Museum Leverianum

Museum Leverianum
by George Shaw
No. VI

VIRO ORNATISSIMO

JOSEPHO BANKS,

BARONETTO,

HONORATISSIMI ORDINIS BALNEI
EQUITI,

REGIÆ SOCIETATIS LONDINENSIS
PRÆSIDI,

SECUNDUM HUNC

MUSEI LEVERIANI

FASCICULUM

D. D. D.

JACOBUS PARKINSON.

B 1

MUSEUM LEVERIANUM.
No. VI.

hand-tinted engraving of Condor

C R Ryley del Willm. Skelton Sculp

Vultur Gryphus.   The Condor.

VULTUR GRYPHUS.

CHARACTER GENERICUS.

Rostrum rectum, apice aduncum.

Caput (plerumque) impenne, antice nuda cute.

Lingua bifida.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 121.

CHARACTER SPECIFICUS, &c.

Vultur niger, remigibus secundariis albis, caruncula verticali compressa, gula nuda rubra, collo utrinque carunculato.

Vultur Gryphus. V: maximus, caruncula verticali longitudine capitis, gula nuda.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 121.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 245.

Vultur Magellanicus.

Mus. Lev. No. 1. p. 1. t. 1.

CUM specimen, quod in ipso limine hujus operis depingitur, crista caruerit erecta et acuta, cujus præcipue meminerunt peregrinatores et physici, licet alios characteres plerumque leviter tetigerint; quamque evidentem esse et 2 insignem distinctionis notam affirmat Linnæus; paululum addubitavimus essetne avis nostra revera Vultur Gryphus Linnæi, et tutius putavimus eam alio nomine distinguere. At jam nacti eximium specimen quod ab oris Magellanicis in Museum Leverianum transtulit Dominus Middletonus, dux nauticus, certo certius habemus, vulturem quem Magellanicum nominavimus, feminam fuisse Gryphum, ætate minus provectam. Domino igitur Middletono debetur quod jam possumus de multis sigillatim et fidenter dicere quæ hactenus physicos latuerunt.

Præcipue notatu dignus est saccus qui in gula, seu pellis quædam dilatata, a basi mandibulæ inferioris longe per collum ducta. Prodeunt etiam e lateribus colli appendiculæ septem quasi carneæ, seu carunculæ semicirculares et velut auriformes, magis magisque decrescentes, alia super aliam leviter obductæ, et prope cæruleæ. Totum collum pectusque rubentia carent plumis, pilis tantum raris et nigricantibus huc illuc aspersa. Magna est crista capitis, erecta, basi crassa, margine acuto et quasi cultrato, nec omnino æqualis, sed leviter sinuata, medio paululum depresso, parte postica assurgente; lævis præterea, lateribus inæqualiter convexis, quoad substantiam non longe absimilis cristæ vulturis qui Papa dicitur. Ab hac crista parvo intervallo sita est et alia minor utrinque ad nucham, similiter contexta, et hirta lanugine vestita. Color cristarum fere nigricat, nonnullis in locis paululum cæruleus et subrubens. A collo inferiore dependet tuberculum pyriforme, ei omnino simile quod gerit femina quam prius descripsimus, cuique in omnibus respondet mas de quo differimus, excepta magnitudine. Distat apex alæ unius ad apicem alterius circiter quatuordecim pedes.

Copiam dat nobis hoc specimen non levem errorem corrigendi, in quem inciderunt nonnulli auctores, qui forte avem vivam longius sedentem, alis clausis, remigibusque albis secundariis dorsum celantibus conspexerint, seu mortuam incuriose et oscitanter examinaverint. Dorsum enim dicunt album esse, quod carbonaria est nigredine. Cumque latius se disseminare plerumque B2 3 soleat error, eundem evulgavit Dominus Gmelinius in nova editione systematis Linnæani, Molinam secutus, qui Lathamum quoque, cum præclarum opus Indicem ornithologicum edidit, videtur a vero abduxisse. Similiter quoque peccavit Dominus Kerr, qui systema Linnæanum in linguam Anglicam transtulit. Nec prætereundum est omnes hos auctores caudam avis parvam affirmasse, quæ certe majuscula est, si cum corpora comparetur.

4

THE CONDOR.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Bill strait, hooked at the tip.

Head commonly bare of feathers, with a naked skin in front.

Tongue bifid.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER, &c.

Black Vulture, with the shorter wing-feathers white; the head furnished with an upright compressed fleshy crest or comb, the throat naked and red; the neck carunculated on each side.

The Magellanic Vulture.

Mus. Lev. No. 1. p. 4. pl. 1.

IN the description of this species in the first Number of the present work, I had some reason to doubt whether the specimen there figured could be considered as the real Vultur Gryphus of Linnæus, or genuine Peruvian Condor; from the circumstance of its wanting the crista compressa, or erect sharpened crest or comb on the head, which makes so conspicuous a figure in the slight descriptions which have commonly been given of that bird by travellers and naturalists, and which Linnæus had fixed upon as the principal character of the species; for which reason it was thought advisable to distinguish it by a different name. The magnificent specimen, however, now delineated, and which was brought from the Magellanic coasts by Captain Middleton of the Royal Navy, and soon after introduced into the Leverian 5 Museum, has long since dispelled every doubt relative to the species; and it is perfectly clear, that the former specimen, or Vultur Magellanicus, was the female Condor in a less advanced state of growth.

By this highly interesting specimen we are enabled to ascertain with precision many particulars relative to the appearance of the bird which have hitherto escaped observation. Of these one of the most remarkable is a kind of gular pouch, or large dilated skin, of a blueish color, proceeding from the base of the lower mandible, and reaching to some distance down the neck. On each side the neck is also situated a row or series of flat, carneous, semicircular, or ear-shaped flaps or appendages, to the number of seven on each side, and which gradually decrease in size as they descend; being so disposed as to lap slightly over each other. The whole neck and breast are of a red color, and perfectly bare of feathers; being only coated here and there with a few straggling filaments of blackish hair or coarse down. The color of the lateral wattles or carunculæ inclines to blueish. The crest, or comb on the head, is large, upright, thick at the base, sharpened on its edge, and not entirely even in its outline, but somewhat sinuated, sinking slightly in the middle, and rising higher on the back part. It is smooth, and irregularly convex on the sides, and in its texture or substance not greatly dissimilar to that of the Vultur Papa of Linnæus, or King Vulture. At a slight distance behind this, on each side, is situated a much smaller semi-oval nuchal crest of a similar substance, and beset with coarse down. The color of the crest is blackish, slightly inclining to reddish and blueish in some parts. Towards the lower part of the neck is the same kind of pear-shaped pendent tubercle as in the female bird before described, and which, in every respect indeed except in size, it perfectly resembles. The extent of this bird from wing’s end to wing’s end is about fourteen feet.

This specimen affords an opportunity of correcting a very important error in the descriptions of the Condor given by general observers, who seem to 6 have described it from a cursory view, either from the living bird, when seated at some distance with its wings closed, or from too inattentive a survey of the dead specimen. Such descriptions tell us that the back of the bird is white; which, on the contrary, is coal-black; an error most evidently owing to having seen the bird with the wings closed over the back, so that the white secondaries covered it from view. This erroneous description is copied by Dr. Gmelin, in his new edition of the Systema Naturæ of Linnæus, from Molina, who has given a similar one himself. Molina’s description seems also to have misled Mr. Latham, who, in his Index Ornithologicus, has described the Condor as having the back white instead of black. In Mr. Kerr’s translation of Gmelin’s edition of the Systema Naturæ, the self-same mistake is again repeated: so widely does an error once received spread its contagion thro’ succeeding pages. I must add, that in all these descriptions the tail is expressly said to be small; which, on the contrary, is rather large in proportion to the bird.

7

hand-tinted engraving of King Paradise Bird

C. R. Riley del. Laurie sculp.

Paradisea Regia.   King Paradise Bird.

Published as the Act directs March 1 1795 by I. Parkinson Leverian Museum

PARADISEA REGIA.

CHARACTER GENERICUS.

Rostrum capistri plumis tomentosis tectum.

Pennæ hypochondriorum longiores (plerisque.)

Rectrices duæ superiores singulares denudatæ.

CHARACTER SPECIFICUS, &c.

Paradisea castaneo-purpurea, subtus albida, fascia pectorali viridi-aurea, rectricibus duabus intermediis filiformibus, apice lunato-pennaceis.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 149.

Rex avium paradisæarum.

Pet. Gaz. 1. t. 53.

Clus. exot. 362.

Manucodiata minor.

Briss. av. 2. p. 136. t. 13. f. 2.

Avis regia, seu Paradisiaca minor Amboinensis.

Seb. Mus. 1. t. 38. f. 5.

IN genere Paradiseo continentur aves quarum eleganti formæ decus addunt colores venustissimi. Paradiseam communem seu castaneam (quæ Paradisea apoda Linnæi) in hoc opere non ita pridem depinximus. Speciem jam pergimus describere hac longe rariorem, quæ vix alauda major, in insulis multis Indicis generatur. Color generalis est pulcherrime rubro-ferrugineus, non sine summo nitore. Ducitur per pectus fascia lata viroris adeo graminei, ut saturatiorem et fulgentiorem non jactent ipsorum trochilorum plumæ. Eodem 8 quoque colore decorantur apices nonnullarum pennarum ab hypochondriis prodeuntium; nec non pennarum istarum nudarum ab uropygio crescentium extremitates plumatæ, et quasi spiræ in modum contortæ.

Ingenio longe differt perpulchra hæc avis a specie communi, quæ catervatim, ut plurimum, volare solet: solitudinis enim amans raro sibi adjungit comitem. Vesci dicitur præcipue majoribus papilionibus, more reliquorum congenerum.

C 9

THE ROYAL PARADISE-BIRD.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Bill surrounded at the base by velvet-like feathers.

Hypochondrial feathers (in most species) long and loose.

Two naked shafts proceeding from the rump.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER, &c.

Ferruginous Paradise-bird, whitish beneath, with a golden-green band across the breast; the two intermediate tail-feathers filiform, with lunated feathery tips.

Roi des Oiseaux de Paradis.

Son. Voy. p. 156. t. 95.

King of the greater Birds of Paradise.

Edw. t. 111.

Le Manucode.

Buff. 3. p. 163.

THE splendid genus Paradisea contains birds in the highest degree beautiful in point of color, as well as singular in point of appearance. The common or chesnut-colored Paradise-Bird has already been figured in the present work. That now represented is a smaller species, viz. about the size of a lark. It is a native of many of the East Indian islands, and is considered as a much rarer species than the former. Its general color is a very rich red-ferruginous, accompanied by the highest degree of glossy lustre; 10 while across the breast runs a broad band of the brightest grass-green, of so vivid an appearance as to equal the varying splendor displayed in the colors of some of the Humming-birds. The extremities of some of the hypochondrial or side-feathers are also of a similar appearance; and the two naked or shaft-feathers, which spring from above the tail, are ornamented at the ends with a circular or somewhat spirally-turned and plumed web of the same rich color as the feathers before-described.

This beautiful bird is said to differ considerably in its manners from the common Paradise-bird, which is often seen flying in flocks: this, on the contrary, is of a more solitary nature, and is commonly observed single. Like others of its genus it is supposed to feed principally on the larger butterflies.

C2 11

hand-tinted engraving of Three-Toed Sloth

C. R. Riley delt. Fittler sculpt.

Bradypus Tridactylus.   The Three-Toed Sloth.

BRADYPUS TRIDACTYLUS.

CHARACTER GENERICUS.

Dentes Primores nulli utrinque.

Laniarii obtusi, solitarii, molaribus longiores, occursantes.

Molares utrinque quinque, obtusi.

Corpus pilis tectum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 50.

CHARACTER SPECIFICUS, &c.

Bradypus pedibus omnibus tridactylis.

Bradypus tridactylus.

Vivarium Naturæ. tab. 5.

Bradypus pedibus tridactylis, cauda brevi.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 50.

Ignavus.

Clus. exot. p. 372. fig. p. 373.

Tardigradus pedibus anticis et posticis tridactylis.

Briss. quad. p. 21.

Ai.

Buff. Hist. Nat. 13. p. 34. t. 5. 6.

BRADYPUM tridactylum, quadrupedum omnium tardissimum, toties descripserunt physici, ut de eo speciatim disserere fere supervacaneum videatur. Cum tamen ipsum vivum animal in natalibus regionibus examinaverit Piso, audiant eum velim lectores, qui certe, si quis alius, quicquid bradypo proprium et peculiare sit, optime novit.

12

“Mediocris canis est magnitudine, rostro ad aspectum fœdo, et perpetua saliva madido, cauda admodum brevi; unguibus ad digitorum similitudinem prominentibus, tenaciter adeo tenet quicquid appre­hendit, ut pendens dormiat secure, quia a junctura pedis cum tibia tres nervi solidissimi, ad quemlibet unguem unus intentus tendit, quibus ungues incurvare, et validissime se sustentare potest. Corio est solidissimo et tenaci. Totum corpus prolixis et mollibus pilis cinerei coloris est vestitum, et ex occipitio coma cervicem velat jubarum instar, lentoque ipsa ventris adipe verrit humum, nec unquam in pedes exsurgit, etiamsi quædam imagines id videntur exprimere. Non bibit, victitat arborum foliis, et in earum cacuminibus degit plerumque: quarum in ascensu biduum circiter, tantumdem in descensu ponit. Neque vero adhortationibus tantum aut minis sed ne plagis quidem fustibusve, bestiam vel tantillum de insita ignavia ac tarditate dimoveas.”

13

THE THREE-TOED SLOTH.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

No Cutting-Teeth in either jaw.

Canine Teeth obtuse, single, longer than the grinders, placed opposite.

Fore-Legs much longer than the hind; Claws very long.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER, &c.

Sloth with three claws on all the feet.

Three-Toed Sloth.

Naturalist’s Miscellany. pl. 5.

Three-Toed Sloth.

Penn. Hist. Quad. 2. p. 240.

L’Ai.

Buff. Hist. Nat. 13. 44. t. 5. 6.

THE three-toed Sloth, a quadruped distinguished above all others by the extreme slowness of its motions, has so often been described by writers on natural history, that a peculiar enumeration of its qualities might seem, in a great degree, unnecessary. The account however given by Piso, who examined the living animal in its native regions, may not be unacceptable to those who might wish for the most authentic information relative to so extraordinary a creature.

It is of the size (says Piso) of a middling dog, with an unpleasant looking snout, which is constantly wet with saliva: the tail is very short; the 14 claws projecting in the manner of fingers, with which it so tenaciously holds whatever it fastens upon as to be able to sleep securely in this hanging posture; three extremely strong tendons passing from the juncture of the foot with the tibia, each going to its respective claw, by which means it is thus enabled to support itself. The skin is very stout and tenacious; the whole body is covered with long, soft, ash-coloured hair, and from the hind part of the head grows a kind of long hair, covering the neck in the manner of a mane. In crawling it trails along the ground with its belly, and never rises up on its feet, tho’ some figures seem so to represent it. It never drinks; lives on the leaves of trees, and commonly resides on their tops; employing about two days in climbing up, and as many in descending; nor can it be made in the least to quicken its pace, or conquer its natural sluggishness, by any incitements, threats, or even stripes or blows.

15

hand-tinted engraving of Banksian Cockatoo

C. R. Riley delt. Fittler sculpt.

Psittacus Magnificus.   The Banksian Cockatoo.

Published as the Act directs March 1 1795 by I. Parkinson, Leverian Museum.

PSITTACUS MAGNIFICUS.

CHARACTER GENERICUS.

Rostrum aduncum; mandibula superiore mobili; cera instructa.

Nares in rostri basi.

Lingua carnosa, obtusa, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 139.

CHARACTER SPECIFICUS, &c.

Psittacus brachyurus subcristatus niger, fronte humerisque gilvo punctatis, cauda medio rubra nigro fasciata.

Vivarium Naturæ. tom. 1. t. 50.

Psittacus Banksii.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 106.

AVI huic adultæ et satis plumatæ denegari non debet locus inter psittacini generis species venustissimas. Sæpius tamen accidit, ut multa sit colorum variatio. Caudam nempe mediam in nonnullis speciminibus percurrit fascia latissima aurantio-rubra, ipsa virgis plurimis nigris notata, quæ in aliis est intemerati ruboris, sine ullo virgarum nigrarum vestigio. Exstat quoque varietas adeo ambigua ut dubitari merito possit annon revera diversa sit species, cuius media cauda colore tantum est melino, punctis nigris inæqualibus creberrime irrorato: quem avem ipse descripsi in Naturæ Vivario, 16 titulo psittaci funerei. Figura nostra psittacum magnificum seu Banksianum ostendit integerrimas habentem summæ pulchritudinis notas, caudam nempe aurantio-rubram non sine fasciis nigris. In Australia detecta erat hæc species, quum orbem antarcticum primo petiit solertissimus ille naturæ indagator, Josephus Banksius.

D 17

THE MAGNIFICENT COCKATOO.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Bill hooked; upper mandible moveable.

Nostrils round, placed in the base of the bill.

Tongue fleshy, broad, blunt at the end.

Legs short. Toes formed for climbing, viz. two forward and two backward.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER, &c.

Even-tailed Black Parrot, with the head somewhat crested, the front and shoulders spotted with buff; the middle of the tail red, crossed with black bars.

The Banksian Cockatoo.

Lath. Synops. Suppl. p. 63. pl. 109.

The Magnificent Cockatoo.

Naturalist’s Miscellany. pl. 50.

THIS bird, when in full perfection, may be considered as one of the most august of its tribe: it is subject however to much variation as to color: the tail, which in some specimens is marked in the middle by a very broad band of bright orange-red, traversed by numerous stripes of black, is in others entirely of a vivid red in that part, without the least appearance of the black transverse bars. There is also a variety so highly singular, as to make it doubtful whether it may not be really a distinct species; in which 18 the middle of the tail, instead of the colors above described, is of a pale dull yellow or straw-color, freckled all over with innumerable black irregular specks; in which state it is described in the Naturalist’s Miscellany, under the title of Psittacus funereus. The present plate shews the magnificent or Banksian Cockatoo in its most beautiful state, in which the vivid crimson of the tail is ornamented by the black fasciæ. This species was discovered during the first voyage of Sir Joseph Banks to the Southern Hemisphere, and is a native of New Holland.

D2 19

hand-tinted engraving of Leverian Fossane

Ryley del. Skelton sculpt.

Viverra Leveriana.   The Leverian Fossane.

Pubd. as the Act directs Decr. 1st. 1795 by I. Parkinson Leverian Museum

VIVERRA LEVERIANA.

CHARACTER GENERICUS.

Dentes Primores sex: intermediis brevioribus.

Molares plures quam tres.

Lingua retrorsum sæpius aculeata.

Ungues exserti.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 63.

CHARACTER SPECIFICUS, &c.

Viverra cinerea nigro maculata, cauda annulata, genis gulaque nigris, macula utrinque suboculari alba.

VIVERRAM hanc, cum a generali similitudine nulla fuerit aberratio, accurate satis descripserunt Buffonus et alii auctores. Indiam incolit, et nonnullas Africæ regiones. Coloris est plerumque cinerei, ferrugineo leviter commisti; striis tribus vel quatuor a postica capitis parte super humeros per dorsum anticum decurrentibus. Inter specimen autem quod jam depinximus et reliqua pleraque adeo notabilis est colorum discrepantia, ut illud speciatim describere Pennanto visum sit in historia quadrupedum. Liceat igitur celeberrimi physici verba lectoribus proferre.

20

“Speciminis, quod in Museo Leveriano conspicitur, diversa adeo a reliquis est facies, ut pleniori descriptione videatur indigere. Utrinque ad nasum macula alba; altera sub utroque oculo. Quod reliquum nasi est cum genis gulaque nigrum. Aures permagnæ, erectæ, rotundatæ, tenues, nudæ, nigræ. Frons, latera corporis, femora, uropygium, crurumque pars superior, cinerea. In dorso sunt plures pili longi, nigri. Super humeros, latera, et uropygium, sparsæ sunt variæ maculæ nigræ. Cauda ad apicem nigra, versus basin ferrugineo mista, nigro leviter annulata. Pedes nigri, ungues albi.”

Satis tamen patet debere specimen, de quo jam agitur, insignem varietatem haberi; cumque Leverianam dicimus, uti volumus signo distinctionis. Notandum præterea est, figuram quam effingi curavit Buffonus, non longe ab hac nostra recedere etiam in maculis. Feri ingenii est hæc Viverra, et ægre mansuescit. In insula Madagascaria præcipue generatur.

21

THE LEVERIAN FOSSANE.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Six cutting-teeth, and two canine teeth in each jaw.

Sharp nose: slender body.

Five toes before: five behind.

Pennant.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER, &c.

Cinereous Weasel (Fossane), spotted with black; with the tail annulated; the cheeks and throat black; with a white spot beneath each eye.

The Fossane Weasel. Var.

Penn. Hist. Quad. vol. 2. p. 76.

THE Fossane in its most common or general state, has been long ago described with sufficient exactness by the Count de Buffon, and other naturalists. It is an inhabitant of the East Indies and some parts of Africa. In its disposition and manner of life it resembles most others of the weasel tribe. It is commonly of a cinereous color, with some slight mixture of a ferrugineous tint; and is marked with three or four black streaks proceeding from the back part of the head, and running along the shoulders over the fore-part of the back. The present specimen however varies so much from the general appearance as to color, that Mr. Pennant in his 22 History of Quadrupeds has thought it necessary to give a particular description of its markings. On this occasion therefore we cannot do better than quote the words of that eminent zoologist.

“The specimen in the Leverian Museum differred in so many respects that it is necessary to give a full description of it, viz. A white spot on each side of the nose, and another beneath each eye: the rest of the nose, cheeks, and throat black: ears very large, upright, rounded, thin, naked, and black; forehead, sides, thighs, rump, and upper part of the legs, cinereous: on the back are many long, black hairs: on the shoulders, sides, and rump are dispersed some black spots: tail black towards the end, near the base, mixed with tawny, and slightly annulated with black: feet black: claws white.”

It is obvious however that the specimen thus described can be considered in no other light than that of a remarkable variety; and we only mean, by giving it the title prefixed, to distinguish it in a more particular manner from the same creature in its general or common appearance. We must also add; that the figure of the Fossane in the Count de Buffon’s Natural History of Quadrupeds seems to approach very nearly, even in its markings, to that which we have now represented.

The Fossane is an animal of a wild disposition, and not easily tamed, and is principally found in the island of Madagascar.

23

hand-tinted engraving of Fuliginous Owl

Ryley del. Skelton sculpt.

Strix Fuliginosa.   The Fuliginous Owl.

Pubd. as the Act directs Decr. 1st. 1795 by I. Parkinson Leverian Museum.

STRIX FULIGINOSA.

CHARACTER GENERICUS.

Rostrum aduncum, absque cera.

Nares pennis setaceis recumbentibus obtectæ.

Caput grande: auribus oculisque magnis.

Lingua bifida.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 131.

CHARACTER SPECIFICUS, &c.

Strix cinereo-fuliginosa, nigro irrorata, subtus nebulosa, pennis circum oculos concentrice lineatis.

Strix cinereo-fuliginosa, nigro transversim lineata, subtus albido cinereoque nebulosa, regione periophthalmica circulis concentricis nigris.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 58.

Strix capite cervice et tectricibus alarum fuliginosis, lineis sordide albis, pectore et abdomine albidis, maculis magnis oblongis obscure fuscis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 291.

IN pleroque hoc genere mirum in modum languescit et quasi fatiscit color: hæc autem (ut et nomen vult,) omnium est hactenus cognitarum obscurissima. Color imus est fusco-cinereus, punctis fusco-nigricantibus creberrime irroratus; ita ut, si parvo eam intervallo inspicias, fuliginosa videatur; sin propius, minime expers sit pulchritudinis: singulæ enim pennæ subnigro et cinereo colore variantur, alis femoribusque fusco cinereoque pulcherrime fasciatis. Americæ Septentrionalis partes frigidiores incolit hæc avis.

24

THE FULIGINOUS OWL.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Bill crooked; without cere.

Nostrils covered with bristly feathers.

Head large: both ears and eyes very large.

Tongue bifid.

Latham.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER, &c.

Dusky-cinereous Owl, freckled with black; clouded beneath; with the feathers round the eyes marked with numerous concentric circles.

The Cinereous Owl.

Lath. Synops. 1. p. 134.

The Sooty Owl.

Penn. Arctic. Zoology. 2. p. 232.

THERE prevails in most of the birds of this genus a peculiar softness and sobriety of color; but of all the species yet known the present is of the deepest cast; the general color of the whole bird being of a brownish ash-color, very thickly sprinkled with specks of blackish brown; so that the bird, when viewed at some distance, appears of a smoky tinge; but when closely examined, the variegations are by no means destitute of beauty; each individual feather being elegantly marked and sprinkled with blackish and ash-color. The wings are barred or crossed with ash-color and brown, and the thighs elegantly barred with the same colors. It is a native of the colder parts of North America.

E 25

hand-tinted engraving of Brasilian Weasel or Coati Mondi

C. Ryley del. Ogborne Sculp.

Viverra Nasua.   The Coati Mondi.

Publish’d June 15, 1791, by Parkinson Leverian Museum London

VIVERRA NASUA.

CHARACTER GENERICUS.

Dentes Primores sex: intermediis brevioribus.

Molares plures quam tres.

Lingua retrorsum sæpius aculeata.

Ungues exserti.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 63.

CHARACTER SPECIFICUS, &c.

Viverra rufa, cauda albo annulata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 64.

Viverra rufa, cauda albo annulata, naso producto mobili.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 86.

Coati mondi.

Act. Paris. t. 3. P. 3. p. 17. t. 37.

Ursus naso producto et mobili, cauda annulatim variegata.

Briss. Quadr. p. 190.

NON omnino inter physicos consensum est quo in genere reponi debeat viverra nasua. Ursis eam annumeravit Brissonus: sed ut in viverris habeatur, Linnæo placuit cæterisque recentioribus. Et fatendum certe est characteres ejus viverræ magis quam urso convenire. Magnitudine saltem est 26 felina; colore communi cinereo-fusco, seu cinereo-subrubro. Caudam longam cingunt annuli nigri: insigne est rostrum; longum scilicet, flexile, et apicem habens quasi suillum; cujus ope terram rimatur, lumbricos effodiens et radices. Prædatur quoque varia animalia; aves nempe et alia ejusmodi. In America australi primus eam descripsisse videtur Marcgravius in Historia Brasiliensi. Notandum est pedum posticorum cutim juxta calcem abire interdum in tubera quædam quasi cornea, longa fere quartam unciæ partem, vel majora vel minora pro varietate speciminum.

E2 27

THE BRASILIAN WEASEL.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Six cutting-teeth, and two canine teeth in each jaw.

Sharp nose: slender body.

Five toes before: five behind.

Pennant.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. &c.

Rufous-grey Weasel, with the tail annulated, and the snout long and moveable.

The Coati mondi.

The Brasilian Weasel.

Penn. Quadr. 2. p. 61.

THIS animal has been differently arranged by naturalists. Brisson has placed it under the genus Ursus, or Bear, rather than that of Viverra. Its characters however surely approach much nearer to those of the latter than the former; and it has accordingly been considered by Linnæus, and most other succeeding writers, as belonging to the weasel tribe. Its size is at least equal to that of a cat. Its general colour is of a cinereous brown, or ash-colour, with a cast of reddish. The tail, which is of very considerable length, is annulated with distinct circles of black. One of its most 28 remarkable characters is its long, flexible snout, somewhat truncated at the end. By the assistance of this it turns up the earth in the manner of a hog, in quest of earth-worms, roots, &c. Like the polecat, it also preys on the smaller quadrupeds, birds, &c. This species is a native of South-America, and seems to have been first described by Margrave, in his History of Brazil. There is a particularity sometimes observable in the hind-feet of this animal worthy of notice; viz. a kind of prolongation of the skin at the back of the heel into several horny processes of about a quarter of an inch in length; and which are more visible in some specimens than in others.

29

hand-tinted engraving of Tabuan Parrot

C. R. Ryley del. W. Skelton Sculp.

Psittacus Tabuanus.   The Tabuan Parrot.

Published as the Act directs 1. Feby. 1796 by I. Parkinson Leverian Museum

PSITTACUS TABUANUS.

CHARACTER GENERICUS.

Rostrum aduncum; mandibula superiore mobili; cera instructa.

Nares in rostri basi.

Lingua carnosa, obtusa, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 139.

CHARACTER SPECIFICUS, &c.

Psittacus macrourus viridis, capita collo corporeque subtus coccineis, fascia alarum obliqua pallidiore, cauda fusca.

Psittacus Tabuensis.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 18.

CUM psittacum atropurpureum non ita pridem in hoc opere descripsimus, speciem obiter notavimus ei adeo affinem, ut non revera diversa, sed varietas tantum a quibusdam habita sit. Hanc igitur speciem, qua vix pulchriorem jactat genus psittacinum, in tabula depinximus.

30

THE TABUAN PARROT.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Bill hooked; upper mandible moveable.

Nostrils round, placed in the base of the bill.

Tongue fleshy, broad, blunt at the end.

Legs short. Toes formed for climbing, viz. two forward and two backward.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER, &c.

Long-tailed Green Parrot, with the head, neck, and body beneath, scarlet; an oblique band of light-green across the wings; the tail dusky.

Tabuan Parrot.

Lath. Synops. 1. p. 214.

IN the description of the Psittacus atropurpureus, or Pompadour Parrot, in a former number of this work, I mentioned a species to which it seemed very nearly allied, and of which it had sometimes been considered as a variety. The species then mentioned is represented in the present plate, and may justly be considered as one of the most beautiful of the whole parrot tribe.

31

hand-tinted engraving of Musk Mouse ot Musk Shrew

C. R. Ryley delin. Pegge sculp.

Mus Pilorides.   The Musk Mouse.

Published as the Act directs Octr. 25th. 1795 by I. Parkinson Leverian Museum.

SOREX PILORIDES.

CHARACTER GENERICUS.

Dentes Primores superiores duo longi.

inferiores 2—4; intermediis brevioribus.

Laniarii utrinque plures.

Molares cuspidati.

Rostrum productum, acuminatum.

CHARACTER SPECIFICUS, &c.

Sorex glaucus, subtus pallidior, rostro acuminato, cauda pedibusque carneis.

MIRANDI omnino sunt qui longe lateque diffusi ab animalibus et plantis exoriuntur potentissimi odores. Notissimi istius excrementi quod in folliculo abdominali reperitur Moschi moschiferi tanta est vis, ut quicquid vel leviter tetigerit odore imbuat non perituro: et experimentis suis comprobavit celeberrimus Boylius quantum spatii possit una micula suffiri. De asa fœtida seu stercore diaboli super­vacaneum prorsus esset disserere. Quam longe polluat aera Viverræ mephiticæ Americanæ intolerabilis fœtor, ægre credant qui infandum istum vaporem suis nunquam hauserint naribus. Quicquid delibaverit animal quod in tabula depinximus, diu sapit id omne non omnino ingrata sed pollentia effluvia. Corrumpi vinum, quod subere arctissime inclusum pedibus 32 calcaverit asserit Pennantus, innixus ipse auctoritate testium oculatorum et fide dignissimorum.

Non caret Sorex Pilorides vel formæ vel colorum elegantia; pulchre scilicit cæruleo-cinereus, subtus pallidior, pedibus, cauda, et extremo naso carneis seu subroseis. Generatur in insulis Indicis, in Java præcipue. Longus est circiter octo uncias, cauda excepta, quæ ipsa paulo tres uncias superat.

F 33

THE MUSK SHREW.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Two cutting teeth in each jaw, pointing forward.

Long slender nose: small ears.

Five toes on each foot.

Pennant.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER, &c.

Glaucous Shrew, paler beneath, with sharp-pointed snout, and flesh-colored tail and feet.

The perfuming Shrew.

Penn. Quadr. 2. p. 222.

THE powerfully diffusive and penetrating odors which proceed from many animal and vegetable substances may be numbered amongst the miracles of nature. Thus the well-known substance, called by the title of musk, which is a secretion formed in a peculiar follicle, or cyst, situated in the lower part of the abdomen of the Moschus moschiferus, or common musk-animal, is of a nature so extraordinary as to communicate a strong and lasting odor to substances which have been but slightly touched by it; and the experiments of Mr. Boyle have proved how large a space may be scented by a single grain. The smell of that extraordinary drug, called Asa foetida, is too familiarly known to be particularly insisted upon. The effluvia proceeding from the Mephitic Weasel of America are of so horrible a nature as to taint 34 the circum­ambient atmosphere to a distance too great to be conceived by those who have not experienced the vapor. The animal which forms the subject of the present plate is among those creatures which possess an odor, not indeed disagreeable, but so powerfully diffusive, and of so penetrating a nature as to communicate a lasting perfume to every object which it comes in contact with. We are assured, on the authority of Mr. Pennant, from the most unquestioned testimony of actual observers, that it has been known to render the wine in a well corked bottle not drinkable, merely by passing over it and communicating to it its own musky smell.

In its general appearance this animal is by no means unpleasing; possessing an elegance of shape, as well as a considerable beauty of color. It is about eight inches in length, exclusive of the tail, which is somewhat more than three inches long. The color of the animal is a very fine blue-grey, somewhat paler beneath; while the feet, tail, and tip of the nose, are of a light pink, or rose-color. It is a native of the East Indian islands, and of Java in particular.

F2 35

hand-tinted engraving of Great Kanguroo

Syd. T. Edwards del. et sculp.

Macropus Giganteus.   The Great Kanguroo.

Published June 8, 1795 by I. Parkinson, Leverian Museum, London.

MACROPUS GIGANTEUS.

CHARACTER GENERICUS.

Dentes Primores superiores sex, emarginati.

Inferiores duo, validissimi, acuminati, antrorsum porrecti.

Molares utrinque 4—5, remoti.

Pedes antici brevissimi; postici longissimi.

Folliculus abdominalis fœminæ.

CHARACTER SPECIFICUS, &c.

Macropus cauda sensim attenuata.

Vivarium Naturæ. 33.

Didelphis gigantea. D: cauda longa crassa, pedibus posticis triplo fere longioribus tridactylis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. 1. p. 109.

Yerboa gigantea.

Zimmerman. 526.

HAUD satis inter physicos convenit, nunc his nunc illis characteribus nimis confisos, qua in classe quadrupedum reponi debeat mira hæc et anomala regionis antarcticæ proles. Si folliculum examinemus quem insignem in abdomine gerit femina, assentire possumus Gmelinio, Schrebero, Pennanto, aliisque, quibus placuit Macropum inter Didelphidas numerari. Si 36 vero in formam situmque dentium inquiramus, hos inveniemus longe adeo diversos a didelphidum dentibus, ut inter illas et macropum nulla possit esse cognatio. Quod si faciem solam habitumquc externum contemplemur, veniet illico in mentem species prægrandis Jerboæ: cum crurum posticorum eadem sit longitude, eadem anticorum brevitas, eadem prosiliendi peritia. Dentes tamen vix minus differunt a Jerboæ quam a didelphidis dentibus. Ut verbo dicam, nihil vetat quin genus Macropo proprium et separatum instituamus, characteribus conveniens qui descriptioni huic nostræ præfiguntur.

His igitur præmissis, maxima totius generis erit species quæ in tabula depingitur; quæque, sive formæ, sive celeritatis habeatur ratio, digna omnino est quæ penitius examinetur. Quæ in Europam hactenus illata sunt specimina, magnitudine sunt quasi ovina: at majora longe dicitur interdum in Australia conspici. Uno partu unum tantum pullum edere, ut plurimum, fertur Macropus. Hunc, more didelphidis, in folliculo qui est in abdomine diu recondit, donec scilicet pilo contectus in auras iterum excludatur; in idem latibulum se ad libitum recipiens, usque dum ætate provectior suæ possit saluti consulere. Color adulto pallet pulchre cinereo-fuscus, subalbentibus tum abdomine, tum artuum parte interiore. Mira omnino est pedum conformatio. Antici nempe unguibus quinque fere æqualibus instruuntur: postici uno validissimo, maximo; duobus aliis minoribus; aliis dein duobus minutissimis, in una eademque pelle arctius inclusis. Similis quodammodo est avis pedi pes totus posterior. Notandum porro est et aliorum quadrupedum quos generat Australia, pedes posticos ungue hoc quasi duplice muniri. Vegetabilibus solis vescitur Macropus, ingenio miti, sed admodum meticuloso, fugitque celerrime a venatoribus, saltibus longissimis et continuatis vastum spatium conficiendo. Quod fidem non excedere satis probat Jerboæ communis agilitas, pedum decem, viginti immo etiam triginta longitudinem uno saltu superantis. At quo major Jerboa est Macropus, eo plus habet roboris et nervorum: supra enim diximus formasse naturam utraque hæc animalia fere eadem generali similitudine. Arrectum eum depingit tabula; quo corporis 37 situ sæpissime utitur, non tamen constanter et perpetuo, ut falso putant nonnulli, qui certe vivum non satis examinarunt. Graditur enim non raro quatuor pedibus, more reliquorum quadrupedum, quiescitque erectus; turbatus vero magno impetu continuisque saltibus se solet in fugam recipere.

38

THE KANGUROO.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Six Cutting Teeth in the uppermost jaw, slightly emarginated.

Two very strong Sharpened Teeth in the lower jaw, pointing forwards.

Grinders on each side 4—5, distant from the other teeth.

Fore Legs very short; Hind Legs very long.

Female furnished with an abdominal pouch.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER, &c.

Kanguroo, with tail gradually attenuated.

Naturalist’s Miscellany. pl. 33.

Kanguroo Opossum.

Penn. Hist. Quadr. ed. 3. vol. 2. p. 29. pl. 64.

Kanguroo.

Cook’s Voyage. 3. 557. pl. 20.

THE Kanguroo, the most extraordinary and striking animal which the Southern Hemisphere has yet exhibited to our view, may admit of being differently arranged by systematic naturalists. If we take into consideration the very remarkable particularity of the abdominal pouch with which the female is provided, we may, with Gmelin, Schreber, Pennant, and others, rank it in the genus Didelphis, or Opossum: but if we advert to the form, structure, and situation of the teeth, we shall find them so totally different from the animals of that genus as to preclude all possibility of an 39 association with the Didelphides. In the mean time, if external form or habit alone were to be regarded, we might consider the Kanguroo as a gigantic kind of Jerboa, since it has the same length of hind-legs, the same brevity of fore-legs, and the same springing motions and shape: yet the teeth are almost as different from those of the Jerboa as from those of the Opossum. In fact, we need not have the slightest hesitation in forming for the Kanguroo a distinct genus, with the characters above prefixed.

The largest animal then of the genus is that represented on the present plate. Its size, shape, and swiftness, concur in rendering it a truly curious and interesting quadruped. The specimens which have been commonly sent over to Europe have been equal in size to a sheep; but far larger are said to have been seen in its native regions. The Kanguroo is said rarely to produce more than one young at a time. This, as in the Opossum tribe, is preserved a long time in the abdominal pouch before it acquires its fur, and receives as it were a second birth; after which it takes refuge occasionally in the same receptacle, till it is sufficiently advanced to be able to provide for its own safety. The color of the Kanguroo is a beautiful palish ash-brown, lighter or whitish on the abdomen and inside of the limbs. The form of the feet is singular; the fore-feet being armed with five claws of nearly equal size, while the hind-feet are furnished with one extremely large middle claw, two other smaller, and two very small ones closely united under one common skin. It is also a singular circumstance, that several other Australian quadrupeds have the same kind of double interior toe on the hind feet. The whole aspect of the foot of the Kanguroo bears some distant resemblance to that of a bird. The Kanguroo feeds only on vegetables, and is of a harmless nature, but is extremely wild and timid; bounding forwards with amazing celerity, by repeated springs of a great many feet at a time, so as easily to escape pursuit. This is what may well be imagined, if we consider the distance to which even the common Jerboa is said to spring, viz. ten, twenty, or thirty feet; it may surely then be granted, that an animal 40 so much larger, and formed on the same general plan, must be capable of exerting the most astonishing force, combined with the greatest celerity in its progress.

It may not be improper in this place, to rectify an error which seems to prevail with those who have not had an opportunity of examining the Kanguroo in a living state, viz. that it always appears in that erect attitude in which it is commonly represented. On the contrary, this is only one of its most general attitudes; and it frequently moves like other quadrupeds on all its legs, and at pleasure alters its position and rests again in its upright posture; and when disturbed, or pursued, consults its safety by springing.

G 41

hand-tinted engraving of Ring-Tailed Lemur or Ring-Tailed Macauco

C. R. Ryley del. Noble sculpt.

Lemur Catta.   The Ring-Tailed Lemur.

Publish’d April 6, 1791 by J. Parkinson Leverian Museum London

LEMUR CATTA.

CHARACTER GENERICUS.

Dentes Primores superiores quatuor: intermediis remotis.

Inferiores sex; longiores, porrecti, compressi, paralleli, approximati.

Laniarii solitarii, approximati.

Molares plures, sublobati; antici longiores, acutiores.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 44.

CHARACTER SPECIFICUS, &c.

Lemur caudatus, ferrugineo-cinereus, cauda albo nigroque annulata.

Prosimia cinerea, cauda cincta annulis alternatim albis et nigris.

Briss. Quadr. p. 222.

Lemur caudatus, cauda albo nigroque annulata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 45.

PRÆSTAT Lemur Catta reliquis speciebus lemurini generis seu formæ elegantiam spectes seu agilitatem corporis. Motu incedit levi, ludibundo, et quasi felino; habetque simiarum jocosam, sed non improbam, alacritatem. Generant eum insulæ Indicæ, Madagascaria præcipue. Color illi generalis est pulchre griseo-fuscus, cui immiscetur paululum ferruginei. Abdomen albet. 42 Cauda prælonga, albo nigroque pulcherrime annulata. Oculi permagni et prominentes, iride aureo-fulva, circulis cinguntur nigris, qui frontem plerumque coeuntes percurrunt in nasum. Facies elongata et acuta. Pilus huic, ut et aliis lemuribus, delicatulus est, mollissimus, et suberectus, adeo ut magnitudo animalis, quæ, ut plurimum, quasi felina est, videatur paululum augeri. Catervatim in sylvis incedere dicuntur lemures, fructus quærentes, ipsaque etiam animalia minora prædantes.

G2 43

THE
THE RING-TAILED MACAUCO.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Six Cutting-Teeth and two Canine-Teeth in each jaw.

Visage commonly sharp-pointed.

Feet formed like hands, in the manner of apes.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER, &c.

Ferruginous-grey Lemur, with very long tail, annulated with black and white.

The Ring-tailed Macauco.

Penn. Quadr. ed. 3. 1. p. 130.

Le Mococo.

Buff. 13. 173. pl. 22.

The Maucauco.

Edw. pl. 197.

THE peculiar elegance of its appearance, and sprightly agility of this animal, give it a decided superiority over every other species of this genus. Ever active, lively, and playful, it equals even the cat in the lightness of its motions, and the cleanliness of its disposition; and has the vivacity of the monkey tribe, without any of their mischievous and disagreeable qualities.

It is a Native of the Indian islands, but is principally found in Madagascar. Its general color is a beautiful greyish-brown, with a slight tinge of reddish: the 44 abdomen is white: the tail very long, and beautifully annulated with numerous distinct circles of black and white: the eyes are very large and prominent and the irides are bright golden-orange: they are surrounded by a circle of black, which commonly unites in front, and passes down the nose: the visage is long and sharp: the fur, as in others of this genus, is extremely soft, and grows in a suberect manner, so as to give the animal a larger appearance than it would otherwise have: its general size is that of a middling cat.

These animals in their native state are said to associate in troops, and wander about the woods in quest of fruits, and even the smaller animals. In the structure of the feet the Macaucos resemble the Simiæ.

45

hand-tinted engraving of Spotted Sided Grossbeak and Crimson Crested Grossbeak

C. R. Ryley Delin. W. Skelton Sculpt.

Loxia Guttata.   The Spotted Sided Grossbeak.
Loxia Regulus.   The Crimson Crested Grossbeak.

Published as the Act directs Feby 1. 1796 by I. Parkinson Leverian Museum

LOXIA REGULUS.

CHARACTER GENERICUS.

Rostrum conico-gibbum, frontis basi rotundatum versus caput: mandibula inferior margine laterali inflexa.

Nares in basi rostri.

Lingua Integra.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 299.

CHARACTER SPECIFICUS.

Loxia nigra, macula alarum alba, occipite subcristato coccineo.

INTER rarissimas sui generis reponitur hæc avicula, jam primo depicta. De patria nihil pro certo exploratum est. Si avem uno aspectu intueamur, prope accedit ad similitudinem Loxiæ crassirostris Lathami, nisi quod huic nostræ occiput fascia lata, transversa, coccinea, et quasi subcristata decoretur. Verisimile igitur videtur diversam esse speciem a Loxia crassirostri, nisi forte malint nonnulli marem esse fœminæ quam descripsit Lathamus.

46

THE CRIMSON-CRESTED GROSSBEAK.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Bill strong, thick, and convex.

Nostrils small.

Tongue truncated.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

Black Grossbeak with a white spot on the wings, and a crimson crest-like band on the hind-head.

THIS bird, of which the native country is not certainly known, has never yet been figured, and may be considered as one of the rarest of its genus. It approaches very near to the Loxia crassirostris of Mr. Latham, but differs in having on the hind part of the head a very remarkable crest-like zone, or broad transverse band, of the richest crimson. It is therefore extremely probable, that it is a distinct species from the Loxia crassirostris, (unless it should, perhaps, be rather considered as the male of that species.)

47

LOXIA GUTTATA.

CHARACTER GENERICUS.

Rostrum conico-gibbum, frontis basi rotundatum versus caput: mandibula inferior margine laterali inflexa.

Nares in basi rostri.

Lingua integra.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 299.

CHARACTER SPECIFICUS.

Loxia fusca, pectore nigro, rostro uropygioque rubris, lateribus corporis nigris albo maculatis.

BELLÆ hujus aviculæ, nunquam fortasse ante depictæ, veram magnitudinem in tabulam transtulimus ab eximio specimine quod suppeditavit Museum Leverianum. Australiam incolit, et inter pulcherrimas sui generis jure numeratur.

48

THE SPOTTED-SIDED GROSSBEAK.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Bill strong, thick, and convex.

Nostrils small.

Tongue truncated.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

Brown Grossbeak with black breast, red bill and rump; the sides of the body black spotted with white.

THIS beautiful little bird, which the plate represents in its natural size, has perhaps never before been figured. It is engraved from a fine specimen in the Leverian Museum, and may justly be considered as one of the most elegant of its tribe. It is a native of New Holland.

Notes and Corrections: No. VI

Number VI of the Museum Leverianum has seven birds—two of which share a plate—and six mammals. Of the ten plates with visible dates, most range from March 1795 to February 1796, though two are are from 1791.

This final Number, published as a separate volume, had its own title page and dedication. The title page is identical to that of the first volume, except that the year is “M.DCC.XCVI” (1796).

Vultur Gryphus, the Condor

still has that name. If you need to be more particular, it is the Andean condor. As the text says, it was previously shown as the very first plate in Number 1 of the Museum, under the name Vultur Magellanicus.

Dorsum enim dicunt album esse
text has Dorsim

Nec prætereundum est omnes hos auctores caudam avis parvam affirmasse
text has præterendum

the Vultur Papa of Linnæus, or King Vulture
[Now Sarcoramphus papa.]

Paradisea Regia, the Royal Paradise-Bird

is now Cincinnurus regius, the king bird-of-paradise.

[Illustration] C. R. Riley del. Laurie sculp.
[This is Laurie’s only appearance as engraver. Evidently he borrowed Fittler’s notes when it came to spelling the artist’s name.]

Rex avium paradisæarum.
text has paradisaearum

The common or chesnut-colored Paradise-Bird has already been figured
[Paradisea Apoda in No. II.]

Bradypus Tridactylus, the Three-Toed Sloth

still has that name. It was previously shown at Volume 1, Plate 6 (not 5) of the Naturalist’s Miscellany.

Vivarium Naturæ. tab. 5. . . . Naturalist’s Miscellany. pl. 5.
text unchanged: error for 6

Psittacus Magnificus, the Magnificent Cockatoo

is now Calyptorhynchus banksii, the red-tailed black cockatoo, by way of Latham’s Psittacus banksii. (This explains the disagreement between “Magni­ficent” in the text and “Banksian” in the illustration.) It was previously shown at Volume 2 (not 1), Plate 50 of the Naturalist’s Miscellany.

Vivarium Naturæ. tom. 1. t. 50.
text unchanged: error for 2

Even-tailed Black Parrot
[You can’t tell from Shaw’s formatting, but this English description—like the similar one on the Latin side—is quoted verbatim from the Naturalist’s Miscellany.]

Naturalist’s Miscellany. pl. 50.
[It is just as well that he forgot to give the volume number, since he would probably have said “1” by mistake for “2”.]

[page] 18
text has 81

described in the Naturalist’s Miscellany, under the title of Psittacus funereus
[Volume 6, Plate 186, published after the earlier Numbers of the Museum but before this final Number.]

Viverra Leveriana, the Leverian Fossane

Based on the English name, description and general appearance, it may be a variant of Fossa fossana (originally Viverra fossana), the Malagasy civet.

nigro leviter annulata. Pedes nigri
text has , for .

The specimen in the Leverian Museum differred in so many respects
spelling unchanged

Strix Fuliginosa, the Fuliginous Owl

may be Strix sartorii, the cinereous owl, which in turn may be simply a subspecies of S. varia, the barred owl.

Viverra Nasua, the Brasilian Weasel

is now Nasua nasua, the brown-nosed or South American coati. It belongs to the same family, Procyonidae, as raccoons and kinkajous.

Trivia: At one time red pandas, the single-species genus Ailurus, were also assigned to this family, but they are now a family of their own. That means there is a family called Ailuridae, “catlike”, within the Caniformia or “doglike” suborder of carnivores. Sometimes it is less confusing when you don’t know the etymology.

THIS animal has been differently arranged by naturalists.
[Also by the author: it is “Brasilian Weasel” in the text, “Coati Mondi” in the plate caption.]

Its general colour is of a cinereous brown
text has cinererous
[Incidentally, the spelling “colour” is anomalous for this final Number. Some­where between 1792 and 1796, Shaw seems to have decided that he prefers “color”.]

Psittacus Tabuanus, the Tabuan Parrot

To paraphrase the notes on the “Pompadour Parrot”, Psittacus atropur­pureus, in No. III: If Ps. atropurpureus is the same as Latham’s Ps. tabuensis, and if this in turn is the same as Gmelin’s Ps. tabuensis, it is now Prosopeia tabuensis, the maroon shining parrot. It lives in Fiji, not Australia.

[Illustration] Psittacus Tabuanus.
text has Tabuarus
[Like most errors in plate captions, this one is best attributed to misreading a handwritten original.]

fascia alarum obliqua pallidiore
text has pallidore

Psittacus atropurpureus, or Pompadour Parrot, in a former number of this work
[Towards the end of No. III.]

Sorex (or Mus) Pilorides, the Musk Shrew (or Mouse)

Shaw seems to have changed his mind about the animal’s exact nature, and hence its binomial—mouse or shrew—in between commissioning the plate and writing the text. Based on its picture and its English name, it may be the Asian house shrew or musk shrew, Suncus murinus, though it isn’t clear why Shaw wouldn’t then have used Linnaeus’s binomial, Sorex murinus.

The pilorides names are a red herring. The only Mus pilorides I can find was named in 1826, while I can’t find a Sorex pilorides at all. (For what it’s worth, M. pilorides is now Megalomys desmarestii, the Antillean Giant Rice Rat, where genus Megalomys is West Indian giant rice rats. You will be relieved to learn there are only two species.)

Sorex glaucus, subtus pallidior,
text has pallidor
[In this final Number, Shaw experiences a brain fart and temporarily forgets how to form a comparative. (The word “pallidior”, in various forms, has occurred many times in the course of the Museum—including later on in this very article.)]

Macropus Giganteus, the Kanguroo

retains the binomial Shaw gave it; in English it is also known as the Eastern grey kangaroo. It was first shown at Volume 1, Plate 33 (June 1790) of the Naturalist’s Miscellany.

MACROPUS GIGANTEUS.
text has , for .

Vivarium Naturæ. 33. / Naturalist’s Miscellany. pl. 33.
[In Volume 1.]

Yerboa gigantea.
[You can see the point of similarity. But, well, as further discussed in the text . . . no.]

quibus placuit Macropum inter Didelphidas numerari
text has Dipelphidas

form, structure, and situation of the teeth
text has the the teeth

This, as in the Opossum tribe,
text has Opossom

Lemur Catta, the Ring-Tailed Macauco

In spite of Shaw’s last-minute doubts about whether it should be called a Macauco instead, the ring-tailed lemur remains Lemur catta.

Loxia Regulus, the Crimson-Crested Grossbeak

. . . does not exist, and never did. John-James Wilson of the World Museums, Liverpool, summed it up recently as “Someone stuck some red feathers on the head of a Large-Billed Seed Finch”; a 1987 article by M. J. Largen expresses it more sedately as “an example of Oryzoborus crassirostris . . . to which a crest of red feathers has been artificially added”. (In 1987 it was Oryzoborus; today it is just as likely to be called Sporophila, as ornithologists quarrel over whether there are two genera or one. To Gmelin it was predictably Loxia crassirostris.) The actual specimen described by Shaw is now in Liverpool, if anyone wants to take a closer look.

It approaches very near to the Loxia crassirostris of Mr. Latham
[Very, very near, as we have seen.]

Loxia Guttata, the Spotted-Sided Grossbeak

is now Stagonopleura guttata, the diamond firetail, with naming credit to Shaw.

The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.