Printing Dictionary


Back Boxes

Back of a Composing Stick


Backside of the Form

Back Stay

Bad Copy

Bad Work


Ball Knife

Ball Leathers

Ball Linings

Ball Nails

Ball Neck

Ball Rack


Ball Stocks


Bank Notes




Beard of a Letter



Beat Fat

Beat Lean




Bible Orthography




Black Letter


Blank Pages



Board Rack



Body of the Work



Book House

Book Press



Botanical Authorities



Bottle Arsed

Bottom Line

Bottom Notes



Bowl of the Ball Stock

Bow the Letter






Brass Rules


Bread, Sale of, Ireland






Broken Letter

Broken Matter

Broken Neck




Button of the Tympan



In cases for Italic where there are no small capitals, also in Old English, and similar founts, the boxes in the upper case, that are appro­priated to small capitals in Roman letter, are styled Back Boxes, and serve to lay two-line Capitals in, and other irregular sorts.


That part on which the bottom of the types rests.—M.


In a form of bookwork, the backs are those pieces of furniture placed between the sides of the pages and the cross of the chase, in quartos, octavos, and duodecimos; and, when a sheet is folded, form, except in quartos, the margin of part of the fore edge of a book. See Imposing. Margin.


is the under side that touches upon the correcting stone or press stone.—M.


A piece of girth or leather fastened to the lower hind rail at one end and to the top rim of the coffin at the other, in wooden 26 presses, to check the running out of the carriage beyond the point which will allow the tympan to rise clear of the front of the platen.


Such copy as is ill written, or has much Italick, Latin, or Greek, or marginal notes, or few breaks, &c.—M. The term is now used only of manuscript that is badly written, and the words or the sense difficult to make out, with many inter­lineations. When this is the case, it is usual to pay something extra per sheet. For Greek, and marginal notes, an extra sum is always given, as may be seen in the Scale of Prices.

Bad Register.

See Out of Register.


Any fault at the case or press, is in workmen’s language called Bad Work.—M. We now call it Bad Workmanship; and by the term Bad Work is understood solid matter; that is, not leaded; with long paragraphs; no white lines nor branching out; no short pages; nor any white pages; such work is also called A Solid Dig: any other work is also called Bad Work, that is tedious in the execution, or difficult to perform, and does not fetch the workman a remunerating price.


When the compositor lays up a form to clear it away, after a work is finished, if he does not rinse the letter as well as if it were rinsed for present use, or rather better, the ink that is dissolved among the lye would, with long standing by, harden between the letter, and make the letter stick so fast together that when it comes afterwards to be distributed, the compositor cannot without great difficulty and trouble get them asunder. This sticking together of the letter is called Baking of the Letter. And compositors in this case say The Letter is Baked.—M. This is the case particularly with new letter, if it be not distributed almost as soon as worked off; for if it be afterwards allowed to remain some time locked up in the chase, it is very difficult to separate and distribute, and causes great loss of time, and injury to the letter.

The usual remedy for this inconvenience is to pour boiling water on the pages repeatedly, which tends to make the letters separate more readily; but still the compositor has to press them against the edge of his case, which makes the ends of his fingers sore, and when he cannot accomplish it in this way, he not unfrequently must have recourse to his teeth. Soaking the new letter in soap and water before it is used, is said to be the best remedy.

Baldwin, Elizabeth.

See Donations.


An old blunt-edged knife, that pressmen lay by, to scrape their balls with.—M. It is generally an old table knife; but a sharp-edged one is better than a blunt one, if it be carefully used. The use of the Ball Knife is now nearly superseded by the adoption of composition rollers.


The exterior coverings of the balls, made either of pelts, of tanned sheep’s skins.—M. Ball Leathers, dressed with oil, were introduced within the author’s recollection; but, although more durable, and sweeter in use than pelts, they were not adapted to produce fine work, and were therefore soon discontinued.


When balls are made of pelts, the wool in the first instance is covered with the pelt of an old ball, previously soaked in the pelt pot and well scraped; this is again covered with a new pelt, and nailed to the ball stock, which makes the ball complete. The old pelt is called the Ball Lining, and makes it firmer in the neck, and also wear longer.


The nails that ball leathers are tacked to the ball stocks with.—M.


That part of the ball which is immediately between the stock and the body of the wool, just below the nails, is named the Ball Neck, or the Neck of the Ball.


two views of ball rack


Two round tapering wooden pins fastened into a feather-edged piece of elm, and nailed to the near cheek of the press, in which to place the balls when they are not in use, nearly on a level with the ink block. There is frequently an additional one, for two balls, nailed higher up to the same cheek, under the cap, for a pair of spare balls, or to keep them separate when necessary; pelt balls injure each other when kept together for any length of time; and composition balls should never be left one upon the other, for they adhere to each other, and the surface is frequently torn in separating them.

Moveable ball racks are sometimes used for convenience, with the rack fastened to an upright piece of wood, fixed into a cross piece to serve it for standing upon.


Two circular pieces of pelt, leather, or canvass covered with composition, stuffed with wool and nailed to the ball stocks, used to cover the surface of the article to be printed with ink, in order to obtain an impression from it. Moxon says they were occasionally stuffed with hair; and that if the ball stocks were six inches in diameter the ball leathers were cut about nine inches and a half diameter. They are made larger, according to the work they are required for; those used for Newspapers were the largest.

Pelt Balls are superseded in London by composition Balls and composition rollers, and nearly so in the country; but when I recollect that the most splendidly printed English books were executed with pelt Balls, and that a printer may be so situated in the country, or in some foreign place, as not to be able to procure composition Balls or rollers, I think it useful to give directions how to make and manage Balls of pelts, so that wherever a printer may be situated, he may sustain no great inconvenience, provided he has a skin at his command: and I shall in the first place give an old Pressman’s directions for this purpose, who was well and practically experienced in every variety of presswork, and who wrote them expressly for this work.

“The pelt being well soaked, the pressman scrapes with the ball knife a little of the wet and filth off—twists it—puts it on the currying-iron, holding an end in each hand, and curries it, by pulling it strongly backwards and forwards, till it becomes warm and pliable, and the grease adheres to his hands, so that the pelt is in danger of slipping out of them while currying: without treading he cuts the pelt into two equal parts, across, and scrapes both sides of them; he then lays one of them on a press stone, or on any other stone that is large enough, and stretches it and spreads it well with the grain side downwards: the pelt of an old ball being well soaked, he cleans it, scraping it partially, so that some of the moisture may remain in it, and spreads it on the new pelt, as a lining, but does not stretch it nearly so much as the new one, and then nails an edge of them to the ball stock: the wool, being previously carded or combed, he lays in single locks one upon another, crossways, till he has enough for the size of the Ball which he is making. If it be for a newspaper it must be very large; if for bookwork, to be used with common ink, it must be smaller in proportion; but in both cases he brings the ends of the locks of wool into one hand, forming it into the shape of a ball very slightly, and puts these ends into the bowl of the stock; then bringing the opposite edge of the pelt to that already nailed, he also nails that to the ball stock; then he nails two other parts of the pelt opposite to each other, between those parts before nailed; then he plaits the pelt, nailing it regularly on the ball stocks; and cuts off the superfluous 28 edges of the skin. The linings ought to be large enough to be nailed to the ball stock equal with the skin. Then he makes another ball, exactly the same as the first; and if both have a full even face, with no hillocks or dales, he has got a pair of good Balls.

“After having knocked up his Balls, he washes both them and the stocks well, and lets them lie out of the water a quarter of an hour; then placing one edge of the face upon the edge of the bank, the coffin of the press, or upon any other convenient place, and the end of the ball stock against his breast, he takes the handle of a sharp table knife in one hand and the end of the blade in the other, and scrapes it regularly and rather strongly from the plaits to the face of the Ball, at every scrape turning round the Ball, which brings out such a quantity of grease and moisture, as obliges him at the first to wipe his knife at every scrape; he thus proceeds, till he can scarcely bring any more out of the skin. He then places a sheet or sheets of paper on the face of the Ball, and rubs it well with his hands, till the Ball is thoroughly dry, his companion doing the same to the other Ball: they then begin to work the form.

“If a pressman has to execute fine work with strong ink, he stuffs the Balls harder with wool than he does for weak ink; because strong ink lugs or stretches the skin very fast, and soon slackens the Balls, if not hard stuffed.

“I was several years employed on fine work and strong ink, in an office where it was not allowed to tread a skin; this circumstance caused me to try the above-mentioned plan, and experience has taught me that it is by far the most preferable method.

“I also know by experience that a greasy skin is the best for strong ink, if treated in this manner; because it always keeps mellow until the balls are worn out, and there is less trouble in capping them.

“Making Balls is a nasty job: there is an old proverb in the trade, that ‘The devil would have been a pressman, if there were no Balls to make;’ that is, the printer’s devil.” See Pelts.

Tanned sheep’s skins, dressed with oil, have been used, to avoid smell, and for durability: they were more durable than pelts; but they were not calculated for producing fine impressions, not being soft; and, in consequence, not retaining dirt or other extraneous matter on their surface; this occasioned picks, and rendered them unsuitable for printing small letter or fine engravings with neatness.

When the pressmen leave work at night, the pelt balls are capped; that is, they are wrapped up, each in a blanket steeped in urine; and this is always done when they are not in use: it keeps them soft, and in working condition; but they are to be scraped, and dried with paper, to get rid of the moisture, each time they are wanted. There have been many attempts to supersede the use of urine, on account of its disagree­ableness and smell; but no substitute, to my knowledge, has answered the purpose so well with pelts.

Composition Balls and composition rollers have, as I previously observed, superseded the use of pelt balls in the metropolis, and nearly so in the country. This has arisen from their superior cleanliness and sweetness, and being equal to pelts in producing good work. They can also be procured, generally, at the moment they are wanted, in the best working state; since their introduction the manufacture of them has become a new business, and they are supplied at so moderate a rate, (either per week or quarter,) and may be renewed as often as required, that scarcely a printing office in London at the present day troubles itself to make Balls; and hence no pressman need ever complain of having bad Balls as an excuse for bad workmanship.


These Balls will be found peculiarly convenient in small offices, where even one press is not in constant employment; for they may be kept for any length of time without injury to them; and if they be preserved in a proper temperament, will be always ready for use at the moment required. If they should become a little too dry, they may be restored to a proper state for working in a very short time by sponging them over with water, and distributing them; or, if there be time, by placing them in a damp situation, in order that they may imbibe moisture.

They may be easily made in an office at a distance from town, where it may be both inconvenient and expensive to have them removed backwards and forwards, by having a shallow dish formed of tin, &c. pouring the melted composition in it, and before it is cold attaching a piece of canvass to it sufficiently large to form a Ball of the size wanted. The facing will be thus thicker in the middle and taper off to the edge, which will be quite thin; and the edge of the composition should be continued well over the rounding of the Ball, to prevent it ever touching the form in beating, and thus avoiding any ill effects from portions of ink or dirt that would lodge at the extremity of the composition, and come in contact with the types or engraving. See Composition.

Notes and Corrections: Balls

“I was several years employed on fine work
open quote missing

See Composition
[The Composition article consists of the two words “See Rollers”, so that’s what I linked to—or rather, to Roller, singular.]

one ball stock


Turned of Alder or Maple. They are about seven inches in diameter, and have their under side turned hollow, to contain the greater quantity of wool or hair, to keep the ball leathers plump the longer.—M. They are now made of Elm, and the handles are Beech: but an improvement has been made in this article of late years, although it has not been generally adopted, viz. turning the bowl and handle in one piece, instead of having the handle fitted into the bowl, which frequently came loose, and was troublesome to the Pressman, often catching the skin of his hand, and pinching it. The usual size of the bowl for bookwork, is five inches and a quarter in diameter.


A deal table, on which the Pressmen have the paper when printing. It was called a Horse in Moxon’s time. See Horse. It is useful to have a small drawer in the front of it, in which the Pressmen may put their thin paper for overlays, their paste points, and many other articles that would otherwise be lying upon the shelf or platen.


On the 13th of January, 1819, Mr. James Fergusson, of Newman Street, Oxford Street, printer, sent to the Commissioners for inquiring into the Prevention of Forgery of Bank Notes, his plan for that purpose, of which the following is his published description.

“My plan is reared upon the solid foundation of putting it in the power of every individual to be certain whether a Bank-note is genuine or spurious by inspection. I propose, in order to form the ground-work of Bank-notes, to cast a fount, or several founts, of types, formed of such a peculiar shape, that, when printed from, the impression would appear, at first sight, like a line engraving; while, at the same time, when examined more closely, every part of it might be easily read. Although it is not in my power, without going to considerable expence, to produce a specimen of such types as ought to be made for this purpose, yet no one will deny that they may be obtained by means of punch-cutters and letter-founders. This being granted, let me suppose that I have got such types; I should then proceed to compose a page with them of the size of a Bank-note, consisting of such subject-matter as may be deemed advisable,—probably, an explanation of the way by which forgery could be detected. From this page of moveable types, I should make a stereotype plate; and I should then, by stamping or engraving upon the stereotype plate, put the promissory words of the Bank-note, with the addition of whatever 30 ornamental lines might be thought proper. This stereotype plate, so formed, would give, by one pull at the letter-press, a completed Bank-note, unless it might be deemed requisite to add the numbering; and a signature or signatures, in writing. Having got one stereotype plate in the way I describe, I should use it for no other purpose than to obtain others; and from them I could easily make plates to any amount that may be necessary, all which would yield impressions obviously alike. As the promissory and ornamental parts of the note, in white, will purposely be made to intersect the words printed in black all over the surface of the note, the inter­sections will prove an infallible guide to distinguish a spurious note from a genuine one. This contrivance of inter­sections being the leading feature in my plan, I have denominated it The Intersection Plan.

“Individuals, when familiarized to notes issued upon this principle, would naturally select some portion to which they might easily refer, to ascertain the genuineness of a note. And, for further security, if necessary, the Bank might print what I may call Standards, for the use of the public, to be sold for a trifle, merely to insure their preservation. The Standards to be printed from the same plates as the notes themselves, but on paper quite of another texture and colour from the note paper, for the purpose of proving the correctness of the inter­sections.” See Forgery.


Scotland. 2 & 3 Vict. c. 41. “An Act for regulating the Sequestration of the Estates of Bankrupts in Scotland.

s. 143. “And be it enacted, That from and after the Commencement of this Act the Keeper of the Edinburgh Gazette shall on each Day of Publication furnish a Copy thereof to the Keeper of Edictal Citations and to the Bill Chamber Clerks, who shall keep the same regularly filed, and make the said Gazettes on all Occasions patent to the Lieges at Office Hours, on Payment of a Fee of Sixpence and no more.

s. 144. “And be it enacted, That no Advertisement inserted in the London Gazette or in the Edinburgh Gazette by virtue of this Act, or the said recited Act of the Fifty-fourth Year of the Reign of His Majesty King George the Third, intituled An Act for rendering the Payment of Creditors more equal and expeditious in Scotland, or an Act of the Sixth and Seventh Year of His late Majesty, intituled An Act for regulating the Process of Cessio bonorum in the Court of Session, and for extending the Jurisdiction of Sheriffs in Scotland to such Cases, shall be charged by the Keepers of the said Gazettes for Publication therein at a higher Price, nor shall a higher Price be paid for such Publication, than the Sums specified in the Schedule (L.) hereunto annexed.

s. 145. “And be it enacted, That from and after the Commencement of this Act all Conveyances, Assignations, Instruments, Discharges, Writings, or Deeds relating solely to the Estate belonging to any Bankrupt against whom Sequestration has been or may be awarded either under this or any former Act, and which Estate, after the Execution of such Conveyances, Assignations, Instruments, Discharges, Writings, or Deeds, shall be and remain the Property of such Bankrupt for the Benefit of his Creditors, or the Trustee appointed or chosen under or by virtue of such Sequestration, and all Discharges to the said Bankrupt, and all Deeds, Assignations, Instruments, or Writings for reinvesting the said Bankrupt in the Estate, and all Powers of Attorney, Commissions, Factories, Oaths, Affidavits, Articles of Roup or Sale, Submissions, Decrees Arbitral, and all other Instruments and Writings whatsoever relating solely to the Estate of any Bankrupt sequestrated as aforesaid, and all other Deeds or Writings forming a Part of the Proceedings ordered under such Sequestration, and all Notices or Advertisements inserted in the London and Edinburgh Gazettes relative thereto, shall be exempt from all Stamp Duties or other Government Duty.”


Table of Prices payable for Advertisements in the London or Edinburgh Gazettes.

  £ s. d.
“For Six Lines and under 0 6 0
“For more than Six Lines and not exceeding Ten Lines 0 7 6
“For more than Ten Lines and not exceeding Fifteen Lines 0 10 6
“For more than Fifteen Lines and not exceeding Twenty Lines 0 14 6
“For more than Twenty Lines and not exceeding Twenty-five Lines 0 17 6
“For more than Twenty-five Lines and not more than Thirty Lines 1 0 6”


See Press Bar.


In printing offices where there are large founts of letter, and the fount cases of any particular fount are not sufficient to hold the superfluous sorts, the surplus is put in coffins, and deposited in round baskets, till wanted.


When the face of any letters gets injured in a form, it is termed a Batter.

This accident frequently occurs:—in the course of working at press a letter or letters will draw out in beating, and occasionally be left on the form without being perceived; this, when the next impression is pulled, injures the page on which it was left;—a pin, needle, or bodkin, used as pickers, will sometimes be laid on a page and forgot—and other small articles, which produce the same injury. It also happens with forms reared up at the ends of frames, where the faces of the letter in the forms are put to each other, with a quoin, or a piece of furniture, to prevent them touching, which being accidentally displaced, the letter gets injured. The only thing to be done when these accidents occur, is to replace the letters; this however is too frequently done without showing a revise to the Reader or Overseer; and thus errors creep into a work, which no care on the part of a Reader can prevent. To steady careful men these accidents seldom happen; and they ought to be guarded against, in as much as they cause loss of time to the workmen, and expense of materials to the master printer; and when letters or words must be replaced, the work should never be proceeded with at press, previously to its being examined.

When a fine engraving on wood is at press, the workman should be most particularly careful, as an accident might thus spoil an expensive work of art, which it might be impossible to replace.

When a Batter unfortunately happens at press in working stereotype plates, it is too frequently overlooked by the pressmen, and the work proceeds in a deteriorated state; while, generally speaking, if the same accident had happened to a form of moveable types it would have been set right. The reason is, that while in the latter case the accident could be remedied in a few minutes, the stereotype plate on the other hand would have to be taken out of the form and sent to the founders, and would not be repaired in less than five or six hours, during which time the pressmen would be unemployed, to their loss. This is one cause that operates against the more general use of stereotype plates.


is the outer angle of the square shoulder of the shank, which reaches almost up to the bottom of the face of the letter; and is commonly scraped off by the Founder.—M.


A piece of reglet pasted on the frisket to ease any particular part in a form that has too much pressure on it from the platen of the press.—M.

Double Pica reglet is used for this purpose, as its thickness is equal to the difference between the height of the types and the furniture; and this application of it makes this sized reglet in general a scarce article in a printing office.

Where any parts of the impression of a form come off hard, which from various causes occasionally happens, particularly at the edges of the pages, and at the foot of a short page, a bearer is applied to ease that part; but some care however is required in its application—it must not bear upon any printed matter at the back of it, for if it does, it will smear and deface that part, nor is it necessary to place it close to the part, but it may be put at some distance, and if convenient near the 32 outer edge of the paper, and made to rest on the flat part of the furniture.

After selecting a piece of reglet of the proper length, paste one side of it, and place it with the pasted side uppermost upon the furniture where it is required, then turn down the tympans and frisket and rub that part with the hand to make it adhere to the frisket; or, as is usually done, after the form is beat, when the next pull will make it adhere; if it be not quite sufficient, a thickness or two of a wrapper pasted on it will ease the pull sufficiently on that part.

High Bearers, are pieces of furniture made barely letter height; they are used where separate wood cuts are printed, or very small forms; they are placed on the press stone, usually pasted down, but at such a distance from the printed matter that neither the balls nor the rollers touch them in inking the form; they lighten the pressure on the extremities, and tend to equalize the pull if the carriage be not run in exactly to its place, by the platen bearing upon them. If they be not sufficiently high, they may be added to by overlays pasted upon them.


To cover the surface of the types with ink by means of the balls.—M. See Fine Presswork.


If a Pressman takes too much ink with his balls, he beats fat. The black English faced letter is generally beaten fat.—M. At the present day we understand by Fat Beating, that a pressman beating carefully, goes gradually two or three times over the form, so that every part of the surface of the type is touched six or seven times by the face of the balls; and is thus uniformly covered with a proper quantity of ink.


Is to take but little ink, and often: all small letter must be beaten lean.—M. This and the preceding term Beat Fat, have changed their meaning since the days of Moxon; to beat lean now, is to beat lightly, and quickly make a riddance of work, without much regard to its quality.


To bed or lay the press stone in the coffin, so that it shall lie firm and solid in all parts.—M. There are different ways of bedding a press stone: some bed it in bran; some in plaster; but the general way is with paper. To effect this the paper ought not to have any large knots in it, and should be cut to the size of the coffin, and if there be any inequalities in the bottom of the stone, there must be additional pieces of paper placed under it to fill them up. When it is supposed there is sufficient paper in the coffin to raise the stone high enough, it is slung in on two pieces of cord, and a trial made of its firmness; if it rocks, it is lifted out again, and additional paper placed in those parts where the stone did not rest firmly. When it is properly bedded, the ends of the cords are tucked in at the sides of the stone so as to be easily picked out again with a bodkin. When the stone has got to lie solid with working, the upper side should be about a Brevier higher than the coffin.

Although I have mentioned cord, as being generally used for slinging the stone into the coffin, and lifting it out again, yet strong flat tape is decidedly superior; the stone lies more solid with it than with cord, and is not so liable to break.


See Donations.


The following article is extracted from Nathaniel Brassey Halhed’s Grammar of the Bengal Language.

“Exclusive of the Shanscrit, there are three different dialects applied (tho’ not with equal currency) in the kingdom of Bengal: Viz. the Persian, the Hindostanic and the proper Bengalese; each of which has 33 its own peculiar department in the business of the country, and consequently neither of them can be universally adopted to the exclusion of the others.”

“What the pure Hindostanic is to upper India, the language which I have here endeavoured to explain is to Bengal, intimately related to the Shanscrit both in expressions, construction and character. It is the sole channel of personal and epistolary communication among the Hindoos of every occupation and tribe. All their business is transacted, and all their accounts are kept in it; and as their system of education is in general very confined, there are few among them who can write or read any other idiom: the uneducated, or eight parts in ten of the whole nation, are necessarily confined to the usage of their mother tongue.”

“The Shanscrit, or sacred language of Hindostan, from whence the dialect of Bengal immediately proceeds, is supposed by its professors to be the most antient and most excellent in the world. They assert that it exceeds every other language in the number of its letters, and esteem this excess as an incontro­vertible argument of its antiquity and superiority.

“The Bengal Alphabet, like that of the Shanscrit, consists of FIFTY letters, in the following order.

First Series.

page image

অ o আ aa ee ঈ ee
oo ঊ oo ঋ ree ৠ ree
ঌ lee ৡ lree এ a ঐ i
ও o ঔ ou অং ung অঃ oh
Second Series.

page image

ক ko খ k,ho গ go ঘ g,ho ঙ ngoo-o
চ cho ছ ch,ho জ jo ঝ j,ho ঞ gnee-o
ট to ঠ t,ho ড do ঢ d,ho ণ aano
ত to থ t,ho দ do ধ d,ho ন no
প po ফ p,ho ব bo ভ b,ho ম mo
য jo র ro ল lo ব wo ——
শ sho ষ sho স so হ ho ক্ষ khy-o

“It is to be observed, that in the Bengal alphabet, all the names of the consonants commence with the respective consonants which they denote; as ko, go, jo, &c. whereas in English, seven of them are preceded by a vowel: ef, el, em, en, ar, ess, & ex. It follows from hence, that the short vowel of the Bengalese is invariably subjoined to the consonant with which it is uttered, and never precedes: as ক and গ always stand for ko, and go, and in no case for ok, or og.

“The vowels, as used in composition, when joined with consonants, have a very different figure from those which are in the first series of 34 the alphabet. I shall here insert a table of the forms of vowels in composition, corresponding to those which are initial or single.

A Table of the corresponding Vowels.
o ক ko (the included vowel.)
আ aa কা kaa এ a কে ka
ee কি kee ঐ i কৈ ki or ko-i
ঈ ee কী kee ও o কো ko
oo কু koo ঔ ou কৌ kou
ঊ oo কূ koo অং ung কং kung
  অঃ oh কঃ koh  

“By the original structure of this language every consonant inherently possesses the short vowel on which its utterance depends; it is plain therefore on this principle, that no two consonants could have been joined together, and successively pronounced in the same syllable, but that a vowel must necessarily have inter­vened. As an expedient to remedy this inconvenience, a set of distinct characters were invented, called ফলা P,holaa, or adjuncts. They are certain subordinate and subsidiary figures, that may be attached to each of the consonants in the alphabet respectively, to provide against the too frequent recurrence of the internal vowel.

“These P,holaa, are presented in a distinct series or alphabet, consisting of eleven subservient marks or signs, for different letters; which are here joined to ক ko, the first of the single consonants, and which may, in the same manner, be applied to all the other letters.

“The twelfth word of the series, (which seems to be added by the Bengalese merely to fill up the rythm) relates to another subject, which will be explained in a subsequent remark.

“The reader must remember, that the letter র ro, in its proper character, is never joined to any other letter or adjunct; but its figure is entirely changed by a connection with other consonants, as will be seen in the following series.

The twelve P,holas.
Figure. Name. Power.
ক্য ky-o ky-o
ক্র koro kro
ক্ন kono kno
ক্ল kolo klo
ক্ব koo-o kwo, or sometimes koo.
ক্ম komo kmo
35 কৃ kirree kree
কৢ killee klee
র্ক arko rko
ঙ্ক ungko ungko
ষ্ ashko shko
সিদ্ধি sheedd,hee ——

“The compound letters may be formed by three methods: either by placing one letter immediately under another, or by blending two letters together, so as to make one character from their union; or by making the first of the two consonants much smaller than the other letters. This last mode seems to be the most common.

“সিদ্ধি sheedd,hee, called the twelfth P,holaa, is a word always prefixed to the class of vowels contained in the first Series of the alphabet. Sheedd,hee is part of a Shanscrit sentence, which means be it properly performed; and as these words are usually prefixed to the class of vowels, that Series has obtained the name of sheedd,hee.

The Series Sheed,hee.
সি shee দ্ধি dd,hee র ro স্তু stoo
shee dd,hee ro stoo
অ o আ aa ই ee ঈ ee
o aa ee ee
উ oo ঊ oo ঋ ree ৠ ree
oo oo ree ree
ঌ lee ৡ lee এ a ঐ i
lee lee a i
ও o ঔ ou অং ung অঃ oh
o ou ung oh

o, is always an initial letter.

আ aa, is also initial.

“I shall set down a few of the most common contractions of letters which are constantly used by all the Bengalese, as being more expeditious, as well as more elegant than a simple junction of the single letters, whose office they perform.

page image

ক্র kro, stands for [A] the kirro Pholaa.

ক্ত okto, is ত to blended with ক ko; its regular form is [A].

[A] koo, stands for কূ ko with hroswookaar.

[A] ungo, is compounded of [A] ngoo-o with [A] go subjoined.

page image


[A] oggyo, is another figure for the Pholaa [A].

[A] moo, is ম mo and ব wo compounded. The simple form is ম্ব.

[A] oshno, for [A] i.e. [A] aano subjoined to ষ sho.

[A] shoo, initial and medial, [A] shoo, final; two figures for ষূ.

[A] This figure stands for both তু otto and তূ too.

[A] goo, is used for গূ.

[A] hoo, stands for হূ.

[A] ohro, is kro Pholaa subjoined to হ ho.

ত্র tro, stands for [A].

[A] roo, is used instead of [A].

[A] ohlo, is ল lo subjoined to হ ho.

[A] ondo, compounded of [A] aano and দ do.

[A] ohjo, is হ ho and [A] jo blended together.

[A] ohmo, a compound of হ ho and ম mo.

[A] ostoo, is স so and ত to, with hroswookaar subjoined.

[A] ostro, is the letter স so compounded with ত to, and the kro Pholaa.

[A] joo, stands for [A].

[A] ogd,ho, [A] odd,ho, [A] ond,ho, represent [A] d’ho severally subjoined to [A] go, [A] do, and [A] no.

[A] this figure is called ordd,ho-to, i.e. semi-to; for ordd,ho signifies half. It is used for the letter [A] to without its internal vowel; and in the middle of a word is generally represented by [A] the numerical figure of two.

[A] otyo, is the preceding [A] blended with the kyo pholaa.

“I shall now proceed to a few marks of reference commonly used by the Bengalese.

Bengali symbol This figure is always put at the top of every writing, and is meant as an invocation to Gonash, the Deity of Knowledge and Arts; it is called Gonashar aakoree, or the crook of Gonash. So the Mahometans always begin with the letter ا aleph, as a token of the unity of God.

Bengali symbol Chaandboondaa, is a mark put over certain letters to give them a very forcible nasal expression.

“৺ Eeshwor, is properly one of the deities of the Hindoo Trinity. The name of God was supposed too holy to be inserted among the general class of words, and was therefore written at the top of the page, and wherever this name should occur in a sentence, the mark here specified was put as a reference to it. The form still remains, but the usage is degraded into a mere compliment: for in all petitions, or letters 37 from inferiors to their superiors, the name of the person addressed is now put at the top, and this sign of reference occupies the place in the body of the letter, where the name should regularly have been inserted.

Bengali word Sree properly signifies prosperity, and is prefixed to every name which they mean to mention with respect; as sree sree Raam, sree sree Gonash.

“One or more of these titles of Hindoo deities is first written on every piece of paper, as an amulet or charm, before any letter, petition or other writing whatever, is committed to it. In the same manner the Mahometans universally apply their Bismillah (or, In the name of God.) as we formerly wrote Emanuel at the top of letters, and still continue to commence a ledger with Laus Deo.

“The denominations of the cardinal numbers are so irregular in Bengalese, that I find it will be necessary to exhibit them as far as one hundred. And it must be observed as a particularity, that the ninth numeral of every series of ten, is not specified by the term of nine in the common order of progression, but takes its appellation from the series immediately above; as for instance the number twenty nine is not expressed by nobeesh, which should seem the proper denomination, but is called oonteesh, or one less than thirty. So thirty nine is oonchaaleesh, or one less than forty.

1 ২১ 21 ৪১ 41 ৬১ 61 ৮১ 81
2 ২২ 22 ৪২ 42 ৬২ 62 ৮২ 82
3 ২৩ 23 ৪৩ 43 ৬৩ 63 ৮৩ 83
4 ২৪ 24 ৪৪ 44 ৬৪ 64 ৮৪ 84
5 ২৫ 25 ৪৫ 45 ৬৫ 65 ৮৫ 85
6 ২৬ 26 ৪৬ 46 ৬৬ 66 ৮৬ 86
7 ২৭ 27 ৪৭ 47 ৬৭ 67 ৮৭ 87
8 ২৮ 28 ৪৮ 48 ৬৮ 68 ৮৮ 88
9 ২৯ 29 ৪৯ 49 ৬৯ 69 ৮৯ 89
১০ 10 ৩০ 30 ৫০ 50 ৭০ 70 ৯০ 90
১১ 11 ৩১ 31 ৫১ 51 ৭১ 71 ৯১ 91
১২ 12 ৩২ 32 ৫২ 52 ৭২ 72 ৯২ 92
১৩ 13 ৩৩ 33 ৫৩ 53 ৭৩ 73 ৯৩ 93
১৪ 14 ৩৪ 34 ৫৪ 54 ৭৪ 74 ৯৪ 94
১৫ 15 ৩৫ 35 ৫৫ 55 ৭৫ 75 ৯৫ 95
১৬ 16 ৩৬ 36 ৫৬ 56 ৭৬ 76 ৯৬ 96
১৭ 17 ৩৭ 37 ৫৭ 57 ৭৭ 77 ৯৭ 97
১৮ 18 ৩৮ 38 ৫৮ 58 ৭৮ 78 ৯৮ 98
১৯ 19 ৩৯ 39 ৫৯ 59 ৭৯ 79 ৯৯ 99
২০ 20 ৪০ 40 ৬০ 60 ৮০ 80 ১০০ 100”

In respect to the Bengalese types with which Halhed’s grammar is printed, he thus observes, “The public curiosity must be strongly excited by the beautiful characters which are displayed in the following work: and although my attempt may be deemed incompleat or unworthy of notice, the book itself will always bear an intrinsic value, from its containing as extraordinary an instance of mechanic abilities as has perhaps ever appeared. That the Bengal letter is very difficult to be imitated in steel will readily be allowed by every person who shall examine the intricacies of the strokes, the unequal length and size of the characters, and the variety of their positions and combinations. It was no easy task to procure a writer accurate enough to prepare an alphabet of a similar and proportionate body throughout, and with that symmetrical exactness which is necessary to the regularity and neatness of a fount. Mr. Bolts (who is supposed to be well versed in this language) attempted to fabricate a set of types for it, with the assistance of the ablest artists in London. But as he egregiously failed in executing even the easiest part, or primary alphabet, of which he has published a specimen, there is no reason to suppose that his project, when compleated, would have advanced beyond the usual state of imperfection to which new inventions are constantly exposed.

“The advice and even sollicitation of the Governor General prevailed upon Mr. Wilkins, a gentleman who has been some years in the India Company’s civil service in Bengal, to undertake a set of Bengal types. He did, and his success has exceeded every expectation. In a country so remote from all connexion with European artists, he has been obliged to charge himself with all the various occupations of the Metallurgist, the Engraver, the Founder, and the Printer. To the merit of invention he was compelled to add the application of personal labour. With a rapidity unknown in Europe, he surmounted all the obstacles which necessarily clog the first rudiments of a difficult art, as well as the disadvantages of solitary experiment; and has thus singly on the first effort exhibited his work in a state of perfection which in every part of the world has appeared to require the united improvements of different projectors, and the gradual polish of successive ages.”

The gentleman here spoken of was Charles Wilkins, Esq., a descendant of the learned Bishop Wilkins, and one of the founders of the Asiatic Society. He was afterwards created Doctor of Laws, and appointed Librarian to the East-India Company at their establishment in Leadenhall Street. He was reputed to be the best Shanscrit scholar in Europe.

Notes and Corrections: Bengalese

A reader who knows more Bengali than I do—it would be all but impossible to know less—says: “Some of the conjuncts here are typographical, and cannot reliably be reproduced in Unicode.” (For “some”, read “many”; hence the numerous page images.) As in the article itself, [A] represents letterforms that could not be shown here.

adopted to the exclusion of the others.”

necessarily confined to the usage of their mother tongue.”
[Each of these paragraphs ends with a seemingly superflous close quote. The author may be indicating disconnected passages in his source.]

which seems to be added by the Bengalese merely to fill up the rythm
spelling unchanged

ক্র kro, stands for [A] the kirro Pholaa.
[From here on, the printed text omits the earlier comma in “P,holaa”.]

[A] roo, is used instead of [A].

[A] ondo, compounded of [A] aano and দ do.
printed roo and do in plain (non-italic) type


Half a crown paid by a new workman to the Chapel when he commences, which is always spent. If a journeyman wrought formerly in the same printing house, and comes again to work in it, he pays but half a benvenue. If a journeyman smout more or less on another printing house, he pays half a benvenue.—M. See Ancient Customs.

This custom is still retained in printing offices, and the amount generally paid is the same as it was in the seventeenth century, though the value of half a crown then was considerably more than it is now. Under particular circumstances the Chapel sometimes takes less; and the workmen always add something each, so as to be able to provide bread and cheese and a draught of porter to welcome the new comer. The word is now pronounced Bevénue; it is evidently a corruption of the Fr. bien venu or welcome.



Many religious works are printed with numerous extracts from the Holy Scriptures without any reference to the Book, Chapter, or Verse, and as they are frequently made from memory, they are generally inaccurate. I am clearly of opinion that wherever a quotation is made, it should be given literally as it appears in the work from which it is taken, otherwise it is worse than useless,—for it misleads. With regard to extracts from the Bible, I hold it indispensable that they should be given without the slightest variation from the original; but as many words in the Bible vary in their orthography from Johnson’s Dictionary, which is the book of reference generally in use, and as the authorized editions of the Scriptures differ in this respect from each other in many instances, I have collated the King’s Printers, the Oxford, the Cambridge, and the Edinburgh editions with Johnson’s Dictionary and with each other, for the purpose of enabling the printer to preserve uniformity in orthography with little trouble to himself in reprints of the Bible, and in extracts occurring in religious works, according as the author may prefer any of these editions.

These variations from each other do not extend to words but are confined to the orthography, and to the difference of the same expression being given in one word, in two words, or in being made a compound word; thus in the Cambridge and the Edinburgh Bibles there are a great number of compound words, while in the King’s Printers and Oxford Bibles the same words are given either joined together as one word or made into two words; and we find very few compound words, except proper names. I have also given the Bible orthography where Johnson gives two ways of spelling a word. The result will be seen in the following Table; which also shows the variations, to a certain degree, that have taken place in the language during the last two hundred years.

The late Mr. Thomas Bensley, who was printer to the University of Oxford, told me, about the year 1805, that they had a sealed copy there, as a standard to read from; if this be the case, it is difficult to account for their copies of late years having numerous variations from the earlier editions. I think it very desirable that there should be a standard edition that we could refer to, as a pure text; and it would also be desirable to know on what authority these variations are made in the holy Scriptures, for every word, every point, nay every capital letter, I believe, was carefully considered before it was adopted in the first edition of the authorized version in 1611, and this too by a considerable number of the most learned men of the kingdom, who had the direction of the work.

With regard to the words in the Bible printed in Italic characters, Dr. Myles Smyth, one of the two appointed Revisers of the authorized version, in the Preface to the first edition, published in 1611, gives the following reason for their use:—

“Moreouer, whereas the necessitie of the sentence required any thing to be added (for such is the grace and proprietie of the Ebrewe and Greeke tongues that it cannot, but either by circumlocution, or by adding the verbe or some word, be vnderstood of them that are not well practised therein), wee haue put it in the text with an other kinde of letter, that it may easily bee discerned from the common letter.”

The Preface was written and affixed by the King’s command. The first Edition of the Bible was printed in Black Letter, and the “other kinde of letter” was roman; when the Black Letter was disused, and the Roman character substituted, the “other kinde of letter” was changed to Italic. Dr. Smyth was afterwards Bishop of Gloucester.

King’s Printers. Oxford. Cambridge. Edinburgh. Reference.
Adoram Hadoram Hadoram Hadoram Gen. x. 27.
  Agar Agar Agar Agar Gal. iv. 24.
Hagar Hagar Hagar Hagar Gen. xvi. 1.
alabaster box alabaster box alabaster-box alabaster-box Matt. xxvi. 7.
algum trees algum trees algum-trees algum-trees 2 Chr. ii. 8.
alledgeth alledgeth alledgeth alledgeth Job viii. Head.
alledging alledging alledging alledging Acts xvii. 3.
Alleluia Alleluia Alleluia Alleluia Rev. xix. 1.
almond tree almond tree almond-tree almond-tree Eccl. xii. 5.
almug trees almug trees almug-trees almug-trees 1 Kings x. 11.
Alpheus Alphæus Alpheus Alpheus Acts i. 13.
ambassage ambassage ambassage ambassage Luke xiv. 32.
ancle ancle ancle ancle Acts iii. 7.
any wise any wise any wise any wise Mark xiv. 31.
apple tree apple tree apple-tree apple-tree Joel i. 12.
Arimathea Arimathæa Arimathea Arimathea Mark xv. 43.
armourbearer armourbearer armour-bearer armour-bearer 1 Sam. xiv. 7.
  Aser Aser Aser Aser Rev. vii. 6.
Asher Asher Asher Asher Gen. xxx. 13.
ass colts ass colts ass colts ass-colts Judg. x. 4.
asswaged asswaged asswaged asswaged Gen. viii. 1.
aul aul awl awl Exod. xxi. 6.
ax ax axe axe 1 Sam. xiii. 20.
axe axe axe axe Luke iii. 9.
axletrees axletrees axle-trees axle-trees 1 Kings vii. 32.
bakemeats bakemeats bake-meats bake-meats Gen. xl. 17.
  Balac Balac Balac Balac Rev. ii. 14.
Balak Balak Balak Balak Num. xxii. 2.
banqueting house banquetting house banquetting-house banqueting-house So. of Sol. ii. 4.
barley bread barley bread barley-bread barley-bread Judg. vii. 13.
barley cakes barley cakes barley-cakes barley cakes Ezek. iv. 12.
barley harvest barley harvest barley-harvest barley-harvest Ruth ii. 23.
barley loaves barley loaves barley-loaves barley-loaves John vi. 9.
barley meal barley meal barley-meal barley meal Num. v. 15.
barley seed barley seed barley-seed barley-seed Lev. xxvii. 16.
Bartimeus Bartimæus Bartimeus Bartimeus Mark x. 46.
bason bason bason bason Exod. xii. 22.
battle ax battle ax battle-axe battle-axe Jer. li. 20.
battle bow battle bow battle-bow battle-bow Zech. x. 4.
beastiality beastiality beastiality beastiality Exod. xxii. Head.
Beautiful gate Beautiful gate Beautiful gate Beautiful gate Acts iii. 10.
bedchamber bedchamber bed-chamber bed-chamber 2 Sam. iv. 7.
befall befall befal befall Deut. xxxi. 17.
befel befell befell befell Mark v. 16.
beforetime beforetime before-time beforetime Jos. xx. 5.
  Beor Beor Beor Beor Num. xxii. 5.
Bosor Bosor Bosor Bosor 2 Pet. ii. 15.
beryl stone beryl stone beryl-stone beryl stone Ezek. x. 9.
birthday birthday birth-day birth-day Gen. xl. 20.
birthright birthright birth-right birthright Gen. xxv. 31.
Bloodguiltiness bloodguiltiness blood-guiltiness blood-guiltiness Ps. li. 14.
bloodthirsty bloodthirsty blood-thirsty blood-thirsty Prov. xxix. 10.
bondmaid bondmaid bond-maid bond maid Gal. iv. 22.
bondman bondman bond-man bond man Rev. vi. 15.
bondservant bondservant bond-servant bond-servant Lev. xxv. 39.
bondservice bondservice bond-service bond-service 1 Kings ix. 21.
bondwoman bondwoman bond-woman bond-woman Gen. xxi. 10.
  Bosor Bosor Bosor Bosor 2 Pet. ii. 15.
Beor Beor Beor Beor Num. xxii. 5.
bowshot bowshot bowshot bow-shot Gen. xxi. 16.
box tree box tree box-tree box-tree Isa. xli. 19.
bramble bush bramble bush bramble-bush bramble-bush Luke vi. 44.
brasen brasen brasen brasen Exod. xxxviii. 4.
bread corn bread corn bread-corn bread-corn Isa. xxviii. 28.
breastplate breastplate breast-plate breastplate Exod. xxv. 7.
briars briers briers briers Heb. vi. 8.
briers briers briers briers Isa. xxvii. 4.
brickkiln brickkiln brick-kiln brick-kiln 2 Sam. xii. 31.
bridechamber bridechamber bride-chamber bride-chamber Matt. ix. 15.
brokenfooted brokenfooted broken-footed broken-footed Lev. xxi. 19.
brokenhanded brokenbanded broken-handed broken-handed Lev. xxi. 19.
brokenhearted brokenhearted broken-hearted broken-hearted Luke iv. 18.
burdens burdens burdens burdens Exod. v. 4.
burnt offerings burnt offerings burnt-offerings burnt-offerings Gen. viii. 20.
burnt sacrifice burnt sacrifice burnt-sacrifice burnt-sacrifice Exod. xxx. 9.
buryingplace buryingplace burying-place burying-place Gen. xxiii. 4.
busybody busybody busy-body busy-body 1 Pet. iv. 15.
byword byword by-word by-word Deut. xxviii. 37.
calkers calkers calkers calkers Ezek. xxvii. 9.
camphire camphire camphire camphire So. of Sol. i. 14.
  Canaan Canaan Canaan Canaan Gen. xi. 31.
Chanaan Chanaan Chanaan Chanaan Acts vii. 11.
cankerworm cankerworm canker-worm canker-worm Joel i. 4.
carcase carcase carcase carcase Lev. xi. 25.
cart rope cart rope cart-rope cart-rope Isa. v. 18.
castaway castaway cast-away castaway 1 Cor. ix. 27.
caterpiller caterpiller caterpiller caterpillar 1 Kings viii. 37.
caterpiller caterpiller caterpillar caterpillar Isa. xxxiii. 4.
cedar beams cedar beams cedar-beams cedar beams 1 Kings vi. 36.
cedar pillars cedar pillars cedar-pillars cedar-pillars 1 Kings vii. 2.
cedar trees cedar trees cedar-trees cedar-trees 2 Sam. v. 11.
cedar wood cedar wood cedar-wood cedar-wood Lev. xiv. 6.
Cesar Cæsar Cesar Cesar Matt. xxii. 21.
Cesarea Cæsarea Cesarea Cesarea Matt. xvi. 13.
Chaldeans Chaldæans Chaldeans Chaldeans Acts vii. 4.
chalkstones chalkstones chalk-stones chalk-stones Isa. xxvii. 9.
  Chanaan Chanaan Chanaan Chanaan Acts vii. 11.
Canaan Canaan Canaan Canaan Gen. xi. 31.
chant chant chant chant Amos vi. 5.
chariot man chariot man chariot-man chariot-man 2 Chr. xviii. 33.
chariot wheels chariot wheels chariot-wheels chariot-wheels Exod. xiv. 25.
checker work checker work checker-work checker-work 1 Kings vii. 17.
cheek bone cheek bone cheek-bone cheek-bone Ps. iii. 7.
cheerful cheerful cheerful chearful Prov. xv. 13.
cherubims cherubims cherubims cherubims Exod. xxv. 18.
chesnut trees chesnut trees chesnut-trees chesnut-trees Exek. xxxi. 8.
childbearing childbearing child-bearing child-bearing 1 Tim. ii. 15,
choke choke choke choke Matt. xiii. 22.
choose choose choose choose Deut. vii. 7.
cieled cieled cieled ceiled Jer. xxii. 14.
cieling cieling cieling ceiling 1 Kings vi. 15.
  Cis Cis Cis Cis Acts xiii. 21.
Kish Kish Kish Kish 1 Sam. ix. 1.
cloke cloke cloke cloak John xv. 22.
clovenfooted clovenfooted cloven-footed cloven-footed Lev. xi. 3.
Cockcrowing cockcrowing cock-crowing cock-crowing Mark xiii. 35.
conies conies conies conies Prov. xxx. 26.
coriander seed coriander seed coriander-seed coriander-seed Num. xi. 7.
corn fields corn fields corn-fields corn-fields Luke vi. 1.
cornfloor cornfloor corn-floor corn-floor Hos. ix. 1.
corner stone corner stone corner-stone corner-stone Job xxxviii. 6.
couchingplace couchingplace couching-place couching-place Ezek. xxv. 5.
counseller counsellor counseller counsellor 2 Chr. xxii. 3.
court gate court gate court-gate court-gate Exod. xxxviii. 31.
covenantbreakers covenantbreakers covenant-breakers covenant-breakers Rom. i. 31.
crisping pins crisping pins crisping-pins crisping-pins Isa. iii. 22.
crookbackt crookbackt crook-backt crook-backt Lev. xxi. 20.
crossway crossway cross-way cross-way Obad. 14.
cruse cruse cruse cruse 1 Kings xvii. 12.
cuckow cuckow cuckow cuckoo Lev. xl. 16.
cupbearer cupbearer cup-bearer cup-bearer Neb. i. 11.
daughter in law daughter in law daughter-in-law daughter-in-law Gen. xi. 31.
daysman daysman days-man day’s-man Job ix. 33.
dayspring dayspring day-spring day-spring Luke i. 78.
day star day star day-star day-star 2 Pet. i. 19.
day time day time day-time day-time Num. xiv. 14.
daytime daytime day-time day-time Job v. 14.
desert desert desert desert Isa. xliii. 20.
destroying weapon destroying weapon destroying-weapon destroying weapon Ezek. ix. 1.
diddest diddest diddest diddest Acts vii. 28.
dispatch dispatch dispatch dispatch Ezek. xxiii. 47.
door post door post door-post door-post Exod. xxi. 6.
double minded double minded double-minded double-minded Jam. i. 8.
doubletongued doubletongued double-tongued double-tongued 1 Tim. iii. 8.
downsitting downsitting down-sitting down-sitting Ps. cxxxix. 2.
dragon well dragon well dragon-well dragon-well Neb. ii. 13.
draught draught draught draught Matt. xv. 17.
drawnet drawnet drawnet drawnet Matt. xiii. Head.
drink offering drink offering drink-offering drink-offering Gen. xxxv. 14.
dung gate dung gate dung-gate dung-gate Neh. iii. 14.
dunghil dunghill dunghill dunghill 1 Sam ii. 8.
dunghill dunghill dunghill dunghill Dan. iii. 29.
dung port dung port dung-port dung-port Neh. II. 13.
dureth dureth dureth dureth Matt. xiii. 21.
dwelling house dwelling house dwelling-house dwelling-house Lev. xxv. 29.
dwelling place dwelling place dwelling-place dwelling-place 1 Kings viii. 30.
dwellingplaces dwellingplaces dwelling-places dwelling-places Ezek. vi. 6.
dyed dyed dyed dyed Exod. xxxix. 34.
earring earring ear-ring ear-ring Gen. xxiv. 22.
Elisabeth Elisabeth Elisabeth Elisabeth Luke i. 5.
  Eliseus Eliseus Eliseus Eliseus Luke iv. 27.
Elisha Elisha Elisha Elisha 1 Kings xix. 16.
Eneas Æneas Eneas Eneas Acts ix. 33.
Enflaming Enflaming Enflaming Enflaming Isa. lvii. 5.
enquire enquire inquire, & en enquire Gen. xxiv. 57.
ensamples ensamples ensamples ensamples 1 Pet. v. 3.
  Esaias Esaias Esaias Esaias Matt. iii. 3.
Isaiah Isaiah Isaiah Isaiah Isa. i. 1.
eveningtide eveningtide evening-tide evening-tide Isa. xvii. 14.
eventide eventide even-tide even-tide Gen. xxiv. 63.
evil affected evil affected evil-affected evil affected Acts xiv. 2.
evildoers evildoers evil-doers evil-doers 1 Pet. ii. 12.
evil doers evildoers evil doers evil-doers 1 Pet. iii. 16.
evilfavouredness evilfavouredness evil-favouredness evil-favouredness Deut. xvii. 1.
ewe lambs ewe lambs ewe-lambs ewe-lambs Gen. xxi. 28.
expences expences expences expences Ezra vi. 4.
eyebrows eyebrows eye-brows eye-brows Lev. xiv. 9.
eyelids eyelids eye-lids eyelids Prov. iv. 25.
eyeservice eyeservice eye-service eye-service Eph. vi. 6.
eye sight eye sight eye-sight eye-sight 2 Sam. xxii. 25.
eye witness eyewitness eye-witness eye-witness 2 Pet. i. Head.
eyewitnesses eyewitnesses eye-witnesses eye-witnesses Luke i. 2.
fainthearted fainthearted faint-hearted faint-hearted Isa. vii. 4.
fallow deer fallow deer fallow-deer fallow-deer Deut. xiv. 5.
farewel farewell farewell farewell Acts xviii. 21.
farther farther farther farther Eccles. viii. 17.
fatfleshed fatfleshed fat-fleshed fat-fleshed Gen. xii. 18.
father in law father in law father-in-law father-in-law Gen. xxxviii. 13.
fats fats fats fats Joel iii. 13.
feast days feast days feast-days feast-days Hos. ii. 11.
feedingplace feedingplace feeding-place feeding-place Nah. ii. 11.
felloes felloes felloes felloes 1 Kings vii. 33.
fellowcitizens fellowcitizens fellow-citizens fellow-citizens Eph. ii. 19.
fellowdisciples fellowdisciples fellow disciples fellow-disciples John xi. 16.
fellowheirs fellowheirs fellow-heirs fellow-heirs Eph. iii. 6.
fellowhelper fellowhelper fellow-helper fellow-helper 2 Cor. viii. 23.
fellowlabourers fellowlabourers fellow-labourers fellow-labourers Philip. iv. 3.
fellowprisoner fellowprisoner fellow-prisoner fellow-prisoner Col. iv. 10.
fellowservant fellowservant fellow-servant fellow-servant Matt. xviii. 29.
fellow servants fellowservants fellow-servants fellow-servants Matt. xviii. 31.
fellowsoldier fellowsoldier fellow-soldier fellow-soldier Philip. ii. 25.
fellowworkers fellowworkers fellow-workers fellow-workers Col. iv. 11.
ferry boat ferry boat ferry-boat ferry-boat 2 Sam. xix. 18.
fetcht fetcht fetcht fetched Gen. xviii. 7.
fiery flying fiery flying fiery-flying fiery flying Isa. xxx. 6.
fig leaves fig leaves fig-leaves fig-leaves Gen. iii. 7.
fig tree fig tree fig-tree fig-tree 1 Kings iv. 25.
fir trees fir trees fir-trees fir-trees 1 Kings v. 10.
fir wood fir wood fir-wood fir-wood 2 Sam. vi. 6.
firebrands firebrands fire-brands firebrands Judg. xv. 4.
firepans firepans fire-pans fire-pans Exod. xxvii. 3.
first begotten first begotten first-begotten first-begotten Rev. i. 5.
firstborn firstborn first-born first-born Gen. x. 15.
firstfruits firstfruits first-fruits first-fruits Exod. xxiii. 16.
firstripe firstripe first ripe first-ripe Num. xiii. 20.
firstripe figs firstripe-figs first-ripe-figs first ripe figs Nah. iii. 12.
fish gate fish gate fish-gate fish-gate 2 Chr. xxxiii. 14.
fishhooks fishhooks fish-hooks fish-hooks Amos iv. 2.
fishpools fishpools fish-pools fish-pools So. of Sol. vii. 4.
fish spears fish spears fish-spears fish spears Job xli. 7.
fitches fitches fitches fitches Isa. xxviii. 25.
five and twentieth five and twentieth five-and-twentieth five and twentieth Jer. iii. 31.
fleshhooks fleshhooks flesh-hooks flesh-hooks Exod. xxvii. 3.
flesh pots flesh pots flesh-pots flesh-pots Exod. xvi. 3.
fleshy fleshly fleshly fleshly 2 Cor. iii. 3.
flotes flotes floats floats 2 Chr. ii. 16.
foal foal foal foal Matt. xxi. 5.
foles foles foals foals Gen. xxxii. 15.
foolish talking foolish talking foolish talking foolish talking Eph. v. 4.
forefront forefront fore-front fore-front Exod. xxviii. 37.
forepart forepart fore-part fore-part 1 Kings vi. 20.
foreprophesied foreprophesied fore-prophesied fore-prophesied 2 Kings xxiii. Head.
foretel foretell foretel foretell 2 Cor. xiii. 2.
forty five forty five forty-five forty-five 1 Kings vii. 3.
fountain gate fountain gate fountain-gate fountain-gate Neb. xii. 37.
fourfooted fourfooted four-footed four-footed Acts xl. 6.
freeman free man free-man free man Rev. vi. 15.
free offerings free offerings free-offerings free-offerings Exod. xxxvi. 3.
freewill offering freewill offering freewill-offering free-will-offering Num. xv. 3.
freewill offerings freewill offerings free-will-offerings free-will-offerings Lev. xxii. 18.
freewoman freewoman free-woman free woman Gal. iv. 22.
fruit tree fruit tree fruit-tree fruit-tree Gen. i. 11.
fryingpan fryingpan frying-pan frying-pan Lev. vii. 9.
Galilean Galilæan Galilean Galilean Mark xiv. 70.
gazingstock gazingstock gazing-stock gazingstock Nah. iii. 6.
  Gedeon Gedeon Gedeon Gedeon Heb. xi. 32.
Gideon Gideon Gideon Gideon Judg. vi. 11.
gier eagle gier eagle gier-eagle gier-eagle Lev. xi. 18.
glede glede glede glede Deut. xlv. 13.
goatskins goatskins goat-skins goat-skins Heb. xi. 37.
God-ward God-ward God-ward God-ward Exod. xviii. 19.
  Gomorrah Gomorrah Gomorrah Gomorrah Gen. xix. 24.
Gomorrha Gomorrha Gomorrha Gomorrha Matt. x. 15.
goodman good man good man goodman Matt. xxiv. 43.
good will good will good will good will Eph. vi. 7.
gopher wood gopher wood gopher-wood gopher-wood Gen. vi. 14.
governors governors governors governors Matt. x. 18.
graffed graffed graffed graffed Rom. xi. 24.
grapegatherers grapegatherers grape-gatherers grape-gatherers Jer. xlix. 9.
grapegleanings grapegleanings grape-gleanings grape-gleanings Mic. vii. 1.
grashopper grasshopper grasshopper grashopper Lev. xi. 22.
graveclothes graveclothes grave-clothes grave-clothes John xi. 44.
gray hairs gray hairs gray hairs gray hairs Hos. vii. 9.
grayheaded grayheaded gray-headed gray-headed 1 Sam. xii. 2.
grey head grey head grey head gray head Prov. xx. 29.
greyheaded greyheaded gray-headed gray-headed Ps. lxxi. 18.
grisled grisled grisled grisled Gen. xxxi. 10.
guard chamber guard chamber guard-chamber guard-chamber 1 Kings xiv. 28.
guestchamber guestchamber guest-chamber guest-chamber Mark xiv. 14.
Gulf gulf gulf gulf Luke xvi. 26.
Adoram Hadoram Hadoram Hadoram Gen. x. 27.
  Hagar Hagar Hagar Hagar Gen. xvi. 1.
Agar Agar Agar Agar Gal. iv. 24.
hail stones hail stones hail-stones hail-stones Ps. xviii. 12.
hair breadth hair breadth hair-breadth hair-breadth Judges xx. 16.
hand breadth hand breadth hand-breadth handbreadth Exod. xxxvii. 12.
handful handful handful handful Lev. ii. 2.
handmaid handmaid hand-maid handmaid Gen. xvi. 1.
handstaves handstaves hand-staves hand-staves Ezek. xxxix. 9.
handwriting handwriting hand-writing hand-writing Col. ii. 14.
handywork handywork handywork handywork Ps. xix. 1.
hardhearted hardhearted hard-hearted hard-hearted Ezek. iii. 7.
harvestman harvestman harvest-man harvest-man Isa. xvii. 5.
hasel hazel hazel hazel Gen. xxx. 37.
headbands headbands head-bands head-bands Isa. iii. 20.
heave offering heave offering heave-offering heave-offering Exod. xxix. 27.
heave shoulder heave shoulder heave-shoulder heave-shoulder Lev. x. 14.
he goats he goats he-goats he-goats Gen. xxxii. 14.
he lambs he lambs he-lambs he-lambs Lev. xiv. 10.
help meet help meet help meet help meet Gen. ii. 18.
hiding place hiding place hiding-place hiding-place Ps. xxxii. 7.
highminded highminded high-minded high-minded Rom. xi. 20.
high way high way high-way high-way Num. xx. 19.
hill country hill country hill-country hill-country Luke i. 39.
hill top hill top hill-top hill-top Num. xiv. 44.
  Hiram Hiram Hiram Hiram 1 Kings v. 1.
Huram Huram Huram Huram 2 Chr. ii. 3.
hoar frost hoarfrost hoar-frost hoar-frost Ps. cxlvii. 16.
hoised hoised hoised hoised Acts xxvii. 40.
holyday holyday holy-day holy-day Ps. xiii. 4.
honeycomb honeycomb honey-comb honey-comb Prov. xxiv. 13.
honour honour honour honour Num. xxii. 17.
horse bridles horse bridles horse-bridles horse bridles Rev. xiv. 20.
horse gate horse gate horse-gate horse-gate Neh. iii. 28.
horsehoofs horsehoofs horse-hoofs horse-hoofs Judges v. 22.
horseleach horseleach horse-leach horse-leach Prov. xxx. 15.
  Hosea Hosea Hosea Hosea Hosea i. 1.
Osee Osee Osee Osee Rom. ix. 25.
houshold houshold household household Gen. xiv. 11.
house top house top house-top house top Ps. cii. 7.
housetop housetop house-top house-top Prov. xxi. 9.
hundredfold hundredfold hundred-fold hundred-fold Gen. xxvi. 12.
hungerbitten hungerbitten hunger-bitten hunger-bitten Job. xviii. 12.
hungered hungered hungered hungered Matt. xxi. 18.
hungred hungred hungred hungered Matt. xxv. 35.
hungred hungred hungred hungered Mark ii. 25.
Hymeneus Hymenæus Hymeneus Hymeneus 1 Tim. i. 20.
  Idumea Idumea Idumea Idumea Ezek. xxxvi. 5.
Idumea Idumæa Idumea Idumea Mark iii. 8.
ill favoured ill favoured ill-favoured ill-favoured Gen. xii. 3.
incense altar incense altar incense-altar incense-altar Exod. xxxv. 15.
inclosed inclosed inclosed inclosed Ps. xxii. 16.
increase increase increase increase Lev. xxvi. 4.
infolding infolding infolding infolding Ezek. i. 4.
ingathering ingathering in-gathering ingathering Exod. xxiii. 16.
injoined injoined enjoined enjoined Heb. ix. 20.
instructer instructer instructor instructer Gen. iv. 22.
instructors instructers instructers instructers 1 Cor. iv. 15.
intreat intreat intreat entreat Exod. viii. 8.
intreated intreated intreated intreated Luke xv. 28.
intreaty intreaty intreaty entreaty Exod. xxxii. Head.
entreated entreated entreated entreated Luke xviii. 32.
  Isaiah Isaiah Isaiah Isaiah Isa. i. 1.
Esaias Esaias Esaias Esaias Matt. iii. 3.
Ishmeelites Ishmeelites Ishmeelites Ishmeelites Gen. xxxvii. 25.
jailor jailor jailor jailer Acts xvi. 23.
jasper stone jasper stone jasper-stone jasper-stone Rev. xxi. 11.
jawbone jawbone jaw-bone jaw-bone Judges xv. 15.
jaw teeth jaw teeth jaw-teeth jaw-teeth Prov. xxx. 14.
jealousy offering jealousy offering jealousy-offering jealousy-offering Num. v. 18.
  Jephthae Jephthae Jephthae Jephthae Heb. xi. 32.
Jephthah Jephthah Jephthah Jephthah Judges xi. 1.
  Jeremiah Jeremiah Jeremiah Jeremiah Jer. i. 1.
Jeremias Jeremias Jeremias Jeremias Matt. xvi. 14.
Jeremy Jeremy Jeremy Jeremy Matt. xxvii. 9.
  Jeshua Jeshua Jeshua Jeshua Neh. viii. 17.
Joshua Joshua Joshua Joshua Josh. i. 1.
jointheirs joint-heirs joint-heirs joint-heirs Rom. viii. 17.
  Jonah Jonah Jonah Jonah Jonah i. 1.
Jonas Jonas Jonas Jonas Matt. xii. 39.
jubile jubile jubile jubilee Lev. xxv. 9.
jubilee jubile jubile jubilee Lev. xxv. 28.
  Juda Juda Juda Judah Heb. vii. 14.
Judah Judah Judah Judah Gen. xxix. 35.
Judea Judæa Judea Judea Matt. ii. 1.
judgment hall judgement hall judgement-hall judgment hall Acts xxiii. 35.
judgments judgments judgements judgments Exod. xxi. 1.
judgment seat judgment seat judgement-seat judgment-seat Matt. xxvii. 19.
juniper roots juniper roots juniper-roots juniper-roots Job xxx. 4.
juniper tree juniper tree juniper-tree juniper-tree 1 Kings xix. 4.
justle justle justle justle Nah. ii. 4.
  Kish Kish Kish Kish 1 Sam. ix. 1.
Cis Cis Cis Cis Acts xiii. 21.
kneading troughs kneadingtroughs kneading-troughs kneading-troughs Exod. xii. 34.
kneadingtroughs kneadingtroughs kneading-troughs kneading-troughs Exod. viii. 3.
laded laded laded laded Acts xxviii. 10.
landmarks landmarks land-marks land-marks Job xxiv. 2.
launched launched launched launched Luke viii. 22.
lawgiver lawgiver law-giver lawgiver Num. xxi. 18.
leanfleshed leanfleshed lean-fleshed lean-fleshed Gen. xii. 3.
lefthanded lefthanded left-handed left-handed Judg. xx. 16.
lentiles lentiles lentiles lentiles Gen. xxv. 34.
lest lest lest lest 2 Sam. xv. 14.
life time life time life-time life-time Lev. xviii. 18.
lign aloes lign aloes lign aloes lign-aloes Num. xxiv. 6.
likeminded likeminded like-minded like-minded Rom. xv. 5.
like wise like wise likewise like wise Matt. xxi. 24.
lily work lily work lily-work lily-work 1 Kings vii. 19.
lion like lionlike lion-like lion-like 2 Sam. xxiii. 20.
longsuffering longsuffering long-suffering long-suffering Exod. xxxiv. 6.
long winged longwinged long-winged long-winged Ezek. xvii. 3.
looking glass looking glass looking-glass looking-glass Job xxxvii. 18.
lookingglasses lookingglasses looking-glasses looking-glasses Exod. xxxviii. 8.
lothe lothe loathe loathe Ezek. xx. 43.
lovingkindness lovingkindness loving-kindness loving-kindness Jer. ix. 24.
lowring lowring lowring lowring Matt. xvi. 3.
lunatick lunatick lunatic lunatick Matt. iv. 24.
lurking places lurking places lurking-places lurking-places 1 Sam. xxiii. 23.
maid child maid child maid-child maid-child Lev. xii. 5.
maidservants maidservants maid-servants maid-servants Gen. xxiv. 35.
  Manasseh Manasseh Manasseh Manasseh Gen. xli. 51.
Manasses Manasses Manasses Manasses Rev. vii. 6.
man child man child man-child man-child Gen. xvii. 10.
manslayer manslayer man-slayer man-slayer Num. xxxv. 6.
marishes marishes marishes marishes Ezek. xlvii. 11.
marketplace marketplace market-place market-place Matt. xx. 3.
masterbuilder masterbuilder master builder master-builder 1 Cor. iii. 10.
maul maul maul maul Prov. xxv. 18.
mealtime mealtime meal-time meal-time Ruth ii. 14.
measuring line measuring line measuring-line measuring-line Jer. xxxi. 39.
measuring reed measuring reed measuring-reed measuring-reed Ezek. xl. 5.
meat offering meat offering meat-offering meat-offering Exod. xxix. 41.
  Melchisedec Melchisedec Melchisedec Melchisedec Heb. v. 6.
Melchizedek Melchizedek Melchisedek Melchizedek Gen. xiv. 18.
menchildren menchildren men-children men-children Exod. xxxiv. 23.
menpleasers menpleasers men-pleasers men-pleasers Eph. vi. 6.
menservants menservants men-servants men-servants Gen. xxiv. 35.
men singers men singers men-singers men-singers Eccl. ii. 8.
menstealers menstealers men-stealers men-stealers 1 Tim. i. 10.
merchant man merchant man merchant-man merchant-man Matt. xiii. 45.
mercyseat mercyseat mercy-seat mercy-seat Heb. ix. 5.
mercy seat mercy seat mercy-seat mercy-seat Exod. xxv. 19.
mercy seat-ward mercy seat-ward mercy-seat-ward mercy-seat-ward Exod. xxxvii. 9.
merryhearted merryhearted merry-hearted merry-hearted Isa. xxiv. 7.
Me thinketh Me thinketh Me thinketh Me thinketh 2 Sam. xviii. 27.
midday midday mid-day mid-day Neh. viii. 3.
milch camels milch camels milch-camels milch camels Gen. xxxii. 15.
milstone millstone milstone millstone Mark ix. 42.
milstone millstone millstone millstone Deut. xxiv. 6.
milstone millstone mill-stone millstone Judg. ix. 53.
  Molech Molech Molech Molech Lev. xviii. 21.
Moloch Moloch Moloch Moloch Amos v. 26.
moneychangers moneychangers money-changers money-changers Matt. xxi. 12.
morning watch morning watch morning-watch morning-watch 1 Sam. xi. 11.
morter morter mortar mortar Isa. xii. 25.
morter morter mortar mortar Exod. i. 14.
motheaten motheaten moth-eaten moth-eaten James v. 2.
moth eaten motheaten moth-eaten moth-eaten Job xiii. 28.
mother in law mother in law mother-in-law mother-in-law Deut. xxvii. 23.
mulberry trees mulberry trees mulberry-trees mulberry-trees 2 Sam. v. 23.
musick musick musick musick 1 Sam. xviii. 6.
mustard seed mustard seed mustard-seed mustard-seed Matt. xiii. 31.
myrtle branches myrtle branches myrtle-branches myrtle-branches Neh. viii. 15.
myrtle tree myrtle tree myrtle-tree myrtle-tree Isa. iv. 13.
  Naphtali Naphtali Naphtali Naphtali Gen. xxx. 8.
Nepthalim Nepthalim Nephthalim Nephthalim Rev. vii. 6.
needlework needlework needle-work needle-work Exod. xxvi. 36.
network network net-work net-work Exod. xxxviii. 4.
newborn newborn new-born new-born 1 Pet. ii. 2.
night hawk night hawk night-hawk night hawk Lev. xi. 16.
night season night season night-season night-season Job xxx. 17.
night visions night visions night-visions night-visions Dan. vii. 13.
night watches night watches night-watches night-watches Ps. cxix. 148.
  Nineve Nineve Nineve Nineveh Luke xi. 32.
Nineveh Nineveh Nineveh Nineveh Jonah i. 2.
  Noah Noah Noah Noah Gen. v. 29.
Noe Noe Noe Noe Matt. xxiv. 37.
noonday noonday noon-day noon-day Ps. xxxvii. 6.
nose jewels nose jewels nose-jewels nose-jewels Isa. iii. 21.
nought nought nought nought Gen. xxix. 15.
nursing mothers nursing mothers nursing-mothers nursing-mothers Isa. xlix. 23.
oil olive oil olive oil-olive oil-olive Exod. xxx. 24.
oil tree oil tree oil-tree oil-tree Isa. xli. 19.
oil vessels oil vessels oil-vessels oil-vessels Num. iv. 9.
olive berries olive berries olive-berries olive-berries James iii. 12.
olive branches olive branches olive-branches olive-branches Neh. viii. 15.
olive plants olive plants olive-plants olive plants Ps. cxxviii. 3.
olive trees olive trees olive-trees olive-trees Deut. vi. 11.
oliveyards oliveyards olive-yards oliveyards Jos. xxiv. 13.
only begotten only begotten only-begotten only-begotten John i. 14.
only begotten only begotten only begotten only begotten John i. 18.
onyx stone onyx stone onyx-stone onyx-stone Gen. ii. 12.
  Osee Osee Osee Osee Rom. ix. 25.
Hosea Hosea Hosea Hosea Hos. i. 1.
ought ought ought ought Matt. v. 23.
outgoings outgoings out-goings outgoings Ps. lxv. 8.
outer outer outer outer Matt. xxv. 30.
outstretched outstretched out-stretched outstretched Deut. xxvi. 8.
overrunning overrunning over-running over-running Nah. i. 8.
palm branches palm branches palm-branches palm-branches Neh. viii. 15.
palm trees palm trees palm-trees palm-trees Exod. xv. 27.
palmerworm palmerworm palmer-worm palmer-worm Joel i. 4.
passover offerings passover offerings passover-offerings passover-offerings 2 Chr. xxxv. 8.
payed payed payed paid Prov. vii. 14.
peace offerings peace offerings peace-offerings peace-offerings Exod. xx. 24.
pilled pilled pilled pilled Gen. xxx. 37.
pine branches pine branches pine-branches pine-branches Neh. viii. 15.
pine tree pine tree pine-tree pine-tree Isa. lx. 13.
plaister plaister plaister plaster Lev. xiv. 42.
plaiting plaiting plaiting plaiting 1 Pet. iii. 3.
platted platted platted platted Matt. xxvii. 29.
plough plough plough plough Luke ix. 62.
plowed plowed plowed plowed Judges xiv. 18.
plowman plowman plowman plowman Isa. xxviii. 24.
plowshares plowshares plow-shares plough-shares Joel iii. 10.
plowshares plowshares plowshares plough-shares Mic. iv. 3.
pluckt pluckt pluckt pluckt Gen. viii. 11.
plumbline plumbline plumb-line plumb-line Amos vii. 7.
pomegranate tree pomegranate tree pomegranate-tree pomegranate tree 1 Sam. xiv. 2.
pourtray pourtray pourtray pourtray Ezek. iv. 1.
pransings pransings pransings prancings Judg. v. 22.
preeminence preeminence pre-eminence pre-eminence Col. i. 18.
pressfat pressfat press-fat press-fat Hag. ii. 16.
Pretorium Prætorium Pretorium Pretorium. Mark xv. 16.
prised prised prized prised Zech. xi. 13.
prison garments prison garments prison-garments prison-garments Jer. lii. 33.
prison gate prison gate prison-gate prison-gate Neh. xii. 39.
prison house prison house prison-house prison-house Judg. xvi. 21.
pruninghooks pruninghooks pruning-hooks pruning-hooks Micah iv. 3.
pruninghooks pruninghooks pruninghooks pruning-hooks Isa. ii. 4.
pruning hooks pruning hooks pruning-hooks pruning-books Isa. xviii. 5.
  Rachel Rachel Rachel Rachel Matt. ii. 18.
Rahel Rahel Rahel Rachel Jer. xxxi. 15.
rasor razor razor razor Num. vi. 5.
recompence, n.s. recompense recompence recompence Deut. xxxii. 35.
recompense, v.a. recompense recompense recompense Hosea xii. 2.
Red sea Red sea Red Sea Red sea Exod. x. 19.
repayed repayed repaid repaid Prov. xiii. 21.
rereward rereward rereward rere-ward Jos. vi. 9.
restingplace restingplace resting-place resting-place Jer. l. 6.
resting place resting place resting-place resting-place Prov. xxiv. 15.
ribband ribband ribband ribband Num. xv. 38.
rie rie rye rye Exod. ix. 32.
right hand right hand right hand right hand Exod. xiv. 22.
ringstraked ringstraked ring-straked ring-straked Gen. xxx. 35.
rudder bands rudder bands rudder-bands rudder-bands Acts xxvii. 40.
sabbath day sabbath day sabbath-day sabbath-day Exod. xx. 8.
saltpits saltpits salt-pits saltpits Zeph. ii. 9.
sapphire stone sapphire stone sapphire-stone sapphire-stone Ezek. x. 1.
  Sara Sara Sara Sarah Heb. xi. 11.
Sarah Sarah Sarah Sarah Gen. xvii. 15.
Sarai Sarai Sarai Sarai Gen. xi 29.
scapegoat scapegoa scape-goat scape-goat Lev. xvi. 10.
scarlet coloured scarlet scarlet-coloured scarlet-coloured Rev. xvii. 3.
scrowl scrowl scroll scroll Rev. vi. 14.
sea coast sea coast sea-coast sea-coast Zeph. ii. 6.
seafaring seafaring sea-faring sea-faring Ezek. xxvi. 17.
sea shore sea shore sea-shore sea-shore Exod. xiv. 30.
sea side sea side sea-side sea-side Matt. xiii. 1.
seat ward seat-ward seatward seat-ward Exod. xxxvii. 9.
seething pot seething pot seething-pot seething-pot Jer. i. 13.
selfsame selfsame self-same self-same Exod. xii. 51.
selfwill selfwill self-will self-will Gen. xlix. 6.
selvedge selvedge selvedge selvedge Exod. xxxvi. 11.
serjeants serjeants serjeants serjeants Acts xvi. 35.
sevenfold sevenfold seven-fold seven-fold Gen. iv. 15.
seweth seweth seweth seweth Mark ii. 21.
she asses she asses she-asses she-asses Job i. 3.
shearing house shearing house shearing-house shearing-house 2 Kings x. 14.
sheepcotes sheepcotes sheep-cotes sheep-cotes 1 Sam. xxiv. 3.
sheepfolds sheepfolds sheep-folds sheep-folds Ps. lxxviii. 70.
sheep gate sheep gate sheep-gate sheep-gate Neh. iii. 1.
sheepshearers sheepshearers sheep-shearers sheep-shearers 2 Sam. xiii. 23.
sheepskins sheepskins sheep-skins sheep-skins Heb. xi. 37.
she goat she goat she-goat she-goat Gen. xv. 9.
  Shem Shem Shem Shem Gen. vi. 10.
Sem Sem Sem Sem Luke iii. 36.
shew shew shew shew Exod. ix. 16.
shewbread shewbread shew-bread shew-bread Num. iv. 7.
ship boards ship boards ship-boards ship-boards Ezek. xxvii. 5.
shipmaster shipmaster ship-master shipmaster Rev. xviii. 17.
shittah tree shittah tree shittah-tree shittah-tree Isa. xii. 19.
shittim wood shittim wood shittim-wood shittim-wood Exod. xxv. 10.
shoelatchet shoelatchet shoe-latchet shoe-latchet Gen. xiv. 23.
shoulder blade shoulder blade shoulder-blade shoulder-blade Job xxxi. 22.
shoulderpieces shoulderpieces shoulder-pieces shoulder-pieces Exod. xxxix. 18.
side chamber side chamber side-chamber side-chamber Ezek. xli. 5.
side posts side posts side-posts side-posts Exod. xii. 22.
  Sin Sin Sin Sin Exod. xvi. 1.
Zin Zin Zin Zin Num. xiii. 21.
  Sina Sina Sina Sina Acts vii. 30.
Sinai Sinai Sinai Sinai Exod. xix. 1.
singing men singing men singing-men singing-men 2 Chr. xxxv. 25.
singing women singing women singing-women singing-women 2 Chr. xxxv. 25.
sin money sin money sin-money sin-money 2 Kings xii. 16.
sin offering sin offering sin-offering sin-offering Exod. xxix. 14.
sister in law sister in law sister-in-law sister-in-law Ruth i. 15.
sixtyfold sixtyfold sixty-fold sixty-fold Matt. xiii. 8.
skull scull skull skull Mark xv. 22.
slimepits slimepits slime-pits slime-pits Gen. xiv. 10.
snuffdishes snuffdishes snuff-dishes snuff-dishes Exod. xxv. 38.
sober minded sober minded sober-minded sober-minded Titus ii. 6.
sodering sodering sodering sodering Isa. xli. 7.
  Sodom Sodom Sodom Sodom Gen. xiii. 10.
Sodoma Sodoma Sodoma Sodoma Rom. ix. 29.
soles soles soles soles Isa. lx. 14.
son in law son in law son-in-law son-in-law 1 Sam. xviii. 18.
sope sope soap soap Jer. ii. 22.
sowing time sowing time sowing-time sowing-time Lev. xxvi. 5.
spewing spewing spewing spewing Hab. ii. 16.
spice merchants spice merchants spice-merchants spice-merchants 1 Kings x. 15.
spue spue spue spue Lev. xx. 23.
spunge spunge spunge spunge Matt. xxvii. 48.
stanched stanched stanched stanched Luke viii. 44.
stargazers stargazers star-gazers stargazers Isa. xlvii. 13.
stedfastly stedfastly stedfastly stedfastly Acts ii. 42.
stiffnecked stiffnecked stiff-necked stiff-necked Exod. xxxiii. 3.
storehouses storehouses store-houses storehouses 1 Chr. xxvii. 25.
stouthearted stouthearted stout-hearted stout-hearted Isa. xlvi. 12.
stretched out stretched out stretched-out stretched-out Exod. vi. 6.
stumbling block stumbling block stumbling-block stumbling block Isa. lvii. 14.
stumblingblock stumblingblock stumbling-block stumblingblock 1 Cor. viii. 9.
stumblingstone stumblingstone stumbling-stone stumbling-stone Rom. ix. 33.
subtil subtil subtil subtile Gen. iii. 1.
subtilly subtilly subtilly subtilely Ps. cv. 25.
summer fruits summer fruits summer-fruits summer-fruits Jer. xl. 10.
summer house summer house summer-house summer-house Amos iii. 15.
sun dial sun dial sun-dial sun-dial Isa. xxxviii. 8.
sunrising sun rising sun-rising sun-rising Deut. iv. 41.
swaddling band swaddlingband swaddling-band swaddling-band Job xxxviii. 9.
sweet smelling sweet smelling sweet-smelling sweet-smelling So. of Sol. v. 5.
swollen swollen swollen swollen Acts xxviii. 6.
sycamore sycomore sycomore sycamore 1 Kings x. 27.
sycamores sycomores sycamores sycomores Isa. ix. 10.
sycamore trees sycomore trees sycomore-trees sycomore-trees 2 Chr. i. 15.
sycomore sycomore sycomore sycamore Amos vii. 14.
tabering tabering tabering tabering Nah. ii. 7.
tabernacle door tabernacle door tabernacle-door tabernacle-door Exod. xxxiii. 10.
talebearer talebearer tale-bearer tale-bearer Lev. xix. 16.
taskmasters taskmasters task-masters taskmasters Exod. iii. 7.
teil tree teil tree teil-tree teil-tree Isa. vi. 13.
tender eyed tender eyed tender-eyed tender-eyed Gen. xxix. 17.
tenderhearted tenderhearted tender-hearted tender-hearted 2 Chr. xiii. 7.
tent door tent door tent-door tent-door Gen. xviii. 1.
tenth deal tenth deal tenth-deal tenth-deal Exod. xxix. 40.
thank offerings thank offerings thank-offerings thank-offerings 2 Chr. xxix. 31.
thankworthy thankworthy thank-worthy thank-worthy 1 Pet. ii. 19.
thee-ward thee-ward thee-ward thee-ward 1 Sam. xix. 4.
thirtyfold thirtyfold thirty-fold thirty-fold Matt. xiii. 8.
thirtyfold thirtyfold thirty-fold thirty-fold Mark iv. 20.
thirty two thirty two thirty-two thirty-two 1 Kings xx. 15.
thoroughly thoroughly thoroughly thoroughly 2 Kings xi. 18.
threefold threefold three-fold threefold Eccl. iv. 12.
threshing threshing threshing thrashing Lev. xxvi. 5.
threshingfloor threshingfloor threshing-floor thrashing-floor Num. xviii. 27.
throughly throughly throughly throughly Gen. xi. 3.
Timeus Timæus Timeus Timeus Mark x. 46.
to day to day to-day to-day Exod. ii. 18.
to morrow to morrow to-morrow to-morrow Exod. ix. 5.
to night to night to-night to-night Jos. ii. 2.
town clerk townclerk town-clerk town-clerk Acts xix. 35.
traffick traffick traffick traffick Gen. xlii. 34.
treasure cities treasure cities treasure-cities treasure-cities Exod. i. 11.
treasure house treasure house treasure-house treasure-house Ezra v. 17.
trespass money trespass money trespass-money trespass-money 2 Kings xii. 16.
trespass offering trespass offering trespass-offering trespass-offering Lev. v. 6.
tribute money tribute money tribute-money tribute-money Matt. xvii. 24.
trucebreakers trucebreakers trucebreakers truce-breakers 2 Tim. iii. 3.
turtledove turtledove turtle-dove turtle-dove Gen. xv. 9.
twoedged twoedged two-edged two-edged Heb. iv. 12.
two edged twoedged two-edged two-edged Rev. i. 16.
twofold twofold two-fold two-fold Matt. xxiii. 15.
two leaved two leaved two-leaved two-leaved Isa. xlv. 1.
unblameable unblameable unblameable unblameable Col. i. 22.
unblameably unblameably unblameably unblameably 1 Thes. ii. 10.
unmoveable unmoveable unmoveable unmoveable 1 Cor. xv. 58.
unrebukeable unrebukeable unrebukeable unrebukeable 1 Tim. vi. 14.
unreproveable unreproveable unreproveable unreproveable Col. i. 22.
unsatiableness unsatiableness unsatiableness unsatiableness Hab. ii. Head.
uprising uprising up-rising up-rising Ps. cxxxix. 2.
us-ward us-ward us-ward us-ward Ps. xl. 5.
utter utter utter outer Ezek. xl. 31.
vail vail veil vail Gen. xxiv. 65.
vail vail vail vail 2 Cor. iii. 13.
veil veil veil vail Matt. xxvii. 51.
valley gate valley gate valley-gate valley-gate Neh. iii. 13.
vain glory vainglory vain glory vain glory 2 Cor. iii. Head.
venomous venomous venomous venomous Acts xxviii. 4.
vials vials vials vials Rev. v. 8.
villainously villanously villanously villanously 1 Chr. xix. Head.
villany villany villany villany Is. xxxii. 6.
vine branches vine branches vine-branches vine-branches Nah. ii. 2.
vinedressers vinedressers vine-dressers vine-dressers Isa. lxi. 5.
vine tree vine tree vine-tree vine-tree Num. vi. 4.
vintage shouting vintage shouting vintage-shouting vintage-shouting Isa. xvi. 10.
wagons wagons waggons waggons Gen. xlv. 19.
ware ware ware ware 2 Tim. iv. 15.
washpot washpot wash-pot wash-pot Ps. lx. 8.
washpot washpot washpot wash-pot Ps. cviii. 9.
watchtower watchtower watch-tower watch-tower Isa. xxi. 8.
watch tower watch tower watch-tower watch-tower 2 Chr. xx. 24.
water brooks water brooks water-brooks water-brooks Ps. xlii. 1.
watercourse watercourse water-course watercourse Job xxxviii. 25.
waterflood waterflood water-flood water-flood Ps. lxix. 15.
water gate water gate water-gate water-gate Neh. iii. 26.
watering troughs watering troughs watering-trouoghs watering-troughs Gen. xxx. 38.
waterpot waterpot water-pot water-pot John iv. 28.
waterspouts waterspouts water-spouts water-spouts Ps. xlii. 7.
watersprings watersprings water-springs water-springs Ps. cvii. 35.
wave breast wave breast wave-breast wave-breast Lev. vii. 34.
wave loaves wave loaves wave-loaves wave-loaves Lev. xxiii. 17.
wave offering wave offering wave-offering wave-offering Exod. xxix. 24.
wayfaring wayfaring way-faring way-faring Judg. xix. 17.
waymarks waymarks way-marks way-marks Jer. xxxi. 21.
wayside way side way-side way-side Luke viii. 5.
way side wayside way-side way-side 1 Sam. iv. 13.
weak handed weak handed weak-handed weak-handed 2 Sam. xvii. 2.
wedding garment wedding garment wedding-garment wedding-garment Matt. xxii. 12.
well advised well advised well-advised well-advised Prov. xiii. 10.
well beloved wellbeloved well-beloved well-beloved Mark xii. 6.
well favoured well favoured well-favoured well-favoured Gen. xii. 18.
well nigh well nigh well-nigh well nigh Ps. lxxiii. 2.
wellpleasing well pleasing well-pleasing well-pleasing Heb. xiii. 21.
well set well set well-set well-set Isa. iii. 24.
wellspring wellspring well-spring well-spring Prov. xvi. 22.
wheat harvest wheat harvest wheat-harvest wheat harvest Judg. xv. 1.
willing hearted willing hearted willing-hearted willing-hearted Exod. xxxv. 22.
winebibber winebibber wine-bibber wine-bibber Matt. xi. 19.
wine cellars wine cellars wine-cellars wine-cellars 1 Chr. xxvii. 27.
winefat winefat wine-fat wine fat Mark xii. 1.
wine offerings wine offerings wine-offerings wine-offerings Hos. ix. 4.
winepresses winepresses wine-presses wine-presses Jer. xlviii. 33.
winter house winter house winter-house winter-house Amos iii. 15.
winterhouse winterhouse winter-house winter-house Jer. xxxvi. 22.
wise hearted wise hearted wise-hearted wise-hearted Exod. xxxv. 10.
Woe Woe Woe Woe Num. xxi. 29.
womenservants womenservants women-servants women-servants Gen. xx. 14.
women singers women singers women-singers women-singers Eccl. ii. 8.
wonderously wonderously wonderously wondrously Judges xiii. 19.
wondrous wondrous wondrous wondrous Ps. lxxii. 18.
wood offering wood offering wood-offering wood-offering Neh. x. 34.
workfellow workfellow work-fellow work-fellow Rom. xvi. 21.
you-ward you-ward you-ward you-ward 2 Cor. xiii. 3.
  Zabulon Zabulon Zabulon Zabulon Rev. vii. 8.
Zebulun Zebulun Zebulun Zebulun Gen. xxx. 20.
  Zacharias Zacharias Zacharias Zacharias Luke i. 5.
Zecharias Zacharias Zacharias Zacharias Luke xi. 51.
  Zion Zion Zion Zion Ps. lxix. 35.
Sion Sion Sion Sion Ps. lxv. 1.

“The Hebrew word, which is in our English Bible rendered ‘The Lord,’ is in the Hebrew the High and Holy name of God himself, the most solemn of all words—Jehovah. It is a general rule throughout the Old Testament, that, wheresoever the word ‘Lord’ is printed in capital letters, it will be found on looking into the Hebrew Bible, that the word there written was Jehovah. And for this difference, between the translation and the original work, the following reason is given. The later Jews have a fancy that this name of Jehovah is so sacred and aweful, that it could never be spoken, excepting by the High Priest once in a year, without the sin of taking God’s name in vain. And accordingly when, at this day, they read the Scriptures in their Synagogues, whenever the word Jehovah is used, they say Adonai, or Lord, in its place. But the learned men, by whom our English Bible was translated, had 49 been instructed in Hebrew by the Jews; and were so far moved by their example, as to feel the same anxiety, with their teachers, to prevent this name from being commonly spoken. Instead, therefore, of writing ‘Jehovah,’ they have written for the most part ‘The Lord:’ but they have written it in capital letters that the Lord of Heaven and Earth might be distinguished from all His creatures.”—Bishop Heber’s Sermons, vol. ii.

England is the only Protestant country in Europe where the printing of Bibles is a monopoly.

For the allowance of the duty on paper used in the printing of Bibles, see Paper.


with letter founders, a specific proportionate number of types, the datum from which the proportion is estimated being 3,000 lower case ems. A bill of Pica weighs 800 pounds, including italic, which is in the proportion of one tenth of the roman. The term “bill” is not used among printers, although it is by the letter founders; this would be styled by printers, a fount of Pica of eight hundred weight.

Smith is, as far as I am aware, the first writer who published the number of each sort that the founders cast to 3,000 ems; and he also made some alterations in the numbers previously cast by the letter founders, “by enlarging the numbers of some sorts, and by lessening the quantity of others,” “to try whether a fount of letter would turn out more perfect than it sometimes does.”

Later writers have copied Smith’s numerical list of sorts, as well as his altered numbers, and by copying his words without mentioning his name each of them appears to the public as having suggested an improvement, while, in fact, the founders pay no regard to these proportions, but cast from a scale of their own.

The late Earl Stanhope gave another scale of numbers, produced by counting the letters and points to a certain extent in Enfield’s Speaker; but as he discarded the ligatures, and added what he called “Logotypes,” his numbers are not followed.

I do not know on what datum the number of each letter was originally obtained, as cast by the founders; but it is well known in practice that a great number of imperfections are always wanted in a printing office; and from the construction of language it appears there always will be a great number of particular sorts deficient, whatever the proportions may be at first. In proof of this it may be stated, that a new fount of letter shall be cast for the purpose of printing a work; in composing this letter it shall be found that there is a great deficiency of some letters, and a superabundance of others: to bring the whole fount into use, for the purpose of composing as many pages as possible, the deficient sorts are cast, till the proportions answer to each other. When this work is finished, another author’s work is to be printed with the same letter: the disproportion is again felt; those which at the first were deficient are now superabundant, and those which were abundant will be deficient; so that the master printer, to keep the whole of his letter in use is obliged to be continually casting those deficiencies and thus enlarging his founts.

The disuse of the long ſ, which took place some years ago, and also of [ct], has varied the proportions considerably of the letters composing their combinations, b, h, i, k, l, and t.

The following Table shows the old numbers, also Smith’s and Earl Stanhope’s; those at present cast by the letter founders, I give on the authority of Messrs. Caslon and Livermore.

A Bill of Pica, containing 3,000 lower case ems. Weight 800 Pounds. Italic One Tenth of Roman.
a 7,000 7,500 6,972 8,500
b 1,600 1,200 1,560 1,600
c 2,400 1,500 8,234 3,000
d 4,000 4,800 4,416 4,400
e 12,000 13,000 11,367 12,000
f 2,000 2,500 1,623 2,500
g 1,600 1,300 1,707 1,700
h 6,000 6,500 3,375 6,400
i 6,000 4,000 6,459 8,000
j 600 300 450 400
k 1,000 900 710 800
l 3,000 3,500 4,146 4,000
m 3,000 2,000 3,000 3,000
n 6,000 6,500 4,563 8,000
o 6,000 7,000 6,102 8,000
p 1,600 1,000 1,965 1,700
q 600 300 600 300
r 5,000 6,000 4,779 6,200
ſ 2,400 2,400
s 3,000 2,500 6,876 8,000
t 7,000 7,500 6,078 9,000
u 3,000 2,000 3,612 3,400
v 1,000 1,000 1,278 1,200
w 1,600 2,000 2,166 2,000
x 400 400 420 400
y 1,600 2,000 2,091 2,000
z 400 200 180 200
& 400 200 150 200
800 800
[ſh] 600 600
[ſi] 500 500
500 400 500
500 300 400
[ſſ] 200 150
200 150 200
[ſl] 200 150
200 100 100
[ſſi] 200 200
200 200 150
[ſb] 200 150
[ſk] 200 100
[ct] 300 300
æ 300 150 100
œ 200 100 60
á 100
é 250
í 100
ó 100
ú 100
à 200
è 100
ì 100
ò 100
ù 100
â 200
ê 200
î 100
ô 100
û 100
ä 100
ë 100
ï 100
ö 100
ü 100
ç 100
, 4,000 5,000 3,600 4,500
; 1,000 1,000 600 800
: 1,000 600 300 600
. 2,000 2,000 1,500 2,000
- 1,000 1,000 600 1,000
? 500 400 180 200
! 300 200 120 150
1,000 800 300 700
60 60 60 100
200 100 120 100
* 200 200 100
[ 200 200 120 150
300 100 100
§ 200 100 90 100
( 300 300 210 300
200 50 60 60
1 1,200 1,500 900 1,300
2 1,200 1,300 840 1,200
3 1,200 1,300 810 1,100
4 1,000 1,100 780 1,000
5 1,000 1,100 750 1,000
6 1,000 1,200 720 1,000
7 1,000 1,100 690 1,000
8 1,000 1,000 660 1,000
9 1,000 1,000 630 1,000
0 1,200 1,600 900 1,300
A 800 850 450 600
B 500 450 240 400
C 600 800 450 500
D 500 450 300 500
E 800 700 450 600
F 500 450 300 400
G 600 600 240 400
H 600 550 240 400
I 800 1,000 1,200 800
J 500 500 150 300
K 500 450 150 300
L 500 600 300 500
M 500 700 240 400
N 500 500 240 400
O 600 500 300 400
P 600 800 270 400
Q 300 300 180 180
R 600 600 240 400
S 600 800 300 500
T 800 1,000 600 650
U 500 400 150 300
V 500 500 150 300
51 W 500 600 180 400
X 200 300 90 180
Y 500 300 90 300
Z 200 100 60 80
Æ 100 100 40
Π50 50 30
A 300 300
B 90 200
C 120 250
D 150 250
E 450 300
F 90 200
G 90 200
H 210 200
I 270 400
J 60 150
K 90 150
L 150 250
M 120 200
N 300 200
O 300 200
P 90 200
Q 120 90
R 240 200
S 270 250
T 360 326
U 150 150
V 60 150
W 90 200
X 60 90
Y 90 150
Z 60 40
Æ 20
Spaces Old
Thick 15,000 12,000 18,000 18,000
Middle 10,000 10,000 12,000 12,000
Thin 5,000 8,000 8,100 8,000
Hair 2,000 2,000 3,000 3,000
m qd. 2,000 2,000 3,000 2,500
n qd. 5,000 5,000 6,000 5,000
2 em 10lb. 10lb. 2,700 about
3 em 30lb. 80lb. 900
4 em 4lb. 4lb. 600
1 em 150
2 em 90
3 em 60

In Lists of Names, Indexes, and similar matter, the number of capitals specified in this Bill would be greatly deficient; as would also be the case with the accented letters for works in the Latin and French languages. The figures and the em and en quadrats would be found very inadequate for table work: in fact, in all these cases it would be imperative to cast additional numbers.

Earl Stanhope introduced the following sorts, each in one piece, of which he gives the following numbers to be cast for a fount of the preceding weight:—an, 1,620—in, 1,731—of, 1,035—on, 897—re, 1,509—se, 1,152—th, 3,024—to, 1,095.— See Logotype.

His Lordship, in fact, attempted to introduce too many alterations in printing. I had the honour of knowing him for some years, and he frequently described to me his intended improvements: one was, to make the bottom of the boxes in the cases concave, so that the types should always be convenient for the compositor to pick up; another was, to lay four different sized types in the same pair of cases; another, to alter the curve at the top of the f, and discard its ligatures; another, to cast certain Logotypes. Some of these were not improvements in practice; and the others, except they had been generally adopted, would have destroyed uniformity in works that were printed in different houses, in addition to the great expense and inconvenience both to letter founders and printers. In attempting too much, none of his plans were adopted, so far as related to composing.

Discarding the long ſ has also abolished [ſb], [ſh], [ſi], [ſk], [ſl], [ſſ], [ſſi], ſt, and has consequently increased the number of the round s, and the connected letters.

Canon 20 em Bill, for Job-work.
a 40 & 4 1 12 A 14
b 14 6 2 10 B 10
c 20 6 3 10 C 10
d 24 4 4 10 D 10
e 60 4 5 10 E 14
f 20 3 6 10 F 10
g 16 æ 3 7 10 G 10
h 30 œ 2 8 10 H 10
i 40 , 30 9 10 I 14
j 10 ; 16 0 12 J 8
k 10 : 14     K 8
l 24 . 24     L 10
m 20 - 16     M 10
n 40 ? 6     N 10
o 40 ! 6     O 10
p 15 16     P 10
q 8 * 3     Q 6
r 30 3     R 10
s 40 3     S 12
t 40 § 3     T 14
u 20 3     U 8
v 12     V 8
w 14 ( 6     W 10
x 8 [ 4     X 6
y 14         Y 8
z 4         Z 4
            Æ 3
            Œ 2
Thick 120
Middle 80
Thin 60
Hair 30
m qds. 20
n qds. 40

Bill of Exchange.

See Forgery.


In locking-up a form, if the head-stick be longer than the width of the page and the thickness of the back-stick; or the side or foot stick extend beyond the page and the other be a little too long; or any part of the furniture double over some other part, so as to prevent the quoins wedging the matter tight, it is termed Binding: the head-stick binds; the side-sticks bind, &c.—M.


If the frisket is not sufficiently cut away, but covers some part of the form, so that it prints on the frisket, it is called a Bite.—M. It inter­poses between the form and the paper to be printed on, and prevents the latter receiving the inked impression intended to be transferred to it. A pressman looks carefully over his first sheet to see that all is right, and if there be a bite he cuts it out of the frisket with his scissors; if one should at first escape his eye, it is cut out as soon as it is perceived.


is the name now applied to the Old English or Modern Gothic character, which was introduced into England about the middle of the fourteenth century, and became the character generally used in manuscript works before the art of printing was publicly practised in Europe. On the application of that art to the multiplying of books, about the middle of the fifteenth century, the Block Books, and, subsequently, those printed with moveable types, were in this letter, to imitate writing, and were disposed off as manuscripts. When the first William Caslon commenced the business of type founding he made great improvements in their shape, and his Gothic or black letter remains unequalled, viewing it as an imitation of ancient writing, the purest shape for the character originally intended for a counterfeit manuscript. I am sorry to see our present founders giving way to a barbarous caprice of fancy, by introducing arbitrary shapes, which were unknown to our ancestors when this character was in general use; for it appears inconsistent to call the following Letters Old English, or Gothic, E G I N V Y in blackletter.

The Alphabet.

page image

Astle, in his Origin and Progress of Writing, says, “The Modern Gothic, which spread itself all over Europe in the twelfth and thirteenth 53 centuries, is improperly so called, because it does not derive its origin from the writing anciently used by the Goths and Visigoths, in Italy and Spain, but this Modern Gothic is the most barbarous or worst kind of writing; it took its rise in the decline of the arts, among the lazy schoolmen, who had the worst taste; it is nothing more than the Latin writing degenerated. This writing began in the twelfth century, and was in general use (especially among monks and schoolmen) in all parts of Europe, till the restoration of the arts, in the fifteenth century, and longer in Germany and the northern nations: Our statute books are still printed in Gothic letters.” Astle’s work was published in 1784.

Blacks in the British Founderies.

Ten Line Pica.—Caslon.

Five Line Pica.—Caslon.

Four Line Pica.—Caslon.

Two Line Double Pica.—Caslon.

Two Line Great Primer.—Caslon. Wilson.

Two Line English.—Caslon.

Double Pica.—Caslon. Figgins. Wilson.

Great Primer.—Caslon. Figgins. Wilson.

English.—Caslon. Thorowgood & Besley, formerly Wolf’s. Figgins. Wilson.

Pica.—Caslon. Thorowgood & Besley. Caxton. Figgins. Wilson.

Small Pica.—Caslon.

Long Primer.—Caslon. Thorowgood & Besley. Figgins. Wilson.


Brevier.—Caslon. Wilson.

Nonpareil.—Caslon. Wilson.

Blackwell, Beale.

See Donations.


Flannel steeped in urine, in which pelt balls are wrapped up at nights, and when they are not in use, to keep them soft.

Woollen cloth, or white baize, to lay between the tympans.—M. The blankets used for fine work are either superfine woollen cloth or fine kerseymere; for the finest work, paper alone is used. See Presswork.


When blank pages occur in a work, particularly in duodecimos and smaller sizes, the compositor will find it an advantage to set them up the exact size of the pages of the work, and made up to his gauge, so that he will have his register good without the trouble that attends filling the blank up with pieces of Furniture by guess work, which causes extra trouble to the pressman.


9 & 10 Will. 3. c. 32., intituled, “An Act for the more effectual suppressing of Blasphemy and Profaneness.”

“Whereas many persons have of late years openly avowed and published many blasphemous and impious Opinions, contrary to the Doctrines and Principles of the Christian Religion, greatly tending to the Dishonour of Almighty God, and may prove destructive to the Peace and Welfare of this Kingdom: Wherefore for the more effectual suppressing of the said detestable Crimes, be it enacted by the King’s most excellent Majesty, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and the Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the Authority of the same, That if any Person or Persons, having been educated in, or at any Time having made Profession of the Christian Religion within this Realm, shall by Writing, Printing, Teaching, or advised Speaking, deny any one of the Persons in the Holy Trinity to be God, or shall assert or maintain there are more Gods than one, or shall deny the Christian Religion to be true, or the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testament to be of Divine Authority, and shall upon Indictment or Information in any of his Majesty’s Courts at Westminster, or at the Assizes, be thereof lawfully convicted by the Oath of two or more credible Witnesses; such Person or Persons for the first Offence shall be adjudged incapable and disabled in Law, to all Intents and Purposes whatsoever, to have or enjoy any Office or Offices, Employment 54 or Employments, Ecclesiastical, Civil, or Military, or any Part in them, or any Profit or Advantage appertaining to them, or any of them: And if any Person or Persons so convicted as aforesaid, shall at the Time of his or their Conviction, enjoy or possess any Office, Place, or Employment, such Office, Place, or Employment shall be void, and is hereby declared void: And if such Person or Persons shall be a second Time lawfully convicted as aforesaid, of all or any the aforesaid Crime or Crimes, that then he or they shall from thenceforth be disabled to sue, prosecute, plead or use any Action or Information in any Court of Law or Equity, or to be Guardian of any Child, or Executor or Administrator of any Person, or capable of any Legacy or Deed of Gift, or to bear any Office, Civil or Military, or Benefice Ecclesiastical for ever within this Realm, and shall also suffer Imprisonment for the Space of Three Years, without Bail or Mainprize, from the Time of such Conviction.

s. 2. “Provided always, and be it enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That no Person shall be prosecuted by virtue of this Act, for any Words spoken, unless the Information of such Words shall be given upon Oath before one or more Justice or Justices of the Peace, within four Days after such Words spoken, and the Prosecution of such Offence be within three Months after such Information.

s. 3. “Provided also, and be it enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That any Person or Persons convicted of all or any of the aforesaid Crime or Crimes, in Manner aforesaid, shall for the first Offence (upon his, her, or their Acknowledgment and Renunciation of such Offence or erroneous Opinions, in the same Court where such Person or Persons was or were convicted, as aforesaid, within the Space of four Months after his, her, or their Conviction) be discharged from all Penalties and Disabilities incurred by such Conviction; any thing in this Act contained to the contrary thereof in anywise notwith­standing.”

Repealed as to denying the Trinity, by 53 Geo. 3. c. 160. s. 2. which is extended to Ireland by 57 Geo. 3. c. 70. See Libels.

53 Geo. 3. c. 160., intituled, “An Act to relieve Persons who impugn the Doctrine of the Holy Trinity from certain Penalties.”

s. 2. “And be it further enacted, That the Provisions of another Act passed in the Ninth and Tenth Years of the Reign of King William, intituled An Act for the more effectual suppressing Blasphemy and Profaneness, so far as the same relate to Persons denying as therein mentioned, respecting the Holy Trinity, be and the same are hereby repealed.

s. 3. “And whereas it is expedient to repeal an Act, passed in the Parliament of Scotland in the First Parliament of King Charles the Second, intituled, An Act against the Crime of Blasphemy; and another Act, passed in the Parliament of Scotland in the First Parliament of King William, intituled Act against Blasphemy; which Acts respectively ordain the Punishment of Death; be it therefore enacted, That the said Acts and each of them shall be, and the same are and is hereby repealed.

s. 4. “And be it further enacted, That this Act shall be deemed and taken to be a Public Act, and shall be judicially taken Notice of as such by all Judges, Justices, and others, without being specially pleaded.”

60 Geo. 3. c. 8. “An Act for the more effectual Prevention and Punishment of blasphemous and seditious Libels.”

“Whereas it is expedient to make more effectual Provision for the Punishment of blasphemous and seditious Libels; be it enacted by the King’s most excellent Majesty, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the Authority of the same, That from and after the passing of this Act, in every Case in which any Verdict or Judgment by Default shall be had against any Person for composing, printing, or publishing any blasphemous Libel, or any seditious Libel, tending to bring into Hatred or Contempt the Person of His Majesty, His Heirs or Successors, or the Regent, or the Government and Constitution of the United Kingdom as by Law established, or either House of Parliament, or to excite His Majesty’s Subjects to attempt the Alteration of any Matter in Church or State as by Law established, otherwise than by lawful Means, it shall be lawful for the Judge, or the Court before whom or in which such Verdict shall have been given, or the Court in which such Judgment by Default shall be had, to make an Order for the Seizure and carrying away, and detaining in safe Custody, in such Manner as shall be directed in such Order, all Copies of the Libel which shall be in the Possession of the Person against whom such Verdict or Judgment shall have been had, or in the Possession of any other Person named in the Order for his Use; Evidence upon Oath having been previously given to the Satisfaction of such Court or Judge, that a Copy or Copies of the said Libel is or are in the Possession of such other Person for the Use of the Person against whom such Verdict or Judgment shall have been had as aforesaid; and in every such Case it shall be lawful for any Justice of the Peace, or for any Constable or other Peace Officer acting under any 55 such Order, or for any Person or Persons acting with or in Aid of any such Justice of the Peace, Constable, or other Peace Officer, to search for any Copies of such Libel in any House, Building, or other Place whatsoever belonging to the Person against whom any such Verdict or Judgment shall have been had, or to any other Person so named, in whose Possession any Copies of any such Libel, belonging to the Person against whom any such Verdict or Judgment shall have been had, shall be; and in case Admission shall be refused or not obtained within a reasonable Time after it shall have been first demanded, to enter by Force by Day into any such House, Building, or Place whatsoever, and to carry away all Copies of the Libel there found, and to detain the same in safe Custody until the same shall be restored under the Provisions of this Act, or disposed of according to any further Order made in relation thereto.

s. 2. “And be it further enacted, That if in any such Case as aforesaid Judgment shall be arrested, or if, after Judgment shall have been entered, the same shall be reversed upon any Writ of Error, all Copies so seized shall be forthwith returned to the Person or Persons from whom the same shall have been so taken as aforesaid, free of all Charge and Expence, and without the Payment of any Fees whatever; and in every Case in which final Judgment shall be entered upon the Verdict so found against the Person or Persons charged with having composed, printed, or published such Libel, then all Copies so seized shall be disposed of as the Court in which such Judgment shall be given shall order and direct.

s. 3. “Provided always, and be it enacted, That in Scotland, in every Case in which any Person or Persons shall be found guilty before the Court of Justiciary, of composing, printing, or publishing any blasphemous or seditious Libel, or where Sentence of Fugitation shall have been pronounced against any Person or Persons, in consequence of their failing to appear to answer to any Indictment charging them with having composed, printed, or published any such Libel, then and in either of such Cases, it shall and may be lawful for the said Court to make an Order for the Seizure, carrying away, and detaining in safe Custody, all Copies of the Libel in the Possession of any such Person or Persons named in such Order, for his or their Use, Evidence upon Oath having been previously given to the Satisfaction of such Court or Judge, that a Copy or Copies of the said Libel is or are in the Possession of such other Person for the Use of the Person against whom such Verdict or Judgment shall have been had as aforesaid; and every such Order so made shall and may be carried into effect, in such and the same Manner as any Order made by the Court of Justiciary, or any Circuit Court of Justiciary, may be carried into Effect according to the Law and Practice of Scotland: Provided always, that in the Event of any Person or Persons being reponed against any such Sentence of Fugitation, and being thereafter acquitted, all Copies so seized shall be forthwith returned to the Person or Persons from whom the same shall have been so taken as aforesaid; and in all other Cases, the Copies so seized shall be disposed of in such Manner as the said Court may direct.

s. 4. “And be it further enacted, That if any Person shall, after the passing of this Act, be legally convicted of having, after the passing of this Act, composed, printed, or published any blasphemous Libel or any such seditious Libel as aforesaid, and shall, after being so convicted, offend a Second Time, and be thereof legally convicted before any Commission of Oyer and Terminer or Gaol Delivery, or in His Majesty’s Court of King’s Bench, such Person may, on such Second Conviction, be adjudged, at the Discretion of the Court, either to suffer such Punishment as may now by Law be inflicted in Cases of high Misdemeanors, or to be banished from the United Kingdom, and all other Parts of His Majesty’s Dominions, for such Term of Years as the Court in which such Conviction shall take place shall order.

s. 5. “And be it further enacted, That in case any Person so sentenced and ordered to be banished as aforesaid, shall not depart from this United Kingdom within Thirty Days after the pronouncing of such Sentence and Order as aforesaid, for the Purpose of going into such Banishment as aforesaid, it shall and may be lawful to and for His Majesty to convey such Person to such Parts out of the Dominions of His said Majesty, as His Majesty by and with the Advice of His Privy Council shall direct.

s. 6. “And be it further enacted, That if any Offender who shall be so ordered by any such Court as aforesaid to be banished in Manner aforesaid, shall after the End of Forty Days from the Time such Sentence and Order hath been pronounced, be at large within any Part of the United Kingdom, or any other Part of His Majesty’s Dominions, without some lawful Cause, before the Expiration of the Term for which such Offender shall have been so ordered to be banished as aforesaid, every such Offender being so at large as aforesaid, being thereof lawfully convicted, shall be transported to such Place as shall be appointed by His Majesty for any Term not exceeding Fourteen Years.

s. 7. “And be it further enacted, That the Clerk of Assize, Clerk of the Peace, or other Clerk or Officer of the Court having the Custody of the Records where any 56 Offender shall have been convicted of having composed, printed, or published any blasphemous or seditious Libel, shall, upon Request of the Prosecutor on His Majesty’s Behalf, make out and give a Certificate in Writing, signed by him, containing the Effect and Substance only (omitting the formal Part) of every Indictment and Conviction of such Offender to the Justices of Assize, Oyer and Terminer, Great Sessions, or Gaol Delivery, where such Offender or Offenders shall be indicted for any Second Offence of composing, printing, or publishing any blasphemous or seditious Libel, for which Certificate Six Shillings and Eight-pence and no more shall be paid, and which Certificate shall be sufficient Proof of the Conviction of such Offender.

s. 8. “And be it further enacted, That any Action and Suit which shall be brought or commenced against any Justice or Justices of the Peace, Constable, Peace Officer, or other Person or Persons, within that Part of Great Britain called England, or in Ireland, for any thing done or acted in pursuance of this Act, shall be commenced within Six Calendar Months next after the Fact committed, and not afterwards; and the Venue in every such Action or Suit shall be laid in the proper County where the Fact was committed, and not elsewhere; and the Defendant or Defendants in every such Action or Suit may plead the General Issue, and give this Act and the special Matter in Evidence at any Trial to be had thereupon; and if such Action or Suit shall be brought or commenced after the Time limited for bringing the same, or the Venue shall be laid in any other Place than as aforesaid, then the Jury shall find a Verdict for the Defendant or Defendants; and in such Case, or if the Jury shall find a Verdict for the Defendant or Defendants upon the Merits, or if the Plaintiff or Plaintiffs shall become Nonsuit, or discontinue his, her, or their Actions after Appearance, or if, upon Demurrer, Judgment shall be given against the Plaintiff or Plaintiffs, the Defendant or Defendants shall have Double Costs, which he or they shall and may recover in such and the same Manner as any Defendant can by Law in other Cases.

s. 9. “And be it further enacted, That every Action and Suit which shall be brought or commenced against any Person or Persons in Scotland, for any thing done or acted in pursuance of this Act, shall in like Manner be commenced within Six Calendar Months after the Fact committed, and not afterwards, and shall be brought in the Court of Session in Scotland; and the Defender or Defenders may plead that the Matter complained of was done in pursuance of this Act, and may give this Act and the special Matter in Evidence; and if such Action or Suit shall be brought or commenced after the Time limited for bringing the same, then the same shall be dismissed; and in such Case, or if the Defender or Defenders shall be assoilzied, or the Pursuer or Pursuers shall suffer the Action or Suit to fall asleep, or a Decision shall be pronounced against the Pursuer or Pursuers upon the Relevancy, the Defender or Defenders shall have Double Costs, which he or they shall and may receive in such and the same Manner as any Defender can by Law recover Costs or Expences in other Cases.

s. 10. “Provided always, and be it further enacted, That nothing in this Act contained shall be held or considered as in any respect altering the Law or Practice of Scotland regarding the Punishment of Persons convicted of composing, printing, publishing, or circulating any blasphemous or seditious Libel.”—See Libels.


Letter is said to be blocked-up, when in the progress of a work it is all composed, and from any cause none of the forms can be worked to disengage part of it, in order to proceed. This may arise—from the Author not returning the proofs regularly—from the Reader not reading them for press—from a flush of presswork in other works—from the non-attendance or negligence of the pressmen—or from compositors, in a companionship, keeping each too much copy in his hands, whereby all the letter is composed before they join their matter. From whatever cause it arises it is a great detriment, and unhinges the regular train of work, and ought always to be avoided as much as possible.

The term is also applied when the Pressmen use too much ink in working a form; and when a form has been neglected to be washed, and the ink left to dry on the face—It is blocked-up with ink.


for stereotype printing, see Risers.


A case made of strong deal boards, with broad ledges nailed on the inside of the two sides, to slide letter boards in: they are for the purpose of putting boards in with pages and jobs on; as the matter is safer and less likely to be broken, and more out of the way than 57 when scattered about on bulks, and also takes up less room. The sizes are usually such as will admit demy and royal boards; but in houses where works on large paper are printed, they have board racks that will admit suitably larger boards.


A piece of steel wire filed tapering to a point; the thick end being fixed in a short wooden handle. Its use is to pick wrong letters out of a page in correcting, in order to their being replaced by right ones. A fine hackle tooth makes the best bodkin, and the finer the point the better.


The size of the shank of any type from the back of it to the front, or the square of the m quadrat: thus English Body, Pica Body, &c.—M. See Types. Typographical Points.

Notes and Corrections: Body

“Typographical Points” is not a separate article, but a long section in the Types article.


The subject matter of a work is usually so termed, to distinguish it from the notes, the preface, introduction, contents, and index.


A piece of stout leather strap nailed to the near long rib of a wooden press, at the fore end, and padded under so as to raise it sufficiently high; its use is to check the running out of the carriage, by friction, at the proper place to permit the tympan to rise clear of the platen, when the pressmen are in a train of work, a similar piece being nailed under the carriage. In iron presses a bar projects between the ribs on which is secured an inclined plane of wood, and in some iron presses a spring is screwed on the near long rib for the purpose. It prevents the sudden jerk upon the back stay, and also upon the carriage when it is run out.


The pieces of furniture that are placed between the head lines of the pages in a form of twelves, to form the margin at the head of the pages, are called Bolts.

The bolts are cut to the width of the page, so that the gutters go a little way between them, and secure the sides of the pages the whole length: I would recommend to the compositor to cut his bolts square at the ends, and of such a length that they shall go into the measure of his composing stick easily; he will thus prevent the folios or any letters at the extremities of the head lines falling down, as well as the bolts binding against the gutters.


A printing office in which the printing of books is the chief business carried on: in many houses in London the materials for this purpose are most abundant; but at the same time they very rarely keep any great assortment of large type for jobs. See Job House.


The Book Press, in the warehouse department, used for pressing books previously to their delivery, is the common screw press with a perpen­dicular screw, screwed down by means of an iron bar; it is also used for pressing paper when wetted, for the purpose of improving its condition previously to the process of printing, and also in cylindrical or machine printing to cause the paper, and particularly large sheets, to lie flat, which are otherwise apt to wrinkle in being carried round the cylinders upon a flat surface. In large establishments Bramah’s hydrostatic press is generally used for these purposes, as being much more powerful and expeditious both in its use and in its effect. See Hydrostatic Press.

Notes and Corrections: Book Press

See Hydrostatic Press
[There is no article called Hydrostatic Press, so I hope he meant Hydraulic Press. The same goes for the cross-reference under Bramah’s Press.]


25 Hen. 8. c 15. intituled, “An Act for Printers and Binders of Books.”

“‘Whereas by the Provision of a Statute made in the first Year of the Reign of King Richard the Third, it was provided in the same Act, That all Strangers repairing into this Realm, might lawfully bring into the said Realm printed and written Books, to sell at their Liberty and Pleasure; (2) by Force of which Provision there 58 hath come to this Realm sithen the making of the same, a marvellous Number at printed Books, and daily doth; and the Cause of the making of the same Provision seemeth to be, for that there were but few Books, and few Printers within this Realm at that Time, which could well exercise and occupy the said Science and Craft of Printing; nevertheless, sithen the making of the said Provision, many of this Realm, being the King’s natural Subjects, have given them so diligently to learn and exercise the said Craft of Printing, that at this Day there be within this Realm a great Number cunning and expert in the said Science or Craft of Printing, as able to exercise the said Craft in all Points, as any Stranger in any other Realm or Country: (3) And furthermore, where there be a great Number of the King’s Subjects within this Realm, which live by the Craft and Mystery of Binding of Books, and that there be a great Multitude well expert in the same, yet all this notwith­standing, there are divers Persons that bring from beyond the Sea great Plenty of printed Books, not only in the Latin Tongue, but also in our maternal English Tongue, some bound in Boards, some in Leather, and some in Parchment, and them sell by retail, whereby many of the King’s Subjects, being Binders of Books, and having no other Faculty wherewith to get their Living, be destitute of Work, and like to be undone, except some Reformation herein be had:’ Be it therefore enacted by the King our Sovereign Lord, the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and the Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by Authority of the same, That the said Proviso, made in the first Year of the said King Richard the Third, from the Feast of the Nativity of our Lord God next coming, shall be void and of none Effect.

s. 4. “Provided alway, and be it enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That if any of the said Printers or Sellers of printed Books, inhabited within this Realm, at any Time hereafter happen in such wise to inhance or increase the Prices of any such printed Books, in Sale or Binding, at too high and unreasonable Prices, in such wise as Complaint be made thereof unto the King’s Highness, or unto the Lord Chancellor, Lord Treasurer, or any of the Chief Justices of the one Bench or of the other; that then the same Lord Chancellor, Lord Treasurer, and two Chief Justices, or two of any of them, shall have Power and Authority to enquire thereof, as well by the Oaths of twelve honest and discreet Persons, as otherwise by due Examination by their Discretions. (2) And after the same inhancing and increasing of the said Prices of the said Books and Binding shall be so found by the said twelve Men, or otherwise by Examination of the said Lord Chancellor, Lord Treasurer and Justices, or two of them; that then the same Lord Chancellor, Lord Treasurer and Justices, or two of them at the least, from Time to Time shall have Power and Authority to reform and redress such inhancing of the Prices of printed Books from Time to Time by their Discretions, and to limit Prices as well of the Books as for the Binding of them; (3) and over that the Offender or Offenders thereof being convict by the Examination of the same Lord Chancellor, Lord Treasurer and two Justices, or two of them, or otherwise, shall lose and forfeit for every Book by them sold, whereof the Price shall be inhanced for the Book or Binding thereof, three Shillings four Pence; the one Half thereof shall be to the King’s Highness, and the other Half to the Parties grieved that will complain upon the same in Manner and Form before rehearsed.”

(Sections 2. & 3. Repealed by 3 Geo. 4. c. 41. s. 2.)

By the Act 3 & 4 Will. 4. c. 52. s. 58. Books are absolutely prohibited to be imported for Sale, being “first composed or written or printed in the United Kingdom, and printed or reprinted in any other Country, except Books not reprinted in the United Kingdom within Twenty Years; or being Parts of Collections the greater parts of which had been composed or written abroad.”

By the “Table of New Duties, 1834,” in 4 & 5 Will. 4. c. 89., the Customs Duties Inwards are for “Books in the Foreign living Languages, being of Editions printed in or since the Year One thousand eight hundred and one, bound or unbound, the cwt. 2l. 10s.

2 & 3 Vict. c. 23. s. 1. Drawbacks on Excise Duty. “For every Pound Weight Avoirdupois of printed Books in perfect and complete Sets, or, if periodical Publications, in perfect Parts or Numbers, and of blank, plain, or ruled Account Books, whether bound or unbound, made of or printed or ruled on Paper made and charged with Duty in the United Kingdom, and which shall be exported as Merchandise, a Drawback of One Penny Halfpenny.” See Paper.

Books. (Ireland.) 4 Geo. 4. c 72. “An Act to repeal the several Duties and Drawbacks of Customs, chargeable and allowable in Ireland, on the Importation and Exportation of certain Foreign and Colonial Goods, Wares, and Merchandize, and to grant other Duties and Drawbacks in lieu thereof, equal to the Duties and Drawbacks chargeable and allowable thereon in Great Britain.”

Duties of Customs on Goods, &c. imported into Ireland.
Books, printed, or Manuscripts, viz. £ s. d.
———— half-bound, or in any way bound, the Cwt. 6 10 0
———— unbound, the Cwt. 5 0 0

No Drawback.

The same Duties from the East Indies.


The act of putting the different gatherings of a work together, in the warehouse, so as to make complete books. This is done by laying the gatherings in order upon a table, and, commencing with the first, taking them up in order; by adopting this method they are gathered under hand, as it may be termed, the succession being placed at the bottom as the person proceeds. The reverse of this method, is, however, to be preferred; to commence at the end of the work, and as the gathering is held in the hand, and rests on the arm, to lay the others upon it as they are taken up, so that in this way the commencement of the book will be the last to be gathered.


with the Abbreviations by which they are generally referred to.

A. & S.—Albertini and Schweinitz, Writers upon Fungi.

Ab. China.—Abel (C.). A Voyage to China. 4to.

Ab. Ins.—Abbott’s Natural History of the Insects of Carolina. fol.

Ac. Boh.—Abhandlungen einer Gesellschaft in Bœhmen, zur Aufnahme der Mathematik, der Vaterlændischen Geschichte und der Naturgeschichte. 8vo. Pragæ, 1775–1789.

Ac. Bon.—De Bononiense Scientiarum et Artium Instituto, Commentarii. 4to. Bononiæ. 7 vols. 1748—1791.

Ach.—Acharius. A Swedish professor, and writer upon Lichens.

Ac. Got.—Commentarii Societatis Regiæ Scientiarum Gœttingensis. 4to. 1751. 1754. 1769. 1816.

Ac. Haf.—Acta Literaria Universitatis Hafniensis. 1 vol. 4to. Hafniæ, 1778.

Ac. Hel.—Acta Helvetica Physico-mathematico-botanico-medica. 8 vols. 4to. Basileæ, 1757–1777.

Ac. Hol.—Kongl. Svenska Vetenskaps Academiens Handlingar. 8vo. Stockholm, 1739–1816.

Ac. Par.—Actes de la Société d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris. fol. Paris, 1792.

Ac. Pet.—Commentarii Academiæ Scientiarum Imperialis Petropolitanæ. 14 vols. 4to. Petropoli, 1728–1751.

Ac. St.—Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Handlingar. 8vo. Stockholm, 1739.

Ac. Tou.—Histoire et Mémoires de l’Académie Royale des Sciences, &c., de Toulouse. 3 vols. 4to. Toulouse, 1782. 1784. 1788.

Ac. Up.—Acta Literaria et Scientiarum Upsaliæ publicata. 8vo. 1720–1816.

Adams.—F. Adams. A Russian botanist, who travelled through Arctic and Eastern Siberia.

Adan.—Adanson. A French systematic botanist.

Afz.—Afzelius. A Swedish professor.

A. G.And. Ger.—Andrews (Henry). Coloured Engravings of Geraniums. fol. Lond.

Ag.—Agardh. A Swedish professor, and writer upon Algæ, &c.

Ag. Sven. Bot.—Aghardt, in Svensk Botanik. 9 vols. 8vo. 1804 to the present time.

A. H.And. Hea.—Andrews (Henry). Coloured Engravings of Heaths, with botanical descriptions. 3 vols. fol. London, 1802–1809.

Ait.—Aiton. The superintendent of the King’s garden at Kew.

Ait. Kew.Ait. Hort. Kew.—Aiton’s (William) Hortus Kewensis; or a Catalogue of the Plants in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew. 5 vols.

Al. Au.—Allioni (Carolus). Auctuarium ad Floram Pedemontanam. 1 fasc. 8vo. Taurini, 1789.

Alb.—Albertini. A writer on Fungi.

Alb. & Schw.—Albertini (J. B. de) and Schweinitz (L. D. de) Conspectus Fungorum in Lusatiæ Superioris Agro Niskiensi crescentium. 8vo. Lipsiæ, 1805.

All.—Allioni. An Italian botanist.

Al. Ped.—Allioni (Carolus). Flora Pedemontana. 3 vols. fol. Taurini, 1785.

Al. Tau.—Allioni (Carolus). Miscellanea Philosophico-mathematica Societatis privatæ Taurinensis.


Alp. Æg.—Alpinus (Prosper). De Plantis Ægypti liber. 4to. Venetiis, 1592.

Alp. Ex.—Alpinus (Prosper). De Plantis Exoticis libri duo. 4to. Venetiis, 1629.

Am. Ac.—Linnæi Amœnitates Academicæ, seu Dissertationes antehac seorsim editæ. 10 vols. 8vo. Holmiæ et Lipsiæ, 1749, et seq.

Am. Rut.—Ammann (Johan.). Stirpium rariorum in Imperio Rutheno sponte provenientium Icones et Descriptiones. 4to. Petrop. 1739.

Amans S.—Amans. Obs. in Recueil des Travaux de la Société d’Agriculture d’Agens. 1 vol.

Amm.—Ammann. An old Russian botanist.

An. Bot.—Annals of Botany, by C. König and J. Sims. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1805 and 1806.

An. Mu.—Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle. 24 vols. 4to. Paris, 1802 to the present time.

An. Wett.—Annalen der Wetteranischen Gesellschaft für die gesammte Naturkunde.

And. Ger.—Andrews (Henry). Coloured Engravings of Geraniums. fol. London.

And. Heaths.—Andrews (Henry). Coloured Engravings of Heaths, with botanical descriptions. 3 vols. fol. London, 1802–1809.

And. Rep.—Andrews (Henry). The Botanist’s Repository for new and rare Plants. 10 vols. 4to. London, 1797, et seq.

Ander.—Anderson. A London merchant; published a paper on Pæonies.

Andr.—Andrews. A famous botanical draughtsman.

Andrz.—Andrzejowski. A Russian botanist.

Ard.—Arduini. An Italian botanist.

Ard. M.—Arduini (Pietro). Memoria di Osservazioni e di Sperienze sopra la Coltura e gli Usi di varie Piante. 4to. Padova, 1766.

Ard. Sag.—Arduini (Pietro), in Saggi dell’ Accad. de Padova. 2 vols.

Ard. Sp.—Arduini (Pietro). Animadversionum Botanicarum Specimen. 4to. Patavii, 1759.

As. Res.—Asiatic Researches, or the Transactions of the Society instituted in Bengal. 4to. Calcutta, 1788, &c.

Asso.—Asso. A Spanish botanist.

Asso Ar.—De Asso (Ignatius). Synopsis Stirpium indigenarum Arragoniæ. 4to. Marsilliæ, 1779.

Aub.—Aublet. A French traveller in Guiana.

Aub. Gui.—Aublet (Fusée). Histoire des Plantes de la Guiane Française. 4 vols. 4to. London, 1773.

Aud.—Audibert. A French cultivator.

B. C.—Botanical Cabinet. By Loddiges and Sons.

B. M.—Botanical Magazine. By Curtis, Sims, &c.

B. & W.—Bartling, M.D. and Wendland, of Göttingen, botanists.

B. R.—Botanical Register. By Ker and Lindley.

Bac.—Bacle. A German botanist?

B. Rep.—Botanical Repository. By Andrews and others.

Bal. Mis.—Balbis (Joh. Baptist.). Miscellanea Botanica. 4to. 1804.

Bal. St.—Balbis (Joh. Baptist.). Horti Academici Taurinensis Stirpium minus cognitarum aut forte novarum Icones et Descriptiones. Taurini, 1810.

Bal. Tic.—Balbis (Joh. Baptist.). Flora Ticinensis. 2 vols. 8vo. Ticin. 1816–1821.

Balb.—Balbis. A French professor of botany.

Baldw.—Baldwin, M.D. of Savannah in Georgia. A botanist.

Banks.—Banks. A great traveller and patron of science.

Banks K.—Banks (Josephus). Icones selectæ Plantarum quas in Japonia collegit et delineavit E. Kæmpfer. fol. London, 1791.

Bar. Fl.—Barton (W. P. C.). Flora of North America. 4to.

Bar. Ic.—Barrelier (Jacobus). Plantæ per Galliam, Hispaniam, et Italiam observatæ. fol. Parisiis, 1714.

Barrl.—Barrelier. A French botanist.

Bart.—Barton, M.D. Formerly a professor at Philadelphia.

Bartr.—Bartram. Formerly a nurseryman at Philadelphia.

Bartr. It.—Bartram (Will.). Travels through South and North Carolina. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1791.

Bast.—Bastard or Bâtard. A writer upon the Flora of France.

Bast. J.—Bastard (T.), in Schrader’s Journal für die Botanik?

Batarra.—Batarra (John Ant.). Fungorum Agri Ariminensis Historia. 4to. Faventiæ, 1759.


Batsch.—Batsch. A writer upon Fungi.

Batsch Fun.—Batsch (Aug. Joh. Georg Carl). Elenchus Fungorum. 4to. Halæ, 1783–1789.

Batt.—Battarra. Published a History of Fungi, 1789.

Bau. His.—Bauhin (Johannes). Historia Plantarum universalis. fol. 1651.

Bau. Pin.—Bauhin (Caspar). Pinax Theatri Botanici. 4to. Basileæ, 1623.

Bau. Pr.—Bauhin (Caspar). Prodromus Theatri Botanici, in quo plantæ supra 600 proponuntur. 4to. Franc. Mœn. 1620.

Bauer N. H.—Bauer (Ferdin.). Illustrationes Floræ Novæ Hollandiæ. fol. 1813.

Baug.—J. C. Baumgarten, M.D. of Schasburgh, in Transylvania. A botanist.

Bauh.—Bauhin, brothers; professors of medicine, published 1620, 1650.

Baum.—J. C. Baumgarten, M.D. of Schasburgh, in Transylvania. A botanist.

Beau. Ow.—Allioni. Palisot de Beauvois. Flore des Royaumes d’Oware et de Benin. 2 vols. fol. Paris, 1805.

Beaup.—Beaupret. A French botanist, mentioned in Dec. Systems.

Beauv.—Palisot de Beauvois. A French traveller and botanist.

Beauv. Gr.—Allioni. Palisot de Beauvois. Essai d’une nouvelle Agrostograpbie. 8vo. Paris, 1812.

Beauv. In. Ac. Am.—Allioni. Palisot de Beauvois. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 4to. 3 vols. Philadelphia, 1774–1793.

Bedf.—Duke of Bedford. A great promoter of botany.

Bel.—Bellardi. An Italian botanist.

Bel. Tau.—Bellardi (Ludovico). Mémoires de l’Académie Royale des Sciences de Turin. 4to. 1782.

Benth.—Bentham. An English botanist, secretary to the Horticultural Society, London.

Berg.—Bergius. A Swedish writer upon Cape plants.

Berg. C.—Bergius (Peter Jonas). Descriptiones Plantarum ex Capite Bonæ Spei. 8vo. Stockholm, 1767.

Berg. Ho.—Bergius (Peter Jonas), in Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Handlingar. 8vo. Stockholm, 1739.

Berger.—J. Bergeret, M.D. A French botanist.

Berg. Ph.—Bergeret. Phytonomatotechnie universelle. 3 vols. fol. Paris.

Ber. Mag.—Martini (Fried. Henr. Wilh.). Berlinisches Magazin, oder gesammelte Schriften. 4 bänd. 8vo. Berlin, 1765–1767.

Ber. Ph. Tr.—Bergius (P. J.), in Philosophical Transactions, vol. for 1772. London.

Bernh.—Bernhardi. A German botanist.

Bert.—Bertolini. A writer upon the Flora of Italy.

Bes.—Besser. A Russian professor, resident in the Crimea.

Bes. Eys.—Besler (Basilius). Hortus Eystettensis. 2 vols. fol. Nuremberg, 1612.

Bib. It.—Memorie di Matematica e Fisica della Societa Italiana. 4to. Verona, 1782 and 1816.

Bieb.—Bieberstein. A Russian botanist of great note.

Bieb. Cen.—Bieberstein (Marschall von). Centuriæ Plantarum rariorum Rossiæ Meridionalis. Charkoviæ. fol.

Biv.—Bivona. A Sicilian botanist.

Biv. Cen.—Bivona Bernardi (Antonin.). Sicularum Plantarum Centuria prima. 8vo. Panormi, 1806.

Biv. Sic.—Bivona Bernardi (Antonin.). Stirpium rariorum minusque cognitarum in Sicilia provenientium Descriptiones. 4to. 1813.

Black.—Blackwell (Eliz.). A curious Herbal, containing 600 cuts of the useful plants. 2 vols. fol. London, 1737.

Blume.—Blume, M.D. A Dutch botanist.

Boc. Mu.—Boccone (Paolo). Museo di Piante rare della Sicilia, Malta, Corsica, Italia, Piemonte, e Germania. 4to. Venetia, 1697.

Boc. Sic.—Boccone (Paolo). Icones et Descriptiones rariorum Plantarum Siciliæ, Melitæ, Galliæ, et Italiæ. 4to. Londini, 1674.

Boer.—Boerhaave. An old Dutch botanist.

Böhm.—Böhmer. A German botanical writer.

Bois.—Boissieu la Martinière, who accompanied La Peyrouse.

Boj.—Bojer. A professor of botany in the Isle of France.

Bol.—Bolton. An English writer on Fungi.

Bolt. Fil.—Bolton (James). Filices Britanniæ. 4to. London, 1785–1790.

Bolt. Pil.—Bolton (James). Geschichte der merkwürdigsten Pilze. Berlin, 1795.

Bon. Mon.—Bonpland (Aimé). Monographie des Melastomes et Rhexes et autres Plantes de cet Ordre. fol. Paris, 1809.


Bon. Nav.—Bonpland (Aimé). Description des Plantes rares cultivés à Malmaison et à Navarre. fol. 1813.

Bon. Rhex.—Bonpland (Aimé). Monographie des Melastomes et Rhexes et autres Plantes de cet Ordre. fol. Paris, 1809.

Bonp.—Bonpland. A French traveller in South America, and botanist.

Borc.—Borckhausen. A writer upon the Flora of Hesse Darmstadt.

Bonam.—Bonamy (Franc.). Floræ Nannetensis Prodromus. 12mo. Nantes, 1782.

Bory.—Bory de St. Vincent. A French traveller and botanist.

Bosc.—Bosc. A French botanist, and traveller in North America.

Bot. Cab.—The Botanical Cabinet. By Conrad Loddiges and Sons. 14 vols. 12mo. and 4to, published monthly.

Bot. Mag.—The Botanical Magazine. 8vo. 55 vols. London, 1787–1830.

Bot. Mis.—Hooker (Will. Jackson). Botanical Miscellany. 2 parts, 8vo. London, 1830.

Bot. Reg.—The Botanical Register. 8vo. 14 vols. London, 1815–1830.

Bot. Rep.—The Botanist’s Repository for new and rare plants. 10 vols. 4to. London, 1797, et seqq.

Bouch.—Boucher. A writer upon the French Flora.

Bouché.—F. A. G. Boucher. A French botanist.

Bow.—J. Bowie. A collector of plants for Kew Gardens.

Br.—Patrick Browne, M.D. Author of Civil and Natural History of Jamaica. An Irish botanist.

Br. J.—Browne (Patrick). The Civil and Natural History of Jamaica. fol. London, 1756.

Br. Rem.—Brown (Robert). General Remarks, Geographical and Systematical, on the Botany of Terra Australia. 4to. 1814.

Bra. Sal.—De Braune (Franz Ant.). Salzburgische Flora. 8vo. 1791.

Braam.—Braam’s Icones Chinenses. Not published.

Brad.—Bradley. An old English writer upon succulent plants.

Brad. Suc.—Bradley (Richard). Historia Plantarum Succulentarum. 4to. London, 1716–1727.

Bred.—Bredemeyer. A German.

Brew. Jour.—Brewster’s Philosophical Journal. Edinburgh, published every three months.

Brey. C.—Breynius (Jacobus). Exoticarum Plantarum Centuria. fol. Gedani, 1678.

Brey. Pr.—Breynius (Jacobus). Prodromus Fasciculi rariorum Plantarum in Hortis Hollandiæ observatarum. 2 vols. 4to. Gedani, 1680–1689.

Brid.—Bridel. A German writer upon Mosses.

Brid. Mus.—Bridel (Samuel Elias). Muscologia. 4to. Gothæ et Parisiis, 1797–1803.

Brig.—J. Brignoli. Professor at Verona.

Brm.—Burmann. A Dutch editor of other people’s works.

Broeg.—Broegelmann. A German botanist.

Brong.—A. Brongniart. A French botanist.

Brot.—Brotero. A Portuguese botanist.

Brot. Lus.—Brotero (Felix Avellar). Flora Lusitanica. 2 vols. 8vo. Olyssip. 1801.

Brot. Ph.—Brotero (Felix Avellar). Phytographia Lusitaniæ selectior. fol. Olyssip. 1801.

Brou.—Broussonet. A French botanist, and traveller in Barbary.

Bruce Tr.—Bruce (James). Travels to discover the Source of the Nile. 5 vols. 4to. Edinburgh, 1790.

Bry. Hist.—Bryant (Charles). Flora Dietetica, or History of Esculent Plants. 8vo. London, 1783.

Buc.—Buchanan. An English physician, and traveller in Nepal.

Buch.—Buchoz (Pierre Joseph). Collection des Fleurs. fol. Paris.

Bul.—Bulliard. A French writer upon Fungi.

Bul. Her.—Bulliard. Herbier de la France. fol. 1780, &c.

Bul. Ph.—Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris. 1791–1816.

Bur. Af.—Burmann (Johannes). Rariorum Africanarum Plantarum Decades 10. 4to. Amstelodami, 1738–1739.

Bur. Am.—Burmann (Johannes). Plantæ Americanæ à C. Plumier detectæ et à J. Burmanno editæ. fol. Amstelod. 1755.

Bur. In.—Burmann (Johannes). Flora Indica. 4to. Lugd. Bat. 1768.

Bur. Zey.—Burmann (Johannes). Thesaurus Zeylanicus. 4to. Amst. 1737.

Burc.—Burchell. An English botanist, and traveller at the Cape of Good Hope.


Burg.—Burgsdorf. A German botanist.

Bux.—Buxbaum, M.D. A Russian botanist; travelled through Armenia.

Bux. C.—Buxbaum (Joh. Christ.). Plantarum minus cognitarum Centuriæ quinque. 4to. 1728.

C. Bauh.—Caspar Bauhin. A celebrated botanist of the seventeenth century.

C. & R.—Castagne and Robillard. French botanists?

C. G.—Commentarii Societatis Regiæ Scientiarum Göttingensis. 4to. 1751–1816.

Cæs.—Cæsalpinus. A famous old Italian botanist.

Cam.—Campana. An Italian cultivator.

Cam. Ep.—Camerarius (Joachim). De Plantis Epitome utilissima. 4to. Francof. Mœn. 1586.

Cam. H.—Camerarius (Joachim). Hortus Medicus et Philosophicus. 4to. Franc. Mœn. 1588.

Campd.—Campdera. A Spanish botanist.

Carey.—W. Carey, D. D., of Serampore.

Carm.—Capt. D. Carmichael. A Scotch botanist.

Cass.—H. Cassini. A French botanist.

Castag.—L. Castagne. A French botanist?

Cat.—M. Catesby. A botanist, and traveller in North America.

Cat. Car.—Catesby (Marsh). The Natural History of Carolina, Florida, &c. 2 vols. fol. London, 1741–1743.

Cav.—Cavanilles. A Spanish professor and botanist.

Cav. Dis.—Cavanilles (Ant. Jos.). Monadelphiæ Classis Dissertationes. 10 vols. 4to. Paris, 1785–1789. Madriti, 1790.

Cav. Ic.—Cavanilles (Ant. Jos.). Icones et Descriptiones Plantarum quæ aut sponte in Hispania crescunt aut in Hortis hospitantur. 6 vols. fol. Madrit. 1791–1800.

Cer.—Vicente Cervantez. A Spanish botanist and professor.

Chaix.—A French botanist and ecclesiastic.

Chalm. Ic.—Figures of Bulbs, by Miss Chalmers.

Cham.—Chamisso. A German traveller round the world.

Chan. Cam.—Chandler’s Camellias. London.

Choi.—Choisy. A Swiss botanist.

Chois. Hyp.—Choisy (J. D.). Prodromus d’une Monographie de la Famille des Hypericinées. 4to. 1821.

Cl. H.—Clusius (Carolus). Rariorum Plantarum Historia. fol. Antwerp, 1601.

Cl. Pan.—Clusius (Carolus). Rariorum aliquot Stirpium per Pannoniam observ. Historia. 8vo. 1583 (Hall.), 1584 (Ris.).

Clair.—Clairville. A French botanist.

Clar.—J. Clarion. A French botanist.

Clem.—S. Clemente. A Spanish agriculturist.

Clus.—Clusius. An old French botanist and traveller.

Co. C.—Colville’s Catalogue. Plants cultivated in Colville’s nursery, Chelsea.

Col. Cas.—Colladon (Fréderic). Histoire Naturelle et Médicale des Casses. 4to. Montpelier, 1816.

Col. Ec.—Columna (Fabius). Minus cognitarum Stirpium Ecphrasis. 4to. Romæ, 1616.

Col. H. Rip.—Colla. Hortus Ripulensis. 4to. Turin, 1822–1827.

Col. Ph.—Columna (Fabius). Phytobasanos. 4to. 1592.

Colb.—Colebrooke. A celebrated English writer upon Indian plants.

Coll.—J. F. Colladon. A Genevese botanist.

Com.—Commelin. A Dutch garden botanist.

Com. H.—Commelyn (Caspar). Horti Medici Amstelodamensis rariorum Plantarum Descriptio et Icones. 2 vols. fol. Amst. 1703.

Com. Pet.—Commentarii Academiæ Scientiarum Petropolitanæ. 14 vols. 4to. Petrop. 1728–1751.

Com. Pr.—Commelyn (Caspar). Præludia Botanica ad publicas Plantarum Demonstrationes. 4to. L. Bat. 1703.

Com. R.—Commelyn (Caspar). Horti Medici Amstelodamensis Plantæ rariores et exoticæ. 4to. L. Bat. 1706.

Cook.—Cook (James). Voyage round the World (2d). 2 vols. 4to. 1777.

Cor. Ca.—Cornuti (Jacob.). Canadensium Plantarum aliarumque nondum editarum Historia. 4to. Paris, 1635.

Corr.—Corréa de Serra. A Portuguese botanist and diplomatist.

Cr.—Crantz. An Austrian botanist.

Cr. Au.—Crantz (Henr. Joh. Nepom.). Stirpes Austriacæ. 8vo. 1762.


Crypt. Brit.—Greville (Charles Kaye). The British Cryptogamic Flora. 5 vols. 8vo.

Cun.—A. Cunningham. A collector of plants for Kew Gardens.

Cup. Pa.—Cupani (Franciscus). Pamphytum Siculum, seu Historia Plantarum Siciliæ. fol.

Cup. Sic.—Cupani (Franciscus). Catalogus Plantarum Sicularum noviter detectarum. Panormi, 1652.

Cur.—Curtis. An English writer upon plants.

Cur. Lon.—Curtis (William). Flora Londinensis. fol. London, 1777, continued.

Curt. Bot. Mag.—Curtis’s Botanical Magazine.

Cus.—Cusson. A Swiss writer upon Umbelliferæ, whose wife burnt his herbarium.

Cyr.—Cyrilli. An Italian botanist.

Cyr. Ne.—Cyrillo (Domenico). Plantarum rariorum Regni Neapolitani Specimen. fol. Neapol. 1788–1792.

Dalech.—Dalechamps (Jacques). Historia generalis Plantarum. 2 vols. fol. Lugd. 1586–1587.

Dan.—Danthoine. A French botanist.

Dav.—H. Davies, D.D. A Welsh botanist.

Deb.—Debry. A botanist of Frankfort.

Dec.—Decandolle. A celebrated French systematic botanist.

Dec. As.—Decandolle (Augustus Pyramus). Astragalogia. 4to. et fol. 1802.

Dec. Bis.—Decandolle (Augustus Pyramus). Monographie des Biscutelles, in Annales du Museum. vol. 13. 1811. 4to.

Dec. Cac.—Decandolle (Augustus Pyramus). Dissertation on Cacti, in Mémoires du Museum. vol. 17.

Dec. Diss.—Decandolle (Augustus Pyramus). Dissertations différens sur la Botanique. Various fascicles. 4to.

Dec. Gen.—Decandolle (Augustus Pyramus). Plantes rares du Jardin de Genève. Fasc. 1, 2. fol. Geneva, 1825.

Dec. Ic.—Decandolle (Augustus Pyramus). Icones Plantarum Galliæ rariorum. 4to. Paris, 1808.

Dec. Leg.—Decandolle (Augustus Pyramus). Mémoires sur les Legumineuses. 4to.

Dec. Mon.—Decandolle (Augustus Pyramus). Catalogus Plantarum Horti Monspeliensis, addito observationum circa Species novas aut non satis cognitas Fasciculo. 8vo. 1813.

Dec. Mu.—Decandolle (Augustus Pyramus). Annales du Museum d’Histoire Naturelle. 4to. 1802.

Dec. Pl.—Decandolle (Augustus Pyramus). Plantarum Historia succulentarum. fol. and 4to. Paris, 1799–1830.

Del.—Delile. A French professor, and traveller in Egypt.

Del. Æg.—Delile (Alire Rafeneau). Mémoires Botaniques extraits de la Description de l’Egypte. fol. Paris, 1813.—Et Flora Ægyptiaca illustrata. fol. Paris, 1813.

Del. Eryn.—De la Roche (François). Eryngiorum necnon Generis novi Alepideæ Historia. fol. Paris, 1808.

Delan.—Delany. An English artist.

Deless.—Delessert. A French botanist.

Deless. Ic.—Delessert (Benj.). Icones selectæ Plantarum in System. univers. descriptarum. 4to. 1820.

Den. Br.—Watson (P. W.). Dendrologia Britannica. 1 vol. 1825.

Desf.—Desfontaines. A French botanist, and traveller in Barbary.

Des. Eg.—Description de l’Egypte, ou Recueil des Observations et des Recherches faites pendant l’Expédition de l’Armée Française. 4to. et fol. 1810.

Desf. Mem.—Desfontaines (Réné Louiche). Mémoires de l’Académie Royale des Sciences. 4to. 1666.

Desf. At.—Desfontaines (Réné Louiche). Flora Atlantica. 2 vols. 4to. Paris, 1798, 1799.

Desf. Ch.—Desfontaines (Réné Louiche). Choix des Plantes du Corollaire des Instituts de Tournefort. 4to. Paris, 1808.

Desf. Pic.—Desfontaines (Réné Louiche). Icones pictæ Hort. Par. A Series of Drawings of Plants grown in the Jardin des Plantes, Paris. Not published.

Desp.—Desportes. A French botanist.

Desr.—Desrousseaux. A French botanist.

Desv.—Desvaux. A French professor of botany.

Deth.—Detharding. A botanist of Rostoch.

Deutschl. Fl.—Sturm (Jacob). Deutschlands Flora. 2 vols. 4to. Nürnberg, 1798, &c.


Dick.—Dickson. An English cryptogamic botanist.

Dick. Cr.—Dickson (James). Plantarum Cryptogamicarum Britanniæ Fasciculi. 3. vols. 4to. London, 1785–1793.

Die.—Dietrich. A German gardener.

Dil.—Dillwyn. An English writer upon Confervæ.

Di. El.—Dillenius (John Jac.). Hortus Elthamensis. 2 vols. fol. Londini, 1732.

Di. Musc.—Dillenius (John Jac.). Historia Muscorum. 4to. Oxonii, 1741.

Dit.—Ditmar. A Dutch botanist.

Dod. M.—Dodart (Denys). Mémoires pour servir à l’Histoire des Plantes. fol. Paris, 1676.

Dod. Pe.—Dodonæus or Dodoens (Rambrot). Stirpium Historiæ Pemptades vi. fol. Antwerp, 1583.

Domb.—Dombey. A French traveller in South America.

D. Don.—David Don. Librarian to the Linnean Society.

G. Don.—George Don.

Dor.—Dorthes. A French botanist.

Dou.—Douglas. A collector of plants.


Dry.—Dryander. A Swedish botanist.

Dub.—Dubois. A French botanist.

Duch.—Duchesne. A French botanist or horticulturist.

Dufr.—Dufresne. A French writer upon Valerians.

Dufr. Val.—Dufresne (Pierre). Histoire Naturelle et Médicale de la Famille des Valerianées. 4to. 1811.

Duh.—Duhamel. A celebrated French physiological botanist.

Duh. Ar.—Duhamel du Monceau (Henri Louis). Traité des Arbres et Arbustes qui se cultivent en France en pleine terre. 2 vols. 4to. Paris, 1755.

Duh. Fr.—Duhamel du Monceau (Henri Louis). Traité des Arbres fruitiers. 2 vols. 4to. Paris, 1768; 3 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1782; fol. Paris, 1808, et seq.

Duh. No.—See Duh. Ar. A new edition, by Michel. 5 vols. folio. Paris, 1801–1816.

Dum.—Dumont Courset. A writer upon French garden plants.

Dun. Mon.—Dunal (Michel Felix). Monographie des Anonacées. 4to.

Dun. So.—Dunal (Michel Felix). Histoire Naturelle, Médicale, et Economique, des Solanum et des Genres qui ont été confondus avec eux. 4to. Montpelier, 1813.

Dunal.—Dunal. A French botanist.

Durand.—Durand. A French botanist.


Duroi.—Du Roi. A German writer upon plants.

Duroi. Ha.—Du Roi (Joh. Phil.). Die Harbkische wilde Baumzucht. 2 vols. 8vo. Braunschweig, 1771–1772.

Dut.—Dutour. A Belgic botanist.

Duval.—Duval. A French botanist.

Dw. Con.—Dillwyn (Lewis Weston). Synopsis of the British Confervæ. 4to. 1802–1814.

E. B. —English Botany, by Sir James Edward Smith, and Mr. James Sowerby. 36 vols. 8vo.
Eng. Bot.

E. F.—English Flora. By Sir J. E. Smith.

Ed. Jour. —The Edinburgh Philosophical Journal. 8vo. Edinburgh. Published quarterly.
Ed. Ph. Jour.

Eddy.—Eddy. An English gardener.

Ehr. Pl.—Ehret (George Dion.). Plantæ et Papiliones rariores. fol. London, 1748–1759.

Ehren.—Ehrenberg. A German traveller in Arabia, &c.

Ehrh.—Ehrhart. A German botanist.

El.—Ellis. A London merchant and botanist.

Ell.—Elliot. An American botanist.

Ency. Pl.—Loudon (J. C. L.). Encyclopædia of Plants. 8vo. London, 1830.

Esp.—Esper. A German writer on Fungi.

Esper Fuci.—Esper (Eug. Joh. Christ.). Icones Fucorum. Abbildungen der Tange. 4to. Nürnberg, 1797–1799.

Et.—Ettlinger. A German writer on Salvia.

Ex. Bot.—Exotic Botany, by Sir J. E. Smith. 2 vols. 4to. London, 1804–1808.

Ex. Fl.—See Hook. Ex. Fl.


Fau.—Faucoult. A French botanist.

Fer. Hes.—Ferrari (Joh. Baptist). Hesperides, sive De malorum aureorum culturâ et usu. fol. Romæ, 1646.

Feu.—Feuillée. A Chilian botanist.

Feu. Ob.—Feuillée (Louis). Journal des Observations Physiques, Mathématiques, et Botaniques, faites dans l’Amérique Méridionale, &c. 4to. Paris, 1714–1725.

Fi. N. H.—Field (Baron). Geographical Memoirs of New South Wales. 8vo. London, 1825.

Fis.—Fischer. A Russian botanist.

Fisch. Ic. In.—Collection of Drawings sent by Fischer to Decandolle. Not published.

Fl. Ant.—De Tussac (F. R.). Flora Antillarum. fol. Paris, 1808, et seq.

Fl. Bad.—Gmelin (Carol. Christ.). Flora Badensis-Alsatica. 8vo. 1808.

Fl. Bo.—Schmidt (Franc. Wilib.). Flora Bohemica. 2 vols. fol. Pragæ, 1793, 1794.

Fl. Br.—Flora Britannica. By Sir James Edward Smith.

Fl. Con.—Morris (Richard). Flora Conspicua. 8vo. London, 1826.

Fl. Dan.—Flora Danica, sive Icones Plantarum sponte nascentium in Regnis Daniæ et Norvegiæ, &c. 9 vols. fol. Hafniæ, 1761–1829. By Vahl, Hornemann, and Müller.

Fl. Gr.—Sibthorp (Joh.). Flora Græca, ed. J. E. Smith. 6 vols. fol. London, 1806–1829.

Fl. Lap.—Linnæus (Carolus). Flora Lapponica. 8vo. Amstelodami, 1757.

Fl. Lon.—Curtis (William). Flora Londinensis. fol. London, 1777, continued.

Fl. Mex. Ic. In.—Sesse and Mocino. Flora Mexicana Icon. ined. Iconibus ab ipso Sesse et Cervantesio curatis nondum editis usus est Candolleus.

Fl. Mon.—Magroff (W.). Flora Monacensis.

Fl. Nap.—Tenore (Michel). Flora Neapolitana. 4 vols. fol. Neap. 1811, &c.

Fl. Norv.—Gunnerus (Joh. Enn.). Flora Norvegica. 2 vols. fol. Nidrosiæ, 1766; Hafniæ, 1772.

Fl. Per.—Ruiz (Hippol.) et Pavon (Jos.). Flora Peruviana et Chilensis. 5 vols. fol. Madriti, 1798–1799.

Fl. Por.—Hoffmansegg and Link. Flore Portugaise. Fol. Rostock and Berlin, 1806, &c.

Fl. Pyr.—Picot de la Peyrouse (Philippe). Figures de la Flore des Pyrenées. fol. Paris, 1795–1801.

Fl. Scot.—Lightfoot (John). Flora Scotica. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1776.

Fl. Ver.—Pollini (Cyrus). Flora Veronensis. 3 vols. 8vo. Verona, 1822–1824.

Flu.—Flügg. A German writer upon Grasses.

For. Æg.—Forskahl (Petrus). Flora Ægyptiaco-Arabica. 4to. 1775. Or, Icones Rerum Nat. 4to. Hafniæ, 1776.

Forsk.—Forskahl. A Danish naturalist and traveller in Arabia.

Forst.—Forster. A traveller in the South Seas with Captain Cook.

For. Co. Goet.—Commentarii Societatis Regiæ Scientiarum Göttingensis. 4to. Göttingen, 1751, to the present time.

Forst.—Forster (George). Characteres generum Plantarum quas in Itinere ad Insulas Maris Australia, &c. 4to. 1776.

Fra.—Frazer. A gardener, and collector of plants in North America.

Fras. Mon.—Fraser (John). A short History of the Agrostis Cornucopiæ. fol. London, 1789.

Fries.—Fries. A Swedish botanist, and writer upon Fungi.

Fries. Obs.—Fries (Elias). Observationes Mycologicæ. 12mo. 2 vols. Hafniæ, 1815–1818.

Frö.—Frölich. A German writer upon Gentiana.

Funk.—Funk. A German cryptogamic botanist.

Fuchs.—Fuchs (Leonhard). De Historia Stirpium Commentarii insignes. fol. Basiliæ, 1542–1545.

G. & A.—Greville and Arnott. British botanists.

Gae.—Gaertner. A celebrated German carpologist.

Gae. Fr.—Gaertner (Josephus). De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum. 2 vols. 4to. Lipsiæ, 1788–1791.

Gar. Aix.—Garidel (Pierre Joseph). Histoire des Plantes qui naissent aux Environs d’Aix. 2 vols. fol. Aix, 1715.

Gard. Mag.—Loudon (J. C. L.). Gardener’s Magazine. London, 1826, continued.

Gau.—Gaudin. A Swiss botanist.

Gay.—Gay. A French botanist.


Gay. Dis.—Gay (John). Fragment d’une Monographie des Buttneriacées. 4to. Paris, 1823.

Ger.—Gerard. An old French botanist.

Ger. Em.—Gerard (John). The Herbal, or General History of Plants. fol. London, 1597. Enlarged by Johnson. fol. 1638.

Ger. Gal.—Gerard (Ludovic). Flora Gallo-provincialis. 8vo. Paris, 1761.

Gil. Eu.—Gilibert (Joh. Em.). Histoire des Plantes de l’Europe, ou Elémens de Botanique Pratique. 2 vols. 8vo. Lyons, 1798; 3 vols. 8vo. Lyons, 1806.

Gilib.—Gilibert. A Lithuanian botanist.

Gill.—Gillies’s MSS. Dr. Gillies, a Scotch botanist.

Gin.—Gingins. A French botanist.

Gled.—Gleditsch. A German botanist.

Glox.—Gloxin. A botanist of Strasburgh.

Gm.—Gmelin. A Russian botanist, and traveller in Siberia.

Gm. It.—Gmelin (J. G.). Reise durch Sibirien. 4 vols. 8vo. Götting. 1751–1753.

Gm. Si.—Gmelin (J. G.) Flora Sibirica. 4 vols. 4to. Petropol. 1747–1769.

Goch.—Gochnat. A German botanist.

Gold.—Goldie. A nurseryman at Ayr, in Scotland.

Goldb.—Goldbach. A Russian botanist.

Good.—Goodenough. Bishop of Carlisle. An English botanist.

Gou.—Gouan. A French botanist.

Gou. Il.—Gouan (Antoine). Illustrationes Botanicæ. fol. Tiguri, 1773.

Gou. M.—Gouan (Antoine). Hortus Regius Monspeliensis. 8vo. Lugduni, 1762.

Gr. Wo.—Sinclair (George). Hortus Gramineus Woburnensis. 8vo. 1825.

Grah.—Graham, M.D. Regius professor of botany at Edinburgh. An assiduous botanist.

Grev.—Greville. An English botanist, and writer upon cryptogamic plants.

Grev. Cryp.—Greville (Robert Kaye). The Scottish Cryptogamic Flora. 4 vols. 8vo.

Gro.—Gronovius. A botanist of Leyden.

Guer.—Guersent. A French botanist.

Gül.—Güldenstaedt. A Russian botanist.

Günt.—Günther. A Silesian botanist.

H. An.—Hortus Anglicus.

H. & B.—Humboldt and Bonpland. Famous travellers and botanists.

H. & B. N.—Humboldt, Bonpland, and Kunth. Nova Plantarum Genera et Species. 7 vols. 4to. Paris, 1815 to 1825.

H. Ben.—Roxburgh (Will.). Hortus Bengalensis. 8vo. Calcutta, 1814.

H. Ber.—Willdenow (Car. Lud.). Hortus Berolinensis. fol. Berlin, 1806–1810.

H. C.—Chelsea botanic garden.

H. Cels.—Catalogue of the plants cultivated in the garden of M. Cels.

H. Cl.—Linnæus (Carolus). Hortus Cliffortianus. fol. Amst. 1737.

H. Er.—Hortus Erfurtsiensis. Catalogue of the plants cultivated in the botanical garden of Erfurt.

H. Er. Wo.—Hortus Ericeus Woburnensis. 4to. London, 1824.

H. Flor.—Passæus (Crispinus). Hortus Floridus. fol. Arnheim, 1614.

H. & G. Ic.—Hooker (W. J.) and Greville (R. K.). Icones Filicum. fol. London, 1827.

H. & G.—Hooker, LL.D., and Greville, LL.D. English botanists resident in Scotland.

H. Göt.—Hortus Göttingensis. 2 fasc. fol. Gottingæ, 1809–1813.

Hal. H.—Haller (Albert). Historia Stirpium indigenarum Helvetiæ. 3 vols. fol. Berne, 1768.

H. Has.—Moench (Conrad). Enumeratio Plantarum indigenarum Hassieæ. 8vo. Cassel. 1777.

H. Kew.—Aiton (William). Hortus Kewensis. Ed. 1. 3 vol. 8vo. London, 1789.

H. L.—Liverpool botanic garden.

H. Madr.—Lagasco (Mariano). Catalogus Plantarum quæ in Horto Regio Madritensi colebantur anno 1815. 8vo. Madriti, 1816.

H. Mon.—Decandolle (Aug. Pyr.). Catalogus Horti Monspeliensis. 8vo. Monspelii, 1813; 8vo. Göttingen, 1777.

H. N. H.—Hotton (Petrus). Rei herbariæ Historiæ et fatto sermo Acad. 4to. Lugd. 1695.

H. Par.—Of the Paris garden.

H. Pfl.—Houttuyn (Martin). Des Ritters von Linné Pflanzensystem nach der Anleitung des Houttuynschen Werks. 14 vols. 8vo. Nurnberg, 1777–1788.


H. & T.—Hooker and Taylor. English botanists.

H. T.—Hortus Taurinensis. Catalogue of the plants cultivated in the botanical garden at Turin.

H. Tr.—Transactions of the London Horticultural Society.

Habl.—Hablizl. A Russian botanist.

Hac. Ca.—Hacquet (Balthazar). Plantæ Alpinæ Carniolicæ. 4to. Vienna, 1782.

Hæ.—Hænke. A German botanical writer.

Hag. Lich.—Hagen (C. G.). Tentamen Historiæ Lichenum præsertim Prussicorum. 8vo. Regiomonti, 1782.

Hal.—Haller. A Swiss botanist.

Hal. F.—Haller the younger.

Ham.—Hamilton. A Scotch botanist, and traveller in the East Indies.

Har.—Hartig. A writer on the culture of forest trees.

Haw.—Haworth. An English writer upon succulent plants.

Hay.—Hayne. A German botanist.

Hay. Ter.—Hayne (Frid. Gottlieb). Termini Botanici Iconibus illustrati. 4to. Berlin, 1799.

Hay. Us.—Hayne (Frid. Gottlieb) in Usteri’s Annalen der Botanik. 6 vols. 8vo. Zurich, 1791–1793.

Hed. Cryp.—Hedwig (Johannes). Theoria Generationis et Fructificationis Plantarum Cryptogamicarum. 4to. Petropoli, 1784.

Hed. Mus.—Hedwig (Johannes). Species Muscorum Frondosorum. 4to. Lipsiæ, 1801.

Hedw.—Hedwig. A German cryptogamic botanist.

Hei.—Heister. A German botanist.

Her. Am.—Courset (Dumont de), or Delaune. Herbier de l’Amateur. Paris.

Herb.—Herbert. An English divine and botanist.

Herb. Ar.—Herbert (William). A Botanical Arrangement of Bulbous Roots. 8vo. 1821.

Her. Ger.—L’Heritier (Charles Louis). Geraniologia. fol. Paris, 1787, 1788.

Her. Lug.—Hermann (Paulus). Horti Lugduni Batavi Catalogus. 8vo. Lugd. Bat. 1687.

Her. Par.—Hermann (Paulus). Paradisus Batavus. 4to. Lugd. Bat. 1798.

Her. Ser.—L’Heritier (Charles Louis). Sertum Anglicum, sive Plantæ rariores. fol. Paris, 1788.

Her. St.—L’Heritier (Charles Louis). Stirpes novæ aut minus cognitæ. fol. Paris, 1784, 1785.

Herit.—L’Heritier. A French botanist.

Herm.—Hermann. Professor of botany at Leyden.

Heyne.—Heyne. A writer on East Indian Plants.

Hil.—Auguste St. Hilaire. A French botanist, and traveller in Brazil.

Hill.—Hill. An English compiler of botanical matters.

Hof. Cryp.—Hoffmann (Georg Franz). Vegetabilia Cryptogamica. 4to. Lipsiæ, 1787–1790.

Hof. Ger.—Hoffmann (Georg Franz). Flora Germanica. 2 vols. 4to.

Hof. Göt.—Hoffmann (Georg Franz). Programma Horti Göttingensis. fol. 1793.

Hof. Ph.—Hoffmann (Georg Franz). Phytographische Blätter. 8vo. Göttingen.

Hof. Sa.—Hoffmann (Georg Franz). Historia Salicum Iconibus illustrata. fol. Lipsiæ, 1785.

Hof. Um.—Hoffmann (Georg Franz). Umbelliferarum Genera. 8vo. 1816.

Hofg.—Hoffmannsegg. A botanist of Dresden.

Hofm.—Hoffmann. A German writer upon Umbelliferæ, &c.

Hogg.—Hogg. A nurseryman at New York.

Hök.—Hökert. A Swedish botanist.

Hol.—Holwell. An English botanist.

Holm.—Holmskiold. A Danish botanist.

Hook.—Hooker. An English botanist, and professor at Glasgow.

Hook. Ex. Fl.—Hooker (W. J.). The Exotic Flora. 3 vols. 8vo. Edinb. 1825–1827.

Hook. Jung.—Hooker (W. J.). Monograph of the British Jungermanniæ. 4to. London, 1812–1816.

Hoppe.—Hoppe. A German botanist, and collector of plants.

Hor. Ph.—Horæ Physicæ Berolinenses. fol. Berlin.

Horn.—Hornemann. A Danish botanist and professor.

Horns.—Hornschurch. A German botanist and professor.


Hort.—Of the gardens.

Hort. Tr.—Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London. 7 vols. 4to. Continued.

Host.—Host. An Austrian writer upon grapes and European plants.

Host. Gr. —Host (Nicol. Thom.). Icones et Descriptiones Graminum Austriacorum. 3 vols. fol. Vindob. 1801–1803.
H. G.

Hout.—Houttuyn. A botanist of Amsterdam.

Hrtm.—Hartmann. A botanist of Stockholm.

Hud.—Hudson. An English writer upon British plants.

Hum.—Humboldt. A celebrated Prussian traveller and philosopher.

Hunter.—An English botanist.

Ic. H. K.—Bauer (Francis). Delineations of Exotic Plants cultivated in the Royal Garden at Kew, published by W. J. Aiton. fol. London, 1796.

Is. Ac. Pa.—Isnard. See Ac. Par.

Ives.—Ives. An American botanist.

J.—Jussieu. A celebrated French systematic botanist.

Jac.—Jacquin. An Austrian traveller in South America, and botanist.

Jac. Am.—Von Jacquin (Nicolas Jos.). Stirpium Americanarum Historia. fol. 1763.

Jac. Am. Pic.—The same work with coloured plates, no date.

Jac. Au.—Von Jacquin (Nicolas Jos.). Floræ Austriacæ Icones. 5 vols. fol. Vindob. 1773–1778.

Jac. C.—Von Jacquin (Nicolas Jos.). Collectanea ad Botanicam, &c. spectantia. 5 vols. 4to. Vindob. 1786–1796.

Jac. Ec.—Von Jacquin (Nicolas Jos.). Eclogæ Botanicæ. fol. 1811–1816.

Jac. Fr.—Von Jacquin (Nicolas Jos.). Fragmenta Botanica. fol. 1800–1809.

Jac. Gram.—Von Jacquin (Nicolas Jos.). Eclogæ Botanicæ. fol. 1811–1816.

Jac. H. Vin.—Von Jacquin (Nicolas Jos.). Hortus Botanicus Vindobonensis. 3 vols. fol. Vindob. 1764–1776.

Jac. Ic.—Von Jacquin (Nicolas Jos.). Icones Plantarum rariorum. 3 vols. fol. Vindob. 1781–1793.

Jac. M.—Von Jacquin (Nicolas Jos.). Miscellanea Austriaca ad Botanicam, &c. spectantia. 2 vols. 4to. Vindob. 1778–1781.

Jac. Ob.—Von Jacquin (Nicolas Jos.). Observationes Botanicæ. fol. Vindob. 1764–1771.

Jac. Ox.—Von Jacquin (Nicolas Jos.). Oxalidis Monographia Iconibus illustrata. 4to. Vindob. 1792.

Jac. Sc.—Von Jacquin (Nicolas Jos.). Plantarum rariorum Horti Cæsarei Schœnbrunensis. 4 vols. fol. Vindobonen. 1797–1804.

Jac. St.—Von Jacquin (Nicolas Jos.). Stapeliæ cultæ. fol. Vindob. 1806–1815.

Jack.—Jackson. An English botanist.

Jnghans.—Junghans. A botanist of Halle.

Jo. H. N.—Journal d’Histoire Naturelle. 2 vols. 4to. Paris, 1792.

Jo. Sc.—Journal of Science, edited at the Royal Institution. 8vo. Published quarterly.

Jon.—Jones. An accomplished writer upon Indian matters.

Jun. Ic.—Junghans (Phil. Carp.). Icones Plantarum ad Vitam impressæ. fol. Halæ, 1787.

Juss. Sci.—Jussieu, in Mémoires de l’Académie Royale des Sciences. 4to. Paris, 1740.

Kæm.—Kæmpfer. A traveller in Japan.

Kæm. Am.—Kæmpfer (Engelbert). Amœnitates Exoticæ. 4to. Lemgoviæ, 1712.

Kæm. Ic.—Kæmpfer (Engelbert). Icones selectæ Plantarum. fol. London, 1791.

Kern. Abr.—Kerner (John Sim.). Abbildungen und Beschreibungen der Bäume welche in Würtemberg wild wachsen. 4 heft. 4to. Stuttgard, 1783–1786.

Ker. Rec.—Ker (John Bellenden). Recensio Plantarum hucusque in Repositorio Botanicorum depictarum. 4to. London, 1801.

Kion.—Not known.

Kit.—Kitaibel. A Hungarian botanist.

Kn. Pr.—Knight’s Proteàceæ.

Kno. Del.—Knorr (Georg. Wolfgang). Deliciæ Naturæ selectæ. 2 vols. fol. Nürnberg, 1766, 1767.

Kno. Th.—Knorr (Georg. Wolfgang). Thesaurus Rei Herbariæ Hortensisque universalis. 2 vols. fol. 1770–1772.

Koch.—Koch. A professor at Erlang.


Koel.—Koeler. A writer on German and French grasses.

Kölle.—Kölle. A botanist of Erlang.

Kön.—König. Several German naturalists of this name.

Kr. Sil.—Krocker (Ant. Joh.). Flora Silesiaca renovata. 2 vols. 8vo. Vratislaviæ, 1787–1790.

Kth.—Kunth. A Prussian botanist.

Kth. Mim.—Kunth (Car. Sigism.) Mimoses et autres Plantes Legumineuses du Nouveau Continent. fol. Paris, 1819, &c.

Kun. Nov. G.—Kunth (Car. Sigism.). Nova Genera et Species Plantarum. 7 vols. 4to. Paris, 1825.

Kunze.—Kunze. A German cryptogamic botanist.

L.—Linnæus. The celebrated Swedish reformer of natural history.

L. D. Fr.—Loiseleur’s Duhamel, &c. A new edition by Loiseleur Deslongchamps. See Duh. Fr.

L. Fil.—Linnæus the younger. The son of the great Linnæus.

L. F. Dec.—Linnæus (Carolus, filius). Plantarum rariorum Horti Upsaliensis Decas. fol. Stock. 1762, 1763.

L. F. Fa.—Linnæus (Carolus, filius). Plantarum rariorum Horti Upsaliensis fasciculus 1. fol. Lips. 1767.

L. & O. Ab. —Link (Henr. Frid.) und Otto (Frid.). Abbildungen und Beschreibungen seltener Pflanzen im Berlin. Garten. 4to. Berlin, 1821, and following years.
L. & O. A. B. G.

L. & O. Dis.—Link (Henr. Frid.) und Otto (Frid.). Ueber die Gattungen Melocactus und Echinocactus in Hort. Soc. Trans. Berlin, vol. 2. 4to.

L. & O. H. Ber.—Link (Henr. Frid.) et Otto (Frid.). Horæ Physicæ Berolinenses. fol.

L. Tr.—Linnæan Society’s Transactions.

Lab.—Labillardière. A French botanist.

Lab. N. H.—Labillardière (Jac. Jul). Novæ Hollandiæ Plantarum Specimen. 2 vols. fol. Paris, 1804–1806.

Lab. Syr.—Labillardière (Jac. Jul.). Icones Plantarum Syriæ rariorum. fol. Paris, 1791–1812.

Lab. Vo.—Labillardière (Jac. Jul.). Relation du Voyage à la Recherche de La Peyrouse. 2 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1798.

Lag.—Lagasca. A Spanish botanist and professor.

Lal.—La Lave. A Mexican botanist.

Lam.—Lamarck. A French botanist.

Lam. Ic. In.—Lamarck (Jean Baptiste Monet de). Icones Plantarum ined.

Lam. Il.—Lamarck (Jean Baptiste Monet de). Illustrations des Genres. 4to. Paris, 1791, &c.

Lamb.—A. B. Lambert, V. P. L. S. An English botanist.

Lamb. Ci.—Lambert (Aylmer Bourke). Description of the Genus Cinchona. London, 1797.

Lamb. Pin.—Lambert (Aylmer Bourke). A Description of the Genus Pinus. fol. London, 1803. New edit. 1829.

Lamour. Dis.—Lamouroux (Justin). Dissertations sur plusieurs Espèces de Fucus. 4to. Agen, 1805.

Lan.—Langsdorff. A Russian botanist.

Lap.—La Peyrouse. A French writer upon the plants of the Pyrenees.

Lap. Sax.—La Peyrouse (Philip Picot). Monographia Saxifragarum cujus partem facit, &c. Toulouse.

Lar.—Laroche. A French botanist.

Lar. Dis.—De La Roche (Daniel). Specimen Botanicum inaugurale sistens Descriptiones Plantarum aliquot novarum. 4to. 1766.

Law.—Lawrence (Miss). An English flower-painter.

Lawr. Pass.—Lawrence (Miss). Six numbers of coloured figures of Passion Flowers. fol. London.

Lawr. Ros.—Lawrence (Miss). A Collection of Roses from Nature. fol. London, 1799.

Lax.—Laxmann. A German writer on Siberian plants.

Lec.—Leconte. An American botanist.

Lec. Pas.—Leconte’s Pastures.

Lech.—Lechenault. A French botanist.

Led.—Ledebour. A botanist, and traveller in Siberia.

Lee.—Lee. A nurseryman at Hammersmith.

Lee. Gr. —Leers (Joh. Dan.). Flora Herbornensis. 8vo. Colon. Allobr. 1789.
Leers Her.

Leers.—Leers. A German botanist.

Leh.—Lehmann. A German botanist, and professor at Hamburgh.

Leh. As.—Lehmann (J. C. G.). Plantæ Asperifoliæ Nucif. 2 vols. 4to. Berlin, 1818.

Leh. B.—Lehmann (J. C. G.) in Berlinisches Magazin, &c.

Leh. M.—Lehmann (J. C. G.). Monographia Generis Primularum. 4to. Lipsiæ, 1817.

Leh. Nic.—Lehmann (J. C. G.). Generis Nicotianarum Historia. 4to. 1818.

Leh. Pot.—Lehmann (J. C. G.). Monographia Generis Potentillarum. 4to. Hamburgh, 1820.

Lej.—Lejeune. A French botanist.

Lem.—Leman. A botanist mentioned in Dec. Fl. Franc.

Lep.—Lepechin. A Russian botanist.

Lepel.—Lepelletier. A French botanist.

Lewis.—Lewis. An American traveller.

Leys.—Leysser. A botanist of Halle.

Lich.—Lichtenstein. A German botanist and professor.

Light.—Lightfoot. A writer upon the Scottish Flora.

Liljeb.—Liljeblad. A professor at Upsal.

Lind.—Lindern. A French botanist.

Lind. Col.—Lindley (John). Collectanea Botanica. fol. London, 1821.

Lind. Dig.—Lindley (John). Digitalium Monographia. fol. London, 1821.

Lind. Ros.—Lindley (John). Rosarum Monographia. 8vo. London, 1821.

Lindl.—Lindley. An English botanist, and professor in London.

Lin. Er.—Linnæus’s Ericæ.

Lin. Tr.—Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. 4to. London, 1791, &c.

Liv.—Livinston. A Scotch botanist.

Lk.—Link. A Prussian botanist.

Lk. & O.—Link and Otto. Prussian botanists.

Lk. Obs.—Link (Henr. Frid.). Observationes in Ordines Plantarum Naturales (Fungos tantum), diss. 1. et 2. in Magazin der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde.

Lo. C.—Loddiges’ Catalogue. Catalogue of the plants cultivated in Loddiges’ Nursery at Hackney.

Lo. S.—Loddiges’ Supplement.

Lob.—Lobel. An old writer upon plants.

Lob. Ic.—De Lobel or Lobelius (Mathias). Stirpium Icones. 4to. Antwerp, 1591.

Lob. Ob.—De Lobel or Lobelius (Mathias). Observationes Botanicæ.

Lock.—Lockhart. Superintendent of the Trinidad Botanical Garden.

Lod.—Loddiges. English nurserymen and botanists.

Loe.—Loeffling. A Swedish botanist and traveller.

Lœf. It.—Lœfling (Peter). Iter Hispanicum. 8vo. Stockholm, 1758.

Loe. Pr.—Loeselius (John). Flora Prussica. 4to. Regiomonti, 1793.

Loi.—Loiseleur Deslongchamps. A French botanist.

Loi. Gal.—Loiseleur Deslongchamps (J. L. A.). Flora Gallica. 2 vols. 12mo. Paris, 1806, 1807.

Loi. No.—Loiseleur Deslongchamps (J. L. A.). Notices sur les Plantes à ajouter à la Flore de France. 8vo. Paris, 1810.

Loi. Sup.—Loiseleur Deslongchamps (J. L. A.). Supplement to Flora Gallica. 8vo. Paris, 1807.

Lon.—Londes. A botanist of Göttingen.

Lou.—Loureiro. A Portuguese traveller in Cochin China.

Loud. Enc. Pl.—Loudon (J. C. L.). Encyclopædia of Plants. 8vo. London, 1830.

Loud. G. M.—Loudon (J. C. L.). Gardener’s Magazine. 8vo. London, 1826, &c. Continued.

Loud. M. N. H.—Loudon (J. C. L.). Magazine of Natural History. 8vo. London, 1828, &c. Continued.

Loudon.—J. C. Loudon. Author of various agricultural, horticultural, and botanical works.

Lum.—Lumnitzer. A German botanist.

Lunan.—Lunan. A writer on Jamaica plants.

Lyell.—Lyell. A Scotch botanist.

Lyng.—Lyngbye. A Danish writer upon cryptogamic matters.


Lyng. Hyd.—Lyngbye (H. C.). Hydrophytologia Danica. 4to. Copenhagen.

Lyon.—Lyon. A collector of American plants.

M. Fl. Vi.—Moretti (Gius.). Notizia sopra diverse Piante da aggungiarsi alla Flora Vicentina. 4to. 1813.

M. H.—Morison (Robert). Plantarum Historico Universalis Oxoniensis. 2 vols. fol. Oxon. 1680.

M. In.—Mémoires de l’Institut National des Sciences et des Arts. 4to. Paris, 1796, et seq.

M. Msq.—Usher, in Memoirs of Natural History of Moscow. See Mém. Mosc.

M. & S.—Mocino and Sessé. Mexican botanists.

M. Um.—Morison (Robert). Plantarum Umbelliferarum Distributio nova. fol. Oxon. 1672.

Mag. Ber.—Martini (Henr.) Berlinisches Magazin oder Gesammlete Schriften. 8vo. Berlin, 1765–1767.

Mag. H.—Magnol (Petrus). Hortus Regius Monspeliensis. 8vo. Monsp. 1697.

Mag. Mo.—Magnol (Petrus). Botanicon Monspeliense. 12mo. Monsp. 1686.

Mag. Nat. Hist.—Loudon (J. C. L.). Magazine of Natural History. 8vo. London, 1828, &c. Continued.

Ma. C.—Mackay’s Catalogue. Catalogue of the plants cultivated in Mackay’s nursery at Clapton.

Marcg. Bra.—Marcgravius (Georg). Historia Rerum Naturalium Brasiliæ. fol. L. Bat. 1648.

Marg.—Marcgraav. A traveller in Brazil.

Marsh.—Marshall. A writer on American trees.

Mart.—Martius. A Bavarian botanist, and traveller in Brazil.

Mart. Br.—Martius (C. F. P.) Nova Genera et Species Plantarum quas in Itinere per Brasiliam ann. 1817–1820, &c. 4to.

Mart. Cen.—Martyn (John). Historia Plantarum rariorum. Cent. 1. dec. 1-5. fol. London, 1728.

Mart. Med.—Von Martius (Carl F. P.). Specimen Materiæ Medicæ Brasiliensis. Monach. 1824. fol.

Mart. Palm. Ic.—Von Martius (Carl F. P.) Genera et Species Palmarum quas in Itinere per Brasiliam collegit. Monach. 1824. fol.

Mas.—Masson. A collector of plants at the Cape, and elsewhere.

Mass. St.—Masson (Francis). Stapeliæ novæ. fol. London, 1798.

Mat. Com.—Mathiolus (P. Andr.). Commentarii in Libros Dioscoridis de Medica Materia.

Mat. Op.—Mathiolus (P. Andr.). Opera Omnia. fol. Francof. 1598; Basiliæ, 1674.

Mayer.—Several German botanists of this name.

Med.—Medicus. A German botanist of the eighteenth century.

Mee. Ic.—Meerburg (Nicol). Plantarum selectarum Icones pictæ. fol. L. Bat. 1798.

Mém. M.—Mémoires du Museum d’Histoire Naturelle. 4to. Paris, 1815–1829.

Mém. Mosc.—Mémoires de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscow. 6 vols. 4to. Moscow, 1811, &c.

Men. Pu.—Mentzel (Christ.). Pugillus Plantarum rariorum. fol. 1682.

Menz.—Menzies. A Scotch botanist, and traveller round the world with Vancouver.

Mer. Sur.—Merian (Maria Sybilla). De Metamorphosibus Insectorum Surinamensium. fol. Hagæ, 1726.

Merat.—Merat. A French botanist.

Mert.—Mertens. A French botanist.

Mey.—Meyer. A German botanist.

Mic. Am.—Michaux (André). Flora Boreali-Americana. 2 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1803.

Mic. Ar.—Michaux (André Franc. fils). Histoire des Arbres forestiers de l’Amérique Septentrionale. 3 vols. 4to. Paris, 1810–1813.

Mic. Gen.—Micheli (Peter Ant.). Nova Plantarum Genera. fol. Florence, 1729.

Mic. Quer.—Michaux (André). Histoire des Chènes de l’Amérique Septentrionale. fol. Paris, 1801.

Mich.—Micheli. A Florentine botanist.

Miers.—Miers. A South American collector.

Mik.—Mikan. A German writer on Brazilian plants.

Mil.—Miller. An English gardener and botanist.

Mil. D. Ed.—Miller (Philip). Gardener’s Dictionary. Second edition. 2 vols. fol. London, 1760.


Mil. Ic.—Miller (Philip). Figures of plants described in the Gardener’s Dictionary. 2 vols. fol. London, 1760.

Mir.—Mirbel. A French physiological botanist.

Mo. Gr.—Monti (Josephus). Catalogi Stirpium Agri Bononiensis Prodromus Gramina et Affinia complectens. 4to. Bononiæ, 1719.

Moc.—Mocino. A Mexican botanist.

Moen.—Moench. A German botanist.

Moen. Wei.—Moench (Conrad). Verzeichniss ausländischer Bäume des Lustschlosses Weissenstein. 8vo. Frankf. 1785.

Mohr.—Mohr. A German cryptogamic writer.

Mol.—Molina. An Italian writer upon the natural history of Chile.

Mon.—Montin. A Swedish botanist.

Mor.—Morison. An old writer on plants.

Mord.—Mordant de Launy. A French botanist.

Moret.—Moretti. An Italian botanist.

Moug.—Mougeot. A German cryptogamic botanist.

Muhl.—Muhlenberg. A North American botanist.

Muhl. Dan.—Müller (Ott Frid.). Flora Danica. vols. 4 and 5. The rest by Vahl and Hornemann. 5 vols. fol. Havniæ, 1766–1782.

Munt. Ph.—Munting (Abrah.). Phytographia curiosa. fol. 1702. 1713. 1727.

Mur.—Murray. A German botanist.

Mur. Pr.—Murray (Joh. Andr.). Prodromus Designationis Stirpium Göttingensium. 8vo. Götting. 1770.

Mus.—Mussin-Puschkin. A Russian botanist, and traveller in Caucasus.

Musc. Brit.—Hooker and Taylor. Muscologia Britannica. 8vo. London, 1818.

Musc. Hib.—Turner (Dawson). Muscologiæ Hibernicæ Specimen. 12mo. London, 1804.

Mutis.—Mutis. A Spanish botanist, resident in New Grenada.

Mx.—Michaux. A French botanist, and traveller in North America.

N. A. P.—Nova Acta Academiæ Scientiarum Imperialis Petropolitanæ.

N. C. G.—Novi Commentarii Societatis Regiæ Scientiarum Göttingensis. 4to. 1751, to the present time.

N. C. P.—Novi Commentarii Academiæ Imperialis Petropolitanæ.

N. Cur.—Nova Acta Physico-medica Academiæ Cæsareæ Leopoldino-Carolinæ Naturæ Curiosorum. 4to. Continued.

N. H.—Acta Literaria Universitatis Hafniensis. 4to. Hafniæ, 1778, &c.

N. & M.—Nees and Martius. German botanists.

N. M. R.—Nees and Martius, in Nova Acta Physico-medica Academiæ Cæsareæ Leopoldino-Carolinæ Naturae Curiosorum Bonnæ. 4to. 1757, to present time.

Nat. Ber.—Willdenow (Lud.). Der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin neue Schriften. 4to. Berlin, 1795, &c.

Neck.—Necker. A German writer upon botanical affairs.

Nees.—Nees von Esenbeck. A German botanist.

Nees H. B.—Nees von Esenbeck (C. G.). Horæ Physicæ Berolinenses collectæ ex Symbolis Virorum doctorum Link, Rudolphi, &c. fol. 1820.

Nees Pilze.—Nees von Esenbeck (C. G.). Das System der Pilze und Schwämme. 4to. Würzburg, 1817.

Nees. R. G.—Nees von Esenbeck (C. G.). Assisted by Aug. Weihe. Rubis Germanicis edendis, &c. 4to. Rome, 1823.

Nes. Pot.—Nestler (C. G.). Monographia de Potentilla. 4to. Parisiis et Argentorati, 1816.

Nest.—Nestler. A botanist of Strasburgh.

Niv.—Niven. A collector of plants at the Cape.

Noc.—Nocca. A professor of Pavia.

Nocca Tr.—Nocca (Dominicus). Ticinensis Horti Plantæ selectæ. 1 fasc. fol. Papiæ, 1814.

Noi. Jar.—Noisette (Louis). Le Jardin Fruitier. 4to. Paris, 1813.

Nois.—Noisette. A French nurseryman.

Nor.—Noronha. A Spanish botanist who visited Madagascar.

Nov. Com. Got.—See N. C. G.

Nut.—Nuttall. A North American botanist.

Oed.—Oeder. A Danish botanist.

Oliv.—Olivier. A French botanist, and traveller in Persia.

Or.—Ortega. A Spanish botanist.


Or. D.—De Ortega (Cas. Gomez). Novarum aut rariorum Plantarum Hort. R. Madritensis Decades. 4to. Madrid, 1797, 1798.

Osb. It.—Osbeck (Peter). A Voyage to China, &c. 8vo. London, 1771.

Otth.—Otth. A French writer in Decandolle’s Prodromus.

Otto.—A Prussian gardener.

Pa. It. Ger.—Pallas (Peter Simon). Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Russischen Reichs. 3 vols. 4to. Petrop. 1771–1776.

Pal. As.—Pallas (Peter Simon). Species Astragalorum descriptæ et Iconibus illustratæ. fol. Lips. 1800.

Pal. Ill.—Pallas (Peter Simon). Illustrationes Plantarum minus cognitarum. fol. Lipsiæ, 1803.

Pal. It.—Pallas (Peter Simon). Voyages dans l’Empire Russe. 8 vols. 8vo.

Pal. P.—Pallas (Peter Simon). In the Petersburgh Transactions. See Ac. Pet.

Pal. Ros.—Pallas (Peter Simon). Flora Rossica. fol. Petrop. 1784–1788.

Pall.—Pallas. A Russian traveller and naturalist.

Par. Lon.—Salisbury (Rich. Ant.). Paradisus Londinensis. 2 vols. 4to. London, 1805–1808.

Par. P.—Parkinson (John). A Paradise of Pleasant Flowers. fol. London, 1629.

Par. Th.—Parkinson (John). Theatrum Botanicum. fol. London, 1640.

Parm.—Parmentier. A French nurseryman.

Parry’s App. Ic.—Parry (William). A Voyage to discover the North West Passage. 4to. London. Appendix.

Pat.—Patrin. A Russian traveller.

Patters.—Patterson (William). A Narrative of Four Journeys into the Country of the Hottentots. 4to. London, 1789.

Perp.—Perpenti. A female Italian botanist.

Pers.—Persoon. A French botanist.

Pers. Disp.—Persoon (Christ. Henr.). Tentamen Dispositionis methodicæ Fungorum. 8vo. Lips. 1797.

Pers. Ic. Pict.—Persoon (Christ. Henr.). Icones pictæ Specierum rariorum Fungorum. 4to. Paris and Strasb. 1803.

Pers. Syn.—Persoon (Christ. Henr.). Synopsis Plantarum, seu Enchiridion Botanicum. 2 vols. 12mo. Paris, 1805–1807.

Pet.—Petagna. A Neapolitan botanist.

Pet. Brit.—Petiver (James). Herbarii Britannici Catalogus. fol. London, 1702–1704.

Pet. Fil.—Petiver (James). Pterigraphia Americana. fol. London.

Pet. G.—Petiver (James). Gazophylacium Naturæ et Artis. fol. London, 1702–1704.

Pet. M.—Petiver (James). Musæi Petiveriani Centuriæ 10. 8vo. London, 1695.

Ph.—Pursh. A Prussian botanist, and traveller in North America.

Ph. Am.—Pursh (Frederick). Flora Americanæ Septentrionalis. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1814.

Ph. Tr.—Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 4to. 1665 to the present time.

Pic. H. P.—Picciuoli (Giuseppe). Hortus Panciaticus. 4to. Firenze, 1783.

Pis. Br.—Piso (Gulielm.). Historia Naturalis Brasiliæ. fol. Amsterdam, 1648.

Pis. Lib.—Piso (Gulielm.). De Indiæ utriusque Re naturali et medica libri 14. fol. 1658.

Pl. Am.—Plumier (Charles). Description des Plantes de l’Amérique. fol. 1693–1712.

Pl. Dec.—Decandolle (Aug. Pyr.). Plantarum Historia succulentarum. fol. and 4to. Paris, 1799–1803.

Pl. Ed. B.—Plumier (Charles). Plantæ Americanæ à C. Plumier detectæ et à J. Burmanno editæ. fol. Amst. 1755.

Pl. Fil.—Plumier (Charles). Traité des Fougères de l’Amérique. fol. Paris, 1705.

Pl. Gen.—Plumier (Charles). Nova Plantarum Americanarum Genera. 4to. Paris, 1703.

Pl. Ic.—Plumier (Charles). Plantarum Americanarum fasc. 10, continentes Plantas quas olim C. Plumierius detexit et depinxit. Edidit Johannes Burmannus. fol. Amst. 1755.

Plan. H. B.—Plantæ Selectæ Horti Berolinensis. See L. & O. Ab.

Plk. Ic.—Plenck (Jos. Jac.). Icones Plantarum medicinalium. Fasc. fol. 1803, et seq.

Plu.—Plumier. A French botanist, and traveller in the West Indies.


Pluk. Al.—Plukenett (Leonard). Almagestum Botanicum, sive Phyt. Onomasticon. 4to. 1796.

Pluk. Am.—Plukenett (Leonard). Amaltheum Botanicum. 4to. 1705.

Pluk. M.—Plukenett (Leonard). Almagesti botanici Mantissa. 4to. 1700.

Pluk. Ph.—Plukenett (Leonard). Phytographia, seu Stirpium illustriorum, &c. 4 vols. 4to. London, 1691–1706.

Poc. Crat.—Pococke. Cratægi.

Pohl.—Pohl. A German botanist.

Pohl Fl. Bo.—Pohl (Imman.). Versuch einer Flora Böhmens. 2 vols. 8vo. Prague, 1810–1814.

Poir.—Poiret. A French botanical compiler.

Poit.—Poiteau. A French botanist and draughtsman.

Pol.—Pollini. A professor at Verona.

Poll.—Pollich. A German writer on the plants of the Palatinate.

Pop.—Poppig. A German botanist.

Pou.—Pourret. A French botanist.

Presl.—Presl. A Bohemian botanist.

Pt. et T. Fl.—Poiteau et Turpin. Flore Parisienne. fol. Paris, 1808, &c.

Purt. Fl.—Purton (Th.). Midland Flora. 2 vols. 8vo. Stratford upon Avon, 1817.

Qu. His.—Quer (Martinez). Flora Española. 4 vols. 4to. Madrid, 1762–1764.

R. Br.—Robert Brown. An English botanist, and traveller in New Holland.

R. Hou.—Reliquiae Houstonianæ. 4to. London, 1781.

R. L.—Redouté’s Liliacées.

R. Mal.—Van Rheede (Henricus). Hortus Indicus Malabaricus. 12 vols. fol. 1678–1703.

R. & P.—Ruiz and Pavon. Spanish botanists, and travellers in Peru and Chile.

R. & S.—Römer and Schultes. German editors of Linnæus’s Species Plantarum.

Rad.—Raddi. An Italian cryptogamic botanist, and traveller in Brazil.

Rad. Dis.—Radius (Justus). De Pyrola et Chimaphila Specimen. 4to. Lipsiæ, 1821.

Raddi. M.—Raddi (Joseph). Memoir Flor. Brasil. Observationes in Atti di Siena. vol. 9. and in Memorie di Modena. vols. 18. and 19.

Raeu.—Raeuschel. A German botanist.

Rafi.—Rafinesque Schmalz. A modern writer upon botanical matters.

Ram.—Ramond. A French botanist.

Rau.—Rau. A German botanist.

Rauw. Hod. —Rauwolf (Leonh.). Aigentliche Beschreibung der Raiss in den Morganlander. 4to. Laugangen, 1582–1583.
Rauw. It.

Ray. Sy.—Ray (Joh.). Synopsis Stirpium Britannicarum. 8vo.

Rchb.—Reichenbach. A German botanist.

Rchb. Ac.—Reichenbach (Lodov.). Monographia Generis Aconiti et Delphinii. fol. Lipsiæ, 1820.

Rchb. Bot.—Reichenbach (Ludov.). Hortus Botanicus. 4to. Lipsiæ, 1824.

Reb. Neo.—Rebentisch (Joh. Frider.). Prodromus Floræ Neomarchicæ. 8vo. Berolini, 1804.

Red.—Redouté. A French botanical draughtsman.

Red. Lil.—Redouté (P. J.) Les Liliacées. 8 vols. fol. Paris, 1802–1816.

Red. Ros.—Redouté (P. J.). Les Roses. fol. Paris.

Redow.—Redowski. A Russian botanical collector.

Reich.—Reichard. A botanist of Frankfort.

Reinw.—Reinwardt. A professor at Leyden.

Rel.—Relham. A writer upon the Flora of Cambridgeshire.

Ren. Spec.—Reneaulme (Paul). Specimen Historiæ Plantarum. 4to. Paris, 1611.

Req.—Requien. A French botanist.

Retz.—Retzius. A German botanist.

Retz. Ob.—Retzius (And. Joh.). Observationes Botanicæ. 4to. London, 1774–1791.

Reyn.—Reynier. A botanist of Lausanne.

Rh.—Rheede. Author of Hortus Malabaricus.

Rich.—Richard. A French botanist.

Risso.—Risso. An Italian writer upon Oranges.

Riv.—Rivinus. A German botanist.

Riv. Mon.—Rivinus (Aug. Quirinus). Ordo Plantarum Flore irregulari Monopetalo. fol. Lips. 1690.


Riv. Tet.—Rivinus (Aug. Quirinus). Ordo Plantarum Flore irregulari Tetrapetalo. fol. Lips. 1699.

Rob. Ic.—Robert (Nicolas). Icones Plantarum. fol. Paris, 1701.

Robs.—Robson. An English botanist.

Roch.—Rochel. Superintendent of the garden at Pest.

Rœ. Ar.—Rœmer (Jac. Joh.). Archiv für die Botanik. 3 vols. 4to. 1796–1799.

Rœ. Sc.—Rœmer (Jac. Joh.). Scriptores de Plantis Hispanicis, Lusitanicis, et Brasiliensibus. 8vo. 1796.

Roem.—Roemer. A German botanist.

Rohde.—Rohde. A botanist of Bremen.

Rol.—Rolander. A Swedish botanist.

Roll.—Rollinson. A nurseryman near London.

Rosc.—Roscoe. An English botanist, and writer upon Scitamineæ.

Rosc. Scit.—Roscoe (W.). Figures of the Order of Scitamineæ or Monandrous Plants. fol. Liverpool.

Rost. J.—Rostkow (Fr. Gul. Th.). Monographia Generis Junci. 8vo. Berolini, 1801.

Roth.—Roth. A German botanical writer.

Roth. Abh.—Roth (Alb. Wilh.). Botanische Abhandlungen und Beobachtungen. 4to. Nuremberg, 1787.

Rox.—Roxburgh. An Indian botanist.

Rox. Cor.—Roxburgh (William). Plants of the Coast of Coromandel. 2 vols. fol. London, 1795–1798.

Rtb.—Rottboll. A Danish botanist.

Rtb. Gr.—Rottboll (Christ. Friis.). Descriptiones et Icones Plantarum rariorum. fol. Hafniæ, 1773.

Rtl.—Rottler. A German missionary.

Ru. Am.—Rumphius (George Everh.). Herbarium Amboinense. 6 vols. fol. Amst. 1750.

Rud.—Rudge. An English writer upon botanical subjects.

Rud. Gui.—Rudge (Edward). Plantarum Guianæ rariorum Icones et Descr. fol. London, 1805.

Rudol.—Rudolph. A German botanist.

Rum.—Rumphius. Author of Herbarium Amboinense.

Rus.—Russel. A botanist of Aleppo.

Rus. Al.—Russel (Alex.). Natural History of Aleppo. 4to. 1756. Ed. 2. 1794.

S. & W.—Schrader and Wendland. German botanists.

Sab.—Sabine. An English amateur of botany.

Sab. Rom.—Sabbati (Liberatus). Hortus Romanus. 7 vols. fol. Romæ, 1772–1784.

Sal.—Salisbury. An English botanist.

Sal. St.—Salisbury (Richard Anthony). Icones Stirpium rariorum. fol. London, 1791.

Salm.—The Prince of Salm Dyck. A noble German amateur.

San. Vi.—Santi (George). Viaggi al Mont Amiata e per la Toscana. 3 vols. 8vo. Pisa, 1795–1806.

Santi.—Santi. An Italian botanist.

Savi.—Savi. An Italian botanist.

Savi D.—Savi (Gajetanus). Dissertatio Phaseoli.

Savi Med.—Savi (Gajetanus). Materia Medica vegetabile Toscana. fol. Firenze, 1805.

Savi Ph.—Savi (Gajetanus). Memoir on Phaseolus.

Savi Pis.—Savi (Gajetanus). Flora Pisana. 2 vols. 8vo. Pisæ, 1798.

Savig.—Savigny. A French botanist.

Sc. B. J.—Schrader (H. A.). Journal für die Botanik. 10 fasc. 8vo. Göttingæ, 1799–1803.

Sc. Dansk.—Schrader (H. A.). Det Kongelige Danske Landhuus holdings-selkabs Schrifter. 4 vols. 8vo. Kiobbenhavn, 1776–1794.

Sc. Gen. Nov.—Schrader (H. A.). Nova Plantarum Genera. 1 fasc. fol. 1797.

Sc. Ger.—Schrader (H. A.). Flora Germanica. 8vo. Göttingæ, 1806.

Sc. Hal.—Schrader (H. A.). De Halophytis Pallasii. 4to. Götting. 1810.

Sc. Han.—Schrader (H. A.). Sertum Hanoverianum. fol. Götting. 1795, 1796.

Sc. Phil.—Schrader (H. A.). Dissertation on the Genus Philadelphus. Not published.

Sc. Sam.—Schrader (H. A.). Systematische Sammlung Kryptogamischer Gewächse. 6 fasc. 8vo. Göttingen, 1796, 1797.


Sc. V.—Schrader (H. A.). Commentatio de Veronicis spicatis. 8vo. Gottingæ, 1803.

Sc. Verb.—Schrader (H. A.). Monographia Generis Verbasci. 4to. Gottingæ, 1803.

Sch. Ag.—Scheuchzer (Johan.). Agrostographia, sive Graminum, Juncorum, Cyperorum, iisque Affinium Historia. 4to. Tigari, 1775.

Sch. Bs.—Schwencke (Mart. W.). Beschryving der Gewassen. Gravhage, 1766.

Sch. Ce.—Schreber (John Christ.). Beschreibung der Græsser. fol. Leipsic, 1769 and 1810. 3 fasc.

Schæff.—Schæffer. A German writer upon Fungi.

Schæff. F.—Schæffer (Jac. Christ.). Fungorum Bavariæ et Palatinatus Icones. 4 vols. 4to. Ratisbonæ, 1702–1770.

Schk.—Schkuhr. A German writer upon Grasses and Ferns.

Schk. Ca.—Schkuhr (Christ.). Histoire des Carex ou Laiches. 8vo. Leipsic, 1802.

Schk. Cryp.—Schkuhr (Christ.). Vier und zwanzigste Klasse des Linné’schen Pflanzensystems. 4to. Wittenberg, 1809.

Schk. Fil.—Schkuhr (Christ). Abbildungen des Farrnkrautes.

Schk. Han.—Schkuhr (Christ.). Botanisches Handbuch. 3 vols. 8vo. Wittenberg, 1791–1803.

Schk. Us.—Schkuhr (Christ.) in Usteri’s (Paul) Annalen der Botanik. 6 vols. Zurich, from 1791 to 1793.

Schl.—Schleicher. A Swiss plant collector.

Schl. Ran.—Schlechtendahl (A.). Animadversiones in Ranunculeas Candollii. 4to. Berlin, 1819, 1820. In 2 fasciculi.

Schlec.—Schlechtendahl. A German botanist.

Schm. Ar.—Schmidt (Franz). Œsterreichs allgemeine Baumzucht. 2 vols. fol. Vienna, 1792–1794.

Schm. Ic.—Schmiedel (Cas. Christ.). Icones Plantarum. fol. Norimb. 1762.

Schmidt.—Schmidt. A Bohemian botanist.

Schn. Ic.—Schneevooght (G. Voorhelm). Icones Plantarum rariorum. 2 vols. fol. Haarlem, 1793.

Schott.—Schott. A traveller in Brazil.

Schou. M.—Schousboe (P. K. A.). Iagttagelser over væxtriget i Marocco. 4to. Kioberh. 1800.

Schous.—Schousboe. A writer upon the Flora of Morocco.

Sch. Mo.—Schranck (Fr. von Paula). Plantæ rariores Horti Monacensis. fol. Munich, 1817–1819.

Schr.—Schrader. A German botanist.

Schrank.—Schrank. A Bavarian botanist.

Schreb.—Schreber. A German botanist.

Schreb. Dec.—Von Schreber (Joh. Christ. Dan.). Icones Plantarum minus cognitarum. Decas I. fol. Halæ, 1766.

Schreb. Gr.—Von Schreber (Joh. Christ. Dan.). Beschreibung der Græser. 2 vols. fol. Lips. 1769–1779.

Schu.—Schubler. A professor at Tubingen.

Schult.—Schultes. A Bavarian botanist.

Schulz.—Schultz. A German botanist.

Schum.—Schumacher. A Danish botanist.

Schw.—Schweigger. A German botanist, author of Flora Erlangensis.

Schwæ.—Schwægrichen. A German cryptogamic botanist.

Schwæg. Sup.—Schwægrichen (Frid.). Species Muscorum Hedwig Supplementum. 4to. Lips. 1811.

Schwein.—An American botanist.

Sco.—Scopoli. An Italian botanist.

Scop. Car.—Scopoli (Joh. Ant.). Flora Carniolica. 8vo. Viennæ, 1760.

Scop. D.—Scopoli (Joh. Ant.). Deliciæ Floræ Insubricæ. 3 vols. fol. Ticini, 1786–1788.

Seb.—Sebastiani. An Italian botanist.

Seba.—Seba (Alb.). Locupletissimi Rerum Naturalium Thesauri Descriptio. fol. Amst. 1734–1765.

Seba. Rom.—Sebastiani (Ant.). Romanarum Plantarum, &c. 2 vols. 4to. Romæ, 1813–1815.

Seg. Ver.—Seguier (Joh. Franc.). Plantæ Veronenses. 3 vols. 8vo. Veronæ, 1745.

Ser. Hel.—Seringe (N. C.). Musée Helvétique d’Histoire Naturelle. 4to. 1818–1820.

Sessé.—Sessé. A Mexican botanist.

Shaw Bar.—Shaw (Thomas). Travels in Barbary and the Levant. fol. 1738. Supplement, 1746.


Sib.—Sibthorp. An English botanist, and traveller in Greece.

Sieb.—Sieber. A botanical collector.

Sims.—Sims. An English garden botanist.

Sin.—Sinclair. Nurseryman at New Cross.

Sl. Jam.—Sloane (Hans). A Voyage to Madeira, Barbadoes, Nevis, St. Christopher’s, and Jamaica. 2 vols. fol. London, 1707.

Sm.—Sir J. E. Smith. An English botanist, and purchaser of the Linnæan herbarium.

Sm. Ex. Bot.—Smith (J. Edward). Exotic Botany. 1804–1808.

Sm. Ic. In.—Smith (J. Edward). Plantarum Icones hactenus ineditæ. fasc. 1-3. 1789–1791. fol.

Sm. Ic. Pic.—Smith (J. Edward). Icones pictæ Plantarum rariorum. fol. London, 1790–1793.

Sm. N. H.—Smith (J. Edward). A Specimen of the Botany of New Holland. 4to. London, 1793.

Sm. Spic.—Smith (J. Edward). Spicilegium Botanicum. fol. London, 1791–1792.

Sm. Tr.—Tracts relating to Natural History. 8vo. 1798.

Soc. Mos.—See Mém. Mosc.

Sol.—Solander. A Swedish botanist, and companion of Sir Joseph Banks in Cook’s voyage round the world.

Sol. Min.—Sole (William). Menthæ Britannicæ. fol. Bath, 1798.

Sole.—Sole. A writer on Mints.

Son.—Sonnerat. A French botanist and traveller.

Son. It.—Sonnerat (P.). Voyage à la Nouvelle Guinée. 4to. Paris, 1776.

Sow.—Sowerby. An English botanical draughtsman.

Sow. F.—Sowerby (James). Coloured figures of English Fungi. fol. London, 1796–1815, &c.

Spar.—Sparmann. A Swedish travelling botanist.

Spar. H.—Sparmann (Andr.). Kongl. Svenska Vetenscaps Academiens Handlingar. 8vo. Stockholm, from 1739 to 1816.

Spin.—De Spin. A botanist of Turin.

Spr.—Sprengel. A German botanist.

Spr. B. M.—Sprengel (Curt.), in Berlinisches Magazin.

Spr. Cryp.—Sprengel (Curt.). Introduction to the Study of Cryptogamous Plants, translated from the German.

Spr. End.—Sprengel (Curt.). Neue Entdeckungen im ganzen Umfang der Pflanzenkunde. 8vo. Lipsiæ, 1820.

Spr. Hal.—Sprengel (Curt.). Floræ Halensis Tentamen novum. 8vo. Halæ Sax. 1806.

Spr. Um.—Sprengel (Curt.). Plantarum Umbelliferarum Prodromus. 4to. Halæ, 1813.

Stack.—Stackhouse. An English botanist.

Stack. Fuci.—Stackhouse (John). Nereis Britannica. fol. Bath, 1795–1797.

Stech.—Stechmann. A writer on Artemisia.

Step.—Stephan. A Russian botanist.

Ster.—Sternberg. A noble German botanist.

Ster. Sax.—Sternberg (Graf Casp.). Revisio Saxifragarum Iconibus illustrata. fol. 1810.

Steu.—Steudel. A German botanist.

Stev.—Steven. A Russian botanist.

Stœr. Stra.—Stœrck (Ant.). Libellus de Stramonio, Hyosciamo, Aconito. 8vo. 1763.

Stur. Deu. —Sturm (Jacob). Deutschland’s Flora. 4to. Many volumes. Nuremberg, 1798–1829.
Stur. Ger.

Sturm.—Sturm. A German botanical draughtsman.

Suter.—Suter. A Swiss botanist.

Sw. Au. Ic. In.—Sweet (R.). Flora Australasia. 8vo. London, 1827, 1828.

Sw. Cis.—Sweet (R.). Cistineæ. The Natural Order of Cistus, or Rock-Rose. 8vo. London, 1830.

Swert.—Swertius. An old writer on plants.

Swert. Fl.—Swertius (Eman.). Florilegium tractans de variis Floribus. fol. 1612.

Sw. Fl. Gar.—Sweet (R.). The British Flower Garden. 8vo. London, published in monthly numbers.

Sw. Fl. Gar. Ic. In.—Sweet (R.). British Flower Garden. 1823 to the present time, 3 vols. of the old series; and a part of a volume of the new series, 1830.

Sw. Ger.—Sweet (R.). Geraniaceæ. 8vo. Published in monthly numbers.


Swt.—Sweet. An English botanist.

Swz.—Swartz. A Swedish botanist, and traveller in the West Indies.

Swz. B. M.—Swartz (Olof), in Berlinisches Magazin.

Swz. Fil.—Swartz (Olof). Synopsis Filicum, earum Genera et Species complectens. 8vo. Kiliæ, 1806.

Swz. Fl.—Swartz (Olof). Floræ Indiæ Occidentalis. 3 vols. 8vo. Erlangæ, 1797. 1800. 1806.

Swz. Ic.—Swartz (Olof). Icones Plantarum Indiæ Occidentalis. 1 fasc. fol. 1794.

Swz. Ob.—Swartz (Olof). Observationes Botanicæ. 8vo. Erlangæ, 1791.

Swz. Pr.—Swartz (Olof). Prodromus Descriptionum Vegetab. Indiæ Occidentalis. 8vo. Holmiæ, 1788.

Symes.—Symes. A writer on English plants.

Tab. Ic.—Tabernæmontanus (Jac. Theod.). Eicones Plantarum, cur. N. Bassæo. 4to. Frankf. 1590.

Tab. Kr.—Tabernæmontanus (Jac Theod.). Kræuterbuch. fol. 1588.

Tau. H. C.—Tausch (Ign. Fred.). Hortus Canalius. fol. part 1. Prague, 1823.

Ten.—Tenore. A Neapolitan botanist.

Th. Act. Haf.—Thunberg (Car. Petr.), in Acta Literaria Universitatis Hafniensis. 4to. Hafniæ, 1770.

Th. Gar.—Thunberg (Car. Petr.). Dissertatio de Gardenia. 4to. Upsal, 1780.

Th. H.—Thunberg (Car. Petr.), in Kongl. Svenska Vetenskaps Academiens Handlingar. 8vo. Stockholm, 1739–1816.

Thib.—Thibaud de Chanvalon. A French botanist.

Thomas.—Thomas. A Swiss collector of plants.

Thore.—Thore. A French botanist.

Thore, J.—Thore (Jean). Observations in Journal de Botanique.

Thory.—Thory. A French botanist.

Thou.—Du Petit Thouars. A French botanist, and traveller in Madagascar.

Thou. Af.—Du Petit Thouars (Aubert). Histoire des Végétaux recueillies dans les Iles Australes d’Afrique. 4to. Paris, 1806.

Thou. Or.—Du Petit Thouars (Aubert). Histoire des Plantes Orchidées recueillies sur les trois Isles Australes d’Afrique. 8vo. Paris, 1822.

Th. P.—Thunberg (Car. Petr.), in Novi Commentarii Academiæ Imperialis Petropolitanæ. 20 vols. 4to. 1720–1726.

Thouin.—Thouin. A French botanist.

Thuil.—Thuillier. A French botanist.

Thun.—Thunberg. A Swedish botanical traveller.

Thun. Dra.—Thunberg (Car. Petr.). Diss. Dracæna. 2 vols. 4to. Upsal, 1780.

Thun. Er.—Thunberg (Car. Petr.). Dissert. de Erica. 4to. Upsal, 1785.

Thun. Fic.—Thunberg (Car. Petr.). Diss. Ficus Genus. Upsal, 1786.

Thun. Ir.—Thunberg (Car. Petr.). Dissertatio de Iris. 4to. 1782.

Thun. Jap.—Thunberg (Car. Petr.). Flora Japonica. 8vo. Lips. 1784.

Thun. Pr.—Thunberg (Car. Petr.). Dissertatio de Protea. 1781.

Thun. Up.—Thunberg (Car. Petr.), in Acta Literaria et Scientiarum Upsaliæ aut ab Academia Upsaliensi publicata. 1720–1816.

Thun. V.—Thunberg (Car. Petr.). Voyage au Japon, &c. 8vo. 1796.

Til. Pis.—Tilli (Mich. Aug.). Catalogus Horti Pisani. fol. Florence, 1723.

Timm.—Timm. A German botanist.

Tineo.—Tineo. A professor at Palermo.

To. It.—Tournefort (Pitton de). Relation d’un Voyage au Levant. 2 vols. 4to. Paris, 1717.

Tode.—Tode. A German writer on Fungi.

Tode Fun.—Tode (Henr. Jul.). Fungi Mecklenburgenses selecti. 4to. Luneburg, 1790.

Torrey.—Torrey. An American botanist.

Tou.—Tournefort. An old French botanist, and traveller in Greece and Asia Minor.

Tou. Ins.—Tournefort (Pitton de). Institutiones Rei Herbariæ. 3 vols. 4to. 1717. 1719.

Tourn. Vo.—Tournefort (Pitton de). Relation d’un Voyage au Levant. 2 vols. 4to. Paris, 1717.

Trat.—Trattinik. A botanist of Vienna.

Trat. Ar.—Trattinnick (Leop.). Archiv der Gewächskunde. 4to. Vienn. 1811, 1812.

Trat. Au.—Trattinnick (Leop.). Flora Austriaca sicca. fol. 1792.

Trat. Tab.—Trattinnick (Leop.). Observationes Botanicæ Tabularium Rei Herbariæ illustrantes. 4to. 1811.


Trat. Th.—Trattinnick (Leop.). Thesaurus Botanicus. fol. Vien. 1819.

Tr. Ehr.—Trew (Christ. Jac.). Plantæ selectæ ab Ehret pictæ. fol. 1750–1773.

Trent.Trentepohl. A German botanist.

Trev.—Treviranus. A German botanist.

Trev. B.—Treviranus (Lud. Christ.), in Berlinisches Magazin.

Trev. Del.—Treviranus (Lud. Christ.). De Delphinio et Aquilegia Observationes. 4to. 1817.

Tri. Ob.—Triumfetti (Joh. Bapt.). Observationes de Ortu et Vegetatione Plantarum. 4to. Romæ, 1685.

Tr. Pl.—Trew (Christ. Jac.). Plantæ rariores. Ed. J. C. Keller. fol. 1763.

Trin.—Trinius. A writer on Grasses.

Turn.—Dawson Turner. An English writer on Sea Weeds.

Turn. Fuci.—Turner (Dawson). Historia Fucorum. 3 vols. fol. London, 1802, &c.

Turp.—Turp. A French botanist and draughtsman.

Turra.—Turra. An Italian botanist.

Tus.—Tussac. A French writer on the Flora of the Antilles.

Uc.—Ucria. A botanist of Palermo.

Urv.—D’Urville. A captain in the French navy.

Us. An.—Usteri (Paul). Neue Annalen der Botanik. 8vo. 1794.

Vahl Ec.—Vahl (Martinus). Eclogæ Americanæ. fol. 1796.

Vahl Ic.—Vahl (Martinus). Icones Plantarum in Eclogis descriptarum. fol. 1798.

Vahl Sy.—Vahl (Martinus). Symbolæ Botanicæ. fol. Hafn. 1790–1794.

Vail.—Vaillant. A French botanist and traveller.

Vail. It.—Vaillant (Sebastien). Botanicon Parisiense. fol. Leid. 1727.

Vail. Pa.—Vaillant (Sebastien). Botanicon Parisiense, Operis majoris Prodromus. 8vo. L. Bat. 1723.

Van.—Vandelli. A Portuguese botanist.

Vau. Con.—Vaucher (Jean Pierre). Histoire des Conferves d’Eau douce. 4to. Genève, 1803.

Ven.—Ventenat. A French botanist.

Ven. Cels.—Ventenat (Etienne Pierre). Description des Plantes nouvelles ou peu connues du Jardin de J. M. Cels. fol. Paris, 1800.

Ven. Ch.—Ventenat (Etienne Pierre). Choix des Plantes. fol. Paris, 1803–1808.

Ven. Mal.—Ventenat (Etienne Pierre). Jardin de la Malmaison. fol. 1803–1805.

Ven. Til.—Ventenat (Etienne Pierre). Monographie du Genre Tilleul. 4to. Paris, 1802.

Vest.—Vest. A Styrian botanist.

Vib. Ce.—Viborg on the Cerealia.

Vig.—Viguier. A writer upon Poppies.

Vig. His.—Viguier (L. G. A.). Histoire Naturelle des Pavots et des Argemones. 4to. Montpelier, 1814.

Vil.—Villars. A French botanist.

Vil. Del.—Villars (D.). Histoire des Plantes du Dauphiné. 3 vols. 8vo. Grenoble, 1786–1788.

Vil. S. J.—Villars (D.), in Schrader’s Journal für die Botanik. 5 vols. 8vo. Göttingen, 1803–1810.

Vil. Stras.—Villars (D.). Catalogue méthodique du Jardin du Strasbourg. 8vo. 1807.

Vit.—Vitmann. A German botanist.

Viv.—Viviani. An Italian botanist.

Viv. An.—Viviani (Dom.). Annali di Botanica. 2 vols. 8vo. Genoa, 1802, 1803.

Viv. Fr.—Viviani (Dom.). Floræ Italicæ Fragmenta. 4to. Genoa, 1808.

Viv. Lib.—Viviani (Dom.). Floræ Libycæ Specimen. fol. Genoa, 1824.

Vol. Nor.—Volckamer (Joh. Georg.). Flora Noribergensis. 4to. Noribergæ, 1700.

W.—Willdenow. A German botanist.

W. Ach.—Willdenow (Car. Lud.). Tractatus de Achilleis et Tanaceto. 8vo. Halæ Magd. 1789.

W. Ar.—Willdenow (Car. Lud.). Historia Amaranthorum. fol. Turici, 1790.

W. En.—Willdenow’s Enumeration of the Plants in the Berlin Garden.

W. B. M.—Willdenow (Car. Lud.), in Berlinisches Magazin oder Gesammlete Schriften, &c. 4to. 1765–1767.

W. Erf.—Willdenow (Car. Lud.), in Acta Academiæ Electoralis Moguntinæ Scientiarum utilium quæ Erfordiæ. 2 vols. 8vo. Erford et Gothæ, 1757–1761; the rest in 4to. 1775 and 1776.


W. H. B.—Willdenow (Car. Lud.). Hortus Berolinensis. fol. Berlin, 1806–1810.

W. & K.—Waldstein and Kitaibel. Authors of Flora of Hungary.

W. & K. Hun.—Waldstein (Franc.) et Kitaibel (Paul). Descriptiones et Icones Plantarum rariorum Hungariæ. 3 vols. fol. Vienn. 1802–1812.

W. & M.—Weber and Mohr. German botanists.

W. N. Ber.—Willdenow (Car. Lud.), in Neuen Schriften der Berlinischen Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde. 6 vols. 8vo. Berlin, 1780–1785.

W. Ph.—Willdenow (Car. Lud.). Phytographia. fol. Erlangæ, 1797.

Wa. Fl. Hel.—Wahlenberg (Georg). De Vegetatione Helvetica. 8vo. Furic. 1813.

Wa. Lap.—Wahlenberg (Georg). Flora Lapponica. 8vo. Berlin, 1812.

Wahl.—Wahlenberg. A Swedish botanist.

Wal.—Wallich. Superintendent of the botanical garden at Calcutta.

Wal. Pl. As. Ra. Ic.—Wallich (Nath.). Plantæ rariores Asiaticæ. 2 parts, fol. London, 1830.

Wal. Res.—Wallich (Nath.). Asiatic Researches, or Transactions of the Society instituted in Bengal. 4to. 1788.

Wald.—Waldstein. A noble German patron of botany.

Wallr.—Wallroth. A German botanist.

Walt.—Walter. A writer on the Flora of Carolina.

Walt. Ca.—Walter (Thom.). Flora Caroliniana. 8vo. London, 1788.

Walt. H.—Walther (Aug. Frid.). Designatio Plantarum Horti ejus. 8vo. Lips. 1735.

Wan.—Wangenheim. A German botanist.

Wang. Am.—Von Wangenheim (Fried. Ad. Jul.). Anpflanzung Nord Amerikanischer Holzarten. fol. Göttingæ, 1787.

Wat.—Watson. An English writer upon trees and shrubs.

Web.—Weber. A German cryptogamist.

Weig. Obs.—Weigel (Christ. Ehrenb.). Observationes Botanicæ. 4to. Gryphiæ, 1772.

Weigel.—Weigel. A German botanist.

Weihe.—Weighe. A German writer on Rubi.

Wein.—Weinmann. A German gardener, superintendent of one of the royal gardens in Russia.

Wein. Ic.—Weinmann (J. Gul.). Phytanthoza Iconographica. 4 vols. fol. Regemb. 1737–1745.

Weis.—Weis. A German botanist.

Wen. C.—Wendland (Joh. Christ.). Collectio Plantarum tam exoticarum quam indigenarum. 4to. Hanoveræ, 1805, &c.

Wen. Er.—Wendland (Joh. Christ.). Ericarum Icones et Descriptiones. 4to. 1798, &c.

Wen. Han.—Wendland (Joh. Christ.). Sertum Hanoveranum. 4 fasc. fol.

Wen. Her.—Wendland (Joh. Christ.). Hortus Herrenhusanus. fol. 1798, &c.

Wen. Ob.—Wendland (Joh. Christ.). Botanische Beobachtungen. 4to. Hanover, 1798.

Wern. Tr.—Transactions or Memoirs of the Wernerian Society. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1809. Continued.

West.—West. An English botanist.

Wibel.—Wibel. A German botanist.

Wig.—Wiggers. A German botanist.

Wik.—Wikstrom. A Swedish botanist.

With.—Withering. An English botanist.

Wnl.—Wendland. A German garden botanist.

Wood.—Woodville (William). Medical Botany. 3 vols. 4to. 1790.

Woods.—Woods. An English writer on Roses.

Woodw.—Woodward. An English botanist.

Worm.—Wormskiold. A Norwegian botanist.

Wre.—Wredow. A German divine and botanist.

Wrede.—Wrede. A German botanist.

Wul.—Wulfen. A German botanist.

Y.—Young. A writer in the Linnean Transactions.

Za.—Zanon (Antonio). Istoria Botanica. fol. Bologna, 1675.

Zea.—Zea. A Spanish botanist.

Zey.—Zeyer. A German gardener.

Zo. Ic.—Zorn (Barthol.). Icones Plantarum Medicinalium. 8vo. Nuremb. 1779–1784.

Zuc.—Zuccagni. Superintendent of the botanical garden at Florence.

Notes and Corrections: Botanical Authorities

Throughout this section, anomalous spellings such as Gesammlete were correct at the time of printing—which may have been one, two or more centuries before the Dictionary—unless otherwise noted.

Lou.—Loureiro. A Portuguese traveller in Cochin China.
text has spurious — (dash) after “Loureiro.”

M. Fl. Vi.—Moretti (Gius.). Notizia sopra diverse Piante da aggungiarsi alla Flora Vicentina. 4to. 1813.
spelling “aggungiarsi” in the Dictionary, but Moretti’s book has the expected “aggiungersi”

Trat.—Trattinik. A botanist of Vienna. / Trat. Ar.—Trattinnick (Leop.).
Inconsistent spelling in the original.

Trent.—Trentepohl. A German botanist.
— missing or invisible

Ven. Til.—Ventenat (Etienne Pierre). Monographie du Genre Tilleul. 4to. Paris, 1802.
text has “4to,” for “4to.” (comma for period)



The following is a list of the Technical Terms most commonly employed in Botany:—

Abnormal, contrary to general rules.

Accumbent, lying against anything, in distinction to lying upon; as the cotyledons of some cruciferous plants.

Acerose, stiff and slender and sharp-pointed, as the leaves of a pine-tree.

Achenium, a small, hard, one-seeded fruit, resembling a seed.

Aciculate, needle-shaped.

Acinaciform, scymitar-shaped.

Acinus, a bunch of succulent berries, as of grapes.

Acrogen, a plant which grows at its end only, without increasing in diameter, as ferns, and all flowerless plants.

Aculeate, covered with prickles.

Aculeus, a prickle.

Acuminate, tapering to the point, but flat.

Adnate, growing to any thing by the whole length.

Adventitious, appearing accidentally.

Æstivation, the arrangement of the parts of the flower before they expand.

Alabastrus, a flower-bud.

Albumen, a substance inter­posed in some seeds between the embryo and the seed coats.

Alburnum, the young wood; sap-wood.

Amentum, a catkin; the male inflorescence of the hazel, &c.

Amplexicaul, clasping a stem.

Anastomosing, the growing together of two parts which meet from different directions.

-androus, a Greek termination expressive of the male sex.

Anfractuous, doubled abruptly in several different directions.

Angiocarpous, having seeds enclosed in a pericarp.

Annotinous, a year old.

Anther, the case containing pollen.

Apetalous, having no petals.

Apiculate, abruptly pointed.

Apocarpous, where the carpels are distinct from each other.

Apophysis, the enlarged base of the theca of some mosses.

Apothecium, the shield, or mass of reproductive matter of a lichen.

Appendiculate, having some kind of appendages.

Arachnoid, resembling a spider’s web.

Areolate, divided into little spaces.

Aril, a peculiar wrapper of some seeds, as the mace of the nutmeg.

Arista, the beard or awn of grasses.

Asci, the cases in which the spores of lichens are enclosed.

Ascidium, a hollow leaf looking like a water vessel; as the pitcher of Nepenthes.

Attenuated, gradually tapering to a point without becoming flat.

Auriculate, having two lobes (like ears) at the base.

Awn, see Arista.

Axil, the acute angle formed by the junction of the leaf, &c. to its axis.

Axillary, growing in an axil.

Axis, the root and stem either taken together or separately.

Baccate, fruit covered with soft flesh.

Barbate, covered with long hairs resembling a beard.

Beard, a tuft of long hairs.

Biconjugate, in two pairs, placed side by side.

Bidentate, having two teeth.

Bifarious, arranged in two rows.

Bifid, divided into two shallow lobes.

Bifoliate, having two leaflets.

Bifurcate, twice forked.

Bijugous, in two pairs, placed end to end.

Binate, growing in pairs.

Bipartite, divided into two deep lobes.

Bipinnate, twice pinnate.

Biserrate, twice serrate.

Brachiate, when branches stand nearly at right angles to the stem from which they proceed.

Bract, the leaf or leaflet from the axil of which a flower grows.

Bulb, a scaly, underground bud.

Bulbotuber, a short, roundish, underground stem resembling a bulb.

Caducous, falling off sooner or later.

Cæsious, of a bluish grey colour.

Cæspitose, growing in tufts.

Calcar, a spur or horn; as in the Nasturtium.

Calcarate, having a spur or horn.

Calyculate, having a whorl of bracts on the outside of a calyx, or of an involucre.

Calyptra, the hood of a moss.

Calyx, the external envelope of a flower.

Cambium, a viscid secretion formed in the spring between the bark and wood of Exogens.

Campanulate, bell-shaped.

Canaliculate, channelled.

Cancellate, a leaf which has veins without connecting parenchyma.

Capitate, growing in a head.

Capitulum, a collection of flowers in a head.

Capsule, any dry many-seeded fruit.

Carinate, having a kind of keel.

Carnose, fleshy.

Carpel, one of the parts of a compound pistil; a single leaf rolled up into one of the integers of a pistil.

Carunculate, a seed having fungous excrescences growing near its hilum.

Caryopsis, a dry one-seeded fruit resembling a seed, but with no distinction 83 between the seed coat and pericarp.

Caudate, prolonged into a sort of tail.

Cauline, of or belonging to the stem.

Cernuous, drooping.

Chalaza, a spot on a seed indicating the place where the nucleus is united to the seminal integuments.

Ciliated, fringed with hairs like an eyelash.

Cinereous, ash-coloured.

Circinate, rolled inwards from the point to the base.

Circumscissile, dividing into two parts by a spontaneous transverse separation.

Cirrhous, terminating in a tendril.

Clavate, club-shaped.

Claw, the stalk of a petal.

Clypeate, resembling a round buckler.

Cochleate, resembling the bowl of a spoon.

Collum, the point where the stem and root are combined.

Columella, a central part of the fruit of a moss, round which the spores are deposited.

Column, the combination of stamens and style in Orchideous and other plants.

Comose, having hairs at one or both ends, if speaking of seeds; being terminated by coloured empty bracts, if applied to inflorescences.

Conduplicate, doubled together.

Confluent, growing together so that the line of junction is lost to the sight.

Conjugate, growing in pairs.

Connate, growing together so that the line of junction remains perceptible.

Connective, the fleshy part that combines the two lobes of an anther.

Connivent, converging, as the anther of a potato blossom.

Conoidal, approaching a conical form.

Continuous, proceeding from something else without apparent inter­ruption.

Contorted, twisted in such a way that all the parts have a similar direction, as the segments of the flower of an Oleander.

Convolute, rolled together.

Corculum, the rudimentary axis which connects the cotyledons of the embryo.

Cordate, heart-shaped.

Coriaceous, of a leathery texture.

Cormus, a solid, roundish, underground stem, as in Crocus.

Corneous, of a horny texture.

Corniculate, shaped like a slender horn.

Corolla, the second of the two envelopes that surround the stamens and pistil.

Corona, a combination of fertile and barren stamens into a disk, as in Stapelia.

Corymbose, when the branches surrounding a common axis are shortest at the top and longest at the bottom, so as to form a level-topped whole.

Costa, the midrib of a leaf.

Cotyledons, the leaves of the embryo.

Crateriform, shaped like a goblet.

Crenelled or Crenated, having rounded notches at the edges.

Crested, having some unusual and striking appendage arising from the middle.

Cruciate, when four parts are so arranged as to resemble the arms of a Maltese cross.

Cucullate, hooded, rolled inwards so as to conceal any thing lying within.

Culm, the straw of grasses.

Cuneate, wedge-shaped.

Cupule, the cup of the acorn, the husk of the filbert, chestnut, &c.; a peculiar combination of bracts.

Cuspidate, abruptly rounded off with a projecting point in the middle.

Cuticle, the external skin.

Cyathiform, cup-shaped, more contracted at the orifice than crateriform.

Cymbiform, having the form of a boat.

Cyme, an inflorescence having a corymbose form, but consisting of repeatedly-branched divisions.

Cymose, resembling a cyme in appearance.

Decandrous, having ten stamens.

Deciduous, falling off.

Declinate, curved downwards.

Decumbent, lying prostrate, but rising again.

Decurrent, produced downwards, as the base of a leaf down the stem.

Decussate, crossing at right angles.

Dehiscence, the act of opening of anther or fruit.

Deltoid, having the form of a triangle or Greek Δ.

Dendroidal, resembling a small tree.

Dentate, with sharp-pointed notches and inter­mediate curves instead of re-entering angles.

Depauperated, imperfectly developed; looking as if ill-formed from want of sufficient nutriment.

Depressed, flattened from point to base.

Diadelphous, having the stamens in two parcels.

Diandrous, having two stamens.

Dichotomous, repeatedly divided into two branches.

Dicotyledonous, having two cotyledons.

Didymous, growing in pairs, or twins; only applied to solids and not to flat surfaces.

Didynamous, having two pairs of stamens of unequal length.

Digitate, fingered, diverging from a common centre, as the fingers from the palm.

Dimidiate, half-formed, or halved, or split into two halves.

Diœcious, having stamens on one plant and pistils on another.

Dipterous, having two wings.

Discoidal, with the central part of a flat body differently coloured or marked from the margin.


Disk, a fleshy circle inter­posed between the stamens and pistils.

Dissepiments, the vertical partitions of a compound fruit.

Distichous, arranged in two rows.

Divaricating, diverging at an obtuse angle.

Dodecandrous, having 12 stamens.

Dolabriform, hatchet-shaped.

Drupe, such a fruit as the peach, consisting of a stem surrounded by flesh or fibrous matter.

Ducts, spiral vessels that will not unroll.

Dumose, having a compact bushy form.

Duramen, the heart-wood of timber.

Echinate, covered with hard sharp points.

Elaters, little spirally-twisted hygrometrical threads that disperse the spores of Jungermannias.

Elementary organs, the minute parts of which the texture of plants is composed.

Emarginate, having a notch at the point.

Embryo, the rudimentary plant before germination commences.

Endocarp, the hard lining of some pericarps.

Endogen, a plant which increases in diameter by addition to its centre, as a palm-tree.

Enneandrous, having 9 stamens.

Ensiform, having the form of a straight and narrow sword blade.

Epicarp, the external layer of the pericarp.

Epidermis, the skin of a plant, in the language of some writers; the cortical integument according to others.

Epigynous, growing upon the top of the ovary, or seeming to do so.

Equitant, when leaves are so arranged that the base of each is enclosed within the opposite base of that which is next below it; as in Iris.

Estivation, see Æstivation.

Exogen, a plant which increases in diameter by the addition of new wood to the outside of the old wood; as an oak-tree.

Farinaceous, mealy.

Fasciated, banded.

Fasciculated, collected in clusters.

Fastigiate, when the branches of any plant are pressed close to the main stem, as in the Lombardy poplar.

Filament, the stalk of the anther.

Filiform, slender and round like a thread.

Fistular, tubular but closed at each end; as the leaf of an onion.

Flabelliform, fan-shaped.

Flagelliform, resembling the thong of a whip.

Flexuose, wavy.

Floccose, covered with little irregular patches of woolliness.

Floret, a little flower.

Floscule, ditto.

Foliaceous, having the colour and texture of a common green leaf.

Foliation, the arrangement of young leaves within the leaf-bud.

Follicle, a simple fruit opening by its ventral suture only.

Foramen, the passage through the integuments of an ovule by which impregnating matter is introduced into the nucleus.

Fovilla, the fertilizing principle of pollen.

Frond, the leaf of a fern or of a palm.

Fruit, the full-grown ripened pistil.

Fugacious, lasting but a short time.

Fungoid, resembling a fungus; that is, irregular in form and fleshy in texture.

Funiculus, the stalk by which some seeds are attached to the placenta.

Fusiform, spindle-shaped, thickest in the middle, and tapering to each end.

Galbulus, a small cone whose scales are all consolidated into a fleshy ball, as in Juniper.

Galea, the upper lip of a labiate flower.

Geniculate, knee-jointed, when a stem bends suddenly in its middle.

Gibbous, prominent, projecting.

Glabrous, having no hairs.

Gladiate, the same as ensiform, but broader and shorter.

Gland, 1. the fruit of the oak, the hazel, &c.; 2. an elevation of the cuticle which usually secretes either acrid or resinous matter.

Glandular, covered with glands of the second kind.

Glaucous, covered with bloom like a plum.

Glochidate, covered with hairs which are rigid and hooked at their point.

Glume, one of the bracts of grasses.

Gymnospermous, having seeds which ripen without being enclosed in a pericarp.

Gynobase, an elevated part of the growing point of a flower-bud, rising between the carpels and throwing them into an oblique position.

Gyrate, see Circinate. Also, surrounded by an elastic ring, as the theca of ferns.

Hastate, having the form of a halbert-head; that is, with a lance-shaped centre crossed at the base by two lobes of a similar form standing at right angles with the centre.

Helmet, the hooded upper lip of some flowers.

Heptandrous, having 7 stamens.

Hexandrous, having 6 stamens.

Hilum, the scar left upon a seed when it is separated from the placenta.

Hirsute, covered with harsh long hairs.

Hymenium, the gills of a mushroom; that part in Fungi where the spores are placed.

Hypocrateriform, salver-shaped; having a 85 cylindrical tube and a flat border spreading away from it.

Hypogynous, arising from immediately below the pistil.

Icosandrous, having 20 or more perigynous stamens.

Imbricated, overlapping, as tiles overlie each other on the roof of a house.

Incumbent, lying upon any thing.

Indehiscent, not opening when ripe.

Induplicate, doubled inwards.

Indusium, the membrane that overlies the sori of ferns.

Inferior, is said of a calyx when it does not adhere to the ovary; is said of an ovary when it does adhere to the calyx.

Inflorescence, the collection of flowers upon a plant.

Infundibuliform, shaped like a funnel.

Innate, growing upon any thing by one end.

Innovations, the young shoots of mosses.

Intercellular, that which lies between the cells or elementary bladders of plants.

Internode, the space between two nodes.

Interrupted, when variations in continuity, size, or development alternately occur in parts which are sometimes uniform; as when pinnated leaves have the alternate leaflets much the smallest, and when dense spikes are here and there broken by the extension of inter­nodes.

Involucre, a collection of bracts placed in a whorl on the outside a calyx or flower-head.

Involute, rolled inwards.

Labellum, one segment of a corolla, which is lower than the others, and often pendulous.

Labiate, divided into an upper and a lower lip, as the corolla of dead nettle.

Lacunose, having numerous large deep depressions or excavations on its surface.

Lamina, the blade of a leaf.

Lanceolate, shaped like a lance-head; that is, oval, tapering to both extremities.

Lateral, originating from the side of any thing.

Latex, the vital fluid of vegetation.

Lax, not compact or dense.

Leaflet, a division of a compound leaf.

Legume, a kind of fruit like the pod of a pea.

Lenticular, small, depressed, and doubly convex.

Lepidote, covered with a sort of scurfiness.

Leprous, the same.

Liber, the newly-formed inner bark of Exogens.

Ligula, a membranous expansion from the top of the petiole in grasses.

Limb, the blade or expanded part of a petal.

Linea, very narrow, with the two sides nearly parallel.

Lip, see Labellum.

Loculicidal, when the carpels of a compound fruit dehisce in such a way that the cells are broken through at their back.

Locusta, the spikelet, or collection of florets of a grass.

Lomentum, a legume which is inter­rupted between the seeds, so as to separate into numerous transverse portions.

Lunate, formed like a crescent.

Manicate, when hairs are inter­woven into a mass that can be easily separated from the surface.

Marginal, of or belonging to the edge of any thing.

Medullary, of or belonging to the pith.

Micropyle, a small passage through the seed, called the foramen when speaking of the ovule. See Foramen.

Mitriform, conical, hollow, open at the base, and either entire there or irregularly cut.

Monadelphous, with the stamens united into one parcel.

Monandrous, with one stamen only.

Moniliform, shaped like a necklace.

Monopetalous, with several petals united into one body by their edges.

Mucronate, tipped by a hard point.

Multifid, divided into many shallow lobes.

Multipartite, divided into many deep lobes.

Muricated, covered with short, broad, sharp-pointed tubercles.

Muriform, resembling the bricks in the wall of a house.

Navicular, shaped like a very small boat.

Nectary, any organ that secretes honey.

Nerves, the stronger veins of a leaf.

Node, the part of a stem from which a normal leaf-bud arises.

Normal, according to general rules.

Nucleus, the central part of an ovule, or a seed.

Nucule, a small hard seed-like pericarp.

Oblique, larger on one side than on the other.

Ochrea, two stipules united round the stem into a kind of sheath.

Octandrous, having eight stamens.

Operculum, the lid of the theca of a moss.

Ovary, the hollow part of a pistil containing the ovules.

Ovate, having the figure of an egg.

Ovule, a rudimentary seed.

Palate, the lower surface of the throat of a labiate corolla.

Palea, either the inner bracts of the inflorescence of a grass, or the bracts upon the receptacle of the flower-head of a Composita.

Paleaceous, covered with paleæ.


Palmate, the same as digitate, only the divisions more shallow and broader.

Panduriform, oblong, narrowing towards the base, and contracted below the middle.

Panicle, a compound raceme; a loose kind of inflorescence.

Papilionaceous, a flower consisting of standard, wings, and keel, like that of a pea.

Pappus, the calyx of a Composita, as of dandelion.

Parenchyma, the pulp that connects the veins of leaves.

Parietal, growing from the lining of any thing.

Pectinate, divided into long, close, narrow teeth like a comb.

Pedate, palmate, with the lateral segments lengthened and lobed.

Pedicel, one of a great many peduncles.

Peduncle, a flower-stalk.

Peltate, attached within the margin.

Pentandrous, having five stamens.

Perfoliate, surrounding a stem by the base, which grows together where the margins touch.

Perianth, a collection of floral envelopes, among which the calyx cannot be distinguished from the corolla, though both are present.

Pericarp, the shell of a fruit of any kind.

Perichætium, the leaves at the base of the stalk of the fruit of a moss.

Perigone, same as Perianth.

Perigynous, growing from the sides of a calyx.

Perisperm, same as Albumen.

Peristome, a curious set of processes surrounding the orifice of the theca of a moss.

Peronate, laid thickly over with a woolly substance ending in a sort of meal.

Personate, labiate, with the palate of the lower lip pressing against the upper lip.

Petal, one of the parts of a corolla.

Petaloid, resembling a petal in colour and texture.

Petiole, the stalk of a leaf.

Petiolar, of or belonging to the petiole.

Phyllodium, a petiole transformed into a flat leaf-like body.

Pileus, the cap of a mushroom.

Pilose, covered with short fine hairs.

Pinnate, divided into a number of pairs of leaflets; bipinnate, each leaflet is also pinnate; tripinnate, each secondary leaflet pinnated also.

Pinnatifid, divided in a pinnated manner nearly down to the midrib.

Pistil, the combination of ovary, style, and stigma.

Pith, the central column of cellular tissue in an Exogen.

Placenta, the part of the ovary to which the ovules are attached.

Plane, quite flat.

Plumule, the rudiment of a stem in the embryo.

Pollen, the powder contained in an anther.

Pollen-tubes, the membranous tubes emitted by pollen after they fall on the stigma.

Polyadelphous, when the stamens are combined into more than two parcels.

Polyandrous, when there are more than 20 hypogynous stamens.

Polypetalous, when the petals are all distinct.

Pome, a fruit like that of the apple, pear, &c.

Præfloration, same as Æstivation.

Prickle, same as Aculeus.

Primine, the external integument of the ovule.

Pseudobulb, the solid above-ground tuber of some Orchideæ.

Pubescent, covered with very fine soft down.

Pulverulent, covered with a powdery appearance.

Putamen, same as Endocarp.

Pyriform, shaped like a pear.

Quartine, the innermost integument but one of the ovule.

Quinate, combined in fives.

Quintine, the innermost integument of the ovule.

Raceme, an inflorescence like that of the currant.

Rachis, the axis of inflorescence.

Radical, arising from the root.

Radicle, the rudimentary root in the embryo.

Ramenta, soft, ragged, chaff-like hairs growing upon the petiole of ferns.

Raphe, the line of communication between the hilum and chalaza.

Raphides, acicular or other crystals scattered among vegetable tissue.

Reniform, kidney-shaped.

Resupinate, inverted, so that the part which is naturally lowermost becomes uppermost.

Reticulated, traversed by veins having the appearance of network.

Retuse, blunt, and turned inwards more than obtuse.

Rhizoma, a creeping stem like that of Iris.

Ringent, same as Personate.

Root-stock, same as Rhizoma.

Rostrate, furnished with a sort of beak.

Rosulate, having the leaves arranged in little rose-like clusters.

Ruminated, pierced by numerous perforations full of chaffy matter like a nutmeg.

Runner, the prostrate stem of such plants as the strawberry.

Sagittate, resembling the head of an ancient arrow.


Samara, a kind of one-seeded indehiscent pericarp, with a wing at one end.

Sapwood, the newly-formed wood, which has not been hardened by the deposit of secreted matter.

Sarcocarp, the inter­mediate fleshy layer between the epicarp and endocarp.

Scale, an abortive leaf.

Scape, the flowering-stem of a plant.

Scarious, dry, thin, and shrivelled.

Scrobiculate, irregularly pitted.

Scutellum, the fructifying space upon the thallus of a lichen.

Secund, arranged or turned to one side.

Secundine, the second integument of the ovule.

Sepals, the leaves of the calyx.

Septa, same as Dissepiment.

Septicidal, when the dissepiments of a fruit are divided into two plates at the period of dehiscence.

Septifragal, when the dissepiments of a fruit are broken through their middle by the separation of the back of the carpels from the centre.

Sericeous, silky.

Serrate, toothed like the edge of a saw.

Sessile, seated close upon any thing, without a stalk.

Setose, covered with setæ or bristles.

Shield, the fructification of lichens.

Sigmoid, bent like the letter S.

Silicle, a short two-valved pod, such as is found in garden cress.

Silique, the same but longer, as in the cabbage.

Sinuate, turning in and out in an irregular manner.

Sori, the fructification of ferns.

Spadiceous, resembling a spadix, or bearing that kind of inflorescence.

Spadix, the inflorescence of an arum; an axis closely covered with sessile flowers, and enclosed in a spathe.

Spathaceous, enclosed within a spathe, or bearing that kind of bract.

Spathe, a large coloured bract which encloses a spadix.

Spatulate, shaped like a druggist’s spatula; that is, long, narrow, and broadest at the point.

Spike, an inflorescence in which the flowers are sessile upon their axis.

Spikelet, one of a great many small spikes collected in a mass, as in grasses.

Spine, a stiff, sharp-pointed, leafless branch.

Spongiole, or Spongelet, the tender, growing tip of the root.

Spore, or Sporule, the reproductive body of flowerless plants, analogous to the seed of flowering plants.

Squarrose, composed of parts which diverge at right angles, and are irregular in size and direction.

Stamen, the fertilizing organ of a flower, consisting of filament and anther.

Standard, the upper single petal of a papilionaceous flower.

Stellate, arranged in the form of a star.

Stigma, the upper end of the style, on which the pollen falls.

Stipe, the stalk that bears the head of a mushroom; also the stalk of the leaf of a fern; also the stalk of any thing, except of a leaf or a flower.

Stipulate, furnished with stipules; exstipulate, having no stipules.

Stipule, the scale at the base of some leaf-stalks.

Stomate, a minute hole in a leaf, through which respiration is supposed to be carried on; a breathing pore.

Strigose, covered with stiff unequal hairs.

Strophiolate, having little fungous excrescences surrounding the hilum.

Stupose, having a tuft of hairs in the middle or at the end.

Style, the stalk of the stigma.

Subulate, awl-shaped.

Syncarpous, having the carpels consolidated.

Terete, taper.

Ternate, united in threes.

Testa, the skin of the seed.

Tetradynamous, having six stamens in four parcels; two of which consist of two stamens, and two of one each.

Tetrandrous, having four stamens.

Thallus, the leafy part of a lichen; the union of stem and leaf in those and some other tribes of imperfect plants.

Theca, the case which contains the sporules of flowerless plants.

Tomentose, covered with short close down.

Toothed, the same as Dentate.

Torulose, alternately contracted and distended.

Torus, the growing point of a flower, on which the carpels are placed.

Triandrous, having three stamens.

Trifarious, arranged in three rows.

Trifid, divided into three lobes.

Trifoliolate, having three leaflets.

Tripartite, divided into three deep divisions.

Tripinnate, when each leaflet of a pinnated leaf is pinnate; and the leaflets of the latter are pinnate also.

Triternate, when each leaflet of a ternate leaf is ternate, and the leaflets of the latter are ternate also.

Truncate, abruptly cut off.

Tube, the part of a flower where the bases of the sepals, petals, or stamens are united.

Tuber, a deformed, fleshy kind of underground stem.

Turbinate, shaped like a spinning top.

Umbel, an inflorescence whose branches all radiate from one common point.


Umbilicate, having a depression in the middle.

Umbonate, having a boss or elevated point in the middle.

Undulated, wavy.

Unguiculate, furnished with a claw, or short stalk.

Urceolate, shaped like a pitcher.

Utricle, a small bladder.

Vagina, the sheath formed by the convolution of a flat petiole round a stem.

Valve, one of the parts into which any dehiscent body divides.

Vascular, containing vessels; that is, spiral vessels or ducts.

Ventricose, inflated.

Vernation, the manner in which the young leaves are arranged in their leaf-bud.

Verrucose, covered with warts.

Versatile, swinging lightly upon a sort of pivot.

Verticellate, arranged in a whorl.

Vexillum, same as Standard.

Villous, covered with long, soft, shaggy hair.

Virgate, having long, slender rodlike shoots.

Vitellus, a fleshy bag, inter­posed between the embryo and albumen in some seeds.

Vittate, striped, as distinguished from fasciate or banded.

Whorl, an arrangement of more leaves than two around a common centre upon the same plane.

Notes and Corrections: Botany

Lomentum, a legume which is inter­rupted between the seeds, so as to separate into numerous transverse portions.
text has “tranverse”

Muriform, resembling the bricks in the wall of a house.
[I wanted it to mean “resembling a mouse”, but no such luck.]


A piece of bad workmanship; or where improper materials are used and do not answer well.


An epithet applied to letter, when, either through a fault in casting, or dressing, it is wider at the bottom of the shank than it is at the top.

This is an old term, and as such I have inserted it; but, owing to the superior skill, or the greater care, of the present letter founders, such a thing now never occurs.

Notes and Corrections: Bottle Arsed

owing to the superior skill, or the greater care
[Or to the early-victorian mealy-mouthedness of the author?]


The last line in the page, except that in which the signature, or the catch word or direction word, is inserted.


The notes at the bottom or foot of a page. They are usually composed in a type two sizes smaller than that used for the body of the work: thus, if the work be printed with a Pica type, the notes will be composed in Long Primer; if with English, the notes will be Small Pica. They are also termed Foot Notes.


The name of a type, a size larger than Brevier, and smaller than Long Primer. It is not enumerated in Moxon’s list of the sizes of types. See Types.


A small wooden bowl, which it is usual to have in composing rooms, in which to carry water to different parts for the purpose of wetting matter.


The hollow part of the ball stock, in the crown of which the handle is inserted; it is filled with wool, and the pelt, or canvass, is nailed to it. An old one is generally used for a paste bowl in the press-room.


When compositors pick a bad letter out of a form in correcting, it is usual to rub the face of it on the stone and to bend the shank, if it be not a thick letter; this is done to prevent such letters being distributed and used again; in Moxon’s time it was styled bowing a letter. After the form is locked-up and the stone cleared, these bowed (or bent) letters are thrown into the shoe.


Extract from the Will of Mr. William Bowyer, Printer, who died on the 18th of November, 1777, when he had nearly completed his 78th year.

And now I hope I may be allowed to leave somewhat for the benefit of printing. To this end, I give to the master and keepers, or wardens and commonalty, of the mistery or art of a Stationer of the city of London, such a sum of money as will purchase Two Thousand Pounds, three per cent. Reduced Bank Annuities, upon trust, to pay the dividends and yearly produce thereof, to be divided for ever equally amongst three printers, compositors or pressmen, to be elected from time to time by the master, wardens, and assistants, of the said company, and who at the time of such election shall be sixty-three years old or upwards, for their respective lives, to be paid half yearly; 89 hoping that such as shall be most deserving will be preferred. And whereas I have herein before given to my son the sum of Three Thousand Pounds four per cent. Consolidated Annuities, in case he marries with the consent of my executors: now, I do hereby GIVE AND BEQUEATH the dividends and interest of that sum, till such marriage takes place, to the said Company of Stationers, to be divided equally between six other printers, compositors or pressmen, as aforesaid, in manner as aforesaid; and, if my said son shall die unmarried, or married without such consent as aforesaid, then I GIVE AND BEQUEATH the said capital sum of Three Thousand Pounds to the said Company of Stationers, the dividends and yearly produce thereof to be divided for ever equally amongst six other such old printers, compositors or pressmen, for their respective lives, to be qualified, chosen, and paid, in manner as aforesaid.—It has long been to me matter of concern, that such numbers are put apprentices, as compositors, without any share of school-learning, who ought to have the greatest: in hopes of remedying this, I GIVE AND BEQUEATH to the said Company of Stationers such a sum of money as will purchase One Thousand Pounds three per cent. Reduced Bank Annuities, for the use of one journeyman compositor, such as shall hereafter be described, with this special trust, that the master, wardens, and assistants, shall pay the dividends and produce thereof half-yearly to such compositor: the said master, wardens, and assistants, of the said company, shall nominate for this purpose a compositor who is a man of good life and conversation, who shall usually frequent some place of public worship every Sunday, unless prevented by sickness, and shall not have worked on a newspaper or magazine for four years at least before such nomination, nor shall ever afterwards whilst he holds this annuity, which may be for life if he continues a journeyman: he shall be able to read and construe Latin, and at least to read Greek fluently with accents; of which he shall bring a testimonial from the rector of St. Martin’s, Ludgate, for the time being: I could wish that he shall have been brought up piously and virtuously, if it be possible, at Merchant Taylor’s, or some other public school, from seven years of age till he is full seventeen, and then to serve seven years faithfully as a compositor, and work seven years more as a journeyman, as I would not have this annuity bestowed on any one under thirty-one years of age: if, after he is chosen, he should behave ill, let him be turned out, and another be chosen in his stead. And whereas it may be many years before a compositor may be found that shall exactly answer the above description, and it may at some time happen that such a one cannot be found; I would have the dividends in the meantime applied to such person as the master, wardens, and assistants, shall think approaches nearest to what I have described. And whereas the above trusts will occasion some trouble; I give to the said Company, in case they think proper to accept the trusts, two hundred and fifty pounds.”—Extracted from Anecdotes, Literary and Biographical, of Mr. Bowyer, by J. N. [John Nichols?] in Gent. Mag. Dec. 1778, p. 570.

6,000l. stock was immediately transferred by the executors of Mr. Bowyer, and now stands in the name of the Company; the yearly dividend is 180l.Hansard’s Typographia, p. 280. Note.


The divisions of a case, in which the letters lie, are termed Boxes; as the a box, the e box, the i box, &c.


The female screw in the head of a press, in which the spindle works. It is made of brass, and is usually cast on the screw of the spindle, round on the outside with a projecting part of about half an inch on the whole length of each opposite side, to keep it firm in the head, and prevent it turning round. It is fitted tightly into the head, and kept in its place by two bolts, driven into the under side, with return heads which project over the bottom of the box. It is also called the Nut of the Spindle.


The best boxwood used in engraving is of a good yellow colour, of a fine close grain, that has been of a slow growth, clear of knots and any imperfections, such as cracks or flaws; the finest lines may be engraved on this wood, as it is both hard and tough, and, with care in printing, the number of impressions that may be taken from an engraving on it would appear incredible. Papillon, in his History of Engraving on Wood, gives a specimen, from which, he states, there had been upwards of three hundred and seventy thousand impressions previously printed; and if the block had been carefully cleaned, and well printed, it would still have produced respectable impressions. Boxwood of a dull bad yellow colour, and of an open coarse grain, is not fit for engraving on, neither 90 is wood that is of a blackish colour at the heart; for, in these cases, it has begun to decay, is brittle and tender, and if engraved on, the lines would not stand, but would fail in printing. Our principal supply of boxwood comes from the Levant, and is called Turkey box.


A character cast in metal thus marked horizontal brace. The compositor is to have these cast of several breadths, viz. to several number of lines of a designed body (most commonly of Pica body) that they may hook in or brace so many lines as his copy may show him.—M.

It is used in poetry at the end of a triplet, or three lines which have the same rhyme.

Braces are also used to connect a number of words with one common term, and are introduced to prevent a repetition in writing or printing.—Murray.

Braces are cast to different bodies as high as English; and braces on Long Primer are now cast from three to eight ems in length, which look much neater than the old fashion of middles and corners, filled up with metal rules.

The founders in casting long Braces always make the swell in the face of them proportionably thick to their length, so that in using them with small letter they look heavy and clumsy; I would recommend that long Braces should be cast to a small body, not larger than Brevier, and the faces of all the lengths uniform, so that when there happens to be a range of them of different lengths in a page they might harmonize, and not make such an incongruous appearance as they now do. When Braces are wanted longer than those already cast, I would not use middles and corners, but make them of Brass Rule in one continued piece, which has a better appearance than when they are joined, and which may be made with a file in a neat manner by any clever compositor.


See Crotchet.

Bramah’s Press.

See Hydrostatic Press.

Notes and Corrections: Bramah’s Press

See Hydrostatic Press
[There is no article called Hydrostatic Press, so I hope he meant Hydraulic Press. The same goes for the cross-reference under Book Press.]


Opening or extending the matter in title-pages, heads of pages, or other parts, and also in jobs, with quadrats, leads, reglet, or other proper materials.


Pieces of brass of different thicknesses made letter high, to print with.—M. They are made in lengths of fourteen inches, but of late years lengths half as long again have been made; one of the edges is bevilled so as to print a fine line, and when a thicker line is required the bottom edge is placed uppermost, which is the full thickness of the brass; by this means lines of different thicknesses are obtained, and also double lines, a thick one and a fine one when required. They are used for column lines in table work; to separate matter that requires to be distinct; and to be placed round pages.

I have found in practice that the best way of forming a good joining at the corners with brass rule, is to cut the rules a little longer than the precise length wanted, and to let one piece project a little at each corner; to push the other piece close up, and, when the form is locked up, then to file the projecting parts away, which makes the corners equal, as shown below.

two rectangles

Wherever two rules join, the end of that which abuts on the other should be cut with a little bevil, so that the upper side should project a 91 little to form a junction with the face of the other; this also prevents the rule binding at bottom.

An ingenious compositor will make many things out of brass rules, such as neat long braces, instead of using middles, corners, and metal rules, which rarely join well, swell rules of different varieties, and many fancy rules, as occasion may require.

In cases where diagrams are required, and there is no engraver within reach, they may be formed by a clever workman, with brass rule. There have been of late years many ingenious and elaborate performances with this article in imitation of architectural drawings of buildings, with pillars, &c.; and I believe no one has displayed more ingenuity and skill in the production of such works than Mr. Ebenezer Parkes, of Fetter Lane.



A round wooden rubber with an upright handle, almost of the fashion of a ball stock, but solid and flat at the bottom, and not above three inches in diameter. It is used on the ink block, to bray or rub out ink with so as to spread it out in such a manner that a small quantity may be taken up when the ball is pressed upon the block, tolerably diffused upon the surface, and not in a mass, which causes the ink to be more expeditiously distributed, with less risk of making monks and friars.

BREAD, SALE OF, Ireland.

1 & 2 Vict. c. 28. “An Act to repeal the several Acts now in force relating to Bread to be sold in Ireland, and to provide other Regulations for the making and Sale of Bread, and for preventing the Adulteration of Meal, Flour, and Bread, in that Part of the United Kingdom called Ireland.”

s. 7. “And be it enacted, That no Baker or other Person who shall make Bread for Sale in Ireland, nor any Journeyman or other Servant of any such Baker or other Person, shall, at any Time or Times, in the making of Bread for sale in Ireland, use any Mixture or Ingredient whatever in the making of such Bread other than and except as herein-before mentioned, on any Account or under any Colour or Pretence whatsoever in the making of such Bread, upon pain that every such Person, whether Master or Journeyman, Servant or other Person, who shall offend in the Premises, and shall be convicted of any such Offence by the Oath, or in case of a Quaker by Affirmation, of One or more credible Witness or Witnesses, or by his, her, or their own Confession, shall for every such Offence forfeit and pay any Sum not exceeding Five Pounds nor less than Fifty Shillings, or in default thereof shall, by Warrant under the Hands and Seals of the Magistrate or Magistrates, Justice or Justices before whom such Offender shall be convicted, be apprehended and committed to the House of Correction, or some Prison of the City, County, Borough, or Place where the Offence shall have been committed, or the Offender or Offenders apprehended, there to remain for any Time not exceeding Three Calendar Months, with or without hard Labour, from the Time of such Commitment, unless the Penalty shall be sooner paid, as any such Magistrate or Magistrates, Justice or Justices shall think fit to order; and it shall be lawful for the Magistrate or Magistrates, Justice or Justices before whom any such Offender or Offenders shall be convicted to cause the Offender’s Name, Place of Abode, and Offence to be published in some Newspaper or Newspapers which shall be printed or published in or near the City, County, Borough, or Place where the Offence shall have been committed; and the Proprietor and Proprietors, Printer and Printers, and every other Person or Persons concerned therein, are hereby authorized to print and publish the same when he, she, or they is or are required so to do by or by the Order of such Magistrate or Magistrates, Justice or Justices; and he, she, or they is and are hereby indemnified from any Prosecution or Prosecutions for printing and publishing the same or causing the same to be printed and published in such Newspaper or Newspapers by or from any Person or Persons whomsoever, any Law, Statute, or Usage to the contrary thereof in anywise notwith­standing; and the Costs and Charges of such printing and publishing shall be paid out of such last-mentioned Penalty or Forfeiture, in case any shall be so forfeited, paid, or recovered.”

s. 11. “And be it enacted, That every Miller, Mealman, Flour Factor, or Baker in Ireland, in whose House, Mill, Shop, Stall, Bakehouse, Bolting-house, Pastry Warehouse, Outhouse, Ground or Possession any Ingredient or Mixture shall be found which shall, after due Examination, be adjudged by any Magistrate or Magistrates, Justice or Justices of the Peace to have been deposited there for the Purpose of being 92 used in adulterating Meal, Flour, Dough, or Bread, shall, upon being convicted of any such Offence, either by his, her, or their Confession, or by the Oath, or in case of a Quaker by Affirmation, of One or more credible Witness or Witnesses, forfeit and pay on every such Conviction any Sum not exceeding Ten Pounds nor less than Forty Shillings for the First Offence, Five Pounds for the Second Offence, and Ten Pounds for every subsequent Offence, or in default of Payment thereof shall, by Warrant under the Hand and Seal or Hands and Seals of the Magistrate or Magistrates, Justice or Justices before whom such Offender shall be convicted, be apprehended and committed to the House of Correction or some Prison of the City, County, or Place where the Offence shall have been committed, or the Offender or Offenders shall be, there to remain for any Time not exceeding Three Calendar Months, with or without hard Labour, from the Time of such Commitment, (unless the Penalty be sooner paid,) as any such Magistrate or Magistrates, Justice or Justices shall think fit and order; and it shall be lawful for the Magistrate or Magistrates, Justice or Justices before whom any such Offender shall be convicted to cause the Offender’s Name, Place of Abode, and Offence to be published in some Newspaper or Newspapers which shall be printed or published in or near the City, County, Borough, or Place where the Offence shall have been committed; and the Proprietor or Proprietors, Printer or Printers, and every other Person and Persons concerned therein, are hereby authorized to print and publish the same when he, she, or they is or are required so to do by or by the Order of such Magistrate or Magistrates, Justice or Justices; and he, she, or they is and are hereby indemnified from any Prosecution or Prosecutions for printing and publishing the same or causing the same to be printed and published in such Newspaper or Newspapers by or from any Person or Persons whomsoever, any Law, Statute, or Usage to the contrary notwith­standing; and the Costs and Charges of such printing and publishing shall be paid out of such last-mentioned Penalty or Forfeiture, if any such shall be so forfeited and paid or recovered.”


A piece of a line.—M. The last line of a paragraph.


See Accented Letters.


The name of a type, a size smaller than Bourgeois, and larger than Minion. In Moxon’s time 112 Brevier bodies measured a foot. See Types.


To bring-up a form of types is to place overlays over those parts on which the pressure is deficient in order to increase it and to equalize it over the whole surface of the form.

With wood-cuts, in which an equal pressure over the whole surface is not wanted, it is to place underlays on the bottom of the block, under those parts which require to come stronger than the rest, these are the dark parts and the foreground, and to cut away the tympan sheet over the light parts and the distances when requisite, and to overlay those parts which require to be firm, with smooth thin paper. I have always found India paper the best, but the minute hard particles and all the extraneous substances, should be taken out by scraping it carefully with a knife, so as to render it quite smooth and even, otherwise the engraving will be injured.

In order to produce the finest impression possible, it is necessary that it should be the impression of the surface of the types and the engraving, and the surface only; therefore it is requisite to have very little blanket in the tympans, and that of the finest kerseymere or woollen cloth, or paper alone, so that it shall not be pressed in between the lines, which, when the pressman neglects this precaution, produces rough coarse lines; of course the overlays should be as few as possible and of very thin paper. See Fine Presswork, Making Ready, Overlay, Underlay.


The technical name of a piece of furniture equal in width to a broad quotation.


A form of one full page, printed on one side of a whole sheet of paper, whatever size the paper may be of: thus, we have demy broadsides—royal broadsides—double crown broadsides, &c.


By broken letter is not meant the breaking of 93 the shanks of any of the letters, but the breaking of the orderly succession in which the letters stood in a line, page, or form, &c. and mingling the letters together, these mingled letters being called pie.—M. Instead of Broken Letter it is now styled Broken Matter.


The deranging the order of types after they are composed, so as to make it pie. Moxon styles it Broken Letter, which see.


A ball is said to be broken-necked, when the wool in the bowl of the ball stock separates from the body of wool in the ball; so that when the ball is held in a horizontal position by the handle it hangs down in a flabby manner.

a bulk, as described


A platform fixed to the end of a frame on which to put a letter board with letter; there is another sort sometimes adopted, called a Loose Bulk, which is a small table made of deal, for the same purpose, but moveable to any part where it is most convenient to use it.


When a workman, at case or press, either for neglect, want of punctuality, or for gross misconduct, is discharged instanter, and the usual notice of “a fortnight” is not given, it is said, He has got the Bullet.


A bundle of paper consists of two reams. See Paper, Ream.


See Rag.


An iron button with a female screw, screwed on a square shanked bolt, that goes through the bottom frame of the outer tympan, in wooden presses, and turns on the upper side of the inner tympan, to assist in keeping it tight in its place.

In very fine work also, when the paper is stout and heavy and large sheets, and it is not customary to fly the frisket, but to turn it down upon the paper before the tympan is turned down upon the form, a button is placed upon the lower frame of the outer tympan, which clasps the extreme end of the frisket, and confines the sheet of paper in its place on the tympan, and prevents it slipping down.

The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.