It is not every day that a book with “Arctic” in its title includes references to California and Florida, Mexico and Cuba. The author’s preface explains that it was originally planned as a work on the zoology of North America. As we can guess from the 1784 publication date, Current Events intervened and he had to make a hasty change.
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Thomas Pennant (1726–1798) was a landowner in Flintshire, Wales. His circumstances were comfortable enough let him indulge his varied interests: naturalist, antiquarian, travel writer. The present work draws on two of his earlier productions in natural history, British Zoology and History of Quadrupeds, while the Introduction—notably the part dealing with the Orkney and Shetland Isles—reveals some of his antiquarian side.
Arctic Zoology was published in two volumes in 1784–85. The first volume includes a 200-page Introduction describing the Arctic regions, circling the globe from the British isles through Iceland, Scandinavia, Siberia and North America, winding up in Greenland. This is followed by the descriptive sections: Quadrupeds, Land Birds and Water Birds. If there were any reptiles in the Arctic, Pennant did not notice them. He had nothing to say about fish, barring a few comprehensive lists scattered through the Introduction; the same goes for invertebrates, whether marine or terrestrial.
Trivia: Pennant’s work must have attracted wider interest. The Introduction was almost immediately (1789) translated into Dutch as Inleiding tot de kennis der noorder-poollanden, getrokken uit de Dierkunde der Norder-Poollanden in het Englesch beschreeven door Dr. Hr. Thomas Pennant by one Prof. Zimmerman.
Wherever possible, I’ve given the current scientific name for the animals Pennant describes. The Quadrupeds (mammals) section generally doesn’t give a binomial—but each entry references the author’s History of Quadrupeds, which does. The birds are similarly inconsistent. When the present book doesn’t give a binomial, you can generally rely on one of his cited sources to do so.
And speaking of birds: Pennant is remarkably fond of describing birds as stupid, applying the epithet to at least twelve different species. Turkeys are “very stupid birds, quarrelsome, and cowardly”; flamingos are “uncommonly tame, or rather stupid”; perroquet auks (today’s parakeet auklet) are “the most stupid of all birds, and caught by the natives in [a] ridiculous manner”; snow geese are “the most numerous and the most stupid of all the Goose race”.
You can tell which authorities Pennant considered especially important, because their names in the main text tend to be printed in small capitals—Pallas, Cook, Bering, Steller, Linnæus, Joseph Banks—rather than the usual Italics. But don’t look for consistency.
Titles of works, as Pennant usually abbreviates them:
Authorities Pennant cited by personal name rather than title of the specific work (Brisson, Latham and Pallas are consistently italicized):
Others that Pennant occasionally mentions, especially in the Introduction:
In January 1963 came an enormously useful article, “The North American birds of Thomas Pennant. A review” in Volume 4, No. 2 of what was then Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History. (It has since become Archives of Natural History.) The author, Waldo Lee McAtee (1883–1962), died a full year before his article was published. So although formal citations say “McAtee 1963”, he probably wrote it in 1961.
And, since ornithology hasn’t stood still in the ensuing six decades, some of his identifications have called for further updating. This applies especially to warblers, which experienced a major overhaul in 2011. Among other things, genus Dendroica—seen in some twenty McAtee identifications—was merged out of existence.
The title of the article gives away another limitation: McAtee is only concerned with North American birds. In his geography, that means Alaska, Canada, and the continental United States exclusive of Florida—but, at least sometimes, including Greenland. Other birds are handled in any of three ways. Many non-American birds, especially those Pennant identifies with a letter instead of a number, are simply ignored. Others are dismissed with a brusque “Not North American”. And a handful of McAtee’s identifications are followed with a parenthetic “[This record not accepted]”. This appears to mean that the bird in question has been securely identified, based on description and binomial, but it is not found in North America.
A still newer reference is Julian Hume’s Extinct Birds. (I have the 2017 edition; there may be a newer one.) With a few heartbreaking exceptions—the ivory-billed woodpecker, the Carolina parakeet—this means the “Doubtful and Invalid Taxa” appendix. From this we learn that a binomial assigned by Linnaeus’s successor Gmelin in 1789 is no guarantee that the bird in question ever really existed.
If both McAtee and Hume, half a century apart, say that a particular bird is unidentifiable, it seems safe to say it will forever remain unidentified.
The one place you will not see the word “Arctic” is in the name of the ocean. According to the ever-useful ngram viewer, the name “Arctic Ocean” didn’t pass “Icy Sea” and “Frozen Sea” until the 1820s, and “Frozen Ocean” in the 1830s. (Hardly anyone seems to have used the fourth permutation, “Icy Ocean”.)
In case anyone wondered: At the other end of the globe, the sea surrounding Antarctica was once known as the Southern Ocean. The name later passed out of use—the water being treated as simply the southernmost extremities of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans—only to be restored in 2021. This time around, “Antarctic Ocean” is an alternate name; at time of preparation (mid-2023) there has not yet been an official determination.
The Introduction, which took up more than half of Volume I, goes into detail about the regions discussed in the book. Just don’t expect many places to have their now-standard spellings. In fact, don’t expect any standard spellings. With rare exceptions like “Mongalia” and “Sibiria”, Pennant uses the form found in whichever source he is currently citing. If you can’t find “Unalascha”, “Unalashka”, or “Unalaschka”, try “Oona-”; no two sources spelled it the same. On the other hand, they all seem to agree on “Missisipi” (one pee, total of three esses).
The word “wingspan” would not come into use until well into the 20th century. Instead Pennant refers to the “extent” of a bird. This is still an improvement over Bewick, who speaks consistently of a bird’s “breadth”.
Like Bewick, Pennant consistently says “granivorous” for “graminivorous”.
The term “insects”, Linnaeus’s class Insecta, includes all arthropods. Class Vermes covers all other invertebrates, including those that have since been promoted to phyla or even kingdoms of their own.
A “line” is 1/12 inch, or half a pica, or a bit over 2mm.
The word “pretend” is best read as “claim”, “maintain” or “assert”.
Although spelling by 1784 had generally stabilized, you will meet some unfamiliar forms: knowlege; prevaling, montanous, “phœnomenon” as a recurring error for “phænomenon”. (Printers never did get the hang of the “œ” and “æ” ligatures.) Watch out especially for “lest” and “least”, which consistently have the opposite spelling, as in “at lest”.
I have italicized l. (pounds) wherever it occurs. The original used non-lining numerals, so there was no risk of confusing 1 (one) and l (ell).
As usual in books of this vintage, there were typographic perils:
The two volumes between them have almost 1500 footnotes. The reader will forgive me for not renumbering and linking them all. Instead, footnotes are shown after each paragraph, except that footnotes in the descriptive sections (Quadrupeds and Birds) are shown after the complete entry if it is not too long. All notes retain their original markers, so you may sometimes see two consecutive * notes, or a ‡ followed by a * when a paragraph spans a page break.
Typographical errors are marked with and are listed again at the end of each section. The word “invisible” means that the letter or punctuation mark is missing, but there is an appropriately sized blank space.
CLASS I. QUADRUPEDS.
PRINTED BY HENRY HUGHS.
THIS Work was begun a great number of years past, when the empire of Great Britain was entire, and possessed the northern part of the New World with envied splendor. At that period I formed a design of collecting materials for a partial History of its Animals; and with true pains, by various correspondencies, made far greater progress in my plan than my most sanguine expectations had framed. Above a century ago, an illustrious predecessor in the line of Natural History, who as greatly exceeded me in abilities as he did in zeal, meditated a voyage to the New World, in pursuance of a similar design. The gentleman alluded to was Francis Willughby, Esq; who died in 1672, on the point of putting his design in execution. Emulous of so illustrious an example, I took up the object of his pursuit; but my many relative duties forbade me from carrying it to the length conceived by that great and good man. What he would have performed, from an actual inspection in the native country of the several subjects under consideration, I must content myself to do, in a less perfect manner, from preserved specimens transmitted to me; and offer to the world their Natural History, taken from gentlemen or writers who have paid no small attention to their manners.
Let me repeat, that this Work was designed as a sketch of the Zoology of North America. I thought I had a right to Av the attempt, at a time I had the honor of calling myself a fellow-subject with that respectable part of our former great empire; but when the fatal and humiliating hour arrived, which deprived Britain of power, strength, and glory, I felt the mortification which must strike every feeling individual at losing his little share in the boast of ruling over half of the New World. I could no longer support my clame of entitling myself its humble Zoologist: yet, unwilling to fling away all my labors, do now deliver them to the Public under the title of the Arctic Zoology. I added to them a description of the Quadrupeds and Birds of the north of Europe and of Asia, from latitude 60 to the farthest known parts of the Arctic World, together with those of Kamtschatka, and the parts of America visited in the last voyage of the illustrious Cook. These additional parts I have flung into the form of an Appendix to each genus, and distinguished by a fleur de lis; and the species by literal instead of numeral marks, which distinguish those of North America. These will, in a great measure, shew the dilatation of Quadrupeds and Birds, and the migrations of the feathered tribe, within part of the northern hemisphere.
I have, whenever I could get information, given their respective residences, as well as migrations to far more northern parts, to shew to what very remote places the Author of Nature hath impelled them to retire, to breed in security. This wise provision preserves the species entire, and enables them to return by myriads, to contribute to the food or luxuries of southern climates. Whatever is wanting in the American part, I may foresee, will in time be amply supplied. The powers of literature will soon arise, with the other strengths of the new empire, and some native Naturalist give perfection to that A2 part of the undertaking, by observations formed on the spot, in the uses, manners, and migrations. Should, at present, no one be inclined to take the pen out of my hand, remarks from the other side of the Atlantic, from any gentlemen of congenial studies, will add peculiar pleasure to a favorite pursuit, and be gratefully received.
I must reckon among my most valued correspondents on the New Continent, Doctor Alexander Garden*, who, by his long residence in South Carolina, was enabled to communicate to me variety of curious remarks and subjects, as will appear in the following pages.
* Now resident in London.
To the rich museum of American Birds, preserved by Mrs. Anna Blackburn, of Orford, near Warrington, I am indebted for the opportunity of describing almost every one known in the provinces of Jersey, New York, and Connecticut. They were sent over to that Lady by her brother, the late Mr. Ashton Blackburn; who added to the skill and zeal of a sportsman, the most pertinent remarks on the specimens he collected for his worthy and philosophical sister.
In the foremost rank of the philosophers of the Old Continent, from whose correspondence I have benefited, I must place Doctor Peter Sim. Pallas, at present Professor of Natural History in the service of the illustrious Empress of Russia: he not only favored me with the fullest remarks on the Zoological part of that vast empire, most of which he formed from actual travel and observation, but collected for my use various other remarks from the manuscripts of his predecessors; especially what related to Kamtschatka from those A2v of Steller; which have assisted me in the history of parts hitherto but very slightly understood.
From the correspondency and labors of Mr. Eberh. Aug. William Zimmerman, Professor of Mathematics at Brunswic, I have collected most uncommon instruction. His Specimen Zoologiæ Geographicæ Quadrupedum* is a work which gives a full view of the class of Quadrupeds, and the progress they have made in spreading over the face of the earth, according to climates and latitudes. Their limits are described, in general, with uncommon accuracy. Much is said of the climates themselves; of the varieties of mankind; of the effects of heat and cold on them and other animals. A most curious map is joined to the work, in which is given the name of every animal in its proper climate; so that a view of the whole Quadruped creation is placed before one’s eyes, in a manner perfectly new and instructive†.
* A quarto in Latin, containing 685 pages, printed at Leyden, 1777; sold in London by Mr. Faden, Geographer, St. Martin’s Lane.
† A new edition of the map has been lately published by the learned Author; the geographical part is corrected according to the late voyages of Captain Cook, and great additions made to the zoological part. An explanation is given, in the third volume of the Zoologia Geographica, lately published in German by the Author.
To the following foreigners, distinguished for their literary knowlege, I must pay my best acknowlegement for variety of most useful communications: Doctor Anders Sparman, of Stockholm; Doctor Charles P. Thunberg, of Upsal; Mr. And. J. Retzius, Professor of Natural History at Lund; Mr. Martin Thrane Brunnich, Professor of Natural History, and Mr. Otho Muller, Author of the Zoologia Danica, both of Copenhagen: and let me add my great obligations to the labors of the Reverend Mr. Otto Fabricius, for his most finished Fauna of Greenland.A3
To many of my countrymen my best thanks are due for literary assistances. Sir Joseph Banks, Baronet, will, I hope, accept my thanks for the free admittance to those parts of his cabinet which more immediately related to the subject of the following sheets.
To Sir Ashton Lever, Knight, I am highly indebted, for the more intimate and closer examination of his treasures than was allowed to the common visitors of his most magnificent museum.
To Mr. Samuel Hearn, the great explorer by land of the Icy Sea, I cannot but send my most particular thanks, for his liberal communication of many zoological remarks, made by him on the bold and fatiguing adventure he undertook from Hudson’s Bay to the ne plus ultra of the north on that side.
Mr. Andrew Graham, long a resident in Hudson’s Bay, obliged me with numbers of observations on the country, and the use of multitudes of specimens of animals transmitted by him to the late museum of the Royal Society, at the instance of that liberal patron of science, my respected friend the Honorable Daines Barrington.
Let me close the list with acknowleging the great assistance I have found in the Synopsis of Birds by Mr. John Latham; a work now brought almost to a conclusion, and which contains a far greater number of descriptions than any which has gone before. This is owing not only to the assiduity of the Author, but also to the peculiar spirit of the English nation, which has, in its voyages to the most remote and most opposite parts of the globe, payed attention to every branch of science. The advantages are pointed out by the able pen of the Reverend Doctor Douglas, in his Introduction to the last Voyage of A3v our great navigator, published (under the auspices of the Lords of the Admiralty) in a manner which reflects honor on our country in general, and will prove a most lasting monument to the memory of the great Officer who so unfortunately perished by savage hands, and his two able consorts, who at length sunk beneath the pressure of fatigue, in carrying the glory of discovery far beyond the attempts of every preceding adventurer.
February 1, 1785.
when the empire of Great Britain was entire, and possessed the northern part of the New World with envied splendor
[Cheer up, Thomas. There will soon be huge swaths of Africa and Asia—to say nothing of the entire continent of Australia—to make up for the loss.]
remarks from . . . any gentlemen of congenial studies, will add peculiar pleasure
[Or, ahem, any lady of congenial studies, such as Mrs. Anna Blackburn.]
my respected friend the Honorable Daines Barrington
[Now best remembered as one of the two addressees of the letters that make up Gilbert White’s Natural History of Selborne. Barrington’s day job was as a judge in north Wales; he is The Honourable not for professional reasons but because his father was a viscount.]
the great assistance I have found in the Synopsis of Birds by Mr. John Latham; a work now brought almost to a conclusion
[In Volume II, Latham’s name will appear in several hundred references. Latham’s three-volume work closely overlapped Pennant’s, with the result that references to his Volume III don’t have page numbers.]
|FRONTISPIECE, a winter scene in Lapland, with Aurora Borealis: the Arctic Fox, Nº 10: Ermine, Nº 26: Snowy Owl, Nº 121: and White Grous, Nº 183.|
|Title-page, with the head of the Elk, Nº 3, before it was arrived at full age.|
|Tab. I.||The caves of Caussie in Murray, Introd. page xviii|
|II.||Rocks of singular forms near Sandside, xx|
|III.||The Doreholm, a small isle, one of the Schetlands, perforated with a vast arch xxvii|
|IV.||Bird-catching in one of the Orkney isles xxx|
|Nº I.||A Burgh of the smallest kind, with a single cell.|
|II.||The Burgh of Culswick in Schetland, and a section of the wall.|
|III.||The Burgh of Burrowfirth on Helinsta Voe, a holme or small isle among the Schetlands. It contains eleven cells.|
|IV.||Burgh of Snaburgh in Unst, one of the Schetlands.|
|V.||Burgh of Hogseter.|
|VI.||Roman camp in Felther.|
|For the drawings from which these Antiquities were engraven, I am indebted to the Reverend Mr. Low, Minister of Birsa in Orkney, who, at my request, made the voyage of the Orkney and Schetland isles in 1778. He hath prepared his journal for the press: it is to be hoped, that the liberality of the public will enable him to give this addition to my labors, which will complete the account of the northern part of the British dominions.|
|Tab. VI.||The Bow described p. cxliv. The place it came from is uncertain; but doubtlessly from the part of the western coast of America frequented by the Walrus page cxliv|
|A4v VII.||The Musk Cow, with the head of the Bull. See the Zoological part 8|
|VIII.||A full-grown male Elk or Moose, with the velvet, or young horns; and a full-grown pair on the ground. From a painting by Mr. Stubbs, communicated to me by the late Dr. Hunter 17|
|Title-page, the Pied Duck, Nº 488.|
|IX.||St. John’s Falcon: Chocolate-colored Falcon 200|
|X.||Swallow-tailed Falcon 210|
|XI.||Red Owl, Nº 117: Mottled Owl, Nº 118: Barred Owl, Nº 122 234|
|XII.||Male and Female Baltimore Orioles, Nº 142; with the nest 258|
|XIII.||Ferruginous Woodpecker, Nº 159: Nuthatch, Nº 170 271|
|XIV.||Passenger Pigeon, Nº 187: Carolina Pigeon, Nº 188 326|
|XV.||Varied Thrush, Nº 197 337|
|XVI.||Spotted Grosbeak, Nº 213: White-crowned Bunting, Nº 221 238|
|XVII.||Black-throated Bunting, Nº 228: Cinereous Bunting, Nº 333 364|
|XVIII.||Aculeated Swallow, Nº 335: Long-winged Goatsucker, Nº 337 436|
|XIX.||Eskimaux Curlew, Nº 364: Little Woodcock, Nº 365 463|
|XX.||Clapper Rail, Nº 407: Semipalmated Snipe, Nº 380 490|
|XXI.||American Avoset, Nº 421 502|
|XXII.||Pied-billed Grebe, Nº 418: Marbled Guillemot, Nº 438 517|
|XXIII.||Falcated Duck, p. 574; Western Duck, Nº 497 574|
The Bookbinder is desired to observe, that the Second Volume begins at p. 187, Class II. Birds.
The descriptions given in the List of Plates are often longer than the captions printed with the Plates themselves. Conversely, a few captions include the item number, omitted here—and when a caption does include a number, it is often wrong.
Page numbers are included for completeness. In some cases, a Plate may have been moved slightly to avoid breaking up text; links go to the Plate itself, wherever it may have ended up.
Plate V. Antiquities
[This plate is made up of a number of sub-plates. In the ebook, the complete plate is shown at its original location, while each of the sub-plates—slightly enlarged—is shown at the appropriate place in the text.]
VII. The Musk Cow, with the head of the Bull
[Nº 2 in the Quadrupeds section]
IX. St. John’s Falcon: Chocolate-colored Falcon
[Nos. 93 and 94 in Land Birds.]
X. Swallow-tailed Falcon
[Nº 108 in Land Birds.]
XVII. Cinereous Bunting, Nº 333
[The number is wrong, both here and in the Plate caption; the Cinereous Bunting is really Nº 233.]
XXIII. Falcated Duck, p. 574
[The Falcated Duck has no number because it is a European bird, I in the list of non-American ducks.]
|AMERICA originally destitute of domestic animals||6|
|its vast migrations||507|
|Amulets of bills and claws of the Eagle||215|
|of the feathers of the Kingfisher||280|
|singular, of a species of mushroom||ib.|
|Ape, Sea, extraordinary animal||181|
|Argali, or Wild Sheep||12|
|their skins anciently offered to the church||57|
|carnivorous and granivorous||62|
|chace of the Bear by the Indians||ib.|
|Finnish song on the death of||66|
|Beaver, its wondrous œconomy||99|
|forms houses like the Castor Beaver||107|
|Beaver. See Otter.|
|Beluga, a species of Porpess||182|
|Bison, its limits||2, 3|
|chace of by the Indians||4|
|Bison or Ox, musk||8|
|its excellent wool||9|
|Boars, wild, their most northern residence||35|
|Butcher-bird. See Shrike|
|Bustard, Norton Sound||321|
|588 Bunting, white crowned||355|
|change of colors||ib.|
|singular migration of the males||361|
|* A wrong repetition of name; the Reader is therefore desired to distinguish by the addition of Second.|
|Birds, their skins used for cloathing||511, 127|
|wild, none in the Russian empire||ib.|
|Mountain, Cat a||51|
|Castor. See Beaver.|
|Camels, their highest latitude||35|
|Calumet, account of||197|
|Cranes, American||442, 443|
|its chace by the savages||19|
|superstitions relative to||20|
|its size exaggerated||21|
|Rein Deer. See Rein.|
|Dogs, what the original Dog of America||39|
|of Kamtschatka, Greenland, &c.||ib.|
|beasts of draught in many places||40|
|no mad Dogs in Greenland||41|
|589 Dormouse, striped||126|
|Duck, whistling Swan||541|
|Bering’s Isle Goose||548|
|white fronted Goose||ib.|
|red breasted Goose||ib.|
|Elk, the same with the Moose||17|
|or wild Swan|
|its singular manner of preying||ib.|
|its feathers much used in the Calumet||ib.|
|how robbed by the white-headed Eagle||ib.|
|Eggs of the Auk tribe, Doctor Harvey’s curious remarks on||510|
|its varieties||49, 47|
|grey and silvery||48|
|Furs, multitudes imported from America||77, 105|
|Furs unknown to the antient Romans as luxuries||81|
|when first introduced into Rome||ib.|
|long used in Tartary||ib.|
|* By inadvertency the word DUSKY is applied to this species, a trivial before given to another Falcon: the Reader is therefore requested to alter this with his pen.|
|Falconry, earliest account of||219|
|very ancient in Tartary||220|
|great state in which the Chinese emperors hawk||204|
|Falcons, manner of taking in Iceland||217|
|New York Siskin||372|
|Flycatcher, tyrant, its courage||384|
|tame, inhabits far north||ib.|
|most destructive to mayz||256|
|yet rashly proscribed||ib.|
|Glades in Sibiria for Wild Geese, &c.||570|
|singular noise made by||302|
|amazing numbers taken||311|
|how taken in Sibiria||315|
|Hog. See Boar.|
|Hoopoe, its filthy nest||284|
|its curious manners||277|
|Heron, hooping Crane||442|
|Kamtschatkans had no domestic animals before the arrival of the Russians||7|
|their chace of the Argali or Wild Sheep||13|
|use the Rein Deer in sledges||25|
|their chace of the Bear||64|
|of the Seal||158|
|superstitions about its chace||157|
|their chace of the Ursine Seal||170|
|their noblest chace of Leonine Seal||175|
|593 Kite, a kind of oracle with the Greeks||224|
|its conjugal affection||180|
|Morse. See Walrus.|
|a solitary animal||ib.|
|Massagetæ, cloathed themselves in Seal-skins||158|
|Norway Rat. See Brown.|
|Opossum, singular asylum for its young||73|
|very tenacious of life||ib.|
|minx or lesser||87|
|its singular manners||89|
|its fur exquisite, and of high value||93|
|Ox. See Bison.|
|Octher, in the time of Alfred, first mentions the Walrus||146|
|a bird of ill omen with the savages||ib.|
|its curious nest||258|
|Panther, brown. See Puma.|
|Philtre, singular in Lapland||280|
|among the Ostiacs||ib.|
|their amazing numbers||323|
|Quickhatch. See Wolverene.|
|its wonderful management||135|
|Rabbet. See American Hare.|
|its great cunning||70|
|its great utility in northern countries||24, &c.|
|Rice-birds, their wonderful migration||360|
|Rice, how introduced into North America||361|
|the flocks of the Arctic regions||ib.|
|their chace by the Greenlanders||ib.|
|by the Kamtschatkans||156|
|its curious history||167|
|chace by the Kamtschatkans||175|
|tame of Iceland||ib.|
|tame as high as Finmark||14|
|most destructive to the mayz||117|
|Americans once unable to pay their proscription money!||118|
|Severn river flying||122|
|596 Stare genus||330|
|Unalaschka. See Introd.|
|Snipe, little Woodcock||463|
|not a bird of the old continent||296|
|its wondrous power of note||334|
|Tyrant Flycatcher, its great spirit||384|
|its great utility||192|
|its uses and chace||147, 148|
|Stoat or Ermine||ib.|
|the Dog of America||39|
All entries are alphabetized as shown. In theory, IJ and UV would have been alphabetized together. But there happen to be no main entries beginning in J or U, so the issue does not arise. (Sub-entries, which do include these letters, are instead listed in numerical order.)
Beaver. See Otter.
[He isn’t suggesting that the Beaver is a kind of Otter; he means that the Otter article also mentions Beavers.]
[Bison] chace of by the Indians 4
page number missing
[Bunting] Louisiane 363.
text has ib. (i.e. 362)
[The next two Buntings are thus also on page 363.]
[Cat] Mountain, Cat a 51
text has 50
Roller genus . . . Cuckoo genus . . . Creeper genus
[All three, with their sub-entries, are indented as if they belong to the Crow. This is my best guess about what Pennant meant to say. The Roller will get its own listing under “R”.]
[Elk] or wild Swan 541
number “541” missing
[This line is obviously out of place. Swans are in the first column on this page, though not directly across from the Elk entry. The “or wild swan” line probably belongs under “whistling swan”, page 541.]
[Oyster-catcher] black? Introduction.
[The reference is to a footnote on page cxxi, concerning the classification of birds in “the catalogue which Captain King honored with a place in the third volume of the Voyage”. Just to make the whole thing entirely pointless, the birds up to and including the Pied Oyster-Catcher are correct as printed; only the later ones require adjustment.]
[Pigeon, passenger] their amazing numbers
[Shed a tear.]
Seals, common 151
text has 51
[Swallow] Unalaschka. See Introd.
[I have no idea what he’s referring to. The only mention of Swallows in the Introduction is in the Feroe Islands section, and there’s nothing in the adjoining Index column that it could have strayed from, like the “Elk or wild Swan” earlier. Besides, the Introduction spells it “Oona-”.]
text has Tcshutschi
[A rather surprising typo, since it wasn’t a simple matter of transposing “s” and “c”; it also involved the “ſh” ligature.]
[Footnote] A wrong repetition of name; the Reader is therefore desired to distinguish by the addition of Second.
[Nos. 229 and 232, respectively. According to McAtee, they are in any case the same bird.]
Page iv, line 13, for but, read yet
P. xxvi, l. 31, similiarity, read similarity
P. xxxii, l. 23, Moura, read Mousa
P. xxxvii, l. 2, maen-hirion, read meini-hirion
P. xlii, l. 14, circumgirations, read circumgyrations
P. xliii, last line, for ‡ Same, p. 7. § Same, p. 8. Torfæus, &c.; read ‡ Torfæus Hist. Norveg. ii. p. 96. § The same, p. 97
P. xlvi, l. 11, the last to 1766, read the last period it remained quiescent to 1766.
l. 16, overflown, read overflowed
P. lvii, l. 16, amata. Donec; read amata donec.
l. 19, vidit, read vident
P. lxii, l. 31, is, read are
P. lxiii, l. 18, as low as that of 60, read and that of 60
P. lxxvi, l. 14, Plearonectes, read Pleuronectes
P. lxxxii, l. 29, insert, after the word places, the mark of reference ‡, and blot it out of line 31
P. lxxxvi, l. 13, 14, small and hard, read hard and small
P. xci, l. 26, Lases, read Lepas;
l. 28, carinotum, read carinatum.
l. 36, see p. lv
P. xcix, l. 5, dele is
P. ciii, l. 10, Salmon, read Salmo
P. cvi, l. 6, yet is, read which yet is
P. cvii, last line, after baccata, add Pallas Itin. iii. 105 Pl. Ross. 23. tab. x
P. cviii, note *, read Cook’s Voyage
P. cxiv, l. 22, Virg. those, read Virg. are distinguished those
P. cxvi, l. 23, hieraciodes, read hieracioides
P. cxviii, l. 30, finally, of those, read finally, those
P. cxx l. 10, is, read are
P. cxxiii, last line, 261, read 201
P. cxxxii, l. 28, dele either
P. cxliv, l. 18, shall, read should
P. clxvi, l. 24, had in the, read had been in the
l. 31, dele from
P. clxxiv, after Nº 73, add 74; after Nº 75, add 76; after Nº 77, add 78
P. cxci, l. 1, œtus, read fœtus.
l. 18, ovaria, read ova,
l. 20, northernly, read northern
P. cc, 1. penult. for ; read ,
P. 3, l. 24, Mivera, read Quivera
P. 24, l. 9, Kungus, read Kungur
P. 33, l. 11, is, read are
P. 34. note, for 9, 44 or 45, read 20, read lat. 60 to 20
P. 43, l. 23, latter, read others
P. 50, l. 22, add The Lynx also inhabits the vast forests of the north of Europe and Asia; in the first, as high as Lapland, in the last, in most parts of Sibiria, and even in the north of India, amidst the lofty mountains which bound that country
P. 58, l. 26, carnivorous, read animal
P. 76, 1. 16, dele in great plenty
P. 89, l. 10, lat. 44, read 49
P. 90, l. 27, £. 25. read £. 20.
P. 98, l. 15, all round, read in all parts of
P. 99, l. 3, Konyma, read Kowyma
P. 112, l. 23, Hist. Quad. Nº 265
P. 116, note *, Hist. Quad. 283. α.
P. 142, l. 16, Sweden, in the, read Sweden. In the
P. 220, l. 26, E Dusky, read E Greenland
P. 223, l. 21, Sea Eagle, read Osprey
P. 244, l. 7, for north, read south
P. 368, l. 5, cychromi, read cychrami
P. 407, l. 18, le, read la
P. 527, l. 18, Non, read Nam: and dele ?
L’Oiseau pourpre à bec de grimpereau, De Buffon, v. 526.—Latham, ii. 723.
CR. wholly of a purple color. Length four inches and a half.
According to Seba, it inhabits Virginia; and is said to sing well.
This page is included for completeness. All corrections have been made in the text. In the printed book, each section of the Errata—Introduction, Quadrupeds, Birds—was printed as a single run-in paragraph, with items separated by — dashes. I have broken it up into separate lines. Like any self-respecting Errata section, it includes errors of its own, but they are relatively minor.
P. xci, l. 26, Lases, read Lepas;
[The text-to-be-corrected really says “Lapes”.]
l. 28, carinotum, read carinatum.
[The text-to-be-corrected really says “Carinotum”.]
P. cvii, last line, after baccata, add Pallas Itin. iii. 105 Pl. Ross. 23. tab. x
[It’s really the penultimate line.]
P. cxci, l. 1, œtus, read fœtus.
[Already correct as printed.]
P. 34. note, for 9, 44 or 45, read 20, read lat. 60 to 20
[This took some disentangling, since the footnote itself is an erratum to another work. See notes to the Tibet Musk.]
P. 112, l. 23, Hist. Quad. Nº 265 / P. 116, note *, Hist. Quad. 283. α.
[That is, fill in the number that the author forgot. (He will become less attentive to this kind of oversight when we get to the birds.)]
P. 142, l. 16, Sweden, in the, read Sweden. In the
[Since this would change a grammatically correct passage into a grammatically incorrect one, I left it as printed.]
P. 368, l. 5, cychromi, read cychrami
[The text-to-be-corrected really says “Cynchromi”.]