The Gaelic alphabet consists of eighteen letters: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, t, u. Of these, five are vowels, a, e, i, o, u; the rest consonants.—Stewart’s Gaelic Grammar. 8vo. 2d. edit. 1812.
“It may be explanatory to mention, that the syllable Kil is supposed to mark the residence (the Cella), in ancient times of an ecclesiastical recluse; and that Kin, Ken (Cean) means head. Ken-loch-Spelvie, &c. the Head of Loch Spelvie, &c. The letter C is always pronounced K in Welsh and Gaelic”—Sixth Report of Commissioners for Building Churches in the Highlands of Scotland. Appendix, 1831. Note.
Pieces of thin boards of different sizes, with ledges about three fifth parts of the height of the letter on one end and one side, for the types to rest against; others are made with a slice to slide out, and keep a large page on without disturbing it, the coffin having several slices fitted to it.—M. The use of the galley is to receive the matter as it is composed, and to afford a level on which to make up the pages.
Galleys are made of different sizes to suit the different works on which a compositor may be employed; if it be a reprint, page for page, he avoids encumbering his cases with large galleys, but takes one that will hold a page comfortably, completes his page, ties it up, and slips it upon a page paper, and thus proceeds; but if the work be not a mere 249 reprint, and is done in a companionship, then, as each compositor must be setting at random, the work will require different sorts of galleys, which must contain more matter; in the latter case he will take one of the proper width for the page, but that will contain two pages or more, in length, or one double that width with a ledge down the middle, so as to hold two pages in width.
For works in quarto or folio he must have galleys of a greater width, so as to enable him to have a quantity of matter at random till he gets the making up; in doing this, where the page is in folio and large, it is safer to make up on a slice galley, when he draws the slice out with the page on it and places it under his frame, and thus proceeds till he has made up a sheet, when he slides his pages off the slice upon the stone to impose them; he must in this case have four slices at least. The following is a representation of a slice galley:
For newspaper work brass galleys are employed, the bottoms thin, and the ledges of brass which are on both sides and one end, while the other end has a moveable ledge which fits into mortises in the sides; by this means the compositor is enabled, when a galley full is composed, to put a sidestick and footstick to it and quoin it, and pull a proof in the galley.
Galleys are generally made of mahogany: those made of the old panels of coaches are held to be the best, as the wood, being well seasoned, is less apt to split or bend, and keeping their flat level surface is requisite.
See Ancient Customs.
In wooden presses, a frame made of two pieces of wood and a transverse piece, placed behind the tympans, to support them at a proper angle when they are turned up. The transverse piece is nearly as long as the tympans are wide, so that the frame can rest upon it: they are inclined towards the tympans and form an abutment, and are placed in sockets so as to be easily taken out when necessary.
Two pieces of wood with square mortises in them, to receive the ends of the gallows; they are nailed or screwed upon the plank behind the tympans. The mortises are inclined towards the tympans.
Another great discovery has been published, in addition to those important ones of Sir Humphry Davy, which he made at the Royal Institution, of the decomposing powers of galvanism, the brilliant effects of which, I well remember, excited wonder and astonishment in the crowded audiences that assembled in the lecture room of that establishment.
The one that is the subject of the present article, promises to be of great utility in the arts, by giving the means of obtaining facsimiles of engraved copper plates, of engravings on wood, of coins, medals, embossings, in short, of any engraved article, whether in cameo or intaglio. The productions by this process have been named Electrotype.
This is effected by placing the object to be copied in a solution of any metal, when the galvanic action precipitates the metal from the liquid 250 that held it in solution, upon the engraving that is to be copied. This precipitation or deposition assumes the form of a cake of pure metal, with every line, however delicate, and every inequality, however minute, on its surface, so as to form a matrix or mould in the highest state of perfection.
When the matrix is thus formed, the engraving is withdrawn from the solution of metal, and the matrix substituted; the galvanic action is again renewed; a deposition of the metal upon the matrix now takes place; and the result is, a perfect facsimile of the original.
This is a short sketch of the principle of this discovery. It belongs to chemistry rather than to printing, to explain why the metal is precipitated in a solid mass and not in a fine powder; but such is the fact. The discovery has been applied to the production of facsimiles of engraved copper plates with the most complete success; and as it is now in a state of progress to produce copies of engravings on wood, and pages of types, so as to be applicable to letterpress printing, I will endeavour to give the present state of knowledge with respect to this application of the discovery, the process, and also specimens.
It is said that the discovery of this application of galvanism originated in perceiving a thin deposition of copper at the bottom of a galvanic battery, which, on being removed, displayed on its under surface a perfect cast of the bottom of the cell, and suggested an extended application. Be this as it may, the fact was noticed by Mr. Warren De la Rue, of Bunhill Row, in a communication to the Philosophical Magazine of September, 15, 1836, (vol. 9. p. 484,) where he says, “The zinc plate is always partially covered with a coating of copper, which, however, is not detrimental to the power of the battery: the copper plate is also covered with a coating of metallic copper, which is continually being deposited; and so perfect is the sheet of copper thus formed, that on being stripped off, it has the polish and even a counterpart of every scratch of the plate on which it is deposited.” The discovery of the application is claimed by two persons, M. Jacobi, a Russian, and Mr. Thomas Spencer of Liverpool. The latter presented a pamphlet containing the results of his discovery, and an account of his experiments, to the British Association in 1839, at which time M. Jacobi’s specimens were present and exhibited at the same meeting. Mr. Spencer has since prosecuted his experiments, and liberally given the details and the results to the public, in different publications; so that it is in fact to this latter gentleman that we are indebted for our information on the subject; but as it is now in the hands of a number of persons of ingenuity and ability, who are prosecuting experiments on it, there is little doubt but that it will soon be brought to a state approaching nearly to perfection.
As copper is usually employed for engravings, and is equally applicable to letterpress printing as to that of the rolling press; as it is easily obtained in solution, and is not an expensive article for this purpose, the process as here described is with that metal; other metals have been used for experiments, and it has been stated that articles in silver or gold may be produced with equal facility where facsimiles of them may be required, but the production of them in gold is doubtful.
In the process there are various things to be considered. Among which may be particularly mentioned the fact, that the solidity of the deposited metal entirely depends on the weakness or intensity of the electric action. This action may be regulated by increasing or decreasing the thickness of the plaster of Paris which separates the two metals, and 251 by the coarseness or fineness of the material. Mr. Cooper states, “I made three similar experiments, altering the texture and thickness of the plaster each time, by which I ascertained that if the plaster partitions were thin and coarse, the metallic deposition proceeded with great rapidity, but the crystals were friable and easily separated; on the other hand, if I made the partition thicker, and of a little finer material, the action was much slower, and the metallic deposition was as solid and ductile as copper formed by the usual methods; indeed the action was exceedingly slow. I have made a metallic deposition apparently much harder than common sheet copper; but more brittle.”
A friend of mine used a common garden pot, with a cork in the perforation through the bottom, which answered very well, the copper deposited being fine and tough. I think a wine cooler would be a good vessel for that purpose, being porous; and either may be at hand, when there is not a suitable glass, or any plaster of Paris.
Mr. Crosse has stated, in the account of his experiments on the crystallization of metals, that he succeeded best when the solutions were kept at a boiling temperature; and Mr. Spencer informs us, that by keeping the solutions he employed at a temperature of from one hundred and twenty to one hundred and eighty degrees of Fahrenheit, he was able to abridge the time otherwise required, three or four fold.
In all scientific experiments, care and attention are requisite for a successful result: in this instance, let an uninterrupted circuit be maintained for the electricity, and let the wire have a perfect metallic contact with the plates which it connects; when it is an engraving on wood, bore a hole in the side of the block, and insert the wire in it. The zinc may be with advantage occasionally taken out of the saline solution during the operation, and cleaned in water. In the choice and application of the plates, it is better that they should be, as nearly as possible, of the same size, and it is of importance that the zinc should be as thick as the required deposition of copper, but it is easy when necessary to renew the zinc again and again. That the solution of the sulphate of copper may be continued in the necessary state, crystals of that substance should be occasionally added. When the process is long continued, the solution should be changed, for the sulphuric acid, which is set free by the deposition of the metallic copper, prevents the further action.
This was the first method; the plan now practised, to prevent any stoppage of the galvanic action by an excess of sulphuric acid occasioned by the decomposition of the sulphate of copper and the deposition of its copper in a metallic state, is to put into the acid a piece of copper in connexion with the positive pole, and thus, as the acid is set free by the galvanic action, it forms a new combination with the copper, and continues the supply of the sulphate without the necessity of changing the contents of the vessel.
In obtaining casts by this process, it must be borne in mind, that no metallic deposition can be made by voltaic electricity without the presence of a metallic surface or nucleus upon which to deposit: but this metallic surface should be given only to the part which is to be copied; the sides and bottom of the block may be covered with a varnish composed of shell lac dissolved in spirit of wine, which will prevent any metallic deposition from taking place upon those parts, as also the moisture from penetrating into the wood, and the deposition will in consequence be confined to the engraved surface.
In the management of the simple apparatus which is employed in electrotype, it is necessary to have the binding-screws, wires, and all 252 the metallic surfaces, quite clean and bright, as also to avoid touching with the fingers that part on which the metal is to be deposited.
With regard to the first application of galvanism to the production of facsimiles of engravings on wood, Mr. Spencer states, after the publication of his pamphlet, “The wood engraving being given, take a piece of lead the required size; let its superfice be about one-eighth of an inch larger all round than that of the wood block. The lead must now be planed, just as a piece of soft wood; (the tool termed by a joiner a try plane does best;) a clear bright surface is thus obtained, such as I have been unable to get by any other means. The engraved surface of the wood must now be laid on the planed surface of the lead, and both put carefully in a press; should the engraving have more than two inches of superfices, a copying press is not powerful enough. Whatever press is used, the subject to be copied must be cautiously laid in the centre of the pressure, as a very slight lateral force will in some degree injure the process; the pressure to be applied regularly, and not with a jerk. When the pressure is deemed complete, they may be taken out, and if, on examination, the lead is not found to be completely up, the wood engraving may be neatly relaid on the lead, and again submitted to the press, using the same precaution as before. When the lead is taken out, a wire should be soldered to it immediately, and it should then be put into the apparatus without loss of time, as the less it is subjected to the action of the atmosphere the better: care should also be taken not to touch the surface with the fingers.”
Mr. Spencer also states that plumbers, who have handled lead for the greater portion of their lives, are astonished to find it so susceptible of pressure. On the contrary, wood engravers did not, until now, imagine that their blocks would stand the pressure of a screw press on a lead surface without injury; but such is the fact in both instances. In the manner in which box wood is used for wood engravings, being in horizontal sections, it will sustain a pressure of 8,000 lbs. without injury, provided the pressure is perfectly perpendicular.
Mr. Spencer has omitted to mention the size of the engraving; if it were one inch square, it would have a pressure of 8,000 lbs. on that inch; if it were nine inches square, it would only have a pressure of 100 lbs. on the square inch: with my experience of printing engravings on wood, I would not venture to submit one to a pressure of 8,000 lbs. to the inch for fear of crushing the lines. I mention this as a caution; it may prevent an accident.
This appears to have been the first method tried to produce a facsimile of an engraving on wood by means of galvanism, with a metallic mould obtained by impressing the engraved block upon a piece of lead. This not appearing to be perfectly satisfactory, other persons were induced to endeavour to make the discovery available for letterpress printing without the risk of injury to the engraving, to which this plan seemed liable; and the next advance towards the perfection of the process was an important one, being the introduction of the real object intended to be copied in the stead of the substituted mould, and obtaining a matrix from it at once by means of the galvanic process without resorting to any intermediate measures. This improvement was made by Mr. Robert Murray, who proposed “in January last to cover the surface of the wood with plumbago [black lead], so as to render it a conductor; and then to proceed in the usual manner for obtaining an electrotype copy,” as he informed me in a communication of the 21st of July, 1840. It is but fair to state, that this use of black lead has been 253 objected to by some engravers on wood, as having a tendency to fill up the lines of a delicate engraving, and so to deteriorate the impressions taken from it; but I am now furnishing the public with the means of deciding on this question, by presenting an impression from an electrotype copy, executed by Mr. Murray according to his own ingenious plan, by the side of one from the original wood engraving, and I leave it to bear witness for itself. I cannot perceive any deterioration in the copy, nor any difference between the two impressions: in fact they appear as if they were duplicate impressions from the same engraving.
The following letter, addressed to the editor of the Athenæum, by Mr. Spencer, which appeared in that publication on the 4th of July, 1840, details another method of obtaining a metallic surface for an engraving on wood, &c. for the purpose of inducing the galvanic deposition of copper upon it and obtaining a copper mould, which appears to be free from the objections that have been raised to gilding, bronzing, and to black lead.
“In my pamphlet, printed last September, I there stated I considered the process comparatively incomplete, unless we were able to apply it to the multiplication of models in clay or wood, castings in plaster, wood engravings, &c., as the fact, that galvanic deposition always requires a metallic surface to act on, seemed to set bounds to those branches of its application. I then resorted to various expedients to surmount the difficulty; among others, that of gilding and bronzing the surfaces of such materials to a limited extent: this was successful, but still troublesome and expensive, and, more than all, the sharpness and beauty of the original was necessarily injured. I have since attempted to metallize surfaces by the use of plumbago (suggested to me many months ago by Mr. Parry of Manchester).
“Should I be desirous of obtaining a copper mould or cast from a piece of wood, plaster, or clay, or, indeed, any non-metallic material, I proceed as follows:—Suppose it is an engraved wooden block, and I am desirous of metallizing it, in order that I may be able to deposit copper on its surface (this example will hold good for any other material), the first operation is to take strong alcohol in a corked glass vessel, and add to it a piece of phosphorus (a common phial corked will answer the purpose); the vessel must now be placed in hot water for a few minutes, and occasionally shaken. By this means the alcohol will take up about a 300th of its bulk of phosphorus, and we thus obtain what I would term an alcoholic solution of phosphorus. The next operation is to procure a weak solution of nitrate of silver; place it in a flat dish or a saucer; the engraved face of the block must now be dipped in this solution, and let remain for a few seconds, to allow capillary action to draw it into the wood.
“This operation being performed, a small portion of the alcoholic solution of phosphorus must now be poured in a capsule or watch-glass, and this placed on a sand-bath, that it may be suffered to evaporate. The block must now be held with its surface over the vapour, and an immediate change takes place; the nitrate of silver becomes deoxidized and gives place to a metallic phosphoret of silver, which allows the voltaic deposit to go on with as much rapidity and certainty as the purest silver or copper.
“The whole process may be performed in a few minutes, and with absolute certainty of success. The interior or exterior surface of a plaster or clay mould of a statue, no matter what size, may be thus metallized with equal facility. For the process of vaporizing, and should 254 the material to be acted on not be very large, I prefer fastening it to the top of a bell glass receiver with a bit of pitch or cement, and thus placing it over the capsule on the sand-bath; the phosphoric vapour is by this means equally diffused and not dissipated. An ethereal solution of phosphorus also answers; and a solution of either of the chlorides of gold or platinum may be used. I am inclined to think this process, independent of its uses in galvanic precipitation, may be applicable to other branches of art. I would recommend those curious of testing its effects, to try a small and sharp plaster of Paris medallion: dip its surface in a weak solution of nitrate of silver and take it out immediately; fasten it to the bottom of a glass tumbler, and at the same time have a little hot sand ready in a dish; lay the watch glass containing a few drops of the phosphoric solution on it; now place the mouth of the tumbler over all, and the medallion will be observed almost instantly to change colour. The operation is now completed. A piece of pottery ware in the state of biscuit may be acted on in a similar manner.
“Liverpool, June 27.
Apparatus and process.—The annexed figure and explanation will afford an example of the action of a voltaic apparatus, and will be sufficient to render the subsequent details intelligible. A is a vessel filled with a solution of common salt, which is a compound of chlorine and sodium; B is a tube immersed therein, closed at the lower end with a piece of bladder stretched over it and firmly tied; this tube is filled with a solution of blue vitriol, that is, a compound of sulphuric acid and oxide of copper. A plate of copper C, and one of zinc Z, connected by means of the wire W, are immersed in those fluids. The zinc decomposes the salt, with the chlorine of which it unites, forming chloride of zinc, while the sodium of the salt is repelled, and passing through the bladder, enters the solution of sulphate of copper, which it decomposes, uniting with the sulphuric acid and oxygen to form sulphate of soda, and setting free pure copper in the form of beautiful crystals, which are deposited on the plate C. The connecting wire W serves to convey electricity from C to Z, and thus the action is maintained so long as any common salt and sulphate of copper remain undecomposed.
Mr. Spencer’s first attempt was made with a piece of thin copper plate, which he covered with a cement of beeswax, resin, and Indian or Calcutta red. The plate received its coating while hot, and on becoming cool, the experimenter scratched the initials of his name upon the plate, being careful to clear away all the cement from the scratches, so as to expose the copper below. A piece of zinc was attached to this plate by a copper wire, and the voltaic current was set in action by means of the simple apparatus shown in the adjoining figure.
A may be supposed to represent a glass vessel of convenient form. B a gas glass stopped at the lower end P, by a piece of plaster of Paris, to the depth of three quarters of an inch, Z a plate of zinc, and C a similar piece of copper, a coin or any other metallic substance to be acted upon; and these two are connected by a copper wire, W. The inner vessel may be kept in its place by a cork, or any other means that may happen to be more convenient. A solution of sulphate of soda is poured into the gas glass, and the wire connecting the zinc and copper plates 255 being bent, as shown in the figure, the zinc plate is immersed into the solution of sulphate of soda, and the copper plate into the solution of sulphate of copper.
In a few hours Mr. Spencer, in his experiments, found that the portion of the copper rendered bare by the scratches was coated with the pure bright deposited metal, while those portions which were still covered with cement were not acted on. It now became an important inquiry whether the deposition would retain its hold on the plate, and whether it would be of sufficient solidity to bear working from; that is, supposing an etching or engraving to be made, and the lines to be afterwards filled up with copper by the voltaic process, whether such lines could be printed from.
In order to answer this last question, Mr. Spencer coated with cement a piece of copper, and with a steel point endeavoured to draw lines in the form of network, so as to penetrate the cement and expose the copper. After this plate had been exposed to voltaic action, and then heated, so as to get off the covering of cement, the copper net-work came off with it. This happened many times; but by an accident it occurred to the experimenter to employ nitric acid to the plate, after it had been cemented and engraved on as before. It was then subjected to the voltaic process for forty-eight hours, when the lines were found to be entirely filled with copper. On applying heat, and then turpentine to get off the cement, it was found that the voltaic copper had completely combined with the plate on which it was deposited.
A plate was then coated with cement, and lines worked upon it by an engraver; but these lines were of a wedge-shaped form, leaving only a hair line of the copper exposed at the bottom, and a broad space near the surface; and where the turn of the letters took place, the top edges of the lines were galled and rendered rugged by the action of the graver. All this was objectionable; but another plate, similarly prepared, and engraved on with a sharp point, had the copper deposited on the lines; and this was printed from successfully.
This was an attempt to deposit lines upon a plate of copper by the galvanic action, and thus form an engraving in relief, which I have doubts of being successfully practised with finished subjects.
The application of heat separates the two metals, in consequence of their different expansibility when subjected to its influence.
Mr. Spencer gives the form of another apparatus on a more extended scale, which he recommends, as it may be employed in large works.
A is an earthenware vessel to receive the copper plate and the solution of sulphate of copper, in which it is to be exposed. B is another vessel of earthenware or wood, of such a size that it may fit into the outer one, as shown in the drawing; the bottom of this vessel being formed of plaster of Paris, or some other porous substance, which while it retains the solution of common salt may permit the voltaic action to go on without impediment. C is the copper plate to be acted on by the electricity upon which copper is to be deposited. Z is the zinc plate, and the two are united by the wire W, which may either be done in the manner exhibited in the second engraving, or by the use of a binding screw S.
I have been anxious to give specimens of this discovery in its application to letterpress printing, with some account of the process by which copies are obtained from engravings on wood. I am gratified in being enabled to do this, and to give two subjects, by different processes in producing the matrices or moulds.
No. 1. is an impression from an engraving on wood by the late Mr. Branston, which I give for the purpose of comparing the copy with the original. From this engraving Mr. Murray, having metallized the surface with plumbago, according to his method, to induce a deposition of the copper upon it, obtained a copper mould by galvanic action; from this mould No. 2. was produced by the same process, and is an impression from the electrotype copy of No. 1.
No. 3. is an impression from an engraving on wood, from which a matrix was prepared in type metal by the process called polytype; this matrix was submitted to the galvanic action by Mr. Murray, and the deposition of copper produced the electrotype copy from which the impression No. 4. is printed.
No. 5. is a polytype copy in type metal from the same matrix as No. 4. These impressions are placed in juxtaposition, for the purpose of giving an opportunity of comparing them, and forming a true estimate of their respective merits.
There have been many attempts in London to obtain an electrotype copy of a page of types, but hitherto, I believe, without success; the difficulty arising from the deposition of copper getting under the projecting parts of the kerned letters, and also penetrating into the interstices between the letters and the words, and thus preventing the mould from being disengaged from the types, without using force and destroying a great number of letters. The following, No. 6., is an imperfect specimen of a page of diamond types, by Mr. Robert Branston, an engraver of eminence in wood, and Mr. Warren De la Rue. There are many difficulties yet to be overcome in the process of obtaining electrotype copies of types; but it will show what has already been accomplished, and I have not the least doubt that the combined skill and perseverance of Mr. Branston and Mr. De la Rue will in a short time overcome those difficulties, and produce perfect copies with ease and certainty.
The method adopted to procure this was as follows:—A mould in plaster of Paris was first obtained, and a stereotype plate was cast in it; high spaces and quadrats were used, to prevent as much as possible the inconvenience before spoken of; a mould was then obtained from the stereotype plate by the polytype process, in type metal, and from that mould, by the galvanic action, the electrotype copy from which the specimen No. 6. was printed.
In the first instance, the plan recommended by Mr. Spencer in the Athenæum of the 4th of July, 1840, of preparing the surface of the mould with silver, was adopted, but the sulphuric acid acted on the plaster of Paris of which it was formed, and rendered it useless.257
Since the preceding was written and in print, I have been informed that Mr. Spencer has been more successful than the London experimenters, for, in a letter to me, dated Glasgow, September 17th, 1840, he says, “Had I been at home I should have sent you a copy of the first pamphlet, where you would have seen an octavo page of stereotyping by the Voltaic process.”
In the present early state of electrotyping we find that, as it is formed by the solution in water of a salt composed of sulphuric acid and copper, it is of course thinner and the copper more attenuated than type metal is when in a state of fusion; it will necessarily penetrate into all the delicately engraved parts of a subject more completely than melted metal, and must therefore produce a more perfect facsimile than a casting; I believe this is undeniable, for copies of copper plate engravings of great fineness have been produced in the highest state of perfection as facsimiles. Another point is, that copper is tougher than type metal, and not so liable to have the letters break off and fail in the process of printing, and of consequence will be more durable. But it appears to me that one of its most valuable applications will be to the printing of Bibles, for by obtaining copper matrices of the pages by this process new editions may be multiplied to any extent, and when the plates are much worn they may be renewed at any future time, without incurring the expense of recomposing the book; which is not the case with stereotype plates. But the applicability of the discovery is as yet in its infancy, as these specimens are, I believe, the first that have been published of impressions of letterpress electrotype plates, and the ingenuity of man is at work to extend and improve the discovery.
In giving the foregoing account of experiments that have been made on this discovery of the application of galvanism to the production of copies of the works of art, and more particularly with respect to engravings on wood, as connected with letterpress printing, to which this work is confined, it is evident that the persons making these experiments are not availing themselves of the information which may easily be procured, that is, of ascertaining what are the requisites to enable a printer to make use of these copies in the regular way of business; excepting this be done, the discovery will not be available for general purposes, and will be viewed only as a curiosity: one point, to which I would particularly draw their attention, is the difficulty experienced in separating the matrix from the original, and again of separating the copy from the matrix; in both these cases they have the deposition of copper too thin, and in the act of separation both the matrix and the copy are twisted and distorted; they are then filled in at the back with some soft metal, which is planed in a rough manner, and delivered in this condition, unfit for the press, at which it is almost impossible to obtain a good impression. I would suggest that the deposition of copper should be continued for a longer time, so as to have the metal thicker, both in the matrix and the copy; if any irregularity in the surface then take place in the act of separation, it ought to be reduced before it is filled in with metal at the back; when that is done it should be turned in a lathe, as stereotype plates now are; it would thus be of an equal thickness throughout without any unevenness on the surface or back, and when mounted type-high might be printed without more trouble than wood cuts or stereotype plates are; thus enabling the printer to produce impressions without difficulty that would show the merits of the discovery in a fair manner, which at present cannot be done without great trouble and loss of time.258
The illustrations on pages 258-260, and the sample text on 261, are included for completeness. To get the author’s point you will obviously have to look at the physical book. In fact, since the different versions are indistinguishable on screen, I have used the same image for 258-259 and for the three forms of 260.
to draw lines in the form of network . . . the copper net-work came off with it
inconsistent hyphenization in the original
In wooden presses, two flat pieces of iron with a semicircle cut in one end of each, and a projecting part at the other ends; in the projecting parts there is a hole at each end, those in the front piece for a screw to go through, and those in the back piece are tapped to receive a screw.
The hose has a horizontal mortise through it, exactly at the groove in the spindle; this mortise is to receive the garter, which, when driven close up from back and front, clasps the spindle in the groove by means of its semicircular ends, which are made to fit into this groove; and the two parts are kept firmly together by the screws that pass through the projecting ends on two sides of the hose.
Its use is to lift up the platen on the return of the bar, to admit the carriage to be run in and out.
Gathering of books is to take one sheet off every heap, beginning at the last sheet first, viz. at the left hand end of the range.—M. We now reverse the heaps, and place the first signature where they used to place the last; they then gathered, placing each sheet upon the other: we now gather under each sheet, which is a much quicker way. See Gathering.
In making the printed sheets of a work up into copies in the warehouse for delivery, a number of them in orderly succession are folded together, which is called a gathering; a volume may be complete in one gathering, or it may consist of two, three, four, or more.
When there are more than one gathering in a volume, the warehouseman endeavours to have the number of sheets in each nearly equal; and he very rarely puts less than ten, or more than fifteen, in one gathering.
He lays down upon the gathering table a heap of each signature, commencing with B, or whatever signature the body of the work may begin with, following each other in regular order, according to the letters of the alphabet, and as many as he intends to include in the first gathering, with the first page of each to the front of the table. If it be a long number, he seldom lays down more than a bundle of each signature at once, that the top sheets may not be higher than the boys can conveniently reach.
The first signature is placed at the extreme end of the table to the left hand, that if there be any space more than is actually wanted upon the table, it may be at the end where the gathering concludes, to allow the boys to knock up the sheets without crowding each other.
In commencing gathering it is necessary that the boys should have clean hands, otherwise they will dirty many sheets with the end of the right thumb.
A boy wets the end of his right thumb with the tip of his tongue, and pushes up with it the right hand corner of the first sheet, the fingers of his left hand being laid upon the sheet to prevent its slipping away, and he catches it up with the thumb of his left hand underneath it, and draws it upon the next heap; he does the same by this, and so continues drawing the accumulating sheets in his left hand over the successive heaps, and taking one from each, till he gets to the end; he then knocks this gathering up even at the ends and sides, and lays it down at the end of the table, which being what is styled a horse-shoe table, he has only to turn himself round, when he is again facing the first signature, to recommence the operation, always knocking up his gathering, and laying it evenly upon the other, till it accumulates to a pile.
In the regular routine of business, where despatch is necessary, three 263 or four boys are generally put to one gathering table, who follow each other regularly, knocking up their gatherings, and piling them up on the end of the table. Among them there is frequently an inexperienced boy; to prevent delay, this boy is ordered to lay his gathering down at the end, and the next boy knocks it up with his own: if the boy has quickness and spirit, he exerts himself to become expert, and to equal the others.
If the collation of the book is going on at the same time, it prevents the pile of gatherings from accumulating too much; if it be not, the pile must be removed occasionally, to prevent it getting too high for the boys to deposit their gatherings.
They thus proceed till one, or more, of the heaps is exhausted, when the remnant of the others is folded in the middle, each signature by itself, and tied up in a bundle, enclosed in wrappers; but if the book be collating, the drawn sheets are previously laid down, which enables them generally to gather off a few more copies.
In the course of gathering, if a boy perceives that the sheets in any of the heaps are turned the wrong way, he should immediately announce it, that they may be placed right; he should be likewise very particular to take one sheet from each heap, as also to avoid taking two: any of these errors causes a great deal of extra trouble in collating, and of course a consequent loss of time, in addition to making the work unpleasant.
After the gatherings are collated, they are knocked up carefully at the ends and sides, and folded evenly in the middle; folios, quartos, and octavos, in the regular fold of the paper, and twelves the long way in the back; for a gathering is never folded in a page, neither lengthways nor crossways. They are then put into a press, a moderate quantity being placed between each two boards, and the press wrung well down; after having lain in the press a sufficient time, they are taken out, and piled away till the work is completed, and they are wanted for Booking.
If copies of a work are required to be delivered as soon as the last sheet is put to press, which at the present day is commonly the case, the warehouseman should be prepared to meet the wishes of his employer’s customers, by having the book gathered close up to the last gathering; having them all pressed and booked; and as fast as the last sheet is worked off, keep hanging it up very thin in the most favourable part of his poling for drying, and even dry a few by the fire to commence with. He will thus have the last gathering only to put together, and in some cases he may have part of that done; so that if he put his boys to gather, himself to collate, another to fold the gatherings and put them into the press, he may in less than two hours, in a case of emergency, deliver fifty or a hundred copies of a work without difficulty, and obtain credit to the house and to himself for despatch and attention, both of which cannot but be gratifying to him. See Booking. Collating. Lay Down.
A table in the warehouse on which the printed sheets are arranged in the order of their signatures, in order to their being gathered into books. It is usually a horse-shoe table, and the boys gather on the inside, so that when they have completed one gathering they have only to turn round and commence again. Where there is space enough in the warehouse it ought to be sufficiently large to hold at least fifteen sheets, with room at the end for the heap and for the knocking up of each gathering.
A Gauge, to regulate the margin, is used both by compositors and pressmen, in their respective departments.
When a compositor commences a work, or joins a companionship, it is 264 necessary that he cut a gauge to the length of a regular page of his work; to do this he should take a page without any chapter head lines, of the regular number of lines, and cut his gauge to the exact length, including the head and the direction line; a piece of great primer reglet is a convenient thickness, and marking the name of the work on it may prevent errors. Many compositors mark the length of the page upon a piece of furniture, and make it answer for two, three, or four works; but I have known mistakes occur in making-up, from adopting this method, that have caused a great deal of trouble in remaking up the succeeding pages.
In works that are printed with large letter, and have many head lines in the pages, and much white between the lines, I would advise a gauge to be cut on which the situation of each line should be marked; this will enable the compositor to make up his pages, so that, when the sheet is worked off, line shall fall upon line, which will add a beauty to his work, and save a great deal of trouble, by rendering unnecessary any alteration of the whites.
After the first sheet of a work has been imposed, and the margin made right by the person who has the superintendence of this department, a gauge should be cut to the exact width of the back, and another to that of the head; a piece of thin reglet being used for each, marked with the name of the work, and with the words, “back,” and “head;” a hole may be made in each piece that they may be tied together, so as to hang them upon a nail driven into some part of the frame; and a fresh sheet should never be imposed without trying the margin before it is locked-up. I am aware this is being more particular than is the general custom; but, if a compositor adopt the method, he will find that it will not take more than a minute of additional time, and will eventually be a saving by preventing mistakes, and he will thus send each sheet to press in a workmanlike manner.
The pressmen require a gauge in all folio works, in order to keep the head lines of the pages of each sheet precisely at the same distance from the edge of the paper. This head margin is determined by the overseer, or master printer, when the first sheet goes to press; the pressman should then cut his gauge, mark it with the name of the work, and keep it in some secure place, to lay the succeeding sheets on by, so that the work may have a uniform head margin, which, as the bookbinder always makes the head lines range, will prevent the book being reduced in size by cutting, an object of serious consideration in a library.
+ plus, or more, the sign of addition; signifying that the numbers or quantities between which it is placed are to be added together.
- minus, or less, the sign of subtraction; signifying that the latter of the two quantities between which it is placed is to be taken from the former.
∼ denotes the difference of two quantities when it is not known which is the greater.
× into, the sign of multiplication; signifying that the quantities between which it is placed are to be multiplied together.
÷ by, the sign of division; signifying that the former of the two quantities between which it is placed is to be divided by the latter.
: as, or to, :: so is, the sign of an equality of ratios; signifying that the quantities between which they are placed are proportional to each other.
= equal to, the sign of equality; signifying that the quantities between which it is placed are equal to each other.
√ the radical sign; signifying that the quantity before which it is placed is to have some root of it extracted.—Bonnycastle’s Geometry. 12mo. 1823.265
Formerly used to denote equal to, but is become obsolete.
∆ Triangle; as ∆ ABC = ∆ ADC.
∠ An angle.
or >, greater than.
or <, lesser than.
—: The differences, or excess.
“It is generally admitted, that the ancient Germans had not the use of letters, before their intercourse with the Romans; the testimony of Tacitus is decisive on this subject. ‘Literarum secreta viri 266 pariter ac fœminæ ignorant.’ Hence we conclude, that the Teutons, who anciently inhabited the neighbouring coast, and islands of the Baltic Sea, had no letters, till their descendants, who settled in Belgic Gaul, obtained them from the Romans. The Teutonic alphabet is evidently deduced from the Roman, and is nothing more than the Roman varied by the Germans, which, having been much deformed, was improved by Charlemagne in the ninth century, and continued till the twelfth, when this kind of writing was succeeded by the modern Gothic, which prevails in Germany, and in several of the northern countries of Europe at this time.”—Astle.
|G g||Gey, or Gay|
|S ſ s||Ess|
In addition to the characters of the preceding alphabet, the Germans make use of three, which are vowels: , expressed by the Roman character ä, and having the sound of e in where. , and in the Roman character ö, which has the sound of eu in the French heure. , having its representative in the Roman ü, and its expression in the thin u of the French in vertu.
The Germans also make use of the following double letters in printing:
“In the printed alphabet some letters are apt to be mistaken and confounded one with another. To facilitate the discrimination the difference is here pointed out.
“B and V. The latter is open in the middle, the former joined across.
“C and E. has a little horizontal stroke in the middle, projecting to the right, which has not.
“G and S. These letters, being both of a round form, are sometimes taken for one another, particularly the for the . But has an opening above, is closed, and has besides a perpendicular stroke within.
“K, N, R. K is rounded at the top, N is open in the middle, R is united about the middle.
“M and W. M is open at the bottom, W is closed.
“b and h. b is perfectly closed below, h is somewhat open, and ends at the bottom, on one side, with a hair stroke.
“f and ſ. f has a horizontal line above.
“m and w. m is entirely open at the bottom, w is partly closed.
“r and x. x has a little hair stroke below on the left.
“v and y. v is closed, y is somewhat open below, and ends with a hair stroke.”—Noehden’s German Grammar, 2d edit. 12mo. Lond. 1807.
Two-line English.—Thorowgood and Besley.
Great Primer.—Thorowgood and Besley.
Pica.—Caslon and Livermore.
Long Primer.—Caslon and Livermore. Thorowgood and Besley.
Brevier.—Caslon and Livermore. Thorowgood and Besley.
Brevier on Minion body.—Thorowgood and Besley.
Nonpareil.—Thorowgood and Besley.
German Text, ornamented.—V. and J. Figgins.
Great Primer, Brevier on Minion body, and Nonpareil. These matrices are from the foundery of Brestkopff and Hartel, of Leipsig.
|X||Æ||h||m||i||n||o||q||,||Hair Spaces.||Thick Spaces.|
The lower case shows two “s”. One of the two is probably meant for long s (ſ). The two ampersands are not explained; one of the two may be the fraktur ampersand, which has a different form.
Matter is got in in a line, page, sheet, or book, if letter be thinner cast than the printed copy the compositor sets by. Or matter is got in if the compositor sets closer: or if he widens his measure; or puts more lines in a page.—M. Also if copy makes less than it was calculated to do, they say, it gets in. See Drive Out.
Are thongs of leather, cut out of the back of an horse hide, or a bull’s hide, sometimes an hog’s hide. They are about an inch and an half, or an inch and three quarters broad. Two of them are used to carry the carriage out and in.—M. They are sometimes made of Girthweb.
Mr. T. C. Hansard, in his patent for the improvement of presses, &c., enumerates “Girths,” of which he says,—“The girths I form of lines made of any close-formed strong material or substance, but round or narrow, and I particularly prefer cat-gut of about one inch in circumference. Such lines I arrange in pairs, one pair to run the table in, the other pair to run it out; applying them to the wheel after the manner of leather or web girths; except that such lines I place with a small degree of obliquity from either end of the table to the wheel, so that in winding round no one coil shall touch or interfere with the other, but take a spiral direction, one pair giving place by being wound off the wheel as the table is run in or out, to the other pair, which by being then wound round the wheel, causes the table to traverse in the given direction. By these means the rounce or handle will be, in every position or turn of the wheel, equally tight, and no friction or adhesion of the lines can ever take place.”
See Exercising the Pelt.268
When the warehouseman delivers paper to the pressmen, or to the person appointed to wet it, for printing on, it is said, he has given out paper for such a job, or such a sheet of a work.
Paper, for printing on, is received in three different ways from the stationer.
The first and most general way is what is termed Perfect Paper; that is, each ream consists of twenty-one quires and a half, making 516 sheets, which enables the printer to deliver full count, and allows for spoiling sheets, which unavoidably happens in wetting, in printing-off, and in the warehouse department.
The second is Imperfect Paper; that is, each ream consists of twenty good quires, (termed inside quires,) making 480 sheets; but it is given out to wet for bookwork as perfect paper.
The third is News Paper, which consists of twenty quires of twenty-five sheets each to the ream, making 500 sheets.
Newspaper stamps are always received, given out to wet, and delivered, by the net number, and require great care on the part of the warehouseman and pressmen to prevent waste, as the master printer is responsible for the deficiency.
Paper with outside quires is very rarely sent in to the printer; when it does happen, the warehouseman should look over the outside quires, take out the torn and damaged sheets, and give out as perfect paper: but, perhaps, the best way is to put aside these quires, and return them to the employer, as every sheet is more or less damaged.
The following Tables will be found useful, as they will enable the warehouseman to give out paper with facility and correctness for bookwork, and for jobs, where the numbers are irregular and the sizes vary; and more particularly so, as they include both perfect and imperfect paper.
Those for bookwork are arranged for the regular quantity of perfect paper, commencing with so low a number as 12, and proceeding up to 10,000.
Those for jobs include the same numbers, and are so arranged as to specify the quantity of paper to a sheet for each number, as I did not think it necessary to calculate them to the fractional part of a sheet: thus some of them are exact, and others have a surplus, which in some instances is large where there are many on a sheet; but as jobs are generally delivered without any surplus, I have thought it best to give the quantity of paper that will make the nearest specific number, so that it shall not be less, and leave the surplus to the discretion of the warehouseman, or to the custom of the house.
Where the numbers are small in bookwork, the quantity of paper given out is greater in proportion than when the numbers are larger; of course a ream will not hold out in printing five sheets of one hundred copies each, and still less in smaller numbers; for each sheet at press will require a tympan sheet; and it is more than probable that one or two more will be spoiled in making ready; and in the warehouse department a file copy must always be preserved. I notice this to remind the warehouseman to make a proper allowance in his paper account, otherwise it will appear deficient, when in reality it is not.269
21½ Quires to the
Ream; equal 516
20 Quires to the
Ream; equal 480
21½ Quires to the
Ream; equal 516
20 Quires to the
Ream; equal 480
21½ Quires to the
Ream; equal 516
20 Quires to the
Ream; equal 480
21½ Quires to the
Ream; equal 516
20 Quires to the
Ream; equal 480
21½ Quires to the
Ream; equal 516
20 Quires to the
Ream; equal 480
The tables for “Giving Out Paper—Jobs” are not shown in full. Beginning on page 273 there is page after page of this:
followed by the same information for “half sheets”, “three on a sheet”, “four on a sheet” and so on through 5, 6, 8, 9, 12, 16, 18, 20, 24, 32, 36, 40, 48, 64, 72, 96, and finally 128 on a sheet, for a total of 21 full-page tables. Think of advertising flyers, where you might print two, three or four on each sheet of copier paper; fifty sheets of paper would then yield 100, 150 or 200 flyers. (128 to a sheet, this book’s limit, is most likely an 8×16 grid. This works out to anywhere between a postage stamp and a business card, depending on the size of your original paper. There will be a long article on Paper Sizes further along.)
The head of each table says how many pages to a sheet. The number under “No.” is the number of pages you want to print, ranging from 12 through 10000. Target number ÷ pages per sheet = number of sheets required. That’s all. The “Total Number...” shows the actual number of pages you’ll get from this many sheets.
Large numbers of sheets are converted to reams and quires in the same way that you’d convert large numbers of pennies into pounds and shillings. (Predictably, paper has long since become decimalized. A ream is now an even 500 sheets.) The two sets of figures—“17 9 12” vs. “18 15 0”, “19 8 4” vs. “20 16 16”—reflect the difference between “Perfect” and “Imperfect” paper. The terms are explained at the beginning of the article. It has nothing to do with paper quality, only with the number of sheets in a ream: “Perfect” paper is 21½ quires to the ream, “Imperfect” is only 20. The book assumes you know that 24 sheets make a quire.
Sheet printed neither too black nor too white—M.
Printed copy, or manuscript that is written in a clear and legible hand.
Forfeitures and other chapel dues are collected for the good of the chapel, viz. to be spent as the chapel approves.—M.
is called so in a twofold sense: the master printer calls it good work when the compositors and pressmen have done their duty; and the workmen call it good work, if it be light easy work, and they have a good price for it—M.
The Scythian or Gothic tribes, descended from Magog, were the second source of European population. They entered into Europe from Asia, like the Kelts, about 680 years B.C. In the time of Herodotus they were on the Danube, and extended towards the south. In Cæsar’s time they were called Germans; and had established themselves so far to the westward as to have obliged the Kelts to withdraw from the eastern banks of the Rhine. They became known to us in later ages by the name of Goths.
From this Scythian or Gothic stock sprung the Saxons, who occupied the north-west part of Germany. We may here observe, the terms Kimmerians and Scythian are not to be considered merely as local, but as generic appellations; each of their tribes having a peculiar denomination.
As a distinctive denomination, they prefixed to Goths the name of the country they inhabited or subdued; as, the Mœso-Gothi, Scando-Gothi, Norreno-Gothi, &c. Their chief seat is reported to have been in Gothland, now a part of the Swedish dominions. The Mœso-Goths, as their name imports, were those Goths that inhabited Mœsia, on the frontiers of Thrace. The language of these Goths is not only called Mœso-Gothic, but Ulphilo-Gothic, from Ulphilas, the first bishop of the Mœso-Goths. He lived about A.D. 370, and is said to have invented the Gothic alphabet, and to have translated the whole Bible from Greek into Gothic. These Gothic characters were in use in the greater part of Europe after the destruction of the western empire. The French first adopted the Latin characters. The Spaniards, by a decree of a synod at Lyons, abolished the use of Gothic letters A.D. 1091.—Bosworth.
The ancient Goths were converted to Christianity by the Greek priests, and they probably introduced their letters with their religion, about the reign of Galienus. Towards the middle of the third century, Ascholius, Bishop of Thessalonica, and a Greek priest named Audius, spread Christianity among the Goths; the former of these is much extolled by Basil the Great, and the latter by Epiphanius. The ancient Gothic alphabet consisted of sixteen letters; they are so similar to the Greek, that their derivation cannot be doubted.
Those writers are certainly mistaken, who attribute the invention of the Gothic letters to Ulphilas, Bishop of Mœsia, who lived in the fourth century. The gospels translated by him into the Gothic language, and written in ancient Gothic characters about the year 370, were formerly kept in the library of the monastery of Werden; but this MS. is now preserved in the library of Upsal, and is known among the learned, by the title of the Silver Book of Ulphilas, because it is bound in massy silver. Several editions of this MS. have been printed. See a specimen of it in Hickes’s Thesaurus, vol. i. pref. p. 8. Dr. Hickes positively disallows this translation to be Ulphil’s, but says it was made by some Teuton or German, either as old, or perhaps older than Ulphil; but 296 whether this was so or not, the characters are apparently of Greek original.—Astle.
|𐌾||G or J2|
|𐌹̈ or 𐌹||I|
1 And as n before another g.
2 As j in jour, or y in your.
3 Hw in Saxon, or wh in English. The proper sound of these letters can hardly be ascertained; but that which is given appears the most probable. Astle gives this character as Q.
4 And in middle of words sometimes c.
5 W in the beginning, and u in the middle of a word.
6 Astle says ch or x.
Pica. Caslon and Livermore. University of Oxford.
Beating from the hither towards the farther side, is in pressmen’s phrase called, “Going up the Form.”—M.
The master printer is generally styled Governor, when spoken of by the workmen in the house; as, The Governor said thus. The Governor ordered that.
The name of a type, one size larger than English, and one smaller than Paragon. See Types.297
The Greek alphabet consists of twenty-four letters, as under.
|Β β ϐ||Beta||b|
|Ε ε||Epsilon||e short|
|Η η||Eta||e long|
|Θ θ ϑ||Theta||th|
|Κ κ||Kappa||k or c|
|Ο ο||Omicron||o short|
|Π π ϖ||Pi||p|
|Σ Ϲ σ ς1||Sigma||s|
|Ω ω||Omega||o long|
1 Ϲ initial; σ, middle; ς, final.298
There are twelve diphthongs or compound vowels, viz.
Six proper—αι, αυ, ει, ευ, οι, ου; and
Six improper—ᾳ, ῃ, ῳ, ηυ, υι, ωυ. The dot below signifies that ι is subscribed.
Accents.—Accents are nothing more than small marks, which have been introduced into the language, to ascertain the pronunciation of it, and facilitate it to strangers. Wherefore the ancient Greeks, to whom it was natural, never used them, as is demonstrated from Aristotle, old inscriptions, and ancient medals. It is not an easy matter to tell, what time the practice of writing these accents first prevailed, though it is probable not till after the Romans began to be more curious of learning the Greek tongue, and to send their children to study at Athens, that is, about or a little before the time of Cicero.
Accents, by the Greeks called τόνοι, tones, are the rising or falling of the voice in pronouncing: which may be considered either separately in distinct syllables, or conjunctively in the same syllable.
Wherefore there are two sorts of accents; two simple, viz. the acute, ὀξὺς, figured thus (´), which denotes the elevation of the voice; and the grave, βαρὺς, shaped thus (`), to signify the falling or depression of the voice; and the circumflex, περισπώμενος, which was formed first of these two lines or points joined together thus (´`), and afterwards was changed into a round sort of a figure like an inverted Upsilon, thus (), but at length came to be figured like an s drawn crossway (~).—Bell’s Greek Grammar.
The acute accent raises the voice, and affects one or more of the three last syllables of a word, if it has so many.
The circumflex lengthens the sound, and affects either the last syllable of a word, or the last but one.
The grave depresses the voice, and affects the last syllable only.
There are two spirits, or breathings: the asper (‘), which the Greeks use instead of the letter H; and the lenis (’) which denotes the absence of the asper.
The apostrophe (’), marked at the head of a letter in the end of a word denotes that the vowels α, ε, ι, or ο, and sometimes the diphthongs αι or οι are cut off, the next word beginning with a vowel.
|’ Lenis.||῎ Lenis acute.||῀ Circumflex.||¨ Diæresis.|
|‘ Asper.||῍ Lenis grave.||῏ Circumflex lenis.||΅ Diæresis acute.|
|´ Acute.||῞ Asper acute.||῟ Circumflex asper.||῭ Diæresis grave.|
|` Grave.||῝ Asper grave.|
Points.—A colon in Greek is a point at the head of a letter; as (·)
An interrogation is a Latin semicolon; as (;)
All other points in Greek are the same as in Latin.
The Greeks express their Numbers by Letters, thus:
|αʹ 1||ιʹ 10||ρʹ 100||͵α 1000|
|βʹ 2||κʹ 20||σʹ 200||͵β 2000|
|γʹ 3||λʹ 30||τʹ 300||͵γ 3000|
|δʹ 4||μʹ 40||υʹ 400||͵δ 4000|
|εʹ 5||νʹ 50||φʹ 500||͵ε 5000|
|ϛʹ 6||ξʹ 60||χʹ 600||͵ι 10,000|
|ζʹ 7||οʹ 70||ψʹ 700||͵κ 20,000|
|ηʹ 8||ϖʹ 80||ωʹ 800||͵ρ 100,000|
|θʹ 9||ϟʹ 90||ϡʹ 900||͵σ 200,000|
The first of the above ranks is units, and consists of the eight first 299 letters with the character ϛ, called ἐπίσημον, which signifies 6, and is therefore ranged in the sixth place.
The second rank consists of tens, and is formed of the eight following letters with this character ϟ, , which signifies 90.
The third rank consists of hundreds, and contains eight letters with this character ϡ, σάνπι, which signifies 900.
The accent under each letter in the fourth rank signifies a thousand, and the letter itself expresses the number of thousands signified.
The letters of the three first ranks are marked with a dash on the top to distinguish them from the letters marked with an accent below.
By compounding the above letters any number may be expressed; thus, ιʹαʹ makes 11; κʹβʹ, 22; λʹγʹ, 33; ρʹδʹ, 104; ,αʹεʹ, 1005; ,αψʹοʹςʹ, 1776, &c.
Also the Greeks sometimes use these capitals instead of the numbers, of which they are the initial letters, viz. Ι. for one, because ΙΑ signifies one (being formerly used instead of μία,) Π for five, Δ for ten, Η for a hundred, Χ for a thousand, and Μ for ten thousand. And these letters may be all four times reduplicated (except Π), thus ΙΙ, 2; ΙΙΙ, 3; ΙΙΙΙ, 4; ΔΔ, 20; ΔΔΔ, 30; ΔΔΔΔ, 40, &c. So ΔΙ, 11; ΔΔΙΙ, 22; ΠΙ, 6; ΔΠ, 15, &c.
Sometimes the above initials are enclosed in a great 𐅃, and then the number is five times repeated, thus 𐅄 is five times ten or 50; and 𐅆 is 5000: but Ι is never enclosed.
Fournier, in his Manuel Typographique, gives a great number of Greek ligatures: these I have copied, with additional ones from Fertel, and others from Jones’s Greek Grammar; together they make a more complete list than any that I have met with. Fournier, speaking of the article Greek, says, We see by the multiplicity of the sorts, that the Greek character is the most extensive and complicated of all characters. The founders may not always be able to give the Greek founts thus complete in sorts; but I give the representation, because, as I have before said, the engravers who have worked upon the characters have followed the ligatures which they found in the manuscripts which they imitated. There were never any but the Greek characters engraved by Garamond for Francis the First, which have been complete in all sorts of ligatures. It is this which has obliged me to give in different lines the figures which compose this fount, in which there are still some wanting, which I have been obliged to suppress in order not to multiply them without necessity.
For the classical works in Greek the ligatures or double letters are considerably diminished. I have adopted this usage in the little fount, which contains but the figures most in use.—Fournier.
I have been induced to give this extended list of Greek ligatures, because the present taste in printing Greek is to discard them entirely, and to use a distinct character for each letter of the alphabet. Under these circumstances, should an old edition of a Greek work be put in hand as copy to be reprinted, it would be mortifying not to be able to decypher the ligatures, nor have any thing to refer to for explanation. I have myself been placed in this situation in a large house, with no person in it who could give me the necessary information, although there were some there that professed themselves good Greek scholars; neither could the editor of the work himself give me any assistance.300
|kern. α||kern. ε||kern. η||kern. ο||kern. υ||kern. ω||Thin
|κ||λ||μ||ν||ο||π||,||ρ||En quadrats.||Em quadrats.|
Double Pica.—Caslon and Livermore; cut by Martin. V. and J. Figgins. Thorowgood and Besley. University of Oxford. Wilson; Glasgow Homer.
Great Primer.—Caslon and Livermore; cut by Martin. V. and J. Figgins. Thorowgood and Besley; formerly Byddells. University of Oxford. Wilson.
English.—Caslon and Livermore. V. and J. Figgins. Thorowgood and Besley. University of Oxford. Wilson.
Pica.—Caslon and Livermore. V. and J. Figgins. Thorowgood and Besley (2). University of Oxford. Wilson.
Small Pica.—Caslon and Livermore. V. and J. Figgins. Thorowgood and Besley. Wilson.
Long Primer.—Caslon and Livermore. V. and J. Figgins. Thorowgood and Besley, late Fry’s; one fount cut from the MS. of the late Professor Porson. University of Oxford. Wilson; matrices from type cast in which the Elzevirs printed some of their editions.
Bourgeois.—Caslon and Livermore. V. and J. Figgins. Thorowgood and Besley.
Brevier.—Caslon and Livermore. V. and J. Figgins. Thorowgood and Besley. University of Oxford. Wilson.
Nonpareil.—Caslon and Livermore. V. and J. Figgins. Thorowgood and Besley.
Pearl.—Caslon and Livermore. Thorowgood and Besley; formerly Bynneman’s.
Diamond.—Caslon and Livermore. V. and J. Figgins.
Alexandrian Greek, Pica.—Thorowgood and Besley, late Fry’s; cut by Jackson, for Dr. Woide’s facsimile edition of the New Testament of the Codex Alexandrinus.
For the allowance of the duty on paper used in the printing of books in the Greek language within the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, the Universities of Scotland, and the University of Trinity College, Dublin, see Paper.
this character ϟ, κὄππά
printed as shown
The Old Greek cases are shown only as page images, because they include too many unavailable characters and ligatures. Blank spaces in the New Greek case diagrams generally represent letters that are no longer in use—if they ever were—such as short vowels with circumflex accent.
There is always a groove on the upper surface of the short cross of a chase, at each end, six or seven inches long. Their use is to receive the spur, when working with points, and to allow it to make a hole in the paper, without injury to itself. The grooves in wrought iron chases are of a good form, being cut with a tool tapering to the bottom like a wedge, which enables the spur to make a clean hole in the paper; those in cast iron chases are generally flat at the bottom and too wide, which causes the holes to gull. See Gull.
See Cramp Irons.
When the points tear the point holes at press, they say, they are Gulled, or the Holes Gull. This may arise from two or three causes—if the point of the spur be turned again, it will cause it—in cast iron chases the groove to receive the spur is generally too wide, this may also cause it—and if the spur does not fall fairly into the groove, this may be another cause: the remedy is not difficult, unless the paper be very tender. In the first case, the spur ought to be filed to a smooth tapering point—in the second, it is usual to wedge a bit of reglet into the groove, to cut it down to the surface of the cross, and to make a hole in it with a bodkin for the reception of the spur—in the last, it is necessary that the spur fall fairly into the groove. If the fault arises from the bluntness and thickness of the spurs, they must be filed smaller and to a point.
Gutter Sticks are used to set between pages on either 308 side the crosses; they are made of an equal thickness their whole length; but they have a groove, or gutter, laid on the upper side of them, as well that the water may drain away when the form is washed or rinsed, as that they should not print, when, through the tenderness of the tympan, the platen presses it and the paper lower than ordinary.—M. We now mean by the term Gutter, the piece of furniture that separates two adjoining pages in a chase, as in an octavo that between pages 1 and 16, in a duodecimo that between pages 1 and 24, and so on. The pieces that are put at the sides of the pages next the cross, are called Backs; and those at the tops of the pages next the cross, are called Heads. I would recommend that the gutters should be cut a little longer than the page, the heads for each quarter being in two pieces, so that the gutter may be between them; one head will thus project a little over the sidestick, and will form an abutment for it, while the other will project a little over the back; by this method there will be no danger of any of them binding, and the gutters will answer for pages of different lengths.
Earl Stanhope says, “The best burnt gypsum mixes up most conveniently, for stereotyping, in the proportion of seven parts of water to nine parts of gypsum.”
seven parts of water to nine parts of gypsum.”
close quote missing
When but one man works at a press, it is called Half a Press.—M. It is still termed a Half Press. A man is said to be working Half Press.
He that works but three days in the week, does but Half work.—M.
See Letter Hangs.—M.
To hang the sheets upon the poles to dry after they have been printed.
For this purpose the warehouseman takes the peel in his hand, and lays it flat upon the heap that is to be hung up, so as to let the paper project beyond the left side of it; he turns over upon it from six to twelve or fourteen sheets of paper, with the wrapper, and then moves the peel two or three inches to the left, and goes on repeating the process, till he has got as many lifts on it as it will conveniently support; he then raises them above the pole on which they are to be placed, and holding the handle slanting the sheets open at the under side, so that when the peel is withdrawn the lifts are left suspended on the pole; he then inserts the end of the peel between the first and second lifts, which are undermost, where he shifted his peel in taking them up, lifts them a little, and moves them farther from each other on the pole, still letting the one overhang a little the other he leaves in its first place, and thus he proceeds till one by one he has separated all he had upon his peel; he then takes another peelful, repeating this process, and so he goes on till the whole heap is hung up.
He is guided by circumstances as to the number of sheets he should take in a lift: if the work is in a great hurry, or his vacant poles are not in a favourable situation for drying, or the weather be rainy and the atmosphere charged with moisture, he will hang the paper up thin; but if he is short of pole-room, and the work is not in a great hurry, if the situation is favourable for drying, and the weather dry and warm, he will make his lifts thicker; but I would caution him not to go to an 309 extreme, as in that case the paper may mildew upon the poles, particularly in the fold.
Houses of extensive business have drying rooms fitted up with pipes, and heated either with steam or hot water, so that they can dry their printed paper expeditiously, without hinderance or drawback.
To tie the platen to the hose hooks, in a wooden press.
To perform this it is usual to lay on the press stone a form of solid type, and to turn the tympans down upon it, to place the platen in its place, square with the press, to pull the bar home, and to keep it in this situation by a letter board placed so as to take a bearing against the shoulder of the bar close to the handle, and also against the off cheek; but I prefer a piece of wide furniture with a notch cut in one end for the bar, and the other end against the off cheek, as it is more secure and less liable to be displaced; then to make a noose on a piece of laid cord, place this on one of the front hose hooks, and take a turn round the corresponding platen hooks, and continue these turns till a sufficient quantity of cord is wound round the hooks; take a hitch round one of the hooks to prevent the cord slipping, then begin to wind the cord round these layers, every two or three turns drawing it tight by taking a turn round a short piece of broad or narrow furniture, by means of which it may be drawn more forcibly, so as to bring the parts together, which makes it so firm that there is no danger of its giving way; the end may then be fastened to one of the hooks. The same process is repeated at the opposite angle, behind the press; then at the two other angles; the platen is then firmly hung, and is ready for work.
The same process is observed in iron presses, with the exception that the platen is not tied with cord; it is attached to the press by means of screws.
When there is too much pull in working at press, particularly with engravings, and the lines come off strong which ought to be light and delicate, it is said the impression is hard.
Ink very well boiled.—M. It is now called strong ink.
If a compositor fills his stick very stiff with letters or spaces, they say it is hard justified.—M.
In justifying the head of a press for a short pull, which is done by putting solid blocks of wood into the mortises of the cheeks, it is called an Hard Pull.—M. This relates to wooden presses; but, instead of the blocks of wood, scaleboard is now used, additional pieces of which are put into the mortises, by lowering the head, which is again tightly screwed up: in the Stanhope Press, and in Clymer’s, it is accomplished by shortening the coupling bar, by means of a screw; in Cogger’s press, by a screw through the head; and in Cope’s press, by putting pieces of plate iron upon the crown of the platen. In Sherwin and Cope’s Imperial press, by turning a screw attached to a wedge placed in the front, above the spindle; Mr. Hopkinson has adopted the same method in Cope’s press, placed on the near side.
With compositors, ill written copy, much Italick, Latin or Greek, or marginal notes, or few breaks, &c. is called Bad, Heavy, Hard Work: with pressmen, small letter and a large form is called Hard Work.—M. See Bad Work.
There has been an alteration in the mode of paying for work since Moxon’s time, which is to the advantage of the workman: foreign languages, Greek, and marginal notes are now extra charges; and the 310 Pressman has an additional price for his work, as the type decreases in size and the size of the page increases. See Prices.
That part of a wooden press in which the nut of the spindle is fixed; it has a tenon at each end which fit into long mortises in the cheeks, not tightly, but sufficiently so to prevent lateral motion; and it is suspended from the cap by two long iron bolts, which go through the head and the cap, above which are iron washers and screws by which to lower the head, or screw it up tighter. The head is usually made of elm. The whole of the pressure in the process of printing is between the head and the winter.
A thin bar of iron that connects the two sides of the tympans at the top: it is made thin, to allow it to run under the platen without impediment. The half of the frisket joints are riveted to the head band. See Frisket Joints.
Two long bolts that pass through the head and the cap, in wooden presses, with a screw at the upper end: the head of the press is supported upon the heads of the bolts, and their screw ends pass through the cap, upon which they are secured by washers and female screws that can be tightened by the fingers; these screws are for the purpose of screwing up the head, to justify the pull.
The top line of a page in which is the running title and the folio, but sometimes only a folio: the divisions and subdivisions of a work, when they are set in lines, and chapters, are also called Head Lines.
The top or beginning of a page.—M.
The first page of a work, and each page on which a new division of the subject commences, such as parts and chapters, provided they begin the page.
The same changes have taken place with regard to head pieces that I have described under the article Fac; from the beautiful drawings with which manuscripts and some of the first productions of the press were illuminated, they gradually descended to engravings on wood, which was the first step, then to cast metal ornaments, and then to the types called flowers, which were displayed in every variety of form that they were capable of, or that the ingenuity of the printer could devise; these gave place to a piece of double brass rule, that is now out of fashion; and head pieces at the present day are only spoken of as things that once existed. See Fac.
Pieces of furniture put at the head of pages when a form is imposed, to make the margin at the head of the page; they are called reglets, if they exceed not an English thick.—M. See Bolts.
So many reams or quires as are set out by the warehouse-keeper for the pressman to wet, is called a Heap; but then it is called a dry heap, till the pressman have wet it, and then it is indeed called a Heap.—M.
When paper is given out for a work, and wetted, it is called a heap, and retains that name till it is made up into books.
In gathering the printed sheets in the warehouse, all the sheets of each signature are placed upon the gathering table, arranged in their regular order, except it be a long number, and then about a bundle of each; each signature in this situation is called a heap.
When it hath its full intended number of sheets.—M. At the present time, when accidents and other causes have not reduced the surplus so much as to prevent the warehouseman from delivering the proper number.
The Chaldaic letters are derived from the ancient Hebrew or Samaritan, which are the same, or nearly so, with the old Phenicien. The prophet Ezra, is supposed to have exchanged the old Hebrew characters, for the more beautiful and commodious Chaldee, which are still in use.
Hebrew has no capitals; and therefore letters of the same shape, but of a large body, are used at the beginning of chapters and other parts of Hebrew work.
|Names.||Figure.||Similitude.||Sound or power of the letters.||Number.|
|Finals.||A spiritus lenis, or soft breathing, indicating the bare opening of the mouth, and simple emission of the voice.|
|Bheth||ב||כ ב||bh, very soft; with dagesh, בּ b hard.||2|
|Ghimel||ג||נ ג||gh, very soft; with dagesh, גּ g hard.||3|
|Dhaleth||ד||ר ך ד||dh, very soft, as in that; with dagesh, דּ d hard.||4|
|He||ה||ת ח ה||a spiritus densus, or thick, hard breathing.||5|
|Vau||ו||ן ז ו||v, or the digamma vv.||6|
|Zajin||ז||z or s between vowels, as in miser.||7|
|Hheth||ח||hh, a very hard or thick breathing, harder than ה, softer than כ, similar in sound to the Greek χ chi.||8|
|Jodh||י||ו י||i or j.||10|
|Chaph||כ||ך||c or ch, harder than ה with a dagesh, it sounds like ק k.||20|
|Samech||ס||ם ס||s, sounds like the hissing of a goose or serpent.||60|
|Ghnaiin||ע||ץ ע||sounds like the bleating of a calf in the absence of its dam.||70|
|Phe||פ||ף||ph or f; with a dagesh, פּ p.||80|
|Tzade||צ||ץ||ts, with a harder hiss than ז.||90|
|Koph||ק||k or q.||100|
|Resh||ר||r, the canine or barking letter, imitating, by the quivering of the tongue, the snarling growl of a dog.||200|
|Schin||שׁ||sch, pointed on the right, it sounds sch or sh, on the left s.||300|
|Thau||ת||th, as in thief, smith; with a dagesh תּ t, hard.||400|
Particular attention should be paid to the letters in the column “Similitude” in the Table of the Alphabet, which are liable to be mistaken, one for the other, on account of their great resemblance one to another.
The vowels properly so called are ten in number, viz.:
|Great Chirek||י ִ||ēī||Little Chirek||ִ||ĭ|
|Hholem or Cholem||וֹ||ō||Kamets Catuph, or short ( )||ָ||ŏ|
|Shurek||וּ||ū, or ōō||Kybbutz||ֻ||ŭ|
Sheva (ְ) is sounded like very short e. 1. At the beginning of a word. 2. In the middle after a long vowel, or instead of a long vowel. 3. After a companion, i.e. another (ְ). 4. Under dagesh, also under dagesh understood.
([A]) never follows ([A]) in the beginning of a word, or in the middle after a perfect syllable; but the first is changed into ([A]) ([A]) or ([A]) chiefly on account of a guttural and ר: very seldom into ([A]).
Dagesh, from the Chaldaic, he punctured, is a point in the body of a letter, and is either lene or forte.
Dagesh lene removes the aspiration from the six letters בְּגַדכְּפַת, and strengthens their pronunciation in some degree.
Dagesh forte doubles the letters in which it occurs. Regularly it follows a short vowel, and only a long one when accented.
Mappik is a point in הּ final only, but vanishes on an increase of the word.
Hebrew accents are either mere points, or lines, or circles.
Those which are mere points or dots, consist of one, or two, or three such points, and are always placed above the middle of the accented letter, thus
That consisting of
One, called rebia, ֗ב, i.e. sitting over.
Two, called royal zakeph katon, ֔ב, or, the little elevator, from its figure which is composed of upright points.
Three, called royal segolta, ֒ב, an inverted ( ֶ).
The lines are either upright, inclined, or transverse.
The upright is either solitary or with points or dots.
The solitary is either
between two words ב׀ב, termed pesick, or musical pause, and terminating a song.
or under a word
Metheg ֽב, or bridle, an euphonic accent at the beginning of a word.
Royal silluk, ב, end, which is placed before (׃) soph-pasuk, i.e. towards the end.
With points, namely
two, above the letter, royal zakeph gadhol ֕ב, the great elevator, strains the sound.
one, below the letter, royal tebhir, ֛ב, broken sound, from its figure and tone.
Inclined lines hang either above or below.
Leader pashta, ֙ב, extension, extends the voice or sound, and is placed above the last letter of the word. Subservient kadma, ֨ב, antecedent, to the leader geresh; and is placed above the penult or antepenult letter.
Leader geresh, ֜ב, expulsion, is sung with an impelled voice.
Gereshajim, ֞ב, two expellers, from the figure being doubled.
Leader tiphcha, ֖ב, fatigue, from the song, or note.
Of subservient Merca, ֥ב, lengthening out, from its lengthening out the song or note.
Merca kephula, ֦ב, a double lengthening out from its music and figure.
The transverse line is either right or curved, thus: .
The right line is placed between two words, connecting them together, thus, ב־ב, and is called maccaph, i.e. connexion.
The curved, or waved line, ֘ב, is called leader, zarka, or, the disperser, from its modulation and figure.
Circles are either entire or semi.
The entire circle is placed always above, and has a small inclined line attached to it.
Either, on the left, when it is placed at the head of the word, ֠ב, and is called leader telisha the greater, or, the great evulsion.
Or, on the right, when it is placed at the end, ֩ב, and is called subservient telisha the less.
On both together, ֟ב, called leader karne para, the horns of the heifer, from its modulation and figure.
The semicircle is either solitary or pointed.
The solitary is either angular or reflected.
The angular is
on the right
Subservient hillui, ֬ב, elevated, from the elevation of the voice.
Munach, ֣ב, placed below, from its position.
on the left
Leader jethith, ֚ב, drawing back, from its figure.
Subservient mahpach, ֤ב, inverted, also from its figure.
The reflected is
either single subservient darga, ֧ב, a degree.
or double, leader, shalsheleth, ֓ב, a chain, from its figure and modulation.
When joined with other points, it is either above or below the letter.
When above the letter it has a small line attached to it on the left, ֡ב, leader paser, the dispersor, from the diffusion of the note.
When below the letter, it is pointed either downwards, ֢ב, called royal athnach, respiration, as the voice must rest on it, and respire; or upwards, ֪ב, subservient, jerah-ben-jomo, the moon of its own day, from its figure.—Bythner’s Lyre of David, translated by the Rev. Thomas Dee, A.B. 8vo. Dublin, 1836.314
The following observations are from Buxtorf’s Hebrew Grammar:
The finals are commonly called Camnephatz. But they are excepted in four places, namely, Isaiah ix. 6. where the final Mem is in the middle of a word; Nehemiah ii. 13. where the open Mem is at the end; and Job xxxviii. 1. and xl. 6. where נ is at the end.
These seven letters are sometimes lengthened, either for the sake of elegance, or for filling out the line, which is never to be finished with a divided word.
The units are compounded with the tens and hundreds, as as יא is 11, קא is 101, and so on: but for יה is 15 is טו is 9 and 6, lest the sacred name יָהּ Jah should be profaned.—Buxtorf.
Hebrew is read from the right to the left. In composing it, the general method is to place the nick of the letter downwards, and when the points are put to the top, to turn the line and arrange those points that come under the letter, taking care to place them in the following order; if the letter has but one leg, the point must be placed immediately under that leg, but otherwise the point must be placed under the centre.
Smith, in his Printer’s Grammar, has the following observations on Hebrew; I have not been able to ascertain upon what authority his reasoning is founded, but I have ascertained the fact of the variation in the types, that he speaks of, by an examination of a Hebrew Bible.
“But we must not pronounce it a fault, if we happen to meet in some Bibles with words that begin with a letter of a much larger Body than the mean Text; nor need we be astonish’d to see words with letters in them of a much less Body than the mean Text; or wonder to see final letters used in the middle of words; for such Notes shew that they contain some particular and mystical meaning. Thus in 2 Chron. I. 1. the word Adam begins with a letter of a larger size than the rest, thereby to intimate, that Adam is the father of all Mankind. Again, in Genes. I. 1. the great Beth in the word Bereschith stands for a Monitor of the great and incomprehensible work of Creation. Contrary to the first, in Prov. XXVIII. 17. the Daleth in the word Adam is considerably less than the Letter of the main text, to signify, that whoever oppresses another openly or clandestinely, tho’ of a mean condition; or who sheds innocent blood, is not worthy to be called Man.
“Sometimes the open or common Mem stands in the room of a final one; as in Nehem. II. 13. where the word hem has an open Mem at the end, in allusion to the torn and open walls of Jerusalem, of which there is mention made; and in Es. VII. 14. where the Prophet speaks of the Conception of the Virgin Mary, the Mem in the word haalma, or Virgin, is a close or final letter, to intimate the virginity of the mother of our Saviour. Such are the peculiarities of some Jewish Rabbi’s in Bibles of their publication; of which we have instanced the above, to caution compositors not to take them for faults, if such mystical writings should come under their hands.”—Smith.
The following is the date to an Hebrew and Spanish folio Bible, printed by Proops of Amsterdam in 5522 (i.e. 1762), showing the date as usual in a sentence, the letters by which the date is computed being larger.
Rabbinical.—The language or dialect of the Rabbins is divided into two branches; one approaching nearer to the Hebrew, and the other to the Chaldee, yet each agrees with the other in many points, and both are generally used in conjunction in writing.
The letters agree with the Hebrew and Chaldee in regard to their number and power, but they differ as to the form; for although in the Talmudic text of the Holy Scriptures the Hebrew square character is used, yet in commentaries and elsewhere a rounder letter is adopted, better suited to promote facility in writing. Their points of agreement or difference are shown in the subjoined table:—
The finals are the same as in Hebrew, the forms of which they also imitate, in this manner, .
There are no lengthened letters in printed books.
See Notes and Corrections for the use of [A] in this section.
The two letters [A] and [A] are often connected by the Rabbins in this manner, [A]; as, [A] for הָאֵל Deus, [A] for אֶלָּא sed.
It is also to be remarked that they write the name of God in different ways; namely, the Tetragrammaton, or [A] with the Targumists, or [A], or [A] and abbreviated [A], nomen illud, i.e. the most excellent; but in expressing the word [A], they change the letter [A] into [A] or [A], thus, [A] or [A], which agrees with a general superstition of the Jews.
The vowel points are the same as in the Hebrew, but they are rarely expressed, except in books written for the use of students. When they are wanting, they must be gathered from analogy, in which much assistance may be gained from the frequent use and study of the Hebrew; but where conjecture may be difficult, the three letters , which are called the mothers of reading, are used in order to assist the reader. Thus (1.) [A] denotes Kamets in [A] turpitudo, [A] confessum, [A] redemit eos, &c; (2.) Vau denotes Cholem, Kybbutz, and Kametscatuph; as, [A] vocare, [A] visitans; [A] for כֻלָּם omnes illi, [A] for כְהֻנָּה sacerdotium, [A] for לְפָתְּרוֹ ad explicandum illud, &c; (3.) Jod denotes Chirek, Tseri, Segol, and occasionally in the Talmud both simple and compound Sheva; as, [A] precatio, 316 [A] annunciavit, [A] perdidit; also [A] for פֵרוּש explicatio, [A] for אֵלַי ad me, [A] for שֵׁנִי secundus, [A] for בֵּהּ in eo, [A] for בְרֵהּ filius ejus, and so continually to mark the feminine affix בְּרָהּ.
The rules for the vowels, and for the Sheva, both simple and compound, and also for the diphthongs, are the same as in the Hebrew and Chaldee.
[A] is often absorbed by crasis, as, [A] for מָצֵי אֲנָא possum, as if it were potens ego, [A] scio, also of the feminine by an enallage frequent in this contraction, thus in [A] and [A] for [A A] and [A A] non est. In the same manner [A] is omitted by the Jews in [A] for [A] psalmi. But many others are accustomed to be contracted in this manner by the Jews of Jerusalem, viz., [A] in [A] for [A] quasi, [A] for [A] et tu, [A] for [A] quod tu, [A] for [A] quod ego, [A] for [A] quodnam est illud; [A] in [A] for [A] illis; [A] in [A] for [A] sub; [A] in [A], [A], or [A], for [A] ante.
Apocope is frequent among the Talmudists, as, [A] for [A] domus, or [A] inter. So in the pronouns both separate and suffixed, [A] for [A] vos, [A] for [A] vos, vester, [A] for [A] illis, suis; also in the feminine, [A] for [A], [A] for [A]; and in the verbs, as, [A] for [A] docui, [A] sustulistis, [A] stans, &c.
Aphæresis also occurs, though seldom, in [A] for [A] unus, [A] for [A] ego, [A] for [A] nos, [A] for [A] dixit.
They leave the Dagesh, both lene and forte, to be collected from analogy, but where it may be difficult to guess at, as in the preterite Pihel, the letter [A] indicates the little Chirek as well as the Dagesh forte, as, [A] for כִסָּה texit; and in defectives the letter which had been thrown aside is sometimes restored, as, [A] for יִקֹם ulciscetur, from [A] ulcisci.
A point at the end of a letter generally denotes a number, as, ['A] unum, ['A] duo, ['A] tria, &c; but at the end of two or more letters it signifies a word cut off by a certain abbreviation, as, ['A] for [A] dixit, ['A] for [A] dicere, ['A] ['A] for הַשֵׁם יִתְבָרֵךְ Deus benedictus, ['A] for וְגוֹמַר et cætera, in an abrupt passage of Scripture, ['A] for וְכֻלּוֹ et totum illud, in sacred or profane use. Also ['A] for פֵרוּשׁ interpretatio, or פֵרֵשׁ interpretatus est, ['A] for [A] Rabbi, Magister, ['A] for שֶׁנִּאֱמַר quia dictum est, &c.
A double point affixed to a letter indicates either compound numbers, as, [Aʺ] 14, [AʺA] 15, [AʺA] 444; or letters taken materially, as, [AʺA] Aleph, [AʺA] Beth, [AʺA] Gimel, &c.; or lastly abbreviations by initial letters alone, denoting entire words, which is called [A A]; the number of these is very great, as [AʺA], that is, ([A]) [A A A] si voluerit (or juverit) Deus, אִם כֵן si sic, si verum est, [AʺA] for אַף עַל פִי שֶׁ etsi, quanquam, [AʺA] or [AʺA] for [A A] or [A A A] Deus benedictus, Deus sanctus benedictus; [AʺA] for [A A] Deus benedictus, [AʺA] for [A A] memoria ejus sit in benedictione, or in the plural number [A A] memoria eorum sit in benedictione; [AʺA] for [A A] parce et pax sit, that is, absit; [AʺA] for [A A] sunt qui dicunt; [AʺA] for [A A] sunt qui interpretentur; [Aʺ] for יֵשׁ לוֹמַר est dicere, respondendum est; ['A] for 317 [A A A] custodiat eum petra ejus, et redemptor ejus; [AʺA] for [A A] sed, nisi; [AʺA] for [A] tantopere; [AʺA] for כִּי אִם omnibus modis; [AʺA] for [A] quantò magis, quantò minus; [AʺA] for לְשֵׁם שָׁמַיִם in honorem Dei; [AʺA] for [A] nihilominus, tamen; [AʺA] for [A A] more, in modum; [AʺA] for עַל דֶרֶךְ super quo pax, [AʺA] for [A A] cultus alienus, idololatria; [AʺA] for [A A] ad formam, modum; [AʺA] for עַל צַד ad latus, juxta; [AʺA] for [A A] expositio alia; [AʺA] for [A A] vult dicere. Also [AʺA] Rabbi Aben-Ezra, [AʺA] Rabbi David Kimchi, [AʺA] Rabbi Levi Ben Gerson, [AʺA] Rabbi Moses Ben Maiemon, [AʺA] Rabbi Salomon Iarchi, or Isaac, &c., which are also read abbreviated, and, as it were, figuratively, Raba, Radak, Ralbag, Rambam, Raschi, &c.
Accents are omitted in Rabbinical books; but in pronouncing words the Hebrew accent is transposed from the last syllable to the penultimate, thus, they read [A A A] Beréschith bóro Elóhim, [A A] aúlom hábbo; for Vau Cholem is generally pronounced as the diphthong au, and the vowel Kamets as an o.
There are also certain marks of distinction, by which the perfect sense of a sentence is shown; for an imperfect sentence is not pointed off, and often not even a perfect one. But for this purpose there is used, either two perpendicular points, like the Soph-pasuk in Hebrew, but which appears rarely, and indeed not at all in some books; or a single point at the top of the letter similar to the Greek colon; or lastly, a down stroke, either straight, or oblique like the Greek acute accent, which, although the most frequently used, is yet often neglected.
The purer Rabbins commonly use Hebrew words, but they have also some words peculiar to themselves, which are either borrowed from other languages, as, for example, from the Chaldee, אִילָן arbor, חָזַר fortuna, [A] rediit, &c.; from the Greek, [A], גַדָּא [A], aër, [A] [A], signum, [A], [A], donum, [A], [A], idiota, [A], [A], [A] apertè, palàm, &c.; from the Latin, [A] hospes and hospitium, [A] and [A] palatium, &c.; and even from the Hebrew, but in a Syro-Chaldaic signification, as, [A] rependit, ultus est, [A] sustulit, [A] volavit, [A] destruxit, &c., or taken evidently in a new sense, as, [A] hæreticus, [A] argumentando objecit. Also these three, [A] cœlum, [A] locus, and [A] fortitudo, are often put for Deus, God.
[A], from the full particle קָא, prefixed to words expletively, and without any increase of signification, seems to be numbered with the serviles by the Talmudists, and which the more vulgar Rabbins, as Rabbi Lipman and the like, who are careless of a correct style, also imitate, as, [A] qui dixit, [A] [A] [A] quid fecit Moses? [A] [A] [A] [A] non introduxerunt eum, &c.
The preceding observations are translated from a small treatise intituled “Synopsis Institutionum Rabbinicarum,” by George Otho, Professor of the Greek and Oriental languages at the University of Marburg in Hesse, and who acknowledges to having derived his information from Cellarius, Buxtorf, and Hackspan; and bound in connexion with the “Fundamenta Punctationis Linguæ Sanctæ,” of Jacob Alting, printed at Frankfort-on-the-Maine, 2 vols. 1717.318
In the above plans the Hebrew Cases nearly resemble those of the English now in use. The alphabets have been classified and arranged so as to facilitate the composing of it; that is, the three different dotted alphabets in the upper case are quite distinct from each other, being separated by a thicker partition, to lead the eye of the compositor to it with greater certainty. The alphabet, with the dot over the letter, appears first in order, or left hand side of the case; the second alphabet, with the dot in the middle of the letter, under that of the first; and the third alphabet, with the dot over and in the middle of the letter, in the small capital, or right hand side of the case; and underneath, the points and accents required in composing Hebrew with points.
The lower case letters are also arranged as near to the English plan as is possible: the א (a) in the a box; the ב (b) in the b box, &c. so that the compositor can go from a pair of English cases to the Hebrew ones with very little perplexity, and a great saving of time, instead of looking over a wide surface of three cases, as is now the case, without any classification or arrangement whatever.
In composing Hebrew without points the lower case only is required, as the final letters and broad letters are brought into it, and quite under the hand of the compositor, which is desirable.
Two Line Great Primer. Caslon and Livermore. Thorowgood and Besley. Oxford.
Two Line Great Primer, with Points. Thorowgood and Besley.
Two Line English. Caslon and Livermore. Thorowgood and Besley. Wilson.
Two Line English, with Points. Thorowgood and Besley.
Double Pica. Caslon and Livermore. Thorowgood and Besley. Wilson.
Double Pica, with Points. Thorowgood and Besley.
Great Primer. Caslon and Livermore. Wilson.
Great Primer, with Points. Caslon and Livermore.
English. Caslon and Livermore. Thorowgood and Besley, formerly Bynneman’s. Oxford. Wilson.
English, with Points. Caslon and Livermore. Thorowgood and Besley. V. and J. Figgins. Wilson; this was cut after the classical and elegant type of Attias, for Mr. John Wertheimer of Leman Street, and is employed in printing the prayers of the Sphardim, edited by the Rev. D. A. De Sola. It may be cast on any body from English to Bourgeois.
Pica. Caslon and Livermore. Thorowgood and Besley. V. and J. Figgins. Wilson.
Pica, with Points. Caslon and Livermore.
Small Pica. Caslon and Livermore. Thorowgood and Besley, formerly Bynneman’s. V. and J. Figgins. Wilson.
Small Pica, with Points. V. and J. Figgins. This fount of Hebrew was cut for Bagster’s Polyglot Bible.
Long Primer. Caslon and Livermore. Thorowgood and Besley, formerly Bynneman’s. V. and J. Figgins. Oxford. Wilson.
Bourgeois. Caslon and Livermore. Thorowgood and Besley.
Brevier. Caslon and Livermore. Thorowgood and Besley, formerly Bynneman’s. Wilson.
Nonpareil. Caslon and Livermore; with points it is equal to a Long Primer body. V. and J. Figgins. Wilson.321
Small Pica, Rabbinical. Thorowgood and Besley, formerly Bynneman’s.
Brevier, Rabbinical. Thorowgood and Besley, formerly Bynneman’s.
Nonpareil, Rabbinical. Thorowgood and Besley, formerly Bynneman’s.
The Rabbinical section uses a slightly different Hebrew font; it seemed best to render it only as illustrations. In the text, Hebrew letters are shown as [A] in brackets.
the old Phenicien.
[Reading between the lines, the author’s source for this passage is another French authority.]
With points, namely / two / one
[Further reading between the lines suggests that this passage started out as a table laid out for a right-to-left language.]
These seven letters
[Although you don’t often see the wildly elongated mems and samechs of past centuries, six of the seven letters (along with ﬠ and ﬢ and ﬤ) can be found in Unicode as “Alphabetic Presentation Forms”: ﬨ ﬧ ﬦ ﬥ ﬣ ﬡ.]
peculiarities of some Jewish Rabbi’s
apostrophe in the original
The colours of the escutcheon, or of its ordinaries and charges, are:—
|Yellow||(the heraldic name of which is)||Or.|
|Dark Blood-red, inclining to purple||”||Sanguine or Murrey, from mulberry.|
The two first being ordinarily represented by gold and silver, are called metals, and named by heralds after the French.
The two last are rarely seen in English coats of arms. The heraldic colours are usually estimated as five,—red, blue, black, green, purple.
Two upright posts mortised and tenoned into the feet at the back of the wooden press; two rails connect these posts behind; and two rails on the off side and two on the near side connect them with the cheeks, by mortises and tenons; on the top rails a thin deal covering is laid loose, that it may be lifted off, to allow access to the long ribs, and to hang the platen when necessary; it prevents dirt and other matter from falling on the ribs, and serves for a temporary shelf. The ink block is attached to the near rails.
Same as Near Cheek, which see.
for Stereotype Risers. See Risers.
These terms are applicable to the quires of white paper, to wrought-off heaps, to gathered books, and to sorts of letter, &c. If quires of white paper have twenty-five sheets apiece in them, they say, the paper holds out five and twenties. Of wrought-off heaps, the heap that comes off first in gathering is said not to hold out. Of gathered books, if the intended number of perfect books are gathered, they say the impression holds out: but if the intended number of perfect books cannot be gathered off the heaps, they say the impression holds not out. And so for sorts of letter, either when it is in the founding house, or in the printing house.—M. There is no paper at the present day with twenty-five sheets in a quire, except that used for newspapers, on account of the stamps.
By a Hole, in printers dialect, is meant and understood a place where private printing is used, viz. the printing of unlicensed books, or printing of other men’s copies. Many printers for lucre of gain have gone into Holes, and then their chief care is to get a Hole private, and workmen trusty and cunning to conceal the Hole, and themselves.—M.
See Ancient Customs.
This is a term used at Press, and means that the bar of the press is pulled over till it touches the near cheek; it is then said the bar is home, or it is cheeked. See Cheek the Bar.
In poetry it occasionally happens that a line will not come into the measure, in which case, when it is not allowed to turn a line, 322 if it be possible to avoid it, a syllable, or a word, is taken to the end of the preceding line, or, if that be full, to the end of the following one, and enclosed in a bracket; this is termed Hooking-in.
See Tympan Hooks.
The Albion Press. See Cope’s Press.
—Form or bench pressmen set the heaps of paper on. See also Ancient Customs.—M. In Moxon’s time it appears the pressmen used what was then called a Horse, only, for the paper when working, which we now call a Bank; we have in addition what is termed a horse, set upon the bank; this horse is made sloping down to the fore edge, and the white paper is placed on it; the pressman is thus enabled to draw the sheets down with the nail of his thumb, or a piece of wood, bone, or ivory, with more facility than if it were laid horizontal, and it is more convenient to remove to the tympan, as the horse is raised near to it, and inclines in the same direction.
If any journeyman set down in his bill on Saturday night more work than he has done, that surplusage is called Horse-flesh; and he abates it in his next bill.—M. This surplusage of charge, as Moxon terms it, is now called Horse, and it is not always deducted in the next bill.
By the Act of the 13th of George 2. cap. 19. s. 2.
it is enacted, “That from and after the said twenty-fourth Day of June one thousand seven hundred and forty, no Plate, Prize, Sum of Money, or other Thing, shall be run for by any Horse, Mare or Gelding, or advertised, published or proclaimed to be run for by any Horse, Mare or Gelding, unless such Plate, Prize or Sum of Money shall be of the full, real and intrinsick Value of fifty Pounds, or upwards; and in case any Person or Persons shall from and after the twenty-fourth Day of June one thousand seven hundred and forty enter, start or run any Horse, Mare or Gelding, for any Plate, Prize, Sum of Money, or other Thing of less Value than fifty Pounds, or shall make, print, advertise, publish or proclaim any Advertisement or Notice of any Plate, Prize, Sum of Money, or other Thing of less Value than fifty Pounds as aforesaid, to be run for by any Horse, Mare or Gelding; every such Person or Persons so entering, starting or running such Horse, Mare or Gelding for such Plate, Prize, Sum of Money, or other Thing of less Value than fifty Pounds as aforesaid, shall forfeit and lose the Sum of two hundred Pounds, to be sued for, recovered and disposed of in such Manner as is herein after prescribed and directed; and every Person or Persons who shall make, print, publish, advertise or proclaim any Advertisement or Notice of any Plate, Prize, Sum of Money, or other Thing of less Value than fifty Pounds aforesaid, to be run for by any Horse, Mare or Gelding, shall forfeit and lose the Sum of one hundred Pounds.”
So much of the act of 13 Geo. 2. c. 19. “as relates to the Subject of Horse Racing,” was repealed by 3 Vict. c. 5. s. 1.
Two upright bars of iron that connected the garter and the hose hooks, and went through the till. There were screws at each end, by which they could tighten the platen cords, if they became slack.—M.
The hose in wooden presses is now quite different: it is a wooden case for the spindle to work in, made hollow in the inside to fit it, and to which it is connected by the garter; it is square on the outside, and passes through an opening in the till, which it should fit accurately; and is tied to the platen by means of four iron hooks, one at each bottom corner. Its uses are, to guide the platen down to the form in a horizontal position, by its passing through the till; and also to lift the platen from 323 off the form, which it does by the return of the press bar, and its connexion with the spindle by means of the garter.
Four iron hooks at the bottom corners of the hose, to which the platen is tied. They are projections from an iron belt that embraces the bottom of the hose, and stand facing the platen hooks.
Pressmen reckon their works by hours, accounting every token to an hours work: and though it be the same effectually with tokens, yet they make their prices of different work by the hour; and it passes current for a token. If two men work at the press, ten quires is an hour; if one man, five quires is an hour.—M. The quires of paper at this time always contain twenty-four sheets, at least the inside quires do, which alone are used for bookwork; and a token is ten quires eighteen sheets, which is still called an Hour, whatever the price may be: thus, if two men at a press print twelve tokens of paper in a day, they say, they have done twelve hours; and if it be fine work, at which, through the care bestowed on it, they can only print three tokens, or four tokens, they say, they do three hours, or four hours, in a day; although it takes the same time in performing that the twelve tokens did.
This press was invented and introduced to the public by Mr. Joseph Bramah, of Piccadilly, Engineer. Mr. W. Nicholson, in his Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, and the Arts, vol. 1. April, 1797, gave an account of it, with engravings, from which the following observations are extracted, which will give a brief description of this powerful machine, that is superseding the common book press with a screw in all extensive establishments.
“Its action is as follows: when the lever or pump handle is raised, it brings up the piston, which would leave a vacuum beneath if the pressure of the atmosphere did not force the water in through a side valve. The lever is then to be pressed down, which causes the side valve to shut, and forces the water through a valve at the bottom, whence it passes through a pipe into the cavity of the great cylinder, and raises the piston or pressing rammer. A repetition of the same process forces more water in, and the pressure may in this manner be carried to a great extent.
“There is no difficulty in computing the force of this instrument. If the diameter of the pump barrel be one quarter of an inch, and that of the cylinder one inch, that is to say, four quarters of an inch; one pound lodged upon the piston rod of the pump will be in equilibrio with sixteen pounds lodged upon the table of the press; the weights of the parts of the engine attached to, and moving with each piston, being respectively included. And if the length of the pump lever be fifteen inches, and the distance between the centres of motion and of action be two inches, one pound at the end of the lever will gain an advantage of 7½ times when compared with that at the piston rod. Instead, therefore, of sixteen pounds upon the table being equal in effect to counterpoise this last action, there will be required upwards of 120 pounds. But a man in this action of pumping by a downward pressure, can without difficulty apply his whole weight, and with great ease one third or one fourth of his weight, suppose 50 pounds. In this case the pressure will be equivalent to fifty times 120 pounds, or 6000 pounds, that is to say, nearly three tons.
“To compare this engine with a screw, in theory, we must enquire what fineness of thread and length of lever would afford a purchase of 120 to one. Let us suppose the thread of a screw, substituted in the place of the cylinder, to be one tenth of an inch thick; the distance from 324 the top of one thread to the top of the next will in this case be one fifth of an inch. This is the space through which the weight must rise in one revolution. The power must therefore move through 120 times that space, namely twenty-five inches; but a lever or radius four inches long will describe a circle somewhat larger than this, and consequently such an engine would in theory be equal in power to the hydraulic engine we have been contemplating.
“But when the subject is viewed practically, the difference between the two engines appears to be very remarkable. All practical men know how very large a part of the force operating by means of engines is employed in overcoming frictions. Every one is aware of the extreme friction between solids, and the very slight friction which takes place between the parts of fluids. This is seen in the common expedient of oiling the pivots of wheels, and in the very gradual decay of motion in fluid bodies; while solids moving on each other stop at once, as soon as the force is diminished to a certain degree. The screw is an organ peculiarly liable to friction, and this friction is always much greater than the whole of the reacting force; for there are few instances where a screw will return from extreme pressure, when the agency upon the lever is withdrawn. It is also to be considered, that the whole force of the weight or resistance acts directly upon the face of the screw, at which the motion is required to take place. It has not been appreciated in what degree this resistance or friction increases with the weight. In lighter actions the simple ratio has been inferred; but under more severe pressures the two metallic faces extrude the greater part of the half-fluid matter between them, and appear, by the magnitude of their resistance, to be attached to each other by a process of the nature of cohesive attraction. For these and other reasons, it appears nearly impracticable to form any comparison between two engines so different in principle, but such as shall be deduced from immediate experiment of their effects. I am not in possession of numerical data to indicate the actual power of screw-engines or presses; which are perhaps the less necessary, because those who are the most interested in the success of an improvement like the present, are for the most part able to come at these without difficulty.
“In an engine of this kind, the diameter of the great piston was four inches, and of the smaller three-eighths of an inch; and the advantage given by the lever or handle was twelve to one. Above the piston of the great cylinder was applied a long lever, at one end of which was an axis, and at the other end a large scale to hold weights; it contained twenty hundred weight. The distance between the axis of motion of this lever and the part where it acted on the piston was six inches; and the distance from the same axis to the extremity where the scale was hung was 126 inches. Every hundred weight in the scale consequently pressed upon the piston with a force equal to twenty-one hundred weight; whence the whole pressure was twenty-one tons. It was easy to work the lever briskly with one hand, and each stroke raised the scale near one-third of an inch. Forty-seven pounds hung at the end of the lever, carried it down with a moderate swiftness of working; but a weight of only forty-three pounds remained in equilibrio, and did not descend. Now, as the true weight in theory was thirty-two pounds, it follows that less than one-third of the actual power was employed to give velocity and overcome all friction.
“It may be remarked, that the principal frictions in these machines must be at the circumference of the pistons, and that these do not increase in the simple, but in less than the subduplicate, ratio of the 325 power. For if the diameter of the great cylinder were double, every thing else remaining unchanged, the surface of its piston, and consequently the power, would be quadrupled. But the friction would be only doubled, and that merely at the leathering of the greater piston.
“As the pressure in the experiment last mentioned amounted to 47·040 pounds upon the great piston of four inches in diameter, or sixteen circular inches surface, it amounted to 2940 pounds upon each round inch. But the medium pressure of the atmosphere on a round inch is near twelve pounds, consequently the action was equal to 245 atmospheres: and as each of these corresponds with a column of 34 feet of fresh water at a medium, the water in the cylinder was pressed in the same manner as if the whole column had been 8330 feet, or 1⅔ mile, long.
“Large presses of this construction are made with two pumps of 1¼ inch bore, and a cylinder of seven inches. These have been used in pressing hay and cotton for package; and, as I am informed, are effective in producing a greater condensation on the material with a much less application of moving power and consumption of time.”
The following description and figures are taken from Dr. Ure’s Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures and Mines, 8vo. 1839.
“The framing consists of two stout cast-iron plates a, b, which are strengthened by projecting ribs, not seen in the section, fig. 1. The top or crown plate b, and the base plate a, are bound most firmly together by four cylinders of the best wrought iron, c, c, which pass up through holes near the ends of the said plates, and are fast wedged in them. The flat pieces e, e, are screwed to the ends of the crown and base plates, so as to bind the columns laterally. f is the hollow cylinder of the press, which, as well as the ram g, is made of cast iron. The upper part of the cavity of the cylinder is cast narrow, but is truly and smoothly rounded at the boring-mill, so as to fit pretty closely round a well-turned ram or piston; the under part of it is left somewhat wider in the casting. A stout cup of leather, perforated in the middle, is put upon the ram, and serves as a valve to render the neck of the cylinder perfectly water-tight, by filling up the space between it and the ram; and since the mouth of the cup is turned downwards, the greater the pressure of water upwards, the more forcibly are the edges of the leather 326 valve pressed against the inside of the cylinder, and the tighter does the joint become. This was Bramah’s beautiful invention.
“Upon the top of the ram, the press-plate or table h, strengthened with projecting ridges, rests, which is commonly called the follower, because it follows the ram closely in its descent. This plate has a half-round hole at each of its four corners, corresponding to the shape of the four iron columns along which it glides in its up-and-down motions of compression and relaxation.
“k, k, figs. 1. and 2., is the framing of a force pump with a narrow barrel; i is the well for containing water to supply the pump. To spare room in the engraving, the pump is set close to the press, but it may be removed to any convenient distance by lengthening the water-pipe u, which connects the discharge of the force pump with the inside of the cylinder of the press. Fig. 3. is a section of the pump and its valves. The pump m, is of bronze; the suction-pipe n, has a conical valve with a long tail; the solid piston or plunger p, is smaller than the barrel in which it plays, and passes at its top through a stuffing-box q; r is the pressure-valve, s is the safety-valve, which, in fig. 2., is seen to be loaded with a weighted lever; t is the discharge-valve, for letting the water escape, from the cylinder beneath the ram, back into the well. See the winding passages in fig. 4. u is the tube which conveys the water from the pump into the press-cylinder. In fig. 2. two centres of motion for the pump-lever are shown. By shifting the bolt into the centre nearest the pump-rod, the mechanical advantage of the workman may be doubled. Two pumps are generally mounted in one frame for one hydraulic press; the larger to give a rapid motion to the ram at the beginning, when the resistance is small; the smaller to give a slower but more powerful impulsion, when the resistance is much increased. A pressure of 500 tons may be obtained from a well-made hydraulic press with a ten-inch ram, and a two and a one inch set of pumps.”
In a Report addressed to the Commissioners of Her Majesty’s Woods, Forests, &c., in July 1839, as the result of an inquiry with reference to the selection of stone for building the new Houses of Parliament, it is stated the experiments relating to the cohesive strength of the stones, or their resistance to pressure, were made at the manufactory of Messrs. Bramah and Robinson, with a six-inch hydraulic press, the pump of which was one inch in diameter. According to trials previously made by Messrs. Bramah and Robinson, one pound weight at the end of the pump lever produced a pressure on the face of the cube [two inches square] equal to 2·53 cwt., or to 71·06 lbs. on the square inch; from this datum it may be estimated how immense the pressure is that can be obtained by this press, when the strength of a man is exerted at the pump. I have used the common book press with an iron screw to press printed paper, and I have also used a Hydraulic press of an estimated power of eighty tons: besides the greater expedition in pumping this press up than screwing the other down, I can state from my own observation, that the hydraulic press produced as great an effect upon the paper in three hours as the screw press did in a night, or at least fourteen hours. This may show the great superiority of this press 327 over that which has been in general use in printing offices. The hydraulic press has fully accomplished in practice all that was expected from it, and has established for itself a high character, which it richly deserves.
A hyphen, marked thus (-), is employed in connecting compounded words; as, “Lap-dog, tea-pot, pre-existence, self-love, to-morrow, mother-in-law.”
It is also used when a word is divided, and the former part is written or printed at the end of one line, and the latter part at the beginning of another. In this case, it is placed at the end of the first line, not at the beginning of the second.—Murray.
The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.