owl, grouse, Arctic fox and ermine on a rocky cliff

P Paillore pinx.   P. Mazell sculp.

Arctic Zoology
by Thomas Pennant

It is not every day that a book with “Arctic” in its title includes references to California and Florida, Mexico and Cuba. The author’s preface explains that it was originally planned as a work on the zoology of North America. As we can guess from the 1784 publication date, Current Events intervened and he had to make a hasty change.

Volume I

Frontispiece (above)

Advertisement (this page)

List of Plates (this page)



Volume II

Land Birds

Water Birds

General Index (this page)

Author’s Errata (this page)

Thomas Pennant (1726–1798) was a landowner in Flintshire, Wales. His circumstances were comfortable enough to let him indulge his varied interests: naturalist, antiquarian, travel writer. The present work draws on two of his earlier productions in natural history, British Zoology and History of Quadrupeds, while the Introduction—notably the part dealing with the Orkney and Shetland Isles—reveals some of his antiquarian side.

Arctic Zoology was published in two volumes in 1784–85. The first volume includes a 200-page Introduction describing the Arctic regions, circling the globe from the British isles through Iceland, Scandinavia, Siberia and North America, winding up in Greenland. This is followed by the descriptive sections: Quadru­peds, Land Birds and Water Birds. If there were any reptiles in the Arctic, Pennant did not notice them. He had nothing to say about fish, barring a few comprehensive lists scattered through the Introduction; the same goes for invertebrates, whether marine or terrestrial.

Trivia: Pennant’s work must have attracted wider interest. The Introduction was almost immediately (1789) translated into Dutch as Inleiding tot de kennis der noorder-poollanden, getrokken uit de Dierkunde der Norder-Poollanden in het Englesch beschreeven door Dr. Hr. Thomas Pennant by one Prof. Zimmerman.

The Science

For general notes on taxonomy and technical terms, see the introductions to William Bingley’s Animal Biography and George Shaw’s Naturalist’s Miscellany, both from a decade or two after Pennant.

Wherever possible, I’ve given the current scientific name for the animals Pennant describes. The Quadrupeds (mammals) section generally doesn’t give a binomial—but each entry references the author’s History of Quadrupeds, which does. The birds are similarly inconsistent. When the present book doesn’t give a binomial, you can generally rely on one of his cited sources to do so.

And speaking of birds: Pennant is remarkably fond of describing birds as stupid, applying the epithet to at least twelve different species. Turkeys are “very stupid birds, quarrelsome, and cowardly”; flamingos are “uncommonly tame, or rather stupid”; perroquet auks (today’s parakeet auklet) are “the most stupid of all birds, and caught by the natives in [a] ridiculous manner”; snow geese are “the most numerous and the most stupid of all the Goose race”.

Pennant’s Sources

You can tell which authorities Pennant considered especially important, because their names in the main text tend to be printed in small capitals—Pallas, Cook, Bering, Steller, Linnæus, Joseph Banks—rather than the usual Italics. But don’t look for consistency.

Titles of works, as Pennant usually abbreviates them:

Lev. Mus.
In 1784–85, the Leverian Museum was still under the control of Ashton Lever. A decade or so later, George Shaw would show some of its holdings in a handsomely illustrated series of volumes.
Bl. Mus
Anna Blackburn or Blackburne (1726–1793 or 1794), namesake of the Blackburnian warbler, maintained a museum of specimens—mainly birds—sent from America by her brother Ashton Blackburne. (The “Ashton” is not a coincidence; Blackburne and Lever were first cousins on the mother’s side.)
Some half-a-dozen times, Pennant says Br. Mus. I don’t think the British Museum had an ornithology department, so these may all be errors for Bl. Mus.
Brit. Zool.
Thomas Pennant’s own British Zoology, here from the 1776 4th edition (octavo): Vol. I (Quadrupeds and Land Birds, through no. 172, Goatsucker); Vol. II (Water Fowl, from no. 173, Heron)
Descr. Kamtschatka
Histoire et Description du Kamtchatka by Stepan Petrovich Krashenin­nikov (Kratsche­ninikoff). There was an abridged English translation in 1764, but Pennant used the two-volume French translation.
Faun. Groenl. or Greenl.
Otto Fabricius, Fauna Groenlandica. In footnotes, it is misspelled Faun. Greenl. so often, I didn’t bother to correct it.
Faun. Suec.
Carl Linnaeus (Linné), Fauna Suecica, 1761. Binomials are generally the same as those in the 1758 Systema Naturae.
Hist. Quad.
Thomas Pennant’s own History of Quadrupeds, 1781 edition: Vol. I (through page 284, no. 173); Vol. II (continuing from page 285 and no. 174).
Lin. Syst.
Carl Linnaeus (Linné), Systema Naturae. All citations refer to page numbers in Volume II. Unfortunately, Pennant used the 1766 12th edition. I say “unfortunately” because all too often, Linnaeus changed his mind about binomials between 1758 and 1766, and his 1766 choice is rarely the one in use today.
Pl. Enlum.
The Comte De Buffon’s illustrated work, Planches Enluminées in six volumes. If anyone wants to look more closely, I recently found one listed for $325,000 at AbeBooks.

Authorities Pennant cited by personal name rather than title of the specific work (Brisson, Latham and Pallas are consistently italicized):

Mathurin-Jacques Brisson (1723–1806) wasn’t exclusively an ornitho­logist, but he came pretty close; in particular, he defined a vast number of bird genera that Linnaeus overlooked. The full title of his 1760 work, in parallel French and Latin, is Ornithologie, ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, especes & leurs variétés: a laquelle on a joint une description exacte de chaque espece, avec les citations des auteurs qui en ont traité, les noms quils leur ont donnés, ceux que leur ont donnés les différentes nations, & les noms vulgaires. Nine volumes, beginning with Volume I. (If you make it this far, you can easily find the others.)
Morten Thrane Brünnich (1737–1827), Danish. In Pennant’s second volume, Birds, his name is often misspelled “Brunnick” (and never has the umlaut).
Mark Catesby (1683–1749), The Natural history of Carolina, Florida and the Bahamas, 1729 and later, with parallel text in English and French. Two volumes: Vol. I, Vol. II.
I have seen this book cited many times before, but never realized how gorgeously illustrated it is. Watch This Space.
Erik Jonsson, Count Dahlberg (1625–1703), Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna (Sweden Ancient and Modern). As often as not, Pennant spells the name “Dalhberg”; I’ve left them as I found them. Incidentally, looking up the title of his work I find a copy listed at AbeBooks for $9500. I think I’ll pass.
“Doctor Garden
Scottish-born Alexander Garden (1730–1791), namesake of genus Gardenia. He spent most of his adult life in South Carolina, but was kicked out of America near the end of the revolutionary war along with other Loyalists.
Pehr Kalm (1716–1779), Travels into North America 1770–71.
John Latham (1740–1837), A General Synopsis of Birds. Each volume was divided into two physical parts: Vol. I, part 1; Vol. I, part 2; Vol. II, part 1; Vol. II, part 2; Vol. III, part 1; Vol. III, part 2.
Volumes I and II came out in 1781, Volume III not until 1785, overlapping Pennant. As a result, most references to Latham Vol. III involve one of two errors. The ones in the Land Birds section are mistakes for Volume II: for all occurrences of “Latham, iii.” read “Latham, ii.” (Did Pennant get mixed up because each volume was published in two parts?) Those in the Water Birds section are generally shown as “iii. ” with a long blank space. The volume wasn’t published in time for Pennant to supply page numbers; in fact this volume of Latham often cites Pennant among its sources.
Icelandic scholar Eggert Ólafsson (1726–1768). Pennant, or perhaps his typesetter, had trouble with this name. It’s definitely “ff” every time, not ”ſſ”.
German naturalist Peter Simon Pallas (1741–1811), especially known for his work in Russia. Works cited include Novae Species Quadrupedum e Glirium ordine.
Constantine John Phipps (1744–1792), Baron Mulgrave. As a naval officer, he commanded expeditions to the Arctic, and supported naturalist Joseph Banks.
Schwenckfelt, Schwenckfeldt or Schwenkfelt
The only spelling Pennant never does use is the one now canonical: Caspar von Schwenckfeld (1489–1561), German naturalist and theologian.
Icelandic historian and antiquarian Þormóður Torfason (1636–1719), Latinized to “Thormodus Torfæus”. His most important work may be the four-volume 1711 Historia rerum Norvegicarum. But Pennant is especially interested in a 1697 work, Orcades seu rerum Orcadensium historiae (translated into English in 1866, long after it could have done Pennant’s readers any good).

Others that Pennant occasionally mentions, especially in the Introduction:

Later Sources

In January 1963 came an enormously useful article, “The North American birds of Thomas Pennant. A review” in Volume 4, No. 2 of what was then Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History. (It has since become Archives of Natural History.) The author, Waldo Lee McAtee (1883–1962), died a full year before his article was published. So although formal citations say “McAtee 1963”, he probably wrote it in 1961.

And, since ornithology hasn’t stood still in the ensuing six decades, some of his identifications have called for further updating. This applies especially to warblers, which experienced a major overhaul in 2011. Among other things, genus Dendroica—seen in some twenty McAtee identifications—was merged out of existence.

The title of the article gives away another limitation: McAtee is only concerned with North American birds. In his geography, that means Alaska, Canada, and the continental United States exclusive of Florida—but, at least sometimes, including Greenland. Other birds are handled in any of three ways. Many non-American birds, especially those Pennant identifies with a letter instead of a number, are simply ignored. Others are dismissed with a brusque “Not North American”. And a handful of McAtee’s identifications are followed with a parenthetic “[This record not accepted]”. This appears to mean that the bird in question has been securely identified, based on description and binomial, but it is not found in North America.

A still newer reference is Julian Hume’s Extinct Birds. (I have the 2017 edition; there may be a newer one.) With a few heartbreaking exceptions—the ivory-billed woodpecker, the Carolina parakeet—this means the “Doubtful and Invalid Taxa” appendix. From this we learn that a binomial assigned by Linnaeus’s successor Gmelin in 1789 is no guarantee that the bird in question ever really existed.

If both McAtee and Hume, half a century apart, say that a particular bird is unidentifiable, it seems safe to say it will forever remain unidentified.


The one place you will not see the word “Arctic” is in the name of the ocean. According to the ever-useful ngram viewer, the name “Arctic Ocean” didn’t pass “Icy Sea” and “Frozen Sea” until the 1820s, and “Frozen Ocean” in the 1830s. (Hardly anyone seems to have used the fourth permutation, “Icy Ocean”.)

In case anyone wondered: At the other end of the globe, the sea surrounding Antarctica was once known as the Southern Ocean. The name later passed out of use—the water being treated as simply the southernmost extremities of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans—only to be restored in 2021. This time around, “Antarctic Ocean” is an alternate name; at time of preparation (mid-2023) there has not yet been an official determination.

Further quirks:

The Introduction, which took up more than half of Volume I, goes into detail about the regions discussed in the book. Just don’t expect many places to have their now-standard spellings. In fact, don’t expect any standard spellings. With rare exceptions like “Mongalia” and “Sibiria”, Pennant uses the form found in whichever source he is currently citing. If you can’t find “Unalascha”, “Unalashka”, or “Unalaschka”, try “Oona-”; no two sources spelled it the same. On the other hand, they all seem to agree on “Missisipi” (one pee, total of three esses).


The word “wingspan” would not come into use until well into the 20th century. Instead Pennant refers to the “extent” of a bird. This is still an improvement over Bewick, who speaks consistently of a bird’s “breadth”.

Like Bewick, Pennant consistently says “granivorous” for “graminivorous”.

The term “insects”, Linnaeus’s class Insecta, includes all arthropods. Class Vermes covers all other invertebrates, including those that have since been promoted to phyla or even kingdoms of their own.

A “line” is 1/12 inch, or half a pica, or a bit over 2mm.

The word “pretend” is best read as “claim”, “maintain” or “assert”.

Although spelling by 1784 had generally stabilized, you will meet some unfamiliar forms: knowlege; prevaling, montanous, “phœnomenon” as a recurring error for “phænomenon”. (Printers never did get the hang of the “œ” and “æ” ligatures.) Watch out especially for “lest” and “least”, which consistently have the opposite spelling, as in “at lest”.

I have italicized l. (pounds) wherever it occurs. The original used non-lining numerals, so there was no risk of confusing 1 (one) and l (ell).

As usual in books of this vintage, there were typographic perils:

text image


The two volumes between them have almost 1500 footnotes. The reader will forgive me for not renumbering and linking them all. Instead, footnotes are shown after each paragraph, except that footnotes in the descriptive sections (Quadrupeds and Birds) are shown after the complete entry if it is not too long. All notes retain their original markers, so you may sometimes see two conse­cutive * notes, or a ‡ followed by a * when a paragraph spans a page break.


This ebook is based on the 1784–85 London edition: Volume I, Volume II.

Typographical errors are marked with mouse-hover popups and are listed again at the end of each section. The word “invisible” means that the letter or punctuation mark is missing, but there is an appropriately sized blank space.



head of young Elk



THIS Work was begun a great number of years past, when the empire of Great Britain was entire, and possessed the northern part of the New World with envied splendor. At that period I formed a design of collecting materials for a partial History of its Animals; and with true pains, by various correspondencies, made far greater progress in my plan than my most sanguine expectations had framed. Above a century ago, an illustrious predecessor in the line of Natural History, who as greatly exceeded me in abilities as he did in zeal, meditated a voyage to the New World, in pursuance of a similar design. The gentleman alluded to was Francis Willughby, Esq; who died in 1672, on the point of putting his design in execution. Emulous of so illustrious an example, I took up the object of his pursuit; but my many relative duties forbade me from carrying it to the length conceived by that great and good man. What he would have performed, from an actual inspection in the native country of the several subjects under consideration, I must content myself to do, in a less perfect manner, from preserved specimens transmitted to me; and offer to the world their Natural History, taken from gentlemen or writers who have paid no small attention to their manners.

Let me repeat, that this Work was designed as a sketch of the Zoology of North America. I thought I had a right to Av the attempt, at a time I had the honor of calling myself a fellow-subject with that respectable part of our former great empire; but when the fatal and humiliating hour arrived, which deprived Britain of power, strength, and glory, I felt the mortification which must strike every feeling individual at losing his little share in the boast of ruling over half of the New World. I could no longer support my clame of entitling myself its humble Zoologist: yet, unwilling to fling away all my labors, do now deliver them to the Public under the title of the Arctic Zoology. I added to them a description of the Quadrupeds and Birds of the north of Europe and of Asia, from latitude 60 to the farthest known parts of the Arctic World, together with those of Kamtschatka, and the parts of America visited in the last voyage of the illustrious Cook. These additional parts I have flung into the form of an Appendix to each genus, and distinguished by a fleur de lis; and the species by literal instead of numeral marks, which distinguish those of North America. These will, in a great measure, shew the dilatation of Quadrupeds and Birds, and the migrations of the feathered tribe, within part of the northern hemisphere.

I have, whenever I could get information, given their respective residences, as well as migrations to far more northern parts, to shew to what very remote places the Author of Nature hath impelled them to retire, to breed in security. This wise provision preserves the species entire, and enables them to return by myriads, to contribute to the food or luxuries of southern climates. Whatever is wanting in the American part, I may foresee, will in time be amply supplied. The powers of literature will soon arise, with the other strengths of the new empire, and some native Naturalist give perfection to that A2 part of the undertaking, by observations formed on the spot, in the uses, manners, and migrations. Should, at present, no one be inclined to take the pen out of my hand, remarks from the other side of the Atlantic, from any gentlemen of congenial studies, will add peculiar pleasure to a favorite pursuit, and be gratefully received.

I must reckon among my most valued correspondents on the New Continent, Doctor Alexander Garden*, who, by his long residence in South Carolina, was enabled to communicate to me variety of curious remarks and subjects, as will appear in the following pages.

* Now resident in London.

To the rich museum of American Birds, preserved by Mrs. Anna Blackburn, of Orford, near Warrington, I am indebted for the opportunity of describing almost every one known in the provinces of Jersey, New York, and Connecticut. They were sent over to that Lady by her brother, the late Mr. Ashton Blackburn; who added to the skill and zeal of a sportsman, the most pertinent remarks on the specimens he collected for his worthy and philosophical sister.

In the foremost rank of the philosophers of the Old Continent, from whose correspondence I have benefited, I must place Doctor Peter Sim. Pallas, at present Professor of Natural History in the service of the illustrious Empress of Russia: he not only favored me with the fullest remarks on the Zoological part of that vast empire, most of which he formed from actual travel and observation, but collected for my use various other remarks from the manuscripts of his predecessors; especially what related to Kamtschatka from those A2v of Steller; which have assisted me in the history of parts hitherto but very slightly understood.

From the correspondency and labors of Mr. Eberh. Aug. William Zimmerman, Professor of Mathematics at Brunswic, I have collected most uncommon instruction. His Specimen Zoologiæ Geographicæ Quadrupedum* is a work which gives a full view of the class of Quadrupeds, and the progress they have made in spreading over the face of the earth, according to climates and latitudes. Their limits are described, in general, with uncommon accuracy. Much is said of the climates themselves; of the varieties of mankind; of the effects of heat and cold on them and other animals. A most curious map is joined to the work, in which is given the name of every animal in its proper climate; so that a view of the whole Quadruped creation is placed before one’s eyes, in a manner perfectly new and instructive.

* A quarto in Latin, containing 685 pages, printed at Leyden, 1777; sold in London by Mr. Faden, Geographer, St. Martin’s Lane.

A new edition of the map has been lately published by the learned Author; the geographical part is corrected according to the late voyages of Captain Cook, and great additions made to the zoological part. An explanation is given, in the third volume of the Zoologia Geographica, lately published in German by the Author.

To the following foreigners, distinguished for their literary knowlege, I must pay my best acknowlegement for variety of most useful communications: Doctor Anders Sparman, of Stockholm; Doctor Charles P. Thunberg, of Upsal; Mr. And. J. Retzius, Professor of Natural History at Lund; Mr. Martin Thrane Brunnich, Professor of Natural History, and Mr. Otho Muller, Author of the Zoologia Danica, both of Copenhagen: and let me add my great obligations to the labors of the Reverend Mr. Otto Fabricius, for his most finished Fauna of Greenland.


To many of my countrymen my best thanks are due for literary assistances. Sir Joseph Banks, Baronet, will, I hope, accept my thanks for the free admittance to those parts of his cabinet which more immediately related to the subject of the following sheets.

To Sir Ashton Lever, Knight, I am highly indebted, for the more intimate and closer examination of his treasures than was allowed to the common visitors of his most magnificent museum.

To Mr. Samuel Hearn, the great explorer by land of the Icy Sea, I cannot but send my most particular thanks, for his liberal communication of many zoological remarks, made by him on the bold and fatiguing adventure he undertook from Hudson’s Bay to the ne plus ultra of the north on that side.

Mr. Andrew Graham, long a resident in Hudson’s Bay, obliged me with numbers of observations on the country, and the use of multitudes of specimens of animals transmitted by him to the late museum of the Royal Society, at the instance of that liberal patron of science, my respected friend the Honorable Daines Barrington.

Let me close the list with acknowleging the great assistance I have found in the Synopsis of Birds by Mr. John Latham; a work now brought almost to a conclusion, and which contains a far greater number of descriptions than any which has gone before. This is owing not only to the assiduity of the Author, but also to the peculiar spirit of the English nation, which has, in its voyages to the most remote and most opposite parts of the globe, payed attention to every branch of science. The advantages are pointed out by the able pen of the Reverend Doctor Douglas, in his Introduction to the last Voyage of A3v our great navigator, published (under the auspices of the Lords of the Admiralty) in a manner which reflects honor on our country in general, and will prove a most lasting monument to the memory of the great Officer who so unfortunately perished by savage hands, and his two able consorts, who at length sunk beneath the pressure of fatigue, in carrying the glory of discovery far beyond the attempts of every preceding adventurer.

February 1, 1785.


Notes and Corrections: Advertisement

skip to List of Plates

when the empire of Great Britain was entire, and possessed the northern part of the New World with envied splendor
[Cheer up, Thomas. There will soon be huge swaths of Africa and Asia—to say nothing of the entire continent of Australia—to make up for the loss.]

remarks from . . . any gentlemen of congenial studies, will add peculiar pleasure
[Or, ahem, any lady of congenial studies, such as Mrs. Anna Blackburn.]

my respected friend the Honorable Daines Barrington
[Now best remembered as one of the two addressees of the letters that make up Gilbert White’s Natural History of Selborne. Barrington’s day job was as a judge in north Wales; he is The Honourable not for professional reasons but because his father was a viscount.]

the great assistance I have found in the Synopsis of Birds by Mr. John Latham; a work now brought almost to a conclusion
[In Volume II, Latham’s name will appear in several hundred references. Latham’s three-volume work closely overlapped Pennant’s, with the result that references to his Volume III don’t have page numbers.]



FRONTISPIECE, a winter scene in Lapland, with Aurora Borealis: the Arctic Fox, Nº 10: Ermine, Nº 26: Snowy Owl, Nº 121: and White Grous, Nº 183.
Title-page, with the head of the Elk, Nº 3, before it was arrived at full age.
Tab. I. The caves of Caussie in Murray, Introd. page xviii
II. Rocks of singular forms near Sandside, xx
III. The Doreholm, a small isle, one of the Schetlands, perforated with a vast arch xxvii
IV. Bird-catching in one of the Orkney isles xxx
V. Antiquities xxxiii
Nº I. A Burgh of the smallest kind, with a single cell.
II. The Burgh of Culswick in Schetland, and a section of the wall.
III. The Burgh of Burrowfirth on Helinsta Voe, a holme or small isle among the Schetlands. It contains eleven cells.
IV. Burgh of Snaburgh in Unst, one of the Schetlands.
V. Burgh of Hogseter.
VI. Roman camp in Felther.
For the drawings from which these Antiquities were engraven, I am indebted to the Reverend Mr. Low, Minister of Birsa in Orkney, who, at my request, made the voyage of the Orkney and Schetland isles in 1778. He hath prepared his journal for the press: it is to be hoped, that the liberality of the public will enable him to give this addition to my labors, which will complete the account of the northern part of the British dominions.
Tab. VI. The Bow described p. cxliv. The place it came from is uncertain; but doubtlessly from the part of the western coast of America frequented by the Walrus page cxliv
A4v VII. The Musk Cow, with the head of the Bull. See the Zoological part 8
VIII. A full-grown male Elk or Moose, with the velvet, or young horns; and a full-grown pair on the ground. From a painting by Mr. Stubbs, communicated to me by the late Dr. Hunter 17
Title-page, the Pied Duck, Nº 488.
IX. St. John’s Falcon: Chocolate-colored Falcon 200
X. Swallow-tailed Falcon 210
XI. Red Owl, Nº 117: Mottled Owl, Nº 118: Barred Owl, Nº 122 234
XII. Male and Female Baltimore Orioles, Nº 142; with the nest 258
XIII. Ferruginous Woodpecker, Nº 159: Nuthatch, Nº 170 271
XIV. Passenger Pigeon, Nº 187: Carolina Pigeon, Nº 188 326
XV. Varied Thrush, Nº 197 337
XVI. Spotted Grosbeak, Nº 213: White-crowned Bunting, Nº 221 238
XVII. Black-throated Bunting, Nº 228: Cinereous Bunting, Nº 333 364
XVIII. Aculeated Swallow, Nº 335: Long-winged Goatsucker, Nº 337 436
XIX. Eskimaux Curlew, Nº 364: Little Woodcock, Nº 365 463
XX. Clapper Rail, Nº 407: Semipalmated Snipe, Nº 380 490
XXI. American Avoset, Nº 421 502
XXII. Pied-billed Grebe, Nº 418: Marbled Guillemot, Nº 438 517
XXIII. Falcated Duck, p. 574; Western Duck, Nº 497 574

The Bookbinder is desired to observe, that the Second Volume begins at p. 187, Class II. Birds.

Notes and Corrections: Plates

The descriptions given in the List of Plates are often longer than the captions printed with the Plates themselves. Conversely, a few captions include the item number, omitted here—and when a caption does include a number, it is often wrong.

Page numbers are included for completeness. In some cases, a Plate may have been moved slightly to avoid breaking up text; links go to the Plate itself, wherever it may have ended up.

Plate V. Antiquities
[This plate is made up of a number of sub-plates. In the ebook, the complete plate is shown at its original location, while each of the sub-plates—slightly enlarged—is shown at the appropriate place in the text.]

VII. The Musk Cow, with the head of the Bull
[Nº 2 in the Quadrupeds section]

IX. St. John’s Falcon: Chocolate-colored Falcon
[Nos. 93 and 94 in Land Birds.]

X. Swallow-tailed Falcon
[Nº 108 in Land Birds.]

XVII. Cinereous Bunting, Nº 333
[The number is wrong, both here and in the Plate caption; the Cinereous Bunting is really Nº 233.]

XXIII. Falcated Duck, p. 574
[The Falcated Duck has no number because it is a European bird, I in the list of non-American ducks.]



 A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   K   L 
 M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   V   W 

AMERICA originally destitute of domestic animals 6
Albatross, wandering 506
its vast migrations 507
Amulets of bills and claws of the Eagle 215
of the feathers of the Kingfisher 280
singular, of a species of mushroom ib.
Ape, Sea, extraordinary animal 181
Argali, or Wild Sheep 12
Avoset, American 502
Terek ib.
scooping 503
Auk, great 509
razor-bill ib.
black-billed 510
puffin 511
Labrador 512
little ib.
antient ib.
pygmy 513
tufted ib.
Perroquet 514
crested 515
dusky ib.
Badger, 71
sometimes white ib.
Bear, polar 53
their skins anciently offered to the church 57
black ib.
not carnivorous 58
brown 61
carnivorous and granivorous 62
chace of the Bear by the Indians ib.
Laplanders 65
Finnish song on the death of 66
Beaver, its wondrous œconomy 99
Musk Beaver 106
forms houses like the Castor Beaver 107
Beaver. See Otter.
Bats 184
Beluga, a species of Porpess 182
Bison, its limits 2, 3
chace of by the Indians 4
Bison or Ox, musk 8
its excellent wool 9
Boars, wild, their most northern residence 35
Buck 33
Buzzard, common 207
honey 224
moor 225
Butcher-bird. See Shrike
Bustard, Norton Sound 321
great ib.
little ib.
588 Bunting, white crowned 355
snow ib.
its migrations 356
change of colors ib.
black 359
Towhee ib.
rice 360
singular migration of the males 361
painted 362
Louisiane 363
black-throated ib.
Unalaschka ib.
black-crowned 364
rusty ib.
second Unalaschka* ib.
cinereous ib.
blue 365
indigo ib.
* A wrong repetition of name; the Reader is therefore desired to distinguish by the addition of Second.
golden 366
common ib.
yellow 367
Ortolan ib.
reed 368
Birds, their skins used for cloathing 511, 127
Bimaculated Duck 575
Cat, domestic 52
wild, none in the Russian empire ib.
Mountain, Cat a 51
Castor. See Beaver.
Camels, their highest latitude 35
Calumet, account of 197
Crow, Raven 245
carrion 246
Magpie 247
blue 249
Steller’s ib.
Rook 250
hooded 251
Jackdaw ib.
Nutcracker 252
Jay ib.
rock ib.
Roller genus 253
garrulous ib.
Cuckoo genus 265
Carolina ib.
European 266
Creeper genus 285
European ib.
Bahama ib.
Chatterer, prib 346
Curlew, Eskimaux 461
common 462
Whimbrel ib.
Coot, common 496
Corvorant 581
Cranes, American 442, 443
European 453
Deer, Moose 17
its chace by the savages 19
superstitions relative to 20
its size exaggerated 21
Rein Deer. See Rein.
Virginian 28
Dogs, what the original Dog of America 39
of Kamtschatka, Greenland, &c. ib.
beasts of draught in many places 40
no mad Dogs in Greenland 41
589 Dormouse, striped 126
English? 128
Diver, northern 518
Imber ib.
speckled 519
striped ib.
red-throated 520
black-throated ib.
Dunlin 476
Duck, whistling Swan 541
mute Swan 543
Canada Goose 544
bean Goose 546
grey-leg Goose ib.
blue-wing Goose 547
Bering’s Isle Goose 548
white fronted Goose ib.
snow Goose 549
brent Goose 551
bernacle Goose 552
eider Duck 553
king 554
velvet 554
black 556
scoter ib.
Shoveler 557
golden-eye ib.
spirit 558
pied 559
Buffel ib.
Harlequin 560
Pochard ib.
whistling 561
summer 562
Mallard 563
Ilathera 564
dusky ib.
western ib.
scaup 565
brown ib.
pintail 566
long-tail ib.
American Wigeon 567
white-faced 568
American Teal 569
great Goose 570
Chinese Goose 571
red breasted Goose ib.
Shieldrake 572
Gulaund ib.
Morillon 573
tufted ib.
Hrafn-ond 574
falcated ib.
Wigeon ib.
Gadwall 575
Lapmark 576
red ib.
Garganey ib.
European Teal 577
Duck, bimaculated 575
Elk, the same with the Moose 17
or wild Swan
Ermine 75
Echoueries, what 148
Eagle, sea 194
black 195
black-cheeked 196
white-headed ib.
its singular manner of preying ib.
white 197
its feathers much used in the Calumet ib.
Osprey 199
how robbed by the white-headed Eagle ib.
golden 214
cinereous ib.
crying 215
Eider Duck 553
Eggs of the Auk tribe, Doctor Harvey’s curious remarks on 510
Fisher Weesel 82
Fox, common 43
its varieties 49, 47
590 Arctic 42
are migratory 43
grey and silvery 48
Fallow Deer 33
Furs, multitudes imported from America 77, 105
Furs unknown to the antient Romans as luxuries 81
when first introduced into Rome ib.
long used in Tartary ib.
Falcon, rough-footed 200
St. John’s ib.
chocolate-colored 201
Newfoundland ib.
sacre 202
peregrine ib.
gentil 203
Goshawk 204
sometimes white ib.
red-tailed 205
Leverian 206
red-shouldered ib.
Buzzard 207
plain 208
marsh ib.
ringtail 209
swallow-tailed 210
Buzzardet 211
little ib.
Pigeon 212
dubious 213
dusky ib.
Iceland 216
Greenland* 220
* By inadvertency the word DUSKY is applied to this species, a trivial before given to another Falcon: the Reader is therefore requested to alter this with his pen.
Gyrfalcon 221
collared 222
Kite 223
Honey Buzzard 224
Lunner 225
Moor Buzzard ib.
Kestril 226
Sparrow Hawk ib.
Hobby 227
Falconry, earliest account of 219
very ancient in Tartary 220
great state in which the Chinese emperors hawk 204
Falcons, manner of taking in Iceland 217
Finch, Cowpen 371
golden ib.
New York Siskin 372
orange ib.
red-breasted ib.
tree 373
Bahama ib.
white-throated ib.
yellow-throated 374
striped ib.
ferruginous 375
fasciated ib.
grass ib.
winter 376
black-faced ib.
Norton ib.
crimson-head ib.
purple 377
Lapland ib.
cinereous 378
greater Red-poll ib.
lesser Red-poll 379
Arctic ib.
Lulean 380
Twite ib.
flaming ib.
brambling 381
Chaffinch ib.
Sparrow 382
Goldfinch 383
Siskin ib.
Flycatcher, tyrant, its courage 384
Louisiana 385
fork-tail ib.
chattering ib.
crested 386
lesser crested ib.
591 black-headed 387
cinereous ib.
red-eyed ib.
Cat 388
Canada ib.
green 389
dusky ib.
golden throat ib.
striped 390
dun ib.
pied 391
Flamant, red 504
Fulmar 534
Fieldfare 340
Goat, wild 16
tame, inhabits far north ib.
Gyrfalcon 216
Goshawk 204
Gentil Falcon 203
Grakle genus 263
purple ib.
most destructive to mayz 256
yet rashly proscribed ib.
boat-tail 264
Gambet 476
Glades in Sibiria for Wild Geese, &c. 570
Grous, ruffed 301
singular noise made by 302
pinnated 305
sharp-tailed 306
spotted 307
white 308
amazing numbers taken 311
rock 312
wood ib.
spurious 314
black ib.
how taken in Sibiria 315
Ptarmigan ib.
Rehusak 316
hazel 317
Grosbeak, crossbill 347
pine 348
cardinal 349
pope 350
red-breasted ib.
spotted ib.
fan-tail 351
yellow-bellied ib.
dusky ib.
blue ib.
purple 352
grey ib.
Bullfinch 353
green ib.
haw 354
Goatsucker, short-winged 434
long-winged 436
European 437
Gallinule, soree 491
yellow-breasted ib.
common 492
Crake ib.
Grebe, horned 497
pied bill ib.
Louisiana 498
dusky ib.
great crested ib.
eared 499
red-necked ib.
Guillemot, foolish 516
black ib.
marbled 517
Gull, black-backed 527
herring ib.
Wagel 528
592 laughing 528
black-headed 529
Kittiwake ib.
ivory ib.
common 330
Arctic ib.
black-toed 581
Skua ib.
glaucous 532
silvery 533
Tarrock ib.
red-legged ib.
Gannet 382
Hare, varying 94
American 95
Alpine 97
Hog. See Boar.
Hedge-hog 142
Hobby 227
Hoopoe, its filthy nest 284
Honeysucker, genus 286
red-throated ib.
its curious manners 277
ruffed 290
Heron, hooping Crane 442
brown 443
great ib.
red-shouldered Heron 444
common ib.
great white 445
little white ib.
great Egret 446
little Egret ib.
reddish Egret 447
green ib.
Louisiane 448
blue ib.
yellow crowned ib.
ash-colored 449
streaked ib.
Gardenean 450
night 450
Bittern 451
rusty-crowned 452
little 453
common Crane ib.
Sibirian Crane 435
white Stork ib.
black Stork 456
Ibis, wood 458
scarlet ib.
brown 459
white ib.
bay 460
Imber 518
Kingfisher, belted 279
European? 280
Knot 472
Kamtschatkans had no domestic animals before the arrival of the Russians 7
their chace of the Argali or Wild Sheep 13
use the Rein Deer in sledges 25
their chace of the Bear 64
of the Seal 158
superstitions about its chace 157
their chace of the Ursine Seal 170
their noblest chace of Leonine Seal 175
593 Kite, a kind of oracle with the Greeks 224
Kestril 226
Lemmus 136
Lynx 50
bay 51
Lanner 225
Lark, shore 392
red 393
calandra ib.
sky 394
wood 393
tit ib.
field ib.
Lapwing 480
Martin, pine 76
Minx 87
Manati 177
its conjugal affection 180
Marmot, Quebec 111
Maryland ib.
hoary 112
tail-less ib.
earless 113
Bobak 115
Morse. See Walrus.
Mouse, common 131
field ib.
meadow 133
Musk, Tibet 34
a solitary animal ib.
Merganser, Goosander 537
red-breasted ib.
hooded 538
small 539
minute 540
Massagetæ, cloathed themselves in Seal-skins 158
Norway Rat. See Brown.
Nuthatch, Canada 281
black-headed ib.
lest 282
Opossum, singular asylum for its young 73
very tenacious of life ib.
Otter, common 86
minx or lesser 87
sea 88
its singular manners 89
its fur exquisite, and of high value 93
Ox. See Bison.
musk 8
Octher, in the time of Alfred, first mentions the Walrus 146
Owl, Eagle 228
a bird of ill omen with the savages ib.
long-eared 229
short-eared ib.
red 230
mottled 231
Wapacuthu ib.
sooty 232
snowy 233, 580
barred 234
Hawk ib.
white 235
brown 236
little ib.
Scandinavian 237
tawny ib.
Oriole genus 255
red-wing ib.
594 white-backed 256
Baltimore 257
its curious nest 258
bastard ib.
black 259
brown-headed ib.
white-headed 260
olive ib.
yellow-throated 261
Unalaschka ib.
sharp-tailed ib.
Oyster-catcher, pied 489
black? Introduction.
Ouzel, water 332
ring 344
rose-colored ib.
Petrel, Fulmar 534
Sheerwater 535
fork-tail ib.
stormy 536
Kuril ib.
Pelecan, great 578
dusky 580
Charlestown ib.
Shag 581
Corvorant ib.
Gannet 582
crested Corvorant 583
violet 584
red-faced ib.
Panther, brown. See Puma.
Porcupine 109
its manners 110
Pekan Weesel 78
Peregrine Falcon 202
Parrot, Carolina 242
Illinois 243
Philtre, singular in Lapland 280
among the Ostiacs ib.
Partridge, Maryland 318
common 319
Quail 320
Pigeon, passenger 322
their amazing numbers 323
Carolina 326
Canada 327
white-crowned ib.
ground 328
Stork 329
ring ib.
Plover, alwargrim 483
golden ib.
noisy 484
ringed 485
black-crowned ib.
sanderling 486
ruddy ib.
long-legged 487
Dottrel ib.
Alexandrine 488
Phalarope, grey 494
red ib.
brown 495
plain ib.
Purre 475
Puma 49
Puffin 511
Quickhatch. See Wolverene.
Rat, black 129
brown 130
595 American 130
water ib.
common Mouse 131
field ib.
Virginian 132
Labrador ib.
Hudson’s ib.
meadow? 133
hare-tailed ib.
œconomic 134
its wonderful management 135
red 136
Lemmus ib.
Lena 137
ringed ib.
Tchelag 138
Rabbet. See American Hare.
Raccoon 60
its great cunning 70
Rein Deer 22
its great utility in northern countries 24, &c.
Roebuck 33
tail-less ib.
Ringtail Hawk 209
Roller genus 253
garrulous ib.
Rail, clapper 490
Virginian ib.
Razor-bill 509
Rice-birds, their wonderful migration 360
Rice, how introduced into North America 361
Sable 79
how taken 80
Seals, common 151
the flocks of the Arctic regions ib.
their chace by the Greenlanders ib.
by the Kamtschatkans 156
great Seal 159
rough 160
Leporine 161
hooded 162
harp 163
rubbon 165
Ursine ib.
its curious history 167
Leonine 172
its history 173
chace by the Kamtschatkans 175
Sheep, wild 12
chace of 13
tame of Iceland ib.
tame as high as Finmark 14
Shrew, fœtid 139
Squirrel 116
Hudson’s Bay ib.
grey ib.
most destructive to the mayz 117
Americans once unable to pay their proscription money! 118
black 119
flying 120
hooded flying 121
Severn river flying 122
common European ib.
European flying 124
Stag 27
Stoat 75
Skunk 85
Sacre 202
Sparrow Hawk 226
Skimmer, Cutwater 522
Stork, white 455
black 456
Shrike, great 238
black-crowned ib.
crested 239
Natka ib.
red-backed 240
grey ib.
lesser grey 241
Skua 581
596 Stare genus 330
crescent ib.
Louisiane 331
common ib.
water Ouzel 332
Swallow, chimney 429
Martin 430
land ib.
purple swift 431
swift 432
aculeated ib.
Unalaschka. See Introd.
Spoon-bill, roseate 440
European 441
Snipe, little Woodcock 463
common Snipe ib.
Jack 464
red-breasted ib.
brown ib.
nodding 465
great Godwit ib.
red G. 466
common G. ib.
spotted 467
Jadreka ib.
stone 468
redshank ib.
yellow-shank ib.
green-shank 469
semipalmated ib.
black ib.
European Woodcock 470
great Snipe ib.
dusky 471
Finmark ib.
Sandpiper, Hebridal 472
striated ib.
knot 473
spotted ib.
ash-colored 474
New York ib.
common ib.
green 475
Purre ib.
Dunlin 476
red ib.
grey 477
gambet ib.
armed 478
Swiss ib.
little 479
ruff ib.
freckled 480
selninger ib.
Lapwing ib.
waved 481
shore ib.
wood 482
uniform ib.
Tody genus 283
dusky ib.
Turky 291
manners 292
not a bird of the old continent 296
Thrush, mimic 333
its wondrous power of note 334
ferruginous 335
red-breasted ib.
varied 337
tawny ib.
red-legged ib.
little 338
Unalaschka ib.
golden-crowned 339
Hudsonian ib.
New York ib.
Labrador 340
Fieldfare ib.
missel 341
597 Throstle 342
red-wing ib.
Kamtschatkan 343
rose-colored 344
ring ib.
Blackbird 345
Tanager, summer 369
Canada ib.
olive ib.
grey 370
bishop ib.
Titmouse, Toupet 423
Virginian ib.
creeping ib.
Colemouse 424
Canada ib.
Hudson’s Bay 425
great ib.
Stromian 426
azure ib.
blue 427
marsh ib.
crested ib.
long-tailed 428
bearded ib.
Tern, Noddy 523
great 524
lesser ib.
black 525
Kamtschatkan ib.
Caspian 526
Tyrant Flycatcher, its great spirit 384
Vulture, carrion 191
its great utility 192
Vison 78
Woodcock, American 463
European 470
Walrus 144
its uses and chace 147, 148
Weesel, common 75
Stoat or Ermine ib.
Pine Martin 76
Pekan 78
Vison ib.
Sable 79
Fisher 82
striated 83
Skunk ib.
Wolf 38
the Dog of America 39
Wolverene 66
Wagtail, white 396
yellow ib.
yellow-headed 397
Tschutschi ib.
Wryneck 267
Woodpecker, white-billed 268
pileated 269
golden-wing ib.
ferruginous 271
red-headed ib.
Carolina 272
spotted ib.
Canada, spotted 273
hairy ib.
downy 274
yellow-bellied 275
yellow-legged ib.
three-toed ib.
black 276
green 277
grey-headed ib.
middle spotted 278
lest spotted ib.
Warbler, blue-backed 398
black-headed ib.
yellow-breast 399
orange-thighed ib.
black-throat ib.
yellow-throat 400
hooded ib.
yellow-rump ib.
red-head 401
598 black-poll 401
grey-poll 402
yellow-poll ib.
white-poll ib.
golden crowned 403
gold-wing ib.
yellow-throat 404
green ib.
bloody-side 405
cærulean ib.
Worm-eater 406
yellow-tail ib.
spotted 407
Louisiane ib.
orange-throat 408
Quebec ib.
belted ib.
olive 409
New York 410
dusky ib.
prothonotary ib.
half-collared ib.
orange-bellied ib.
olive-brown 411
Grasset ib.
grey-throat ib.
Guira 412
Blackburnian ib.
pine ib.
yellow 413
ruby-crowned ib.
golden-crested 414
Wren ib.
bush 415
Nightingale 416
Redstart ib.
grey Redstart 417
Redbreast, Robin ib.
blue-throat ib.
black-cap 418
pettychaps ib.
hedge ib.
bogrush 419
Fig-eater ib.
Grasshopper ib.
sedge ib.
Scotch 420
long-billed ib.
Wheat-ear ib.
Stapazina 421
Whinchat ib.
white-throat 422
Awatcha ib.
Kruka ib.

Notes and Corrections: Index

skip to Errata

All entries are alphabetized as shown. In theory, IJ and UV would have been alphabetized together. But there happen to be no main entries beginning in J or U, so the issue does not arise. (Sub-entries, which do include these letters, are instead listed in numerical order.)

Beaver. See Otter.
[He isn’t suggesting that the Beaver is a kind of Otter; he means that the Otter article also mentions Beavers.]

[Bison] chace of by the Indians   4
page number missing

[Bunting] Louisiane   363.
text has ib. (i.e. 362)
[The next two Buntings are thus also on page 363.]

[Cat] Mountain, Cat a   51
text has 50

Roller genus . . . Cuckoo genus . . . Creeper genus
[All three, with their sub-entries, are indented as if they belong to the Crow. This is my best guess about what Pennant meant to say. The Roller will get its own listing under “R”.]

[Elk] or wild Swan   541
number “541” missing
[This line is obviously out of place. Swans are in the first column on this page, though not directly across from the Elk entry. The “or wild swan” line probably belongs under “whistling swan”, page 541.]

[Oyster-catcher] black? Introduction.
[The reference is to a footnote on page cxxi, concerning the classification of birds in “the catalogue which Captain King honored with a place in the third volume of the Voyage”. Just to make the whole thing entirely pointless, the birds up to and including the Pied Oyster-Catcher are correct as printed; only the later ones require adjustment.]

[Pigeon, passenger] their amazing numbers
[Shed a tear.]

Seals, common   151
text has 51

[Swallow] Unalaschka. See Introd.
[I have no idea what he’s referring to. The only mention of Swallows in the Introduction is in the Feroe Islands section, and there’s nothing in the adjoining Index column that it could have strayed from, like the “Elk or wild Swan” earlier. Besides, the Introduction spells it “Oona-”.]

[Wagtail] Tschutschi
text has Tcshutschi
[A rather surprising typo, since it wasn’t a simple matter of transposing “s” and “c”; it also involved the “ſh” ligature.]

[Footnote] A wrong repetition of name; the Reader is therefore desired to distinguish by the addition of Second.
[Nos. 229 and 232, respectively. According to McAtee, they are in any case the same bird.]




Page iv, line 13, for but, read yet

P. xxvi, l. 31, similiarity, read similarity

P. xxxii, l. 23, Moura, read Mousa

P. xxxvii, l. 2, maen-hirion, read meini-hirion

P. xlii, l. 14, circumgirations, read circumgyrations

P. xliii, last line, for ‡ Same, p. 7. § Same, p. 8. Torfæus, &c.; read ‡ Torfæus Hist. Norveg. ii. p. 96. § The same, p. 97

P. xlvi, l. 11, the last to 1766, read the last period it remained quiescent to 1766.

l. 16, overflown, read overflowed

P. lvii, l. 16, amata. Donec; read amata donec.

l. 19, vidit, read vident

P. lxii, l. 31, is, read are

P. lxiii, l. 18, as low as that of 60, read and that of 60

P. lxxvi, l. 14, Plearonectes, read Pleuronectes

P. lxxxii, l. 29, insert, after the word places, the mark of reference ‡, and blot it out of line 31

P. lxxxvi, l. 13, 14, small and hard, read hard and small

P. xci, l. 26, Lases, read Lepas;

l. 28, carinotum, read carinatum.

l. 36, see p. lv

P. xcix, l. 5, dele is

P. ciii, l. 10, Salmon, read Salmo

P. cvi, l. 6, yet is, read which yet is

P. cvii, last line, after baccata, add Pallas Itin. iii. 105 Pl. Ross. 23. tab. x

P. cviii, note *, read Cook’s Voyage

P. cxiv, l. 22, Virg. those, read Virg. are distinguished those

P. cxvi, l. 23, hieraciodes, read hieracioides

P. cxviii, l. 30, finally, of those, read finally, those

P. cxx l. 10, is, read are

P. cxxiii, last line, 261, read 201

P. cxxxii, l. 28, dele either

P. cxliv, l. 18, shall, read should

P. clxvi, l. 24, had in the, read had been in the

l. 31, dele from

P. clxxiv, after Nº 73, add 74; after Nº 75, add 76; after Nº 77, add 78

P. cxci, l. 1, œtus, read fœtus.

l. 18, ovaria, read ova,

l. 20, northernly, read northern

P. cc, 1. penult. for ; read ,

P. 3, l. 24, Mivera, read Quivera

P. 24, l. 9, Kungus, read Kungur

P. 33, l. 11, is, read are

P. 34. note, for 9, 44 or 45, read 20, read lat. 60 to 20

P. 43, l. 23, latter, read others

P. 50, l. 22, add The Lynx also inhabits the vast forests of the north of Europe and Asia; in the first, as high as Lapland, in the last, in most parts of Sibiria, and even in the north of India, amidst the lofty mountains which bound that country

P. 58, l. 26, carnivorous, read animal

P. 76, 1. 16, dele in great plenty

P. 89, l. 10, lat. 44, read 49

P. 90, l. 27, £. 25. read £. 20.

P. 98, l. 15, all round, read in all parts of

P. 99, l. 3, Konyma, read Kowyma

P. 112, l. 23, Hist. Quad. Nº 265

P. 116, note *, Hist. Quad. 283. α.

P. 142, l. 16, Sweden, in the, read Sweden. In the


P. 220, l. 26, E Dusky, read E Greenland

P. 223, l. 21, Sea Eagle, read Osprey

P. 244, l. 7, for north, read south

P. 368, l. 5, cychromi, read cychrami

P. 407, l. 18, le, read la

P. 527, l. 18, Non, read Nam: and dele ?

OMITTED at p. 285, VOL. II.

175. A.
Purple Creeper.

L’Oiseau pourpre à bec de grimpereau, De Buffon, v. 526.—Latham, ii. 723.

CR. wholly of a purple color. Length four inches and a half.

According to Seba, it inhabits Virginia; and is said to sing well.

Notes and Corrections: Author’s Errata

This page is included for completeness. All corrections have been made in the text. In the printed book, each section of the Errata—Introduction, Quadru­peds, Birds—was printed as a single run-in paragraph, with items separated by — dashes. I have broken it up into separate lines. Like any self-respecting Errata section, it includes errors of its own, but they are relatively minor.

P. xci, l. 26, Lases, read Lepas;
[The text-to-be-corrected really says “Lapes”.]

l. 28, carinotum, read carinatum.
[The text-to-be-corrected really says “Carinotum”.]

P. cvii, last line, after baccata, add Pallas Itin. iii. 105 Pl. Ross. 23. tab. x
[It’s really the penultimate line.]

P. cxci, l. 1, œtus, read fœtus.
[Already correct as printed.]

P. 34. note, for 9, 44 or 45, read 20, read lat. 60 to 20
[This took some disentangling, since the footnote itself is an erratum to another work. See notes to the Tibet Musk.]

P. 112, l. 23, Hist. Quad. Nº 265 / P. 116, note *, Hist. Quad. 283. α.
[That is, fill in the number that the author forgot. (He will become less attentive to this kind of oversight when we get to the birds.)]

P. 142, l. 16, Sweden, in the, read Sweden. In the
[Since this would change a grammatically correct passage into a grammatically incorrect one, I left it as printed.]

P. 368, l. 5, cychromi, read cychrami
[The text-to-be-corrected really says “Cynchromi”.]