See Form Dances.
The Danish alphabet consists of twenty-seven letters.
Q, q, (Ku, pronounced coo) is here omitted, being not merely superfluous and useless, but even prejudicial to a faithful representation of the language, by observing the origin and affinity of words, for instance, Kvinde, woman, is derived from Kone, bekvem, convenient, from komme, to come (Fr. venir); Kvartér, a quarter of an hour, is also called Kortér; Kvast, tuft, is originally the same word as Kóst, broom; and kvæle, suffocate, the same as the English kill. The Q is therefore justly rejected by the celebrated grammarian P. Syv, as also by the learned Prof. S. N. J. Bloch in his Danske Sproglære, Odense 1817. It is however 195 still used by some, but always followed by v, never by u in any Danish book, as, Qvinde, beqvem, Qvarter, &c.
|A a||A||a in father, part.|
|C c||Cé||s and k as in English.|
|D d||Dé||d hard, and th flat.|
|E e||E||French é fermé, and è ouvert.|
|F f||Ef (eff)||f.|
|G g||Gé (ghe)||g in go, give.|
|H h||Hå (hô)||h aspirated.|
|I i||I (ee)||ee in bee, i in bill.|
|J j||Jé (jod)||y consonant.|
|K k||Kå (ko)||k.|
|O o||O||o in more, for.|
|S s||Es||s hard.|
|U u||U (oo)||oo in fool, u in full.|
|V v||Vé||v in vein, w in howl.|
|X x||Ex (eks)||x hard.|
|Y y||Y||French u in pure, nul.|
|Å å||Å (ô)||a in warm, oa in broad.|
|Æ æ||Æ (ai)||a in sale, ai in said.|
|Ø ø||Ø||French eu fermé in peu.|
|Ö ö||Ö||French eu ouvert in veuve,
œu in cœur, œuf.
Z, z, (Zet, pronounced sett) has crept from the German orthography into a few words, which should be written by s, according to the true pronunciation; as, Zobel, sable; Zire, to adorn; better Sobel, sire.
Å has been, till the beginning of this century, commonly represented by aa, according to the old Low German orthography, but å is found in ancient Danish and Norwegian manuscripts: reintroduction, proposed by the celebrated Danish grammarian Höjsgård 1743, later by Schlegel, Baden, Nyerup, Schrejber, Thonboe, &c. has, in the last decennium, been realized in about thirty separate books or pamphlets by Prof. A. Gamborg, Mr. H. J. Hansen, Mr. N. M. Petersen, and also by E. Rask, and several anonymous writers. At all events the sound is simple, and continually interchanging with other simple vowels (a, æ, o,) in the inflection and derivation of words, for instance, tæller, to count, in the past tense talde or tålde, counted; gå, to go, Gang, gait, gængse, current, common; from Får, sheep, is derived Færøerne, the Farroe islands. Thus even in kindred dialects; as, Vingård, vineyard; Tåre, tear, German Zähre; Måned, month, German Monath; åben, open, &c. Whereas aa is sometimes long a, sometimes even to be read in two syllables as: Haarlem, Aaron, Kanaan, Knud Danaast, the name of a Danish prince. The learner however will find aa for å in most printed books hitherto published.
Æ, like Å, represents a simple vowel sound, and must never be separated or resolved into ae, which make distinct syllables, for instance, bejae (be-ya-e), affirm.
Ø and Ö are commonly confounded, so that Ø is used for both sounds in books printed in the Gothic type, Ö in those in the Roman character.
There are no diphthongs in Danish, but aj, ej, oj, uj, öj, even though written by some ai, ei, oi, ui, öi, are pronounced with the open sound of the vowels and a distinct y consonant following, never like ai, ei, French oi, ui or the like, for instance, ej, not, sounds like English eye or I; Konvoj, a convoy, like the verb to convoy, &c.
In like manner av, ev, iv, ov, æv, øv are pronounced as clear vowels followed by a distinct v consonant or rather w, for the v also is softer after the vowels than at the beginning, for instance, tav, was silent; Brev, letter; stiv, stiff; Tòv, cable; Ræv, fox; døv, deaf. The sound of w is particularly observable, when another consonant follows, for instance, tavs, silent; Evropa, Europe; stivne, to stiffen; hovne, to swell; Hævn, revenge; søvnig, sleepy, drowsy.
As to the division of words into syllables, j is always referred to the preceding vowel, which is in these cases constantly pronounced short and sharp, for instance, Vej-e, ways, not Ve-je. The other consonants are usually referred to the vowel following, when single; or divided between the preceding and succeeding vowel, when more than one, no care being taken to distinguish the radical parts from the accessories, but in compound words, for instance, Da-ge, days, from Dag, day, but for-ud-si-ge, foretell, from for-ud, beforehand, and sige, tell, say.
It is a great advantage in the Danish orthography, that every noun substantive is written with a capital letter at the beginning, as numbers of words, else perfectly alike, are thereby easily distinguished at the first view. Ex.
|(en) Tale, a speech,||(at) tale, to speak,|
|196 (en) Bör, a bier,||(jeg) bör, I must, ought,|
|(en) Tro, faith,||tro, faithful,|
|(en) Flöj, weathercock,||flöj, flew,|
|(et) Önske, a wish,||(at) önske, to wish,|
|Vande, waters,||(at) vande, to water.|
On the other hand, adjectives of national names are usually written with small initials, contrary to the English usage, as, dansk, Danish; norsk, Norwegian; svensk, Swedish; hollandsk, Dutch; engelsk, English; angelsaksisk, Anglosaxon.
Though the Roman character is daily gaining ground, being introduced into the Transactions of the Royal Academy of Copenhagen, and of most other learned societies in Denmark and Norway, as also used in many excellent works of private authors, yet the monkish or Gothic form of the letters is still preferred by many.
In the following paragraphs, words and letters shown in [brackets] were printed in fraktur (blackletter, “gothic”). Non-final s is long s (ſ).
In this character the capital [J] is also usually applied for the [I], for instance, [Jsrael] and [Jeſus]; the long ſ is constantly applied in the beginning of syllables, even in the combinations: [sk], [sl], [sp], [st].
For [å], has been proposed another figure, viz. , which has been adopted by the celebrated Capt. Abrahamson in his first edition of Langes Dänische Gramm. für Deutsche, as also by Rask, in the first edition of his Icel. Grammar; that he has afterwards preferred the [å], is not only from patriotic motives; this figure being found in old Danish MSS. down to 1555, but also because it is introduced into several other languages, as Swedish and Laplandic, and has even been used in the upper German dialects; also in the Bornholm dialect by Mr. Skougaard, in the Farroic by the Revd. Mr. Lyngbye, and in the Acra (on the coast of Guinea) by Capt. Schönning, whereas is used nowhere else in the world.—From Rask’s Danish Grammar, Copenhagen, 1830.
The business about Ö and Ø representing two different sounds may safely be ignored: it was an idea of Rasmus Rask’s that never caught on.
Kvinde, woman, is derived from Kone, wife;
text has , for ; after “wife”
it’s reintroduction, proposed by the celebrated Danish grammarian Höjsgård 1743
[Proposed in 1743, adopted around 1947, still optional in place names.]
and also by E. Rask,
[Not to be confused with the “R. Rask” whose book was freely plundered for the present article.]
It is a great advantage in the Danish orthography, that every noun substantive is written with a capital letter at the beginning, as numbers of words, else perfectly alike, are thereby easily distinguished at the first view.
[This would have been a lot funnier if it had been written with capitalized “Letter . . . Numbers . . . View” to distinguish these English nouns from the respective identically spelled verbs. I do not suppose that modern Danes—who no longer capitalize Nouns—have any great difficulty in determining whether a writer meant “a bier” or “ought to”.]
Lat. The second person singular, imperative mood, of the active verb deleo, to blot out, to expunge. This is a word that is much used in a printing office; and its initial, with a round top, or , is the regular mark in proofs to expunge a letter, word, or words that are redundant. See Correcting.
It is the general practice with publishers to leave a work when finished, in the warehouse of the printer, and to send written orders for the delivery of a part, as occasion or convenience suits; the warehouseman should always be prepared to deliver copies to these orders at the moment, otherwise complaint will be made against him, and he will incur blame; but he ought not on any account to deliver copies without a written order, for should there happen a mistake, or an omission in the publishers making an entry, credit will not be given for them, and he will become responsible. He ought invariably to enter them instanter, and take the person’s signature to the entry, and file the order. He will then be enabled, when an account of the delivery is called for, to prove its correctness.
The pressman sometimes has a week boy to take sheets, as they are printed, off the tympan: these boys do in a printing house commonly black and daub themselves; whence the workmen do jocosely call them Devils; and sometimes Spirits, and sometimes Flies.—M. The boys that make the fires, sweep the rooms, assist in the warehouse, and go on errands, are now called Devils, or Printers Devils; but in the trade they are generally styled Errand Boys and Warehouse Boys. See Fly.
See Accented Letters.197
The name of a type one size smaller than Pearl, and the smallest that is cast in the British founderies. It originated in casting a type with a pearl face upon a smaller body, for the purpose of getting in, in printing pocket Bibles; the founders subsequently cut it with a smaller face, and made it completely a distinct size. It is not enumerated in Moxon’s list. See Types.
A mark in the margin of a book to show where a fault is to be corrected.—Bailey’s Dict. This word is not used in the profession.
The word that stands alone on the right hand in the bottom line of a page.—M. It is the first word of the following page. See Catch Word.
The line the direction stands in.—M. See Catch Word.
To replace the types in their respective boxes in the cases after printing therewith, in order to their being used again. This is done in a very expeditious manner by the compositor, who, placing his composing rule against the head of a page, with his thumbs against it, pressing the sides of both his third fingers against the sides of the matter, and his forefingers against the bottom line of the quantity which he means to lift, takes up what is termed a handful, and keeping the face of the letter towards him, rests one end of the composing rule against the ball of the thumb of his left hand, and pressing the other end of the rule with the third finger, steadies the matter with his forefinger, and thus has his right hand at liberty, with which he takes a word or part of a word from the uppermost line as he holds it in his hand, and drops the several letters into their particular boxes. Matter is always wetted when distributed, to render it slightly cohesive, as the operation is thus performed with more facility than when dry. When the form has not been well rinsed in laying-up, and the types have been much used, the ends of the fingers are apt to get smooth, so as to lose the command, in some measure, of dropping the types into their places with quickness and certainty; in this case compositors frequently keep a piece of alum in some part of the case, and occasionally touch it with their thumb and two fingers, which gives them a little roughness, and restores their command of the types.
If a compositor is desirous of producing his first proofs free from literal errors, he should be particular in distributing clean, that is, depositing each letter in its proper box.
When new letter remains in chase, locked up for any considerable time, it becomes what is termed, baked. See Bake.
—M. See Composing Stick.
There are practical rules in printing for dividing words where the whole of a word cannot be comprised within the line; and there are also grammatical rules for the same object. Every printing office has some peculiarity on this subject.
The most general practical method of dividing words is to preserve the primitive word at the end of a line, and carry the termination to the next line; but this cannot always be done, as the following few instances will show. In these and similar cases it will be better to avoid dividing the word, and either drive the whole out, or get the termination in, as the spacing of the line will best allow.
Words whose plurals are formed by the addition of s, which adds another syllable to them, by making the last into two, ought not to have these two syllables divided; such as—
The terminations of words, chion, cial, cient, cion, cious, shion, sian, sion, tial, tion, and tious, ought never, in my opinion, to be divided, as they each form one sound, although Murray and Walker say they form two syllables.
When the primitive word cannot be retained at the end of a line, I would prefer the prefixes ab, ac, ad, al, anti, be, bi, co, com, con, de, di, dia, dis, en, in, per, pre, pro, re, sub, super, un, when words in which they occur require to be divided; provided it does not cause any great violence in the spacing.
When it is necessary to divide a word at the end of a line, it is also necessary to study the appearance of the termination of that line, as well as of the commencement of the succeeding line, for they are equally affected. An improper division of a word will sometimes look better than a proper one, but it ought always to be avoided, if possible.
It frequently happens that the last syllable, when it is short, has a meagre appearance at the beginning of a line; when this is the case, it is preferable to drive out another syllable, provided the appearance and the correctness of the first part of the word are not compromised.
It is not usual, and is looked on as bad workmanship, to divide a word with a single letter at the end of a line, for it may be driven out, or, if the line be wide spaced, the next syllable may be got in; but should the second syllable of the word be a long one, or the last syllable a very short one, it will then be advisable to overrun a preceding line or two, to get rid of the objectionable division.
Neither is it usual to carry over the last syllable of a word if it consist of two thin letters only; for the hyphen is more than equal to one of them, and changing two or three spaces will make room for the other, without affecting the appearance.
Some persons object to the dividing of words at all in printing, as being unnecessary and displeasing to the eye; but then they must sacrifice all regularity of spacing, which is still worse, and has the appearance of bad workmanship. I would recommend that a compositor should make each give way a little to the other, always preserving such an uniformity in spacing that there should be no glaring disproportion in different lines.199
Avoid dividing words in lines following each other, so as not to have hyphens at the ends of two adjoining lines, but never have three or more divided words at the ends of consecutive lines; although five or six may occasionally be seen, yet in book work it is held to be bad workmanship, and should never be allowed to pass. Neither is it desirable to divide proper names, nor the last word in a page so as to have part of a word to begin the succeeding page, particularly when it is an even one; sums of money and series of figures are never divided.
It is not possible in every instance to divide words correctly, particularly when the page is of a narrow measure, and the type large; when this happens, the compositor is obliged frequently to sacrifice correctness to necessity; but when the page is of a width proportionate to the size of the type, he may in the usual way of workmanship preserve his regular spacing, and also his correct dividing.
The preceding observations may be looked on as practical ones for printing. Lindley Murray gives the following grammatical directions for dividing words.
“1. A single consonant between two vowels must be joined to the latter syllable: as, de-light, bri-dal, re-source: except the letter x; as, ex-ist, ex-amine: and except likewise words compounded; as, up-on, un-even, dis-ease.
“2. Two consonants proper to begin a word, must not be separated; as, fa-ble, sti-fle. But when they come between two vowels, and are such as cannot begin a word, they must be divided; as, ut-most, un-der, in-sect, er-ror, cof-fin.
“If the preceding syllable is short, the consonants must be separated: as, cus-tard, pub-lic, gos-ling.
“3. When three consonants meet in the middle of a word, if they can begin a word, and the preceding vowel be pronounced long, they are not to be separated; as, de-throne, de-stroy. But when the vowel of the preceding syllable is pronounced short, one of the consonants always belongs to that syllable; as, dis-tract, dis-prove, dis-train.
“4. When three or four consonants, which are not proper to begin a word, meet between two vowels, the first consonant is always kept with the first syllable in the division: as, ab-stain, com-plete, em-broil, dan-dler, dap-ple, con-strain.
“5. Two vowels, not being a diphthong, must be divided into separate syllables; as, cru-el, deni-al, soci-ety.
“A diphthong immediately preceding a vowel, is to be separated from it: as, roy-al, pow-er, jew-el.
“6. Compounded words must be traced into the simple words of which they are composed; as, ice-house, glow-worm, over-power, never-the-less.
“7. Grammatical, and other particular terminations, are generally separated: as, teach-est, teach-eth, teach-ing, teach-er, contend-est, great-er, wretch-ed, good-ness, free-dom, false-hood.
“Two consonants which form but one sound, are never separated: as, e-cho, fa-ther, pro-phet, an-chor, bi-shop. They are to be considered as a single letter.
“8. In derivative words, the additional syllables are separated: as, sweet-er, sweet-est, sweet-ly; learn-ed, learn-eth, learn-ing; dis-like, mis-lead, un-even; call-ed, roll-er, dress-ing; gold-en, bolt-ed, believ-er, pleas-ing.
“Exceptions. When the derivative word doubles the single letter of 200 the primitive, one of those letters is joined to the termination: as, beg, beg-gar; fat, fat-ter; bid, bid-ding.
“When the additional syllable is preceded by c or g soft, the c or g is added to that syllable: as, of-fen-ces, cotta-ges, pro-noun-cer, in-dul-ging; ra-cer, fa-cing, spi-ced; wa-ger, ra-ging, pla-ced, ran-ger, chan-ging, chan-ged.
“When the preceding single vowel is long, the consonant, if single, is joined to the termination: as, ba-ker, ba-king; ho-ping, bro-ken; po-ker, bo-ny; wri-ter, sla-vish; mu-sed, sa-ved.
“The termination y is not to be placed alone: as, san-dy, gras-sy; dir-ty, dus-ty; mos-sy, fros-ty; hea-dy, woo-dy; except, dough-y, snow-y, string-y, and a few other words. But even in these exceptions, it would be proper to avoid beginning a line with the termination y.
“Some of the preceding rules may be liable to considerable exceptions; and therefore it is said by Dr. Lowth and others, that the best and easiest directions for dividing the syllables in spelling, is to divide them as they are naturally separated in a right pronunciation, without regard to the derivation of words, or the possible combination of consonants at the beginning of a syllable.”
Before quitting this subject, it should be stated that there is yet a mode of dividing, which is peculiar to the philologist. To him it appears but natural that a compounded word should be divided at the point where its elements were originally conjoined. With respect to a purely English compound we find this to be one of Murray’s rules; but in an adopted word, however much from its recurrence it may seem to have become our own, the scholar’s eye is offended, if, where a division has become requisite, it be made in violation of etymological principles. This remark must be understood as having reference only to the division which would occur in the neighbourhood of the point of junction: in other respects he does not impugn the validity of the rules which are in general laid down. To apply with precision this principle, which, when judiciously practised, is frequently very highly approved, it is evident that an acquaintance with the language from which the imported word has been derived, is necessary: yet, as a person not thus qualified may occasionally be required to make his divisions in conformity with this system, it has been thought desirable to subjoin a brief list of words in which an uninitiated person would be most likely to err. A few of the following divisions will appear a little startling, and they are in consequence generally evaded; but it has been thought proper in this place to conceal nothing from the general eye which may appear to militate against the full adoption of the system. The words selected are but a few of the very large class of compounds; but the rest have been omitted, as their analytical and their syllabical divisions will in general be found to coincide.
This word has had the singular fortune of having been all but universally mis-spelt; having in its present form the appearance of being what is inadmissible—the compound of a Latin and an English word. A few years ago an ingenious critic, in a work which he published, corrected this spelling by writing the word “frontispice.” As the word comes immediately from frontispicium, the emendation appears to have been judiciously made. (Compare auspice, from auspicium = avispicium.) It may not be unnecessary also to observe, that the amended form is that in which it appears in the French language. The division of the corrected word would be
in-iquity (i.e. in-equity)
the appearance of being what is inadmissible—the compound of a Latin and an English word
[William Savage did not live to see such now-common bastard words as “televion” or “sociology”.]
Commonly called Visorum.—Smith. See Visorum.
The register of the lands of England, framed by order of William the Conqueror. It was sometimes termed Rotulus Wintoniæ, and was the book from which judgment was to be given upon the value, tenures, and services of the lands therein described.
In 1767, in consequence of an address of the House of Lords, His Majesty George III. gave directions for the publication of this Survey. It was not, however, till after 1770 that the work was actually commenced. Its publication was entrusted to Mr. Abraham Farley, a gentleman of learning as well as of great experience in records, almost daily recourse to the book for more than forty years. It was completed early in 1783, having been ten years in passing through the press, and thus became generally accessible to the antiquary and topographer. It was printed in facsimile, as far as regular types, assisted by the representation of original contractions, could imitate the original.202
The type with which the Domesday Book was printed, was destroyed in the dreadful fire which consumed the printing office of Messrs. Nichols in Red Lion Passage, Fleet Street, London, February 8, 1808.
carϞ, caruca, carucata.
ħ, hoc or hæ.
lg̃, longa, longitudinem.
latϞ, lata, latitudinem.
, manerium, or manerio.
in parag̃, in paragio.
q̈tϞxxti ⁊ ix, 89.
q̈ꝝ, quarentϞ, q̈rent, quarentenæ.
redđ, reddunt, reddit.
T. R. E. tempore regis Edwardi.
T. R. W. tempore regis Willelmi.
voleƀ, volebat, or volebant.
Superior Letters, which are of frequent occurrence in contracted Records, are generally laid in the small capital boxes.205
The character & is displaced to make room for and ⁊ on works using those characters exclusively.
There are various characters, such as , , , , ꝑ, ꝓ, and others, that do not frequently occur, which may be kept in the two boxes in the upper case marked “various;” a general box is necessary in every Domesday case.
The characters , &c., placed in the figure boxes, are a variation only of , , , &c., and the two sorts are never used together in the same work. See Records.
In the list of abbreviations, I cheated by using Ϟ (Greek koppa) to represent the Domesday Book’s all-purpose abbreviatory squiggle.
Mr. Abraham Farley, a gentleman of learning as well as of great experience in records, who had almost daily recourse
text has “whohad”
[The word’s position in the list is unchanged. In the printed book, it is at the top of the second column.]
Abstract of the Charitable Donations at the Disposal of the Court of Assistants of the Worshipful Company of Stationers. I have selected those Donations only which relate, directly or indirectly, to Printers.
William Norton, a printer of great note, lived in St. Paul’s Churchyard, who died in 1593. He gave six pounds thirteen shillings and four pence, yearly to his company, to be lent to young men, free of the same Company. The Company in their Abstract of Charitable Donations say “to the Poor of the said Company.”
Mr. Christopher Meredith, in 1655, gave 10l. a year, to be paid in quarterly pensions to the poor of the Company.
Thomas Guy, Esq., M.P., an eminent bookseller, and the munificent founder of the hospital which bears his name, gave to the Company, in 1717, 1,000l. “to enable them to add 50l. a year, by quarterly payments, to the poor members and widows, in augmentation of the quarterly charity.”
Mr. Theophilus Cater, in 1718, gave 1,000l. to the Company, on condition of their paying him an annuity of 50l. for his own life.—After his death, 40l. to be thus disposed of: to the minister of St. Martin’s, Ludgate, for a sermon, 1l. 10s.; to the reader, 5s.; to the clerk and sexton, 2s. 6d. each, 5s.; to fourteen poor freemen of the Company, 14l.; to ten poor men of St. Martin’s, 10l.; to ten poor men of Christchurch, 1l. each. The remainder, (being 4l.) towards a dinner for the master, wardens, and assistants.
Mrs. Beata Wilkins, in 1773, gave the picture of Doctor Hoadly, lord bishop of Winchester, now in the Stock-room; and the interest and produce of all the money arising from her forty-pounds share stock (computed at 320l.) to be distributed, annually, amongst six poor men and six poor widows, not pensioners to the Company, in the month of December, before Christmas.—Note. The produce of the share was laid out in the purchase of 358l. 11s. 4d. five per cent. Navy annuities. The yearly dividend is 17l. 18s. 6d. To which the Court add 1s. 6d. to make the dividend to each annuitant 1l. 10s.
William Bowyer. See Bowyer.
William Strahan, Esq., M.P., in 1784, gave 1,000l., one half of the annual interest to be divided in equal shares or proportions to five poor journeymen printers, natives of England or Wales, freemen of the Company; the other half in equal shares or proportions to five poor journeymen printers, natives of Scotland, without regard to their being freemen or being non-freemen of the Company.—Note. The yearly dividend of this bequest is 39l. 14s. 10d.—to which 5s. 2d. (part of a subsequent donation by Andrew Strahan, Esq.) has since been added, to make the dividend to each annuitant 4l.
Thomas Wright, Esq., late alderman of London, in 1794, gave 2,000l. four per cent. Bank annuities, the dividends to be distributed as follows; upon the first day of January 50l. 8s. amongst twenty-four poor freemen of the said Company, not receiving any other pension from the Company, 2l. 2s. each. To the clerk of the Company 3l. 3s. for his trouble upon this occasion. And 26l. 9s. residue of such dividends, for providing a dinner for the master, wardens, and assistants, of the Company, upon the day of distribution.
Mr. Richard Johnson, in 1795, gave all the remainder of his property whatsoever, to the Company, upon the following conditions: that they allow his sister, Mary Johnson, 50l. per annum, and 10l. per annum to his uncle Lockington Johnson, or to his wife, Elizabeth Johnson, during their natural lives. After the deaths of his sister and uncle, and his wife, the whole property to be divided half-yearly, “among five very poor widows, who have seen better days, above the age of sixty, whose husbands were liverymen, and in a good way of business; were either stationers, printers, booksellers, or binders.”206
Charles Dilly, Esq., in November, 1803, (being then a member of the Court of Assistants,) transferred 700l. three per cent. annuities to the Company, the dividends to be “paid equally to two widows of liverymen of the Company, who have lived in better circumstances, and met unexpected misfortunes, but who, through their conduct and manners in life, are deserving of superior help. And if there should be candidates of sixty years of age, or upwards, I should wish them to have the preference.”
Mrs. Elizabeth Baldwin, widow of Mr. Richard Baldwin a liveryman, gave 250l. stock in the three per cents, the dividends to be laid out and expended in the purchase of five great coats, to be annually given to five poor liverymen or freemen of the said Company in the first week of the month of December for ever.—Note. Mrs. Baldwin died 19th August, 1809.
Andrew Strahan, Esq., M.P., (first benefaction,) in January 1815, transferred 1,225l. four per cent. annuities to the Company, the interest, viz. 49l., to be applied as follows, viz.,
“Eight pounds per annum to each of the six pensioners amongst my father’s annuitants who shall have been earliest elected into that list, in lieu of the 4l. which they at present enjoy. And whenever any of the pensions of 8l. each shall become vacant, the pensioner who shall stand first on the list of my father’s annuitants of 4l. to succeed to such vacancy, without troubling the court to make a new election, except for the vacancy occasioned thereby in the annuitants of 4l. And as 5s. 2d. is added by the court to make up the pensions of my late father 4l. to each annuitant, I would have the sum of 5s. 2d. (part of the surplus of 1l.) applied to that purpose. The remaining 14s. 10d. I would have given to the beadle of the Company, who has some trouble in receiving the petitions.
“The pensions above given it is my wish should be paid twice in the year; the one half at the same period as the pensions given by my late father, and the other half at midsummer.
“I observe that my father’s pensioners are to be elected annually, which, I believe, may not always have been strictly complied with; but, by being so bequeathed, it enables the court to displace any individual who may at any time after his being elected appear to the court not to be deserving; and it is my wish that the court should have the same power of displacing any of the pensioners of eight pounds who shall appear to them undeserving.”
John Nichols, Esq., transferred to the Company, in June, 1817, 500l. four per cent. annuities, “as an addition of a small supplement to the works of my late friend and partner, Mr. William Bowyer,” [See Bowyer.] “to pay the dividends to the persons mentioned in the following list; one of whom has worked for me more than fifty years, another much more than forty, and the others nearly thirty years.
“15l. a year to Thomas Bennett, in addition to the annuity he now enjoys.
“5l. a year to William Morlis, in addition to what he now enjoys, or may hereafter enjoy.
“On the death of Bennett, his 15l. to be divided into three annuities, for James Rousseau, John Meeson, and James Robinson, if then living, otherwise to any other compositor or pressman of good character, not less than forty-five years of age, and who shall have been at least twenty-one years free of the Stationers’ Company.
“On the death of Morlis his five pounds to be added to the person who then stands first on the list; so that eventually there will only be one annuitant of ten pounds, and two of five pounds each.
“The annuitants to be paid at the same times as those of Mr. Bowyer.” J. N.
Andrew Strahan, Esq., M.P., (second benefaction,) transferred in March, 1818, the further sum of 1,000l. four per cent. annuities, “to pay the dividends half-yearly in portions of ten pounds to four distressed old printers. No person to be eligible till he be sixty-five years of age: he may be freeman or non-freeman, compositor or pressman, or have been for many years employed regularly as corrector or reader in a printing-office within the Bills of Mortality, and not necessarily one of my late father’s annuitants or of mine.”
Luke Hansard, Esq., (first benefaction,) on the 11th of July, 1818, transferred to the Company 1,000l. four per cent. annuities, the interest to be given, in two annuities of 10l. a year each, to such objects above sixty-five years of age, free of the Company, and letterpress printers, (compositors or pressmen,) as the court shall judge proper.
The other 20l. to be given yearly to four freemen of this Company, printers, booksellers, stationers, warehousemen, or bookbinders, above sixty years of age, at 5l. a year each, as the court shall think proper objects of this donation.
Luke Hansard, Esq., (second benefaction,) in September, 1818, transferred to the Company 1,500l. three per cent. annuities; in trust to give to every youth bound at 207 their hall, a neatly bound Church of England Prayer-book, as printed by his majesty’s printer in London, bound up with the New Version of Psalms.
The number of Prayer-books thus to be disposed of, are taken at 200, which at a presumed price of 2s. 7d. each, will cost yearly 25l. 16s. 8d.
Then to give yearly to two of his warehousemen (named) 6l. 6s. each.
Also to “such warehouseman, or binder, or stationer, or other person in the class to whom the court has been accustomed to give such annuities, above sixty years of age,” 6l. 6s.
The residue of 5s. 4d., and whatever residue may be left from the 200 Prayer-books not being wanted, or from the cost being less, to be applicable for such purposes as the court shall think proper.
Beale Blackwell, Esq., gave, July, 1817, so much Bank stock as at the time of his death would produce the annual sum of 100l., to be every year distributed equally amongst twenty deserving journeymen letterpress printers; the first distribution of which took place in October, 1821.
A more detailed account of these charitable donations and benefactions will be found in a pamphlet of 32 pages, printed by order of the court in 1819, and given to each liveryman.
This account is copied from Hansard’s Typographia.
or dotted leaders. Quadrats with dots on them, similar to full points, at regular distances. They are cast from an en, with one point, to four ems.
In tables of contents, indices, and other similar matter, dotted quadrats are preferred to metal rules, or hyphens, being thought to have a neater appearance.
A sheet that is twice pulled and lifted never so little off the form after it was first pulled, does most commonly (through the play of the joints of the tympan) take a double impression: this sheet is said to double. Or if the pressman run in so, as the foreside of the platen print with the first pull into part of the second pull, or the hind edge of the platen print with his second pull into part of his first pull; either of these twice printing is called Doubling. Doubling also happens through the loose hanging of the platen, and through too much play the tenons of the head may have in the mortises of the cheeks; and indeed through many wearings and crazinesses that often happen in several parts of the press.—M. Moxon’s account of doubling and its causes refer to the two pull wooden presses, but some of them apply equally to iron presses.
In composing, the term is applied when a word, a line, a sentence, or any part of the copy is composed twice; that is, if the compositor’s eye catch a part that he has already composed, and he repeats it.
This is the technical name of a mark used as a reference, ‡; it is generally placed the third in order,—after the obelisk or dagger.
Æ, œ, ﬅ, , and several others cast on one shank, are called double letters: ſ and f have several ascending letters joined to them, because their beaks hanging over their stems would (were they not cast on one shank) ride upon the tops of the stems of the adjoining ascending letters.—M.
By discarding the ſ, we have lessened the number of our double letters, which are now reduced to the diphthongs æ and œ, and to ﬀ, ﬁ, ﬂ, ﬃ, and ﬄ, which are so termed by printers.
A piece of furniture equal in breadth to two narrow quotations. There are different sizes used in making margin, and in imposing, viz., double broad, double broad and narrow, broad and narrow, broad and double narrow.208
The name of a type, one size larger than Paragon, and one smaller than Two-Line Pica. It is equal in depth to two Small Pica bodies. See Types.
When a form is working at press, and any of the letters are loosely justified, or from any other cause are not tight in the form, and the adhesion of the ink and balls or rollers pulls them out, they are said to draw. This accident too frequently occurs; and as it is not always perceived, errors arise which neither the care nor the skill of the reader can prevent; when it is perceived, after an impression or two have been pulled, the pressmen often put the letters into the wrong place, and thus cause an error. They are occasionally left by the ball on the form, and produce a batter, which is a waste of materials, and of time in repairing it. A good compositor guards against this evil by care in justifying his lines, and also in locking up.
In collating books in the warehouse, after they have been gathered, duplicate sheets, and sheets of wrong signatures, are occasionally found; arising, in the one instance, from the carelessness of the gathering boys, in taking up more than one sheet of the same signature; and, in the other, from a lift of another sheet being occasionally taken down and mixed in the heap: in these cases the sheets are drawn out of the book, and laid on one side, and, after some accumulation, are replaced upon their respective heaps, to be gathered again right. These sheets are called Drawn Sheets.
or, Dress a Form, is to fit the pages and the chase with furniture and quoins. See Margin.
Made of pear tree, because a soft wood, and therefore less subject to injure the face of the letter; it is commonly about three inches square, and an inch high.—M. Used the same as our planer. See Planer.
Literally so, made of tinned iron, extending the whole length of the press, fixed under the long ribs, to preserve the floor from the droppings of oil.
They are useful articles; for presses to be kept in good working order require to be frequently oiled; and for want of a dripping pan, I have known the oil run through the joints of the floor upon a pile of paper in a room underneath, and spoil a considerable quantity.
When a compositor sets wide, he is said to drive out or run out. In founding, if letter be cast too thick in the shank, it drives out.—M. If copy make more than was calculated on, they say, it drives out; if less, and it is intended that it shall make the precise quantity decided on, they say, you must drive out; that is, it must be branched out in proportion, and not cramped.
After a form is locked up, and, when it is being lifted from the stone, or being laid upon the imposing stone, or the press, any letters, spaces, or quadrats fall out, it is said something drops out, or something has dropped out; this may arise from some of the lines being badly justified—some of the leads riding—or some of the furniture binding—or similar causes—and frequently produces errors at press by other letters drawing out. See Form Dances.
In this case, before the form is put to press, it should be examined to ascertain the cause, and any impediment to its safety should be removed.
Plan of a Lower Case as used at Dublin. The Upper Case is the same as used in London.
|en Rule.||!||æ||œ||’||j||e||Thin sp.||k||;||—||—||?||ﬂ|
|ﬃ||l||m||n||h||o||y||p||,||w||en quads.||em quads.|
A tongue cut in a piece of stout paper, which is pasted on the tympan at the bottom of the tympan sheet, to support the white paper when working, instead of pins; the paper to be printed rests in the slit behind the tongue, and takes a good bearing.
It is seldom used except in the best work, where the paper printed is fine, stout, large, and expensive, when extra precautions are taken to prevent waste.
The size of a book, generally for shortness written 12mo, and hence frequently incorrectly so pronounced. It is formed by folding a sheet of paper into twelve portions or leaves, making twenty-four pages. See Imposing.
A projecting piece of iron on the near side of the frisket, by taking hold of which the pressman turns down the frisket, and at the same time the tympan; and as it projects a little beyond the tympan, he also raises the sheet off the form by grasping it and the tympan, and by a quick motion quits hold of the tympan, and turns up the frisket by means of the ear. It is sometimes called the Thumb Piece.
When the form feels the force of the spindle by degrees, till the bar comes almost to the hither cheek of the press, it is called a Long, or a Soaking, or Easy Pull, and is also called a Soft Pull; because it comes soft and soakingly and easily down.—M.
With compositors, printed copy, or a fair written hand, and full of breaks, pleases well, and is called good copy, light, easy work: with pressmen, great letter and a small form is called easy work.—M.
The term is not now generally used: what Moxon describes as relating to compositors would now be termed good copy; and with respect to pressmen it would be called light work, or a light form.210
Plan of a pair of Cases as used at Edinburgh.
|y||l||m||n||h||o||p||,||Thin spaces.||ﬁ||en quad.||em quad.|
|q||v||u||t||Thick spaces.||a||r||.||Thin spaces.||Quadrats.|
Octodecimo, a sheet of paper folded into eighteen leaves; it is usually termed eighteens.
The name of a type one size larger than Nonpareil, and one smaller than Minion. It is a size lately introduced.
When a compositor cannot compose any more out of a case, from many of the sorts being exhausted, it is termed an empty case, or he says, my Case is Empty, although there may be a great number of types in it of other sorts.
A press that stands by, which no workman works at: most commonly every printing house has one of them for a proof press; viz. to make proofs on.—M. The term is now applied to those presses only that are unemployed; the press set apart to pull proofs at is called the Proof Press. See Proof Press.
As the method of printing engravings on wood, here described, applies to what is termed fine printing, it may be as well in the outset to define what is meant by this expression, in its application to this subject.211
Fine printing, in this point of view, is the art of obtaining impressions from an engraving on wood, of the surface and the surface only, so as to produce the effect which the artist intended, in the highest state of perfection.
There is a material difference between an engraving on wood and one on copper: the first is engraved in relief, that is, the lines are left standing, and the part which in the impression is to appear white is cut away or, technically, blocked out; the lines of the engraving on copper, on the contrary, are cut in the metal, and the part that is to be white in the impression is left untouched in the metal by the engraver.
There is also a material difference in the manner of obtaining impressions: those from an engraving on wood are produced by coating the surface of the lines with ink by beating it with balls or passing a roller over it, and then, with a piece of paper upon it, submitting it to pressure between two parallel plane surfaces, or by a cylinder rolling over it. An engraving on copper is smeared over the whole face with ink, which is worked into the lines; the surplus ink is then wiped off the surface of the plate, on which a piece of paper is laid to receive the impression, and these are passed between two cylinders, which press the paper into the engraved lines by a violent squeeze.
It will easily be perceived by this slight description that the two processes are completely distinct from each other, although the effect produced is nearly the same.
I will now proceed to describe the process of producing impressions from engravings on wood in a superior manner.
After putting a block on the press, the workman ought to be very gentle in the pull for the first impression, to prevent an accident, which has frequently occurred from thoughtlessness in this particular, by making the pull too hard, and crushing some of the lines; by avoiding this he will be safe, and can proportion his pull to the subject. He should also examine, previous to pulling, that there be nothing on the block—no pins that he may have for his tympan sheet, nor any needle with which he may have been taking out a pick.—Such accidents have happened, and caused great trouble to the engraver, as well as loss of time and disappointment; besides entailing a character of carelessness on the printer.
In imposing a single block, where the press is large at which it is to be worked, it will be in danger of springing out of the chase while beating, from the quantity of furniture about it: it is a good remedy to impose it in a job chase, and to impose this chase again in a larger one; this will cause it to lie flatter on the press, and firmer in the beating, as the small chase can be locked up tight in the large one, without having too much furniture, and the large one can be secured firmly on the press by quoins and the corner irons.
Neither the pressure nor the impression in an engraving on wood should be uniformly equal: if they be, the effect that is intended to be produced by the artist will fail; and instead of light, middle tint, and shade, an impression will be produced that possesses none of them in perfection; some parts will be too hard and black, and other parts have neither pressure nor colour enough, with obscurity and roughness, and without any of the mildness of the middle tint, which ought to pervade great part of an engraving, and on which the eye reposes after viewing the strong lights and the deep shades.
To produce the desired effect, great nicety and patience are required in the pressman; a single thickness of thin India paper, which is the 212 paper I would always recommend to be used as overlays for engravings, is frequently required over very small parts, with the edges of it scraped down, for it is advisable that the overlay should never be cut at the edges, but, even where great delicacy of shape is not required, that it should be torn into the form wanted, which reduces the thickness of the edges, and causes the additional pressure to blend with the surrounding parts.
Particular parts of the impression will frequently come up much too strong, and other parts too weak, it will then be necessary to take out from between the tympans a thickness of paper, and add an additional tympan sheet, cutting away those parts that come off too hard, and scraping down the edges; scraping away half the thickness of a tympan sheet in small parts that require to be a little lightened will improve the impression.
The light parts require little pressure, but the depths should be brought up so as to produce a full and firm impression.
If a block be hollow on the surface, underlaying the hollow part will bring it up better than overlaying it, at least so much that it shall only require a thickness or two of paper as overlays. If a block be too low, it is advisable to underlay it, for the purpose of raising it to the proper height, in preference to making use of overlays, for they act in some measure as blankets, being pressed into the interstices, and rendering the lines thicker than in the engraving.
It will be necessary sometimes, when the surface of the block is very uneven, to tear away parts of the paper in the tympan, to equalise the impression where it is too hard.
The pressman will find it convenient to pull a few impressions while he is making ready, on soiled or damaged India paper, for out of these he can cut overlays to the precise shape and size that is wanted, as he will constantly find it necessary to do so in instances where great accuracy is required in overlaying particular portions; and in these instances he cannot well do without a sharp penknife and a pair of good small scissars. A fine sharp bodkin and a needle or two, to take out picks, are also needful; but he should be particularly careful in so using them as that he do no injury. The best way to avoid this is to draw the bodkin or needle point cautiously in the direction of the lines.
Engravings that are in the vignette form require great attention to keep the edges light and clear, and in general it is necessary to scrape away one or two thicknesses of paper, in order to lighten the impression and keep it clean; for the edges being irregular, and parts, such as small branches of trees, leaves, &c. straggling, for the purpose of giving freedom to the design, they are subject to come off too hard, and are liable to picks, which give great trouble, and are difficult to be kept clear of. Bearers letter-high placed round the block, if they can be applied without the balls touching them, will be found advantageous; if they cannot, pieces of reglet, pasted on the frisket in the usual way, and taking a bearing on the furniture, must be substituted, but the high bearer is to be preferred where it can be adopted; these bearers equalise the pressure on the surface of the engraving, and protect the edges from the severity of the pull, which is always injurious to the delicacy of the external lines. They also render the subject more manageable, by enabling the pressman to add to, or diminish, the pressure on particular parts, so as to produce the desired effect.
When great delicacy of impression is demanded in a vignette, it will be found beneficial, after the engraving is beat with ink, to take a small 213 ball without ink, and beat the extremities: this will not only take away any superfluity of ink, but will be a means of preventing picks, and give to the edges lightness and softness, particularly where distances are represented.
If the extremities are engraved much lighter than the central parts, underlays should be pasted on the middle of the block, which will give a firmer impression to those central parts of the subject: it would save trouble to cause the block to be a little rounded on the face, as it would give facility in obtaining a good impression.
When highly finished engravings on wood are worked separately, woollen cloth, however fine, should never be used for blankets, as it causes too much impression; two thicknesses of stoutish hard smooth paper, in lieu of it, between the tympans is better: sometimes even a piece of glazed pasteboard is used inside the outer tympan. The parchments ought to be in good condition, stretched tight, of a smooth surface, thin, and of regular thickness, so as to enable the pressman to obtain an impression as nearly as possible from the surface only of the engraved lines.
It is indispensably necessary that the balls should be in the best order, the same as for the finest work; and the pressman should be very particular in taking ink, distributing his balls, and beating the block well, otherwise he will not obtain clear, uniform, good impressions. If the block be small, and it is worked by itself, he will find that he can take ink more uniformly in small quantities, by first taking ink with a pair of regular sized balls, and distributing, and then taking ink from them to work his cut with; and this more particularly if he be using a pair of small balls. For this work he ought always to have the best ink that can be procured.
A large wood cut left on the press stone all night is very apt to warp; when this happens, a good method to restore it to its original flatness is to lay it on its face upon the imposing stone, with a few thicknesses of damp paper underneath it, and to place the flat side of a planer upon it, and four or five octavo pages of tied up letter; in the course of a few hours the block will be restored to its original flatness. This method is preferable to steeping the block in water, which has been frequently practised; for the steeping swells the lines of the engraving, and consequently affects the impression to a much greater extent than this operation. For retaining the original effect, as it came from the hands of the artist, I would carefully prevent the block ever being wet with water, and, when it had been worked in a form with types, would take it out before the form was washed.
To prevent this warping during the dinner hour or the night, turn the tympan down upon the form, run the carriage in, and pulling the bar handle home, fasten it to the near cheek by the catch, where there is one, or else by a chain or rope, or by a stay to the bar from the off-cheek; in iron presses this way is efficacious.
However long a time boxwood may be kept in the log, it will always twist and warp when cut into slices for engraving, on account of fresh surfaces being exposed to the air: large blocks may be restored to their flatness by laying them on a plane surface, with the hollow side downward, without any weight on them, in the course of a night.
When only a few proofs are wanted from an engraving, good impressions may be obtained with little trouble on dry India paper, with about six thicknesses of the same sort of paper laid over it, and pulled without the tympan. This observation applies to small cuts, and those 214 of a moderate size; if proofs are wanted from large ones, it will be found advantageous to put the India paper for a few minutes into a heap of damp paper.
A fine engraving on wood should never be brushed over with lye: the best method that I have found in practice, is to wipe the ink off with a piece of fine woollen cloth damped with spirits of turpentine; and if it should get foul in working, to clean it with a softish brush and spirits of turpentine. It will be found in practice that spirits of turpentine take off the ink quicker, and affect the wood less, than any other article used; and the facility with which the block is again brought into a working state, more than compensates for the trifling additional expense incurred, as nothing more is required than to wipe the surface dry, and to pull two or three impressions on dry waste paper.
The engravers always show an impression when the block is taken home to their employer; and this impression is taken in a manner, where the subject is not of a large size, such as to produce a superior effect to what a printer can with a press, when he has a number to do, which are generally worked in a form with types, and his price so low for printing, as not to enable him to do justice to the subjects. This causes great dissatisfaction to his employer, and he is unable to remedy the grievance; for the engraver’s proof is obtained by means of a burnisher, with one thickness of paper in addition to that printed on, so that he can examine each part to bring it up where it is required, and leave the others as delicate as he pleases: he thus obtains an impression from the surface only, perfect in all its parts, with the best ink that can be procured; while the printer gives dissatisfaction, because he cannot, in the way of trade, perform impossibilities.
Papillon, in his work on Engraving on Wood, published in 1766, complains of a plan nearly similar being adopted by the French engravers, with which he finds great fault. The following is a translation of the passage:—
“Some engravers on wood have the knack of fabricating the proofs of their engravings far more delicately, and in a more flattering manner than they really ought to be; and this is the means they make use of—they first take off two or three, in order to adjust one of them to their fancy, and which they think will favour their imposition; having selected it, they only beat anew the parts of the block charged with shades and the deeper strokes, in such a manner, that the lighter ones, distances, &c. being only lightly covered with ink, in as far as not being touched in the new beating, they retain no more than what was left by the preceding impression; the result is, that the new proof comes off extremely delicate in those places, and appears pleasing to the eye; but when this block is printed in conjunction with letterpress, the impressions then appear in their natural state, and totally different from that which they presented on delivery of the work. The strokes are of one equal tint, hard, and devoid of softness, and the distances are often less delicate than the foregrounds. I shall risk little by saying that all the three Le Sueurs have made use of this trick.”
The pressman will find it an advantage, if it be necessary to do full justice to an engraving, to have a good impression from the engraver, and place it before him as a pattern, and then arrange the overlays, &c., till he produces a facsimile in effect; but the most valuable lesson will be when he can obtain the assistance of the artist at the press side, to direct him in making ready the cut, and I would advise him by no means to be impatient at the tediousness of the operation, as he will 215 obtain more information how to produce a fine impression by this than by any other means. It will also instruct him how to meet the wishes of the draftsman and the engraver, with regard to effect, in a way superior to any other; and will, with care and attention, ultimately lead him to excellence in printing engravings on wood.
An assertion is now generally promulgated, that machine printing is superior to that of the press, even for engravings on wood, and thus misleading publishers and the public. When I come to speak of machines, and of presses, I will endeavour to show that it is incompatible with the principle of a machine that it can equal a press in producing fine work.
A list of errors that have escaped both the author and the printer. It is generally printed in a small type at the end of the work. It should always be kept down, and never brought out in a prominent manner. Some authors seem partial to extend the errata, by noticing the most trifling mistakes, such for instance as a turned letter, and adding corrections of the writing and of misstatements of facts, as well as new facts which may have arisen; and all under the name errata, as if they were entirely the errors of the printer; in this case they ought to be styled Corrections and Additions. In my opinion, there is no occasion to insert in the errata any thing that does not affect the sense. Mr. Beloe, in his Anecdotes of Literature, states that “the book which is distinguished by the greatest number of errata on record, is that containing the works of Pica Mirandula, printed at Strasburgh in 1507, by a printer of the name of Knoblouch. The errata of this volume occupy no less than fifteen folio pages.”
In my opinion, there is no occasion to insert in the errata any thing that does not affect the sense.
The Ethiopic language is descended from the Hebrew, yet approaching nearer to the Arabic than to any other of the Semitic languages. It observes the order of reading and writing from left to right, in common with the other languages of the same origin. It has twenty-six characters peculiar to itself, of which the order, figure, name, and power are as follow:—
|17. ዘ፡||Zai.||z Fr.||ז|
Of these ጰ: and ፐ: are used only in words of Greek and Latin origin. 216 In expressing Arabic these seven, ሰ፡ ተ፡ ነ፡ ከ፡ ዘ፡ ደ፡ ጠ፡, and in Portuguese and Italian these three, መ፡ በ፡ and ለ፡, are made use of with the addition of certain horns.
Moreover, none of the above letters are connected, except ግ፡, which, in the name of God, sometimes coalesces with ዘ፡, in this manner ፡, as
The power of the letters approaches nearest to those which have been added, whence it appears that ሀ፡ ሐ፡ and ኀ፡, also ሠ፡ and ሰ፡, also አ፡ and ዐ፡, and lastly ጸ፡ and ዐ፡, are generally pronounced in the same manner, which causes no small confusion in writing, as one cognate letter is often put for another, so that it should always be borne in mind in looking for a word in the lexicon, that if it is not to be found under one letter, we should continue our researches under the cognate.
These four ቀ፡, ጠ፡, ጰ፡, and ጸ፡ or ፀ፡, have a sound altogether at variance with European custom, and the correct pronunciation can only be learnt by hearing. But one destitute of a preceptor may approach nearer to their genuine sounds, by first prefixing to each the power of the vowel i, thus, ik, it, ip, iz, and afterwards, having substituted in its place an apostrophe, he may add the vowels, in this manner ’k-a, ’k-e, ’k-i, &c., and similarly with ’t-a, ’p-a, ’z-a, &c.
In Ethiopic the numbers are not represented by the letters, but by certain peculiar figures formed apparently from the Greek letters, and which are included within two small lines, in the following manner:—
|1000.||፲፻፡||because in writing and speaking they say ዐሠረፑ: ምላት: ten hundreds.|
[Where blanks occur in the Ethiopic, the characters are not in the British founderies.]
The other numbers are compounded from these, the greater being always placed first, as ፲፩፡ 11. ፲፪፡ 12. &c. ፳፩፡ 21. ፳፪፡ 22. &c. ፻፩፡ 101. ፻፪፡102.217
In Ethiopic the vowels are not expressed by particular letters, as in the European, or by separate points, as in the Oriental languages, but by certain small lines or circles annexed to the top, middle, or bottom of the letters themselves, or by the shortening or lengthening of one of the strokes, which changes are in number seven; whence arise so many orders of letters, or rather of syllables, of which the first is considered as the simple figure, and the remainder as compound, and are read—the first by a short, the second by u, the third by i, the fourth by a long, the fifth by e long, the sixth by e or y short, and the seventh by o; in this manner:
The diphthongs are formed not only by the letters ው፡ and ይ፡, mutes of the sixth order, after a letter of the first or fourth order, as, for instance, months, it is appointed; but also the four letters ቀ፡, ኀ፡ ከ፡ and ገ፡ with the addition of certain peculiar points, are generally considered to form diphthongs in the first, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth orders, in this manner፡
In Ethiopic each separate word is distinguished by two thick points, and the periods by four or more; there are no marks of accentuation.
The preceding observations are extracted from a small treatise on the elements of Ethiopic grammar by George Otho, professor of the Greek and Oriental languages at Marburg in Hesse Cassel, with an acknowledgment of being indebted for his information to Ludolph; and bound in connexion with the “Fundamenta Punctationis Linguæ Sanctæ” of Jacob Alting, printed at Frankfort on the Main, in 2 vols., 1717.
English.—Oxford University. Thorowgood & Besley. Formerly Bynneman’s.
Pica.—Caslon & Livermore. Thorowgood & Besley. Walton’s Polyglot; through Andrews’s and James’s founderies to Fry.
The confines of ancient Etruria bordered closely upon the city of Rome, being separated from it only by the Tyber to the south-east and south. There is proof, indeed, that almost all Italy was at one time under the power of Etruria.
Although the Etrurians seem to have arrived at the highest point of civilization, and even of luxury, at an early period, whilst Rome had as yet no existence, and to have been distinguished in a variety of respects far beyond the people of surrounding nations, we are almost wholly ignorant of their history, and even their origin is involved in the greatest doubt.
The people of Etruria, called by the Romans Etrusci or Tusci, are styled Tyrrheni or Tyrseni by the Greek historians.
The difficulties of the Etruscan question are increased by a difference of statement and of opinion in the accounts recorded on the subject, by Herodotus and Dionysius, two of the greatest antiquaries and historians of ancient times.
Herodotus, who, says Athenæus (lib. xii.), obtained his account from Lydians, gives to the Tyrrheni a Lydian origin, and states that they emigrated under the command of Tyrrhenus, one of the sons of Atys: while Dionysius, partly because Xanthus, an historian of Lydia, is silent respecting this emigration, will not allow the tradition to be true, but imagines them to have come from the north. It is not improbable that 219 both are in part correct: the earlier portion of the Etrurians might have come from the north, while the later colony (who must have been advanced in civilization to have effected the voyage) might have been Lydians; and in all probability these subsequent settlers constituted the dominant portion of the invaders of Etruria.—Sir William Gell’s Topography of Rome, 8vo. 1834.
The Etruscan language must have been the same, or nearly so, with the Hebrew and Phœnician. For, whether we consider them as descended from Ashur, Peleg, the Egyptians, Phœnicians, or even Celtes, and from some of these they undoubtedly descended, their language must have been either the same with the Hebrew and Phœnician, or nearly related to them. The first Pelasgic settlements in Etruria could not have been many centuries after the deluge, and very few after the dispersion; and at that time the languages, or rather dialects, of the Egyptians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Celtes, Syrians, Arabs, &c., must have approached extremely near to the Hebrews and Phœnicians, which the learned allow to have been almost the same. With regard to the Canaanites or Phœnicians migrating into Etruria, after the first colonies of the Pelasgi or Tyrsenians settled there, it cannot be denied, that their language had received but little alteration from the primitive Hebrew. So that both sacred and profane history concur to evince the Hebrew, Phœnician, and Etruscan tongues to have been, in the earlier ages, nearly the same.
This likewise farther appears from the letters and manner of writing anciently used in Etruria. The letters are almost the same with those of the earliest Greeks, brought by Cadmus out of Phœnicia. The manner of writing is purely Oriental, the letters being drawn from the right hand to the left, consonant to the practice of the Eastern nations. The former point is rendered indisputably clear by the Eugubian tables, in conjunction with the Sigean inscription, and the latter by a bare perusal of the generality of the Etruscan inscriptions. Nay, the very remote antiquity of the first colonies that settled in Etruria, as well as of the Etruscan language and alphabet, may be easily inferred from those inscriptions. For as the Pelasgic alphabet, that prevailed in Greece before the age of Deucalion, consisted of sixteen letters, the Etruscan or Pelasgic alphabet, first brought into Italy, composed of only thirteen letters, must have preceded the reign of that prince. The high, not to say almost incredible, antiquity of the Etruscan language and alphabet, has been clearly evinced in two dissertations, by Mr. J. Swinton, printed at Oxford in the year 1746.—Univ. Hist. 8vo. vol. xvi. 1748.
The author of a “Tour to the Sepulchres of Etruria, in 1839,” in a visit to General Galassi’s museum at Rome, says, “If we had been surprised at Campanari’s exhibition, we were petrified at the general’s. Here we saw an immense breastplate of gold, which had been fastened on each shoulder by a most delicately wrought gold fibula, with chains like those now made at Trichinopoly. The breastplate was stamped with a variety of arabesques and small patterns, as usual in the Egyptian style. The head had been crowned with fillets and circular ornaments of pure gold, and a rich mantle had covered the body, flowered with the same material. In this grave also had been found a quantity of arms, round bronze shields with a boss in the centre which was stamped, spears, lances, and arrows; a bier of bronze, as perfect as if made a year ago; a tripod, with a vessel containing some strange looking lumps of a resinous substance, and which on being burnt proved to be perfumes 220 so intensely strong, that those who tried them were obliged to leave the room. There were many small images, perhaps of lares, or of ancestors, in terra cotta that had been ranged in double lines close to the bier; also some large common vessels for wine and oil, and some finely painted vases and tazze, with black figures upon a red ground, which had been consecrated to the dead. There were wheels of a car upon which the bier had been brought into the sepulchre, and many other things which I do not remember; but the wonder of all these treasures was a sort of inkstand of terra cotta, which had served as a schoolmaster’s A. B. C. On it were the Etruscan letters, first in alphabet, and then in syllables, and both the letters and the syllables are the same as the oldest form of the Greek. It was deciphered by Dr. Lepsius, and is the key to all we at present know, and will be the basis of all we are ever likely to know, of the Etruscan tongue.”——“This humble article is likely to prove to Europe, what the stones of Alexandria and Rosetta have been before it, the dictionary of a lost language, and the interpreter of an extinct race.”
“I noted that upon this inkstand were four alphabets engraved, and after each the syllables,—thus, ba, be, bi, &c., ma, me, mi, and so forth; that one of these is in the oldest or archaic form of the Greek alphabetic letters, and that hence connexion is likely to be traced and demonstrated between the Egyptian, Etruscan, and Pelasgic.”
To these letters may be added the four following complex characters , 𐌣 and .
Pica.—Caslon and Livermore. Cut by Caslon for the celebrated linguist, the Rev. John Swinton, Oxford, about 1733.
Note that the letter the book shows as “m” 𐌑 is actually “sh”. It isn’t clear whether 𐌚 (“ef”) is the same character the book represents as Etruscan F. Etruscan characters are in the Old Italic Unicode block.
When a piece of printing has to be executed in great haste, a number of compositors are employed on it, and the copy is cut into small pieces for each, to facilitate the making-up, imposing, and the general furthering of the work; if the copy should be in long paragraphs, the compositors have each to begin a line and to make their copy end a line, frequently with great irregularity of spacing; this is termed making even lines. In daily newspapers it is of constant occurrence.
The second, fourth, sixth, or any other even numbered page is called an even page.
Note of. See Punctuation.
Frequently currying a pelt, to get it into condition, is termed Exercising the Pelt, or Giving the Pelt Exercise.
The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.