Conversations on Chemistry
by Jane Marcet

Before you are tempted to object to any law of nature, reflect whether it may not prove to be one of the numberless dispensations of Providence for our good.

Caution: DO NOT TRY THIS AT HOME.

The nineteenth century was the era of the Celebrity Chemist, beginning with Humphry—later Sir Humphry—Davy (1778–1829). His public lectures created a need for something that would help attendees understand what he was talking about. Enter Jane Marcet (1769–1858), born Jane Haldimand.

In 1806 Jane Marcet made her first venture into popular science with Conver­sations on Chemistry. It would go through at least sixteen editions over the next half-century; the version you see here is the fifth edition, from 1817. By that time her next book, Conversations on Political Economy, was in its second edition. Other Conversations covered Natural Philosophy and Vegetable Physiology; she also co-authored Conversations on Botany.

For many years her books were published anonymously. But not too anony­mously; the “Dr. Marcet” mentioned in a few footnotes and figure captions is the author’s husband.

Contents (this page)

Advertisement (this page)

Preface (this page)

Volume I: On Simple Bodies

Volume II: On Compound Bodies

General Index (this page)

Illustrations

Alongside her other achievements, Jane Marcet was quite good at drawing scientific apparatus. Most Plates include the following text, engraved in small print:

Drawn by the Author / Engraved by Lowry / Published by Longman & Co. Octr. 2nd. 1809.

This date corresponds to the third edition. Plates V, X and XIII—each containing material new to the fifth edition—read only “Lowry sculp.”

For this ebook, illustrations have generally been moved as close as practicable to their discussion in the text, and some Plates have been divided into two parts for convenience. Page numbers shown alongside the Plates refer to their original placement in the printed book. Each illustration includes a link to a larger version of the full Plate.

Science

Terminology

Some essential concepts relating to living things—photo­synthesis, micro­organisms, the cell, proteins—are either unknown or not mentioned. The atom theory had been proposed, but not by Humphry Davy; it is not mentioned in this book.

The word “explode” is used at least once in its orginal, figurative sense (“a word that should be exploded in chemistry”) but far more often in its later, concrete one. The word “explosion” is always used concretely (“an explosion, or a detonation as chemists commonly call it”).

Many terms used in this book are different from the words used today. In alphabetical order:

General:

arts
industry, manufacture, crafts (seldom “fine arts”)
caoutchouc
rubber
fecula (usually spelled “fæcula”)
starch
philosopher
scientist
simple body, fundamental principle
element
spirit of wine
alcohol

Specific:

carbonic acid
carbon dioxide
“columbium or tantalium”
niobium and tantalum
the two elements always occur together, and were not recognized as separate until much later in the 19th century
glucium
beryllium
Humphry Davy’s name for the element
oxy-muriatic acid
chlorine
proposed as an element in 1815: see Conversation XIX
muriat of lime
calcium chloride
muriat of soda
sodium chloride (table salt)
muriatic acid
hydrochloric acid
but still called “muriatic acid” for some commercial uses
oxymuriate of potash
potassium chlorate
phosphat of lime
calcium diphosphate or calcium
the element calcium was isolated in 1808, but is named only once in this 1817 edition

Calculated Values

“the point of zero, or the absolute privation of heat, must consequently be 1260 degrees below 32 degrees” (Conversation IV)
That is, -1228° F. The calculation is based on wrong premises; the correct figure is about -460° F or -273° C.
“Mercury congeals only at seventy-two degrees below the freezing point.” (Conversation X)
-40° F, which is also -40° C. This figure is correct, though approximate.
[ammonia] “consisted of about one part of hydrogen to four parts of nitrogen . . . . and from the latest and most accurate experiments, the proportions appear to be, one volume of nitrogen gas to three of hydrogen gas” (Conversation XIV)
“The proportion stated by Sir H. Davy, in his Chemical Researches, is as 1 to 2.389.” (Conversation XVIII)
These and similar calculations involving relative weight and volume make more sense when one knows the elements’ atomic weights. For nitric acid, HNO3, the figures are 1:14:48, giving a proportion closer to 1:3.5. For ammonia, NH3 (not 4), the figures are 14:3.
“The oxalic acid, distilled from sorrel, is the highest term of vegetable acidifi­cation; for, if more oxygen be added to it, it loses its vegetable nature, and is resolved into carbonic acid and water;” (Conversation XX)
Oxalic acid = H2C2O4; carbonic acid (carbon dioxide) = CO2.
H2C2O4 + O becomes H2O + CO2 + CO2.

Spelling

Some words you may need to tell your spell checker to shut up about:

In many cases the author herself couldn’t make up her mind:

To say nothing of:

Although the two volumes were published together, Volume I has more archaic forms than Volume II:

Chapter Numbering

The 3rd and 4th editions used the same Conversation (chapter) numbering. The apparent disappearance of XI and XII is the result of changes between the 4th and 5th (present text) editions:

Volume I: On Simple Bodies
4th
edn.
5th
edn.
I.
II.
III.
I.
II.
III.
No change
IV. IV.

4th: On Specific Heat, Latent Heat, and Chemical Heat.

5th: On Combined Caloric, Comprehending Specific Heat and Latent Heat.

V.

On The Chemical Agencies Of Electricity.

Chapter added in 5th edition

V. VI.

On Oxygen And Nitrogen.

VI. VII.

On Hydrogen.

5th: new sections on Gas lights and Miner’s Lamp

VII. VIII.

On Sulphur And Phosphorus.

5th: new section on Decomposition of Sulphur

VIII. IX.

4th: On Carbone.

5th: On Carbon.

IX. X.

On Metals.

X.

On Alkalies.

XI.

On Earths.

Conversations X, XI were moved to Volume II as XIV, XV.

Volume II: On Compound Bodies
4th
edn.
5th
edn.
XII. XIII.

On The Attraction Of Composition.

XIV.

On Alkalies.

XV.

On Earths.

Conversations XIV, XV were previously X, XI in Volume I.

XIII. XVI.

4th: On Compound Bodies.

5th: On Acids.

Most of XIII, On Compound Bodies, became XVI, On Acids. Some introductory material was moved to XIV, On Alkalies.

XIV. XVII.

4th: On The Combinations of Oxygen with Sulphur and with Phosphorus; and of the Sulphats And Phosphats.

5th: Of the Sulphuric and Phosphoric Acids: or, The Combi­nations of . . . .

XV. XVIII.

4th: On The Combination of Oxygen with Nitrogen and with Carbone; and of The Nitrats And Carbonats.

5th: Of The Nitric And Carbonic Acids: Or The Combi­nation of . . . .

XVI. XIX.

4th: On Muriatic And Oxygenated Muriatic Acids; and on Muriats.

5th: On The Boracic, Fluoric, Muriatic, and Oxygenated Muriatic Acids; and on Muriats.

XVII. XX.

On The Nature And Composition Of Vegetables.

Remainder of book: number in 4th edition + 3 = number in 5th edition.

Formalities

This ebook is based on the two-volume fifth edition of Conversations on Chemistry: Volume I; Volume II. The author’s preface, originally in Volume I, and the combined index, originally at the end of Volume II, are on this page. I’ve also added an abbreviated Table of Contents; the two volumes each have their own, more detailed Contents. Footnotes are grouped at the end of each Conversation; they have been renumbered within each volume.

Trivia: Humphry Davy was knighted in 1812, between the third and fourth edition of this book. In an era before Global Replace, the editor had to manually replace all occurrences of “Humphry” with “Sir H.”, presumably so line lengths wouldn’t be thrown too far out of whack.

Typographical errors are marked with mouse-hover popups and are listed again at the end of each chapter. The word “invisible” means that the letter or punctuation mark is missing, but there is an appropriately sized blank space.

Reminder: DO NOT TRY THIS AT HOME.

CONTENTS

Each volume has its own, detailed Table of Contents; here I simply give the Conversation titles. There are no Conversations XI and XII (see above). Volume II starts with Conversation XIII.

CONVERSATION I.
On the General Principles of Chemistry. Page I.1
CONVERSATION II.
On Light and Heat. I.26
CONVERSATION III.
Continuation of the Subject. I.70
CONVERSATION IV.
On Combined Caloric, Comprehending Specific Heat and Latent Heat. I.122
CONVERSATION V.
On the Chemical Agencies of Electricity. I.160
CONVERSATION VI.
On Oxygen and Nitrogen. I.181
CONVERSATION VII.
On Hydrogen. I.214
CONVERSATION VIII.
On Sulphur and Phosphorus. I.256
CONVERSATION IX.
On Carbon. I.282
CONVERSATION X.
On Metals. I.314
CONVERSATION XIII.
On the Attraction of Composition. II.1
CONVERSATION XIV.
On Alkalies. II.19
CONVERSATION XV.
On Earths. II.44
CONVERSATION XVI.
On Acids. II.69
CONVERSATION XVII.
Of the Sulphuric and Phosphoric Acids: Or, the Combinations of Oxygen with Sulphur and with Phosphorus; and of the Sulphats and Phosphats. II.80
CONVERSATION XVIII.
Of the Nitric and Carbonic Acids: Or the Combination of Oxygen with Nitrogen and with Carbon; and of the Nitrats and Carbonats. II.100
CONVERSATION XIX.
On the Boracic, Fluoric, Muriatic, and Oxygenated Muriatic Acids; and On Muriats. II.131
CONVERSATION XX.
On the Nature and Composition of Vegetables. II.162
CONVERSATION XXI.
On the Decomposition of Vegetables. II.202
CONVERSATION XXII.
History of Vegetation. II.243
CONVERSATION XXIII.
On the Composition of Animals. II.276
CONVERSATION XXIV.
On the Animal Economy. II.297
CONVERSATION XXV.
On Animalisation, Nutrition, and Respiration. II.314
CONVERSATION XXVI.
On Animal Heat; and of Various Animal Products. II.336

CONVERSATIONS
on

CHEMISTRY;

in which
THE ELEMENTS OF THAT SCIENCE
are
FAMILIARLY EXPLAINED
and
ILLUSTRATED BY EXPERIMENTS.

IN TWO VOLUMES.

The Fifth Edition, revised, corrected, and considerably enlarged.

----

LONDON:
PRINTED FOR LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN,
PATERNOSTER-ROW.

1817.

Printed by A. Strahan,
Printers-Street, London.

The Author, in this fifth edition, has endeavoured to give an account of the principal discoveries which have been made within the last four years in Chemical Science, and of the various important applications, such as the gas-lights, and the miner’s-lamp, to which they have given rise. But in regard to doctrines or principles, the work has undergone no material alteration.

London, July, 1817.

v

PREFACE.

In venturing to offer to the public, and more particularly to the female sex, an Introduction to Chemistry, the author, herself a woman, conceives that some explanation may be required; and she feels it the more necessary to apologise for the present undertaking, as her knowledge of the subject is but recent, and as she can have no real claims to the title of chemist.

On attending for the first time experimental lectures, the author found it almost impossible to derive any clear or satisfactory information from the rapid demonstrations which are usually, and perhaps necessarily, crowded into popular courses of this kind. But frequent opportunities having vi afterwards occurred of conversing with a friend on the subject of chemistry, and of repeating a variety of experiments, she became better acquainted with the principles of that science, and began to feel highly interested in its pursuit. It was then that she perceived, in attending the excellent lectures delivered at the Royal Institution, by the present Professor of Chemistry, the great advantage which her previous knowledge of the subject, slight as it was, gave her over others who had not enjoyed the same means of private instruction. Every fact or experiment attracted her attention, and served to explain some theory to which she was not a total stranger; and she had the gratification to find that the numerous and elegant illustrations, for which that school is so much distinguished, seldom failed to produce on her mind the effect for which they were intended.

Hence it was natural to infer, that familiar conversation was, in studies of this kind, a most useful auxiliary source of information; vii and more especially to the female sex, whose education is seldom calculated to prepare their minds for abstract ideas, or scientific language.

As, however, there are but few women who have access to this mode of instruction; and as the author was not acquainted with any book that could prove a substitute for it, she thought that it might be useful for beginners, as well as satisfactory to herself, to trace the steps by which she had acquired her little stock of chemical knowledge, and to record, in the form of dialogue, those ideas which she had first derived from conversation.

But to do this with sufficient method, and to fix upon a mode of arrangement, was an object of some difficulty. After much hesitation, and a degree of embarrassment, which, probably, the most competent chemical writers have often felt in common with the most superficial, a mode of division was adopted, which, though the most natural, does not always admit of being viii strictly pursued—it is that of treating first of the simplest bodies, and then gradually rising to the most intricate compounds.

It is not the author’s intention to enter into a minute vindication of this plan. But whatever may be its advantages or inconveniences, the method adopted in this work is such, that a young pupil, who should occasionally recur to it, with a view to procure information on particular subjects, might often find it obscure or unintelligible; for its various parts are so connected with each other as to form an uninterrupted chain of facts and reasonings, which will appear sufficiently clear and consistent to those only who may have patience to go through the whole work, or have previously devoted some attention to the subject.

It will, no doubt, be observed, that in the course of these Conversations, remarks are often introduced, which appear much too acute for the young pupils, by whom ix they are supposed to be made. Of this fault the author is fully aware. But, in order to avoid it, it would have been necessary either to omit a variety of useful illustrations, or to submit to such minute explanations and frequent repetitions, as would have rendered the work tedious, and therefore less suited to its intended purpose.

In writing these pages, the author was more than once checked in her progress by the apprehension that such an attempt might be considered by some, either as unsuited to the ordinary pursuits of her sex, or ill-justified by her own recent and imperfect knowledge of the subject. But, on the one hand, she felt encouraged by the establishment of those public institutions, open to both sexes, for the dissemination of philosophical knowledge, which clearly prove that the general opinion no longer excludes women from an acquaintance with the elements of science; and, on the other, she flattered herself that whilst the impressions made upon her mind, by the wonders x of Nature, studied in this new point of view, were still fresh and strong, she might perhaps succeed the better in communicating to others the sentiments she herself experienced.

The reader will soon perceive, in perusing this work, that he is often supposed to have previously acquired some slight knowledge of natural philosophy, a circumstance, indeed, which appears very desirable. The author’s original intention was to commence this work by a small tract, explaining, on a plan analogous to this, the most essential rudiments of that science. This idea she has since abandoned; but the manuscript was ready, and might, perhaps, have been printed at some future period, had not an elementary work of a similar description, under the tide of “Scientific Dialogues,” been pointed out to her, which, on a rapid perusal, she thought very ingenious, and well calculated to answer its intended object.

I.xvi
ERRATA.
Vol. I. page 56. last line but one, for “caloric,” read “calorific.”
179. Note, for “Plate XII.” r. “Plate XIII.”

Notes and Corrections: Preface

Impressively, I found no typographical errors in the Preface.

The Errata section is included for completeness. The listed correc­tions have been made in the text—along with quite a few others that the author overlooked.

II.363

INDEX.

I and J are alphabetized together. V and U—in that order—were printed as shown.

 A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   IJ   K   L   M 
 N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   V   U   W   Y   Z 

A

Absorbent vessels, ii. 304

Absorption of caloric, i. 59. 66

Acetic acid, ii. 75. 197

Acetous fermentation, ii. 232

—— acid, ii. 193. 232

Acidulous gaseous mineral waters, ii. 129

—— salts, ii. 200

Acids, i. 262. ii. 69

Aeriform, i. 36

Affinity, i. 19. ii. 1

Agate, ii. 51

Agriculture, ii. 252

Air, i. 182. ii. 262

Albumen, ii. 277. 288

Alburnum, ii. 267

Alchemists, i. 4

Alcohol, or spirit of wine, ii. 215. 222

Alembic, i. 258

Alkalies, ii. 19

Alkaline earths, ii. 50. 58

Alloys, i. 344

Alum, or sulphat of alumine, ii. 55. 95

Alumine, ii. 54

Alumium, i. 13

Amalgam, i. 347

Ambergris, ii. 358

Amethyst, ii. 58

Amianthus, ii. 66

Ammonia, or volatile alkali, i. 363. ii. 20. 35

Ammoniacal gas, ii. 36

Ammonium, i. 13

Analysis, i. 287

—— of vegetables, ii. 165

Animals, ii. 276

Animal acids, ii. 75. 290

—— colours, ii. 292

—— heat, ii. 337

—— oil, ii. 178. 283

Animalization, ii. 276. 297. 315

Antidotes, ii. 41. 87

Antimony, i. 14

Aqua fortis, ii. 105

—— regia, i. 340. ii. 144

Arrack, ii. 220

Argand’s Lamp, i. 208

Arsenic, i. 14. 340. 348

Arteries, ii. 304. 323

Arterial blood, ii. 305. 326. 338

Asphaltum, ii. 240

Assafœtida, ii. 188

Assimilation, ii. 298

Astringent principle, ii. 198

Atmosphere, i. 90. 181. ii. 262

Atmospherical air, i. 182

Attraction of aggregation, or cohesion, i. 16. ii. 2

II.364

—— of composition, i. 16. ii. 1

Azot, or nitrogen, i. 182, ii. 100

Azotic gas, i. 182

B

Balsams, ii. 165. 188

Balloons, i. 245

Bark, ii. 193. 265

Barytes, ii. 44. 58. 61

Bases of acids, i. 263. ii. 69

—— gases, i. 183

—— salts, ii. 5

Beer, ii. 212. 220

Benzoic acid, ii. 74. 197

Bile, ii. 308

Birds, ii. 347

Bismuth, i. 14

Bitumens, ii. 239

Black lead, or plumbago, i. 304

Bleaching, i. 32. ii. 89. 140.

Blow-pipe, i. 324. ii. 226

Blood, ii. 306. 317

Blood-vessels, ii. 298

Boiling water, i. 93

Bombic acid, ii. 75. 290

Bones, ii. 298, 299

Boracic acid, i. 365. ii. 131

Boracium, i. 13. ii. 132

Borat of soda, ii. 133

Brandy, ii. 218

Brass, i. 344

Bread, ii. 233

Bricks, ii. 56

Brittle-metals, i. 14

Bronze, i. 341

Butter, ii. 351

Butter-milk, ii. 352

C

Calcareous earths, ii. 65

—— stones, ii. 123

Calcium, i. 13

Caloric, i. 12. 33

——, absorption of, i. 66

——, conductors of, i. 70

——, combined, i. 122

——, expansive power of i. 35

——, equilibrium of, i. 50

——, reflexion of, i. 54. 67

——, radiation of, i. 52. 61

——, solvent power of, i. 96. 102

——, capacity for, i. 124

Calorimeter, i. 156

Calx, i. 183

Camphor, ii. 165. 185

Camphoric acid, ii. 74. 197

Caoutchouc, ii. 165. 189

Carbonats, ii. 25. 129

Carbonat of ammonia, ii. 41

—— lead, i. 320

—— lime, ii. 59. 130

—— magnesia, ii. 67

—— potash, ii. 25

Carbonated hydrogen gas, i. 302

Carbon, i. 282. ii. 329

Carbonic acid, i. 290. 359. ii. 327

Carburet of iron, i. 304. 342

Carmine, ii. 295

Cartilage, ii. 303

Castor, ii. 359

Cellular membrane, ii. 311

Caustics, i. 349

Chalk, ii. 62. 123

Charcoal, i. 282

Cheese, ii. 356

Chemical attraction, i. 15. ii. 9

Chemistry, i. 3

Chest, ii. 318

China, ii. 54

Chlorine, i. 214

Chrome, i. 14. 340

Chyle, ii. 305. 317

Chyme, ii. 316

II.365

Citric acid, ii. 74. 197

Circulation of the blood, ii. 322

Civet, ii. 359

Clay, i. 48. ii. 55

Coke, ii. 241

Coal, ii. 240. 252

Cobalt, i. 14

Cochineal, ii. 295

Cold, i. 50. 58

—— from evaporation, i. 102. 113. 150

Colours of metallic oxyds, i. 319

Columbium, i. 14. 340. 348

Combined caloric, i. 122

Combustion, i. 190

——, volatile products of, i. 207

——, fixed products of, i. 207

——, of alcohol, ii. 225

——, of ammoniacal gas, ii. 42

——, of boracium, ii. 133

——, by oxymuriatic acid or chlorine, ii. 142

——, of carbon, i. 289

——, of coals, i. 207. 297

——, of charcoal by nitric acid, ii. 102

——, of candles, i. 236. 309. ii. 179

——, of diamonds, i. 292

——, of ether, ii. 230

——, of hydrogen, i. 229.

——, of iron, i. 200. 322

——, of metals, i. 321

——, of oils, i. 208. ii. 178. 309

——, of oil of turpentine by nitrous acid, ii. 6

——, of phosphorus, i. 272

——, of sulphur, i. 261

—— of potassium, i. 358. ii. 132. 138, 139

Compound bodies, i. 9. ii. 14

—— or neutral salts i. 333. ii. 4

Conductors of heat, i. 71

——, solids, i. 73

——, fluids, i. 78

——, Count Rumford’s theory, i. 79

Constituent parts, i. 9

Copper, i. 14. 331

Copal, ii. 187. 224

Cortical layers, ii. 265. 267

Cotyledons, or lobes, ii. 256

Cream, ii. 351

Cream of tartar, or tartrit of potash, ii. 200. 222

Cryophorus, i. 154

Crystallisation, i. 338. ii. 47

Cucurbit, i. 258

Culinary heat, i. 88

Curd, ii. 351. 354

Cuticle, or epidermis, ii. 310

D

Decomposition, i. 8. 20

—— of atmospherical air, i. 181. 209

—— of water by the Voltaic battery, i. 220

—— of salts by the Voltaic battery, ii. 14

—— of water by metals, i. 225. 334

—— —— by carbon, i. 301

—— of vegetables, ii. 202

—— of potash, i. 356

—— of soda, i. 56

—— of ammonia, i. 363. ii. 37

II.366

—— of the boracic acid, ii. 132

—— of the fluoric acid, ii. 136

—— of the muriatic acid, ii. 139

Deflagration, ii. 118

Definite proportions, ii. 13

Deliquescence, ii. 95

Detonation, i. 219. ii. 116

Dew, i. 105

Diamond, i. 285

Diaphragm, ii. 320

Digestion, ii. 316

Dissolution of metals, i. 165. 316. 333

Distillation, i. 259. ii. 218

—— of red wine, ii. 218

Divellent forces, ii. 12

Division, i. 7

Drying oils, ii. 181

Dying, ii. 191

E

Earths, ii. 44

Earthen-ware, ii. 53. 57

Effervescence, i. 298

Efflorescence, ii. 94

Elastic fluids, i. 37

Electricity, i. 12. 25. 160. 220. ii. 139

Electric machine, i. 169

Elective attractions, ii. 9

Elementary bodies, i. 8. 12

Elixirs, tinctures, or quintessences, ii. 225

Enamel, ii. 57

Epidermis of vegetables, ii. 269

—— of animals, ii. 310

Epsom salts, ii. 63. 95

Equilibrium of caloric, i. 50

Essences, i. 307. ii. 183. 224

Essential, or volatile oils, i. 307. ii. 183

Ether, i. 111. ii. 229

Evaporation, i. 103

Evergreens, ii. 274

Eudiometer, i. 276

Expansion of caloric, i. 36

Extractive colouring matter, ii. 165. 190

F

Falling stones, i. 319

Fat, i. 306. ii. 311

Feathers, ii. 300

Fecula, ii. 176

Fermentation, ii. 205

Fibrine, ii. 277. 289

Fire, i. 7. 27

Fish, ii. 346

Fixed air, or carbonic acid, i. 290. ii. 125

—— alkalies, ii. 20

—— oils, i. 307. ii. 165. 177

—— products of combustion, i. 207

Flame, i. 237

Flint, ii. 30. 51

Flower or blossom, ii. 271

Fluoric acid, ii. 54. 134

Fluorium, or Fluorine, i. 12. ii. 136

Formic acid, ii. 290

Fossil wood, ii. 242

Frankincense, ii. 187

Free or radiant caloric, or heat of temperature, i. 33

Freezing mixtures, i. 142

—— by evaporation, i. 104. 150, &c.

Frost, i. 94

Fruit, ii. 271

Fuller’s earth, ii. 55

Furnace, i. 304

II.367

G

Galls, ii. 199

Gallat of iron, ii. 98

Gallic acid, ii. 74. 197, 198

Galvanism, i. 163

Gas, i. 182

Gas-lights, i. 240

Gaseous oxyd of carbon, i. 296

—— nitrogen, ii. 111

Gastric juice, ii. 316

Gelatine, or jelly, ii. 277. 280

Germination, ii. 256

Gin, ii. 221

Glands, ii. 298. 307

Glass, ii. 30

Glauber’s salts, or sulphat of soda, ii. 92

Glazing, ii. 57

Glucium, i. 13

Glue, ii. 281. 287

Gluten, ii. 165. 177

Gold, i. 14. 323

Gum, ii. 170

—— arabic, ii. 170

—— elastic, or caoutchouc, ii. 189

—— resins, ii. 165. 188

Gunpowder, ii. 116

Gypsum, or plaister of Paris, or sulphat of lime, ii. 95

H

Hair, ii. 300

Harrogate water, i. 268. 341

Hartshorn, ii. 35. 39. 281. 285

Heart, ii. 323

—— wood, ii. 268

Heat, i. 26. 33

—— of capacity, i. 127. 135

—— of temperature, i. 33

Honey, ii. 175

Horns, ii. 282. 300

Hydro-carbonat, i. 241. 303

Hydrogen, i. 214

—— gas, i. 215

IJ

Jasper, ii. 51

Ice, i. 138

Jelly, ii. 281

Jet, ii. 240

Ignes fatui, i. 277

Ignition, i. 119

Imponderable agents, i. 12

Inflammable air, i. 215

Ink, ii. 98. 199

Insects, ii. 349

Integrant pans, i. 9

Iridium, i. 14

Iron, i. 14. 319. 328

Isinglass, ii. 194. 285

Ivory black, ii. 295

Iodine, i. 214. ii. 157

K

Kali, ii. 34

Koumiss, ii. 356

L

Lac, ii. 358

Lactic acid, ii. 75. 290. 356

Lakes, colours, ii. 190

Latent heat, i. 133

Lavender water, ii. 184. 224

Lead, i. 14. 318. 330

Leather, ii. 193. 287

Leaves, ii. 260

Life, ii. 159. 168

Ligaments, ii. 303

Light, i. 12. 26. ii. 261

Lightning, i. 248

Lime, ii. 59

—— water, ii. 61

II.368

Limestone, ii. 60

Linseed oil, ii. 178

Liqueurs, ii. 224

Liver, ii. 308

Lobes, ii. 256. 332

Lunar caustic, or nitrat of silver, i. 350. ii. 119

Lungs, ii. 319. 330

Lymph, ii. 304

Lymphatic vessels, ii. 304

M

Magnesia, ii. 44. 66

Magnium, i. 13

Malic acid, ii. 74. 197

Malt, ii. 211

Malleable metals, i. 14

Manganese, i. 14. 317

Manna, ii. 176

Manure, ii. 247

Marble, ii. 123

Marine acid, or muriatic acid, ii. 136

Mastic, ii. 187. 224

Materials of animals, ii. 277

—— of vegetables, ii. 165

Mercury, i. 14. 346

——, new mode of freezing, i. 155. 347

Metallic acids, i. 340

—— oxyds, i. 316

Metals, i. 12. 314

Meteoric stones, i. 342

Mica, ii. 66

Milk, ii. 299. 306. 350

Minerals, i. 315. ii. 44. 158

Mineral waters, i. 296. ii. 129

—— acids, ii. 73

Miner’s lamp, i. 249

Mixture, i. 99

Molybdena, i. 14. 340

Mordant, ii. 165. 192

Mortar, ii. 53. 65

Mucilage, ii. 170

Mucous acid, ii. 74. 171. 197

—— membrane, ii. 311

Muriatic acid, or marine acid, ii. 136

Muriats, ii. 151

Muriat of ammonia, ii. 35. 152

—— lime, i. 100

—— soda, or common salt, ii. 136. 151

—— potash, ii. 138

Muriatium, i. 13

Muscles of animals, ii. 298. 303

Musk, ii. 359

Myrrh, ii. 188

N.

Naphtha, i. 357. ii. 240

Negative electricity, i. 25. 161. 185

Nerves, ii. 279. 298. 308

Neutral, or compound salts, i. 333. ii. 4. 22. 69

Nickel, i. 13. 343

Nitre, or nitrat of potash, or saltpetre, ii. 32. 104. 116

Nitric acid, ii. 100

Nitrogen, or azot, i. 181. ii. 100

—— gas, i. 182. 211

Nitro-muriatic acid, or aqua regia, ii. 144

Nitrous acid gas, ii. 101. 106

—— air, or nitrit oxyd gas, ii. 107

Nitrats, ii. 116

Nitrat of copper, ii. 5

—— ammonia, ii. 113. 118

—— potash, or nitre, or saltpetre, ii. 32. 104. 116

—— silver, or lunar caustic, ii. 19

Nomenclature of acids, i. 264. ii. 69

—— compound salts, ii. 4. 22

II.369

—— other binary compounds, i. 278

Nut-galls, ii. 98. 199

Nut-oil, ii. 178

Nutrition, ii. 297

O

Ochres, i. 320

Oils, i. 285. ii. 306

Oil of amber, ii. 241

—— vitriol, or sulphuric acid, ii. 80

Olive oil, ii. 178

Ores, i. 315

Organized bodies, ii. 159

Organs of animals, ii. 290. 310

—— vegetables, ii. 159. 265. 271

Osmium, i. 14. 348

Oxalic acid, ii. 74. 197

Oxyds, i. 198

Oxyd of manganese, i. 117. 317

—— iron, i. 204. 319

—— lead, i. 319

—— sulphur, ii. 91

Oxydation, or oxygenation, i. 196

Oxygen, i. 11. 181. 201. 211

—— gas, or vital air, i. 182. 201

Oxy-muriatic acid, ii. 140

Oxy-muriats, ii. 153

Oxy-muriat of potash, ii. 155

P

Palladium, i. 13. 348

Papin’s digester, i. 120. ii. 284

Parenchyma, ii. 256. 266

Particles, i. 16

Pearlash, ii. 24

Peat, ii. 242

Peculiar juice of plants, ii. 268

Perfect metals, i. 14. 324

Perfumes, i. 308. ii. 183

Perspiration, ii. 333. 329

Petrification, ii. 237

Pewter, i. 344

Pharmacy, i. 14

Phosphat of lime, ii. 99. 299

Phosphorated hydrogen gas, i. 277

Phosphorescence, i. 29

Phosphoric acid, i. 273. ii. 99

Phosphorous acid, i. 274. ii. 99

Phosphorus, i. 270

Phosphoret of lime, i. 278. 341

—— sulphur, i. 279. 341

Pitch, ii. 187

Plaster, ii. 65

Platina, i. 14. 323

Plating, i. 345

Plumbago, or black lead, i. 304

Plumula, ii. 257

Porcelain, ii. 56

Positive electricity, i. 25. 161. 185

Potassium, i. 13. 357. ii. 15

Pottery, ii. 56

Potash, i. 356. ii. 22

Precipitate, i. 22

Pressure of the atmosphere, i. 112. 116

Printer’s ink, ii. 144

Prussiat of iron, or prussian blue, ii. 291

—— potash, ii. 291

Prussic acid, ii. 75. 290

Putrid fermentation, ii. 235. 360

Pyrites, i. 341. ii. 97

Pyrometer, i. 38. 42

Q

Quick lime, ii. 59

Quiescent forces, ii. 12

II.370

R

Radiation of caloric, i. 52

——, Prevost’s theory, i. 52

——, Pictet’s explanations, i. 54

——, Leslie’s illustrations, i. 61

Radicals, ii. 5. 69

Radicle; or root, ii. 257

Rain, i. 104

Rancidity, ii. 182

Rectification, ii. 223

Reflexion of caloric, i. 54. 64

Reptiles, ii. 349

Resins, ii. 165, 186. 266

Respiration, ii. 317. 326

Reviving of metals, i. 327

Rhodium, i. 14. 348

Roasting metals, i. 316

Rock crystal, ii. 61

Ruby, ii. 53

Rum, ii. 219

Rust, i. 318. 328

S

Saccharine fermentation, ii. 208

Sal ammoniac, or muriat of ammonia, ii. 35

—— polychrest, or sulphat of potash, ii. 91

—— volatile, or carbonat of ammonia, ii. 41

Salifiable bases, ii. 5

Salifying principles, ii. 5

Saltpetre, or nitre, or nitrat of potash, ii. 32. 104. 116

Salt, ii. 91

Sand, ii. 30. 51

Sandstone, ii. 51

Sap of plants, ii. 165. 260. 262. 270. 272

Sapphire, ii. 58

Saturation, i. 101.

Sapphire, ii. 58

Saturation, i. 101

Seas, temperature of, i. 33.

Sebacic acid, ii. 75. 182. 290. 353

Secretions, ii. 307

Seeds of plants, ii. 210. 271

Seltzer water, i. 289. ii. 63. 129

Senses, ii. 310

Silex, or silica, ii. 30. 51

Silicium, i. 13.

Silk, ii. 359

Silver, i. 321

Simple bodies, i. 10. 12

Size, ii. 281

Skin, ii. 279. 310. 193

Slakeing of lime, i. 147. ii. 56

Slate, ii. 51. 66

Smelting metals, i. 316

Smoke i. 208

Soap, ii. 24

Soda, i. 363. ii. 33

—— water, i. 299

Sodium, i. 13. 363

Soils, i. 42. ii. 245

Soldering, i. 345

Solubility, ii. 92

Solution, i. 96

—— by the air, i. 102

—— of potash, ii. 28

Specific heat, i. 126

Spermaceti, ii. 358

Spirits, ii. 313

Steam, i. 140. 182

Steel, i. 305

Stomach, ii. 315

Stones, ii. 46

Stucco, ii. 65

Strontites, ii. 44. 68

Strontium, i. 13

Suberic acid, ii. 74. 197

Sublimation, i. 257

Succin, or yellow amber, ii. 241

Succinic acid, ii. 74. 197. 241

Sugar, ii. 165. 174. 208

—— of milk, ii. 355

II.371

Sulphats, ii. 5. 91

Super oxygenated sulphuric acid, ii. 70.

Sulphat of alumine, or alum, ii. 54. 95

—— barytes, ii. 58

—— iron, ii. 96

—— lime, or gypsum, or plaster of Paris, ii. 95

—— magnesia, or Epsom salt, ii. 67. 95

—— potash, or sal polychrest, ii. 91

—— soda, or Glauber’s salts, ii. 92

Sulphur, i. 256

—— flowers of, i. 257

Sulphurated hydrogen gas, i. 165. 268

Sulphurets, i. 341

Sulphurous acid, i. 254. ii. 88

Sulphuric acid, i. 74. ii. 265

Sympathetic ink, i. 354

Synthesis, i. 287

T

Tan, ii. 192

Tannin, ii. 165. 192

Tar, ii. 187

Tartarous acid, ii. 74. 197

Tartrit of potash, ii. 222

Teeth, ii. 300

Tellurium, i. 14

Temperature, i. 33

Thaw, i. 158

Thermometers, i. 40

——, Fahrenheit’s, i. 42

——, Reaumur’s, i. 42

——, Centigrade, i. 43

——, air, i. 44

——, differential, i. 46

Thunder, i. 248

Tin, i. 14. 344

Titanium, i. 14. 348

Turf, ii. 242

Turpentine, ii. 187

Transpiration of plants, ii. 260

Tungsten, i. 14. 340

V

Vapour, i. 36. 49. 93. 182

Vaporisation, i. 103

Varnishes, ii. 187

Vegetables, ii. 158

Vegetable acid, i. 310. ii. 74. 197

—— colours, ii. 190

—— heat, ii. 272

—— oils, ii. 177

Veins, ii. 304. 323.

Venous blood, ii. 305. 326. 338

Ventricles, ii. 324

Verdigris, i. 352

Vessels, ii. 304

Vinegar, ii. 232

Vinous fermentation, ii. 212

Vital air, or oxygen gas, i. 182

Vitriol, or sulphat of iron, ii. 81

Volatile oils, i. 307. ii. 165. 183. 224. 269

—— products of combustion, i. 207

—— alkali, i. 363. ii. 20. 35

Voltaic battery, i. 164. 220. 356. ii. 15

U

Uranium, i. 14

W

Water, i. 215. ii. 262

II.372

——, decomposition of, by electricity, i. 200. 225

——, condensation of, i. 32

—— of the sea, i. 86

——, boiling, i. 93

——, solution by, i. 96

—— of crystallisation, i. 339

Wax, i. 309. ii. 180. 358

Whey, ii. 351

Wine, ii. 212

Wood, ii. 267

Woody fibre, ii. 156. 196. 267

Wool, ii. 300

Y

Yeast, ii. 234.

Yttria, ii. 44.

Yttrium, i. 13.

Z

Zinc, ii. 14. 344

Zirconia, ii. 44

Zirconium, i. 14.

Zoonic acid, ii. 75. 220

Notes and Corrections: General Index

Arrack
spelling unchanged; body text has Arack

[Cold] from evaporation, i. 102
volume number missing

[Decomposition] of ammonia, i. 363
text has ammonnia
volume number invisible

Frankincense
text has Francincense

[Freezing] by evaporation, i. 104
volume number invisible

Glue, ii. 281
volume number missing

[Sulphat of] lime, or gypsum, or
text has gypsum of

[Sulphur] flowers of, i. 257
volume number missing

[Thermometers] Centigrade
text has Centrigade

[Thermometers] differential
text has differentiial

Zirconia
text has Zicornia

Zirconium, i. 14
text has Zicornium, i. 13