᖅᓱᐃᔨᑦ ᐊᓯᔾᔨᖅᑎᐅᔪᓂ ᓯᑕᒪᒋᔭᐅᓯᒪᔪᑦ. ᐃᓛᓐᓂᒃᑯᑦ ᓵᓚᒃᓴᖃᕋᓱᐊᖅᖢᑎᒃ ᓇᓕᐊᒃ ᒪᓕᒃᑎᒃᓴᓂᒃ ᐊᒥᓲᓂᖅᓴᓂᒃ ᐱᓇᔭᕐᒪᖕᒑᕐᒥᒃ. ᖃᓄᕈᓘᔭᖅ ᑐᑭᓯᓂᕐᓗᒃᑐᓂᒃ ᐱᑕᖃᓕᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ ᐅᒃᐱᕈᓯᓂᒃ ᐃᓄᖕᓂ. ᐊᑕᐅᓯᖅ ᐃᖅᑲᐅᒪᔭᒃᓴᐅᔪᖅ ᐃᓄᐊᖅᑐᖃᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᐊᑕᐅᓰᙱᑦᑐᒥᒃ ᓴᓂᑭᓗᐊᒥ 1941-ᖑᑎᓪᓗᒍ.

ᑕᒪᓐᓇ ᐊᑐᓕᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ 1920, ᕿᓂᖅᑎᑦ ᑎᑭᑉᐸᓪᓕᐊᑦᑕᕐᓂᖏᑦ ᐊᓂᒍᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᕐᕖᑦ ᓄᖑᕋᖅᑕᐅᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᑉ ᑕᕆᐅᖏᓐᓂ. ᐅᐊᓕᓂᕐᒥ, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓱᒃᑯᑕᐅᓐᓂᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐋᓐᓂᐊᓄᑦ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓄᖕᓄᑦ ᐊᓛᓯᑲᒥᐅᓄᑦ ᐃᓇᖏᖅᑕᐅᓪᓗᑎᒃ. ᖃᓪᓗᓈᑦ ᑕᐃᑯᖓ ᑎᑭᑉᐸᓪᓕᐊᓕᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ.

ᑎᑭᒍᓐᓇᖅᑕᐅᓗᐊᙱᓐᓂᖅᓴᒥ ᕿᑎᕐᒥᐅᓂ, ᖃᓂᒋᔭᖓᓂᓐᓃᑦ 1900 ᐃᓄᖃᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ ᑕᑯᓚᐅᖅᓯᒪ­ᙱᑦᑐᓂᒃ ᖃᓪᓗᓈᓂᒃ. ᐊᒻᒪᓕ ᓛᐸᑐᐊᕆᒥ, ᖃᓪᓗᓈᑦ ᑎᑭᓕᓵᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᓇᖏᖅᓯᓯᒪᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᓄᖕᓂᒃ ᓯᒡᔭᓂᑦ, ᑲᑎᖃᑕᐅᓪᓗᑎᒡᓐᓃᑦ, ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥ ᐳᖅᑐᔪᒥ ᓄᓇᖃᓕᙱᑦᑐᑐᐊᖑᓪᓗᑎᒃ.

ᐃᓚᒌᑦᑕᐅᖅ ᖃᓪᓗᓈᑦ ᑎᑭᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒧᑦ ᐅᑯᐊᖑᔪᑦ ᑲᓇᒥ ᐸᓖᓯᐅᔪᑦ, ᐳᑭᖅᑕᓖᑦ (RCMP). ᑲᓇᑕᐅᑉ ᒐᕙᒪᖓᑦ, ᐃᓱᒫᑎᖃᖅᖢᑎᒃ ᐊᒥᐊᕆᒃᑲᒥᐅᓂᒃ ᕿᓚᓗᒐᕐᓂᐊᖅᑎᑦ ᖃᓄᐃᓕᐅᕐᓂᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᕼᐊᑦᓴᓐ ᐲᒥ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᕿᓂᖅᑎᑦ ᐊᓯᒥᐅᑕᐃᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᑉ ᐳᖅᑐᔪᖓᓂ, ᐱᒋᐊᓕᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᐸᓖᓯᖃᓕᖅᑎᑎᓂᕐᒥᒃ. ᑲᓇᑕᐅᑉ ᒪᓕᒐᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᑐᓕᖅᑎᑎᖁᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᐅᓚᑦᑎᓂᖃᖁᓪᓗᒋᑦ.

ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐃᓕᑕᕆᔭᐅᙱᓐᓂᖏᑦ

ᑎᑎᕋᖅᑕᐅᓯᒪᔪᑦ ᐊᓂᒍᖅᓯᒪᓂᑯᓂᒃ ᐱᔾᔪᑎᖃᖅᖢᑎᒃ ᐊᑐᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ 19-ᒋᔭᐅᔪᖅ ᐊᕐᕌᒍᖓᑦ ᐊᒥᓱᐃᖅᖢᑎᒃ ᐅᖃᖅᓯᒪᔪᖃᖅᑐᑦ ᐊᔾᔨᒋᙱᓚᐅᕐᓂᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᖃᓄᐃᓐᓂᖏᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᖃᓪᓗᓈᑦ. ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐊᕙᑎᒥᐅᑕᑦ ᐊᔪᙱᓪᖢᑎᒃ ᐊᓐᓇᐅᒪᒍᓐᓇᑦᑎᐊᕐᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑯᑦᑕᖓᔪᑦ ᖃᓪᓗᓈᑦ, ᐊᕿᐊᕈᐊᖅᐸᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ, ᖁᐊᖅᐸᒃᖢᑎᒃ, ᐋᓐᓂᐊᓕᖅᐸᒃᖢᑎᒡᓗ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑭᕕᕙᒃᖢᑎᒃ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥ.

church

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ᑕᐃᕕᑦ ᑲᓂᐊᒃ, ᒨᓯᓯ ᑯᐃᓱᒃ, ᐹᓪ ᐅᒥᐊᒍᐃᑦᑐᒃ, ᐊᒻᒪ ᐱᓯ ᐅᒥᐊᒍᐃᑦᑐᒃ, ᐃᖃᓗᒃᑑᑦᑎᐊᖅ. ᐅᒃᐱᕐᓂᖅ ᓴᖏᓂᕆᔭᐅᕗᖅ ᓱᓕ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐃᓕᖁᓯᖏᑦᑎᒍᑦ, ᐱᒋᐊᓕᓵᕐᓂᖅ ᐊᑲᐅᓗᐊᓚᐅᖏᒃᑲ­ᓗᐊᕐᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᑐᒃᓯᐊᕐᑎᓂ. ᑕᓕᕐᐱᐊᓂ: ᓇᔭᑦ ᐃᒡᓗᓕᒑᕐᔪᖕᒥ, ᓴᖅᑭᑕᐅᓂᑯ 1931ᒥ, ᑕᐅᑐᒃᑐᑦ ᐃᓄᖕᓂ ᕿᓚᓗᒐᐅᑉ ᓂᕿᖓᓂᑦ ᐊᒻᒪ ᒪᒃᑖᖓᓂ ᐱᓕᕆᑎᓪᓗᒋ, 1950

ᐃᓕᑕᕆᔭᐅᔪᐃᑦᑐᑦ, ᑭᓯᐊᓂᐅᒐᓗᐊᖅ, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑎᐅᕙᓚᐅᕐᓂᖏᑦ ᑎᑭᓕᓵᖅᑐᓄᑦ. ᒪᖃᐃᑎᐅᕙᒃᖢᑎᒃ, ᑕᓯᐅᖅᑎᐅᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐅᖃᖅᑎᐅᓪᓗᑎᒡᓗ. ᑕᐃᓗᒋᑦ ᐊᒥᓲᙱᑦᑐᑦ, ᐃᐱᕐᕕᒃ (Joe) ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓄᓕᐊᖓ ᑕᕐᕋᓕᑭᑖᖅ (Hannah) ᑎᓅᔾᔭᕐᕕᖕᒥᐅᑕᒃ. ᓴᐳᔾᔨᓚᐅᖅᑐᒃ ᐅᒥᐊᕐᔪᐊᕐᒥᐅᓂᒃ ᓴᓇᔨᖏᓐᓂᒃ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᕿᓂᖅᑎᓄᑦ ᖃᑦᓯᑲᓪᓚᒻᒪᕆᖕᓄᑦ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑎᐅᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᓱᓕᕆᐊᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᓯᕗᒻᒧᐃᓚᐅᖅᑐᒃ ᐃᖕᒥᖕᓂᒃ ᐃᓱᒪᒐᑎᒃ ᐊᒃᓱᕈᕐᓇᖅᑐᒃᑰᖅᖢᑎᒡᓗ. ᐅᓕᒡᐸᖅ ᕼᐊᑦᓴᓐ ᐲᒥᐅᑕᖅ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᕐᓂᖓ ᐅᐃᓕᐊᒻ ᐊᒥᓱᓂᒃ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᓂᒃ ᓇᓗᙱᓚᐅᖅᑐᒃ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑲᑉᐱᐊᓇᖅᑐᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᑳᖅᑕᖅᐸᓚᐅᖅᖢᑎᒃ ᓄᓇᒃᑯᑦ ᖃᑦᓰᒻᒪᕆᒃᖢᑎᒃ. ᐃᑲᔪᐃᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᖃᓪᓗᓈᓂᒃ.

ᐊᑐᓕᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ 1920 ᐊᒻᒪᓗ 1930 ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐊᔪᖅᓴᕈᑎᖃᓕᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᒥᖅᑯᓖᑦ ᐊᑭᖏᑦ ᑲᑕᒃᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ, ᐋᓐᓂᐊᕐᓃᓪᓗ ᑎᑭᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐆᒪᔪᐃᓪᓗ ᐊᔪᕐᓇᓕᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ. ᐊᒃᓱᕈᕈᑕᐅᓚᐅᕐᒥᔪᖅ ᑕᓪᓕᒪᓂᒃ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕐᕕᖕᓂᒃ ᐱᑕᖃᓕᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᓄᑕᖃᐃᑦ ᑕᓪᓕᒪᓂᒃ ᒪᒃᑯᖕᓂᓖᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᐊᖏᕐᕋᒥᖕᓂᒃ ᐲᖅᑕᐅᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐊᐅᓪᓚᖅᑎᑕᐅᕙᒃᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ. ᐃᓚᒥᖕᓂᒃ ᓇᔪᙱᓕᖅᖢᑎᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓕᖅᑯᓯᕐᒥᖕᓂᒃ, ᐃᓛᓐᓂᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᕐᕌᒍᓂᒃ ᐊᒥᓱᓂᒃ. ᐃᓚᖏᑦ ᑐᒃᓯᐊᕐᕕᖕᓄᑦ ᐊᐅᓚᑕᐅᔪᓄᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕐᕕᖕᓂ ᓱᓕᕆᐊᕆᔭᐅᑦᑕᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᓄᑕᖅᑲᓂᒃ ᖁᓄᔪᖕᓂᐊᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐋᓐᓂᖅᑎᕆᕙᒃᑐᒃ. ᑕᒪᐃᓐᓂᒃ, ᑭᓯᐊᓂ, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓇᖕᒥᓂᖅ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕐᒥᖕᓂᒃ ᐊᓯᐅᔨᓚᐅᙱᑦᑐᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓱᒪᖅᓱᕈᓐᓇᕐᓂᕐᒥᖕᓂᒃ, ᑖᒃᑯᐊ ᐊᓯᔾᔨᕈᑎᐅᔪᑦ ᐊᐅᓚᑦᑎᓂᖏᑕ ᐊᔭᐅᖅᓯᒐᓗᐊᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ “ᐱᖓᓱᑦ ᐊᖏᔫᔪᑦ”: ᐸᓖᓯᒃᑯᑦ, ᓂᐅᕕᖅᑎᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑐᒃᓯᐊᕐᕕᒃᑯᑦ. ᑕᒪᓐᓇ ᓱᓐᓂᓚᐅᙱᑦᑐᖅ ᓯᓚᕐᔪᐊᓗᒃᑖᒥ ᐅᓇᑕᕕᒡᔪᐊᕐᓂᖅ ᑐᒡᓕᐊ ᑎᑭᓪᓗᒍ.