Printing Dictionary



Job House




Justify the Pull

Justify a Stick

Keep In

Keep Out



Knock Up

Knock Up Balls

Knock Letter



Law Authorities

Lay Down

Lay Letter

Lay On

Lay In Sheets

Lay Out Sheets




Lean Face


Letter Board

Letter Brush

Letter Founders

Letter Hangs




Literal Errors

Literary Property

Locking Up


Long Cross

Long Primer

Loose Justifying


Low Case

Lower Case



Lye Brush

Lye Trough



See Throw.


Any thing which printed does not exceed a sheet, is termed a Job, and is paid for extra to the compositor, because there is no return of furniture or of letter: he has generally to put up fresh cases, and has some additional trouble in getting the right letter, and in making up the furniture. See Scale of Prices.


A printing office, the general run of business in which is the printing of Jobs; namely, cards, shop bills, bills for articles stolen, or lost, play bills, lottery bills, large posting bills, and all other things of a similar description. These houses seldom execute book work to any extent, as their materials, particularly with respect to types, are not calculated for it; and few houses undertake both kinds of work to any great degree. The principal job houses in London have a variety of types, both as to size and shape, such as few or no book houses ever think of laying in; consequently they are enabled to execute such work in a style superior to that in which a book house could, with regard to producing effect, and, in general, more expeditiously. Jobbing is an extensive business in London. See Book House.

Johnson, Richard.

See Donations.


When two or more compositors are employed on the same piece of work, and one of them composes all his copy, so that there is no inter­vening matter between his copy and that in the hands of another of the companions who has followed him, he says, he has joined, or, he has set up close. Also, if a compositor be on a piece of work without a companion, and from any cause he be obliged to suspend composing one part of his copy, and to proceed with a succeeding part; then, when he has been enabled to compose this inter­vening part, and has got it completed, he says, he has joined, or, he has joined his matter.


Tympan joints, and frisket joints.—M.


See Quotation Quadrats.


Spacing a line out so that it fits with a proper degree of tightness in the measure of the composing stick;—placing a wood cut in a page, and filling up the vacancies with leads, scaleboards, quadrats, quotations, or furniture, so that when the form is locked up, the wood cut shall be fast, and the lines above and below it even;—fixing any other matter in a similar way in a page.—With pressmen, putting cards into the head of a wooden press, and screwing it up until the pull be proper, is termed Justifying the Head, or Justifying the Pull. See Hard Pull.


Justifying the Head.

This amounts to the same thing as justifying the pull, which see.

Justifying Links.

See Composing.


Putting additional cards into the mortises of the cheeks of a press, or taking some out, as the case may require, in order to regulate the pull: for a small light form, the pressure requires to be comparatively slight; but for a large, solid form of small letters, it requires a heavy soaking pull to do justice to the work; in this case, additional cards are put into the mortises of the head. This refers only to the wooden press; for justifying the pull of iron presses, see under the respective articles.


viz. a composing stick. Screwing the slides of his composing stick to the measure wanted—M.



is a caution either given to, or resolved on, by the compositor, when there may be doubt of driving out his matter beyond his counting off: wherefore he sets close, to Keep in.—M.


is a caution either given to, or resolved on, by the compositor, when there may be doubt of getting in his matter too fast for his counting off: wherefore he sets wide, to drive or keep out.—M. This term is not now used; we say Drive out, which see.


Kerned letters are such as have part of their face hanging over one side or both sides of their shanks.—M.


A flat square hook, with a handle to put the fingers through in a transverse direction to the hook. Its use is to lift the forms out of the lye trough, after having brushed off the ink from the types, the furniture, and the chase.


In the warehouse, is to place the sheets of each signature of a work uniformly even at the edges upon each other, after they are taken down from the poles, and previously to their being piled away.

The person who has this to do, takes a quantity of about two quires, (if it be a stout hard paper he may take a little more,) and holding it loosely at the edges with both hands, he bends the ends a little towards him, so that the paper shall form a curve; he then lifts it up a little from the table, and lets it drop upon its edge through his hands,—the curve giving the edge a little firmness, many of the sheets drop down into their places; he repeats this two or three times, and will then, in letting it drop upon the table, bring the lower part nearer to him, so that the outside of the curve may strike first, and throw the sheets gradually up higher at the back; this he will also do two or three times; he then lets the further side rest upon the table, and shuffles the upper sheets gradually away from him, lifting the whole up, and letting the edges drop upon the table, three or four times; repeating these operations soon brings all the edges even, both at the ends and sides; he then lays this taking on one side, and repeats the operation with other takings, laying them on each other, till he has completed the whole.

A soft flimsy paper takes more time in knocking up than a hard paper, as the sheets have not strength enough separately to be driven into their places by striking on the edges.


To knock up balls is the term used for making balls: it is to cut the pelts to a proper size; to fill them with a 430 proper quantity of wool; to nail them to the ball stocks; to trim them; and to put them into a working condition. See Balls.


It sometimes happens with old letter, that a letter may be worn so low that it will not print well in a page; the workman then takes that letter out of the form, and holds the shank of it upon the side of the chase, and with the head of the shooting stick beats lightly upon the foot of the shank, till he have battered metal enough out of the shank, to raise it higher against paper; if it prove too high against paper, he rubs the bottom of the shank upon the side of the chase, to rub it down. This operation seldom happens, unless another of the same sort of letter is wanting, and hard to come by: for else the compositor will bow the letter, and pop it into a waste box in his case, where he puts all naughty letters, that he may not be troubled with them another time.—M. See Bow the Letter.


Kufic, Cufic, Cuphic, or Oriental. Ancient Arabic; it was called Cuphic, from the town of Couphah, built on the Euphrates. See Arabic.



The Latin alphabet is the same as the English, with the exception of the W, which “is a letter unknown, as to form and place, in the alphabets of the ancient Hebrews, Greeks, Romans, and Goths. This letter is peculiar to the northern languages and people, and particularly to the nations who are of Teutonic and Sclavonic original.”—Astle.

For the allowance of the duty on paper used in the printing of books in the Latin language within the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, the universities of Scotland, and the university of Trinity College, Dublin, see Paper.


with the abbreviations by which they are cited.

A. (a.) B. (b.).—A. front, B. back of a leaf.

A.; An.; Anon.—Anonymous.

A. B.—Anonymous, at the end of Bendloe’s Reports. 1661. (Cited as ‘New Bendloe.’)

Ab. Sh.—Abbot on Shipping.

Abr. Ca. Eq.—Abridgment of Cases in Equity.

Acc. or Ag. or Agr.—Accords or agrees.

Act.—Acton’s Reports.

Act. Reg.—Acta Regia.

Ad. Eject.—Adams on Ejectments.

Ad. & Ellis.—Adolphus and Ellis’s King’s Bench Reports.

Add. Eccl. Rep.—Addams’s Reports. Ecclesiastical Courts.

Al.—Aleyn’s Reports.

Alln. Part.—Allnatt on Partition.

Amb.—Ambler’s Reports in Chancery.

And. 1. 2.—Anderson’s Reports, 2 parts.

Andr.—Andrews’s Reports.

Ann.—Cases in K. B. temp. Hardwicke.

Annaly.—Reports temp. Hardwicke.


Anst.—Anstruther’s Reports.

Arch. C. P.—Archbold’s Civil Pleadings.

Arch. Cr. P.—Archbold’s Criminal Pleadings.

Arch. Crim. Pl. & Ev.—Archbold’s Criminal Pleadings and Evidence.

Arch. K. B.—Archbold’s K. B. Practice.

Arch. P. C.—Archbold’s Pleas of the Crown.

Ash. Ch., or Ov.—Ashdowne’s Church-warden and Overseer.

Ass., or Lib. Ass.—Liber Assisarum, or Pleas of the Crown.

Ast. Ent.—Aston’s Entries.

Atk.—Atkyns’s Reports in Chancery.

Ath. P. T.—Atkyns’s Parliamentary Tracts.

Ayl.—Ayliffe’s Parergon.

B., or C. B.—Common Bench.

B. & A.; B. & Ald.—Barnewall and Alderson’s Reports. King’s Bench.

B. & Ad.; Barn. & Adol.—Barnewall and Adolphus’s Reports. King’s Bench.

B. & C.; B. & Cr. (K. B.); Barn. & C.; Barn. & Cres.—Barnewall and Cresswell’s Reports. King’s Bench.

B. C. C.; Br. Ch. Rep.; Bro. C. C.—Brown’s Chancery Cases.


B. Eccl. L.; Burn’s Eccl. L.—Burn’s Ecclesiastical Law.

B. Just.—Burn’s Justice.

B. M.—Montagu’s Digest of the New Decisions in Bankruptcy.

B. N. C.—Brooke’s New Cases.

B. & P., or Boss. & Pull.—Bosanquet and Puller’s Reports.

B. R.—Banco Regis. King’s Bench.

B. Tr.—Bishop’s Trial.

Ba. & Be.; Ball & B.—Ball and Beatty’s Reports in Chancery in Ireland.

Bac. Abr.—Bacon’s Abridgment.

Banc. Sup.—Upper Bench.

Barl.—Barlow’s Justice.

Barn. K. B.—Barnardiston’s K. B. Reports.

Barn. C.—Barnardiston’s Chancery Reports.

Barnes.—Barnes’s Notes of Practice.

Barringt.—Barrington’s Observations on the Statutes.

Bart. El.—Barton’s Elements.

Bart. Prec.—Barton’s Precedents.

Bayl.—Bayley on Bills.

Bea. Co.—Beames’s Costs in Equity.

Bea. Pl. Eq.—Beames’s Pleas in Equity.

Benl.; Bendl.—Benloe, or Bendloe’s Reports.

Bing.—Bingham’s Reports. Common Pleas.

Bing. N. S.—Bingham’s New Reports in the Common Pleas.

Bingh. P.—P. Bingham’s Law and Practice of Judgment and Execution.

Black.—Blackerby’s Justice.

Bla. Com.—Blackstone’s Commentaries.

Black. (H.)—Henry Blackstone’s Reports.

W. Black.; Black. Rep.—Sir W. Blackstone’s Reports.


Bli.—Bligh’s Reports.

Bo. R. Act.—Booth’s Real Actions.

Bos. & Pul.—Bosanquet and Puller’s Reports. Common Pleas.

Bosc.—Boscawen on Convictions.

Bott.—Bott’s Poor Laws.

Bott. cont.—Bott’s Poor Laws continued to Hil. T. 1814.

Br.; Bro.—Brooke, Brown, Brownlow.

Br. Ab.—Brooke’s Abridgment.

Br. Brev. Jud. & Ent.—Brownlow’s Brevia Judicial, &c.

Br. Ch. Rep.—Brown’s Reports in Chancery.

Bra.—Brady or Bracton.

Bradby.—Bradby on Distresses.

Bridg.—Bridgman’s Reports on Conveyancing.

Bridg. (Sir O. R.)—Bridgman’s Reports, by Bannister.

Brod. & Bing.—Broderip and Bingham’s Reports. C. P.

Bro.—Brown’s Chancery Cases.

Bro., Brow. Ent.—Brown’s Entries.

Bro. A. C. L.—Browne’s Admiralty Civil Law.

Bro. P. C.—Brown’s Parliamentary Cases.

Bro. V. M.—Brown’s Vade Mecum.

Brown C. C.—Brown’s Chancery Reports.

Brownl. 1. 2.—Brownlow and Goldesborough’s Reports, 2 parts.

Brownl. Rediv. or Ent.—Brownlow’s Redivivus.

Buck.—Buck’s Reports in Bankruptcy.

Bul. N. P.—Buller’s Nisi Prius.

Bulst.—Bulstrode’s Reports. K. B.

Bunb.—Bunbury’s Reports. Exchequer.

Burr.—Burrow’s Reports.

Bur. S. C.—Burrow’s Settlement Cases.

Byth. Prec.—Bythewood’s Precedents.

C., or Cod., or Cod. Jur.—Codex (Juris Civilis) Gibson’s.

Ca.—Case or Placita.

Ca. P. or Parl.—Cases in Parliament.

C. B., or C. P.—Common Pleas.

C. C.; Ch. Ca.—Chancery Cases.

C. C. R.—Russell and Ryan’s Crown Cases reserved.

C. & P.; Car. & P. Rep.; Car. & P.—Carrington’s and Payne’s Reports at Nisi Prius.

C. P.—Common Pleas.

C. R.—Court of Review.

Ca. T. K.—Select Cases tempore King.

Ca. temp. H.; Cas. temp. Hardw.—Cases tempore Hardwicke, in King’s Bench.

Cal.—Callis, Calthorpe.

Cald. R.—Caldecott’s Reports of Settlement Cases.

Cald. S. C.—Caldecott’s Settlement Cases.

Caldw. Arbit.—Caldwell on Arbitration.

Caldw. P. L.—Caldwell’s Poor Laws.

Calth.—Calthorpe’s Reports.

Camp.—Campbell’s Reports. Nisi Prius.

Can.—Canons of the Church, made in 1603.

Car. & P. Rep.; Carr. & P.—Carrington and Payne’s Reports. Nisi Prius.

Cart.—Carter’s Reports.

Carth.—Carthew’s Reports, K. B.

Cary.—Cary’s Reports.

Cas. B. R.—Cases tempore W. III.

Cas. L. Eq.—Cases in Law and Equity.

Cas. Pra. C. P.—Cases of Practice Common Pleas.

Cas. temp. Talb.—Cases tempore Lord Chancellor Talbot.


Ch. Ca.—Chancery Cases.

Ch. Pre.—Precedents in Chancery.

Ch. R.—Reports in Chancery.

Chamb. Est.—Chambers’s Estates and Tenures.

Chamb. Lea.—Chambers on Leases.


Chamb. T. L.—Chambers’s Tenant Law.

Chitt. Com. L.—Chitty’s Commercial Law.

Chitt. Crim. L.—Chitty’s Criminal Law.

Chitty’s G. L.—Chitty on the Game Laws, &c.

Chitt. Pre.—Chitty’s Prerogative.

Chitty’s R. M.—Chitty on the Rights of Manors.

Chitt. Rep.—Chitty’s Reports.

Chris. B. L.—Christian’s Bankrupt Laws.

Christian’s G. L.—Christian on the Game Laws.

Cl. & Fin.—Clarke and Finnelly.

Clap. Sess. L.—Clapham’s Points of Sessions Law. 1818.

Clay.—Clayton’s Reports.

Cl. Ass.—Clerk’s Assistant.

Clift.—Clift’s Entries.

Co.—Coke’s Reports.

Co. B. L.—Cooke’s Bankrupt Laws. Cole on the English Bankrupt Laws.

Co. Cop.—Coke’s Copyholder.

Co. Ent.—Coke’s Entries.

Co. Lit.—Coke on Littleton (1st Institute).

Co. M. C.—Coke’s Magna Charta (2d Institute).

Co. P. C.—Coke’s Pleas of the Crown (3d Institute).

Co. on Courts.—Coke’s (4th Institute).

Code Nap.—Code Napoleon.

Coke’s Inst.—Coke, 2d, 3d, and 4th Parts of the Institutes of the Laws of England.

Com.—Comyn’s Reports.

Com. T. L.—Comyn’s Tenant Law.

Com. Con.—Comyn on Contracts.

Com. Dig.—Comyn’s Digest.

Com. Par. Off.—Complete Parish Officer.

Comb.—Comberbach’s Reports.


Coo. Eq. P.—Cooper’s Equity Pleading.

Coo. Mort.—Coote on Mortgages.

Coo. Rep.; Cooper.—Cooper’s Reports.

Coo. T. L.—Coote’s Tenant Law.

Cooke’s B. L.—Cooke’s Bankrupt Laws.

Con. Rep.—Consistory Reports, by Haggard.


Cot. Ab. R.—Cotton’s Abridgment of Records.

Cov. Rec.—Coventry on Recoveries.

Cowp.—Cowper’s Reports.

Cox.—Cox’s Cases in Equity.

Cr. & Jer.; Cromp. & Jerv.—Crompton and Jervis’s Exchequer Reports.

Cro.—Keilwey’s Reports, by Croke.

Cro. Cir. C.—Crown Circuit Companion.

Cro. Mee. & R.; Cromp. Mees. & Rosc.—Crompton, Meeson, and Roscoe’s Exchequer Reports.

Cro. Car.—Croke’s Reports temp. Chas.

Cro. 1, 2, 3.—Croke’s Reports. (Eliz. Jam. Cha.)

Cro. Eliz.—Croke’s Reports temp. Elizabeth.

Cro. Jac.—Croke’s Reports temp. James.

Cromp. J. C.—Crompton’s Jurisdictions of Courts.

Cromp.—Crompton’s Justice of the Peace.

Cromp. & Mees.—Crompton and Meeson’s Exchequer Reports.

Cun.—Cunningham’s Reports.

Cro. sometimes refers to Keilwey’s Reports, published by Serjt. Croke.

Curt.—Curteis’s Ecclesiastical Reports.

D.—Dictum, Digest (Juris Civilis).

D. & C.—Deacon and Chitty’s Reports in Cases of Bankruptcy.

D. & R.; Dowl. & R.—Dowling and Ryland’s Reports. K. B.

D. & St.—Doctor and Student.

Dal.—Dalison’s Reports.

Dalt. Just.—Dalton’s Justice.

Dalt. Sh.—Dalton’s Sheriff.

Dan.—Daniel’s Reports.

D’Anv.—D’Anvers’s Abridgment.

Dav.—Davis’s Reports, respecting Patents, &c.

Dea. & Ch.—Deacon and Chitty.

Deg.—Degge’s Parson’s Counsellor.

Deh.—Dehany’s Turnpike Acts.

D’Ew.—D’Ewe’s Journal.

Di.; Dy.; Dyer.—Dyer’s Reports.

Dial. de Scacc.—Dialogus de Scaccario.

Dick.—Dickin’s Reports.

Dick. Just.; Dickenson.—Dickenson’s Justice.

Dig.—Digest of Writs.

Dob. Sty.—Dobie’s Styles.

Dod. Rep.—Dodson’s Admiralty Reports.

Dom. Proc.—Domini Proctor; Cases House of Lords.

Doug.—Douglas’s Reports. K. B.

Dow.—Dow’s Reports. House of Lords.

Dowl. Pr. Ca.—Dowling’s Practice Cases.


Dugd. Orig.; Dugd., D. J., or Jud.—Dugdale’s Origines Juridicales.

Dug. S.; Dugd. Sum.—Dugdale’s Summonses.

Duke.—Duke’s Charitable Uses.

Durnf.—Durnford and East, or Term Reports. K. B.

E.—Easter Term, or Eden.

E. T.—Easter Term.

E. of Cov.—Earl of Coventry’s Case.

East.—East’s Reports. K. B.

East. P. C.—East’s Pleas of the Crown.

Eden.—Eden’s Reports of Northington’s Cases.

Edw. Ad. R.—Edwards’s Admiralty Reports.

Eq. Ca.; Eq. Ab.; Eq. Ca. Abr.—Equity Cases Abridged.

Ersk. Inst.—Erskine’s Institute of the Law of Scotland.



Esp. Ac. Stats.—Espinasse’s Action on the Statutes.

Esp. Ev.—Espinasse’s Evidence.

Esp. N. P.—Espinasse’s Digest.

Esp. P. Stats.—Espinasse’s Penal Statutes.

Esp. Rep.; Esp. N. P. Rep.—Espinasse’s Reports at Nisi Prius.

Ev. Col. Stat.—Evans’s Collection of Statutes.

Ex.; Exp.—Expired.

F., or Fitz.—Fitzherbert’s Abridgment.—Fitzherbert’s Abridgment is commonly referred to by the older law writers by the title and number of the placita only, e.g. Coron. 30.

F. N. B.; Fitz. N. B.—Fitzherbert’s Natura Brevium.

Far.—Farresly (7 Mod. Rep.).

Fell, Mer. G.—Fell on Mercantile Guarantees.

Ff.—Pandectæ (Juris Civilis).—This reference, which frequently occurs in Blackstone and other writers, applied to the Pandects or Digests of the civil law, is a corruption of the Greek letter π. Vide Calvini Lexicon Jurid. voc. Digestorum.

Field. Pen. Stat.—Fielding’s Penal Laws. 1769.

Fin.; Finch’s Rep.—Finch’s Reports. Chancery.

Finch.—Finch’s Law.

Fitz.; Fitz. G.—Fitz-Gibbon’s Reports.


Flat. Dig.—Flather’s Digest.

Fol.—Foley’s Poor Laws.

Fonbl. Eq.—Fonblanque on Equity.

For.—Forrest’s Reports.

For. Pla.—Brown’s Formulæ bene placitandi.

Forrester.—Cases tempore Talbot.

Forst.; Fost.—Foster’s Crown Law.

Forts.; Fort.; Fortesc.—Fortescue’s Reports.

Fra.; Fra. M.—Francis’s Maxims.

Freem.—Freeman’s Reports.

G. & J.; Gl. & J.; Gl. and Jam.; Glyn & J.; Glyn & Jam.—Glyn and Jameson’s Reports, Cases in Bankruptcy.

Gib. Cod.; Gibs. Codex.—Gibson’s Codex Juris Civilis.

Gilb.—Gilbert’s Cases in Law and Equity.

Gilb. C. P.—Gilbert’s Common Pleas.

Gilb. Dis.—Gilbert on Distresses.

Gilb. Eq., or Rep. Eq.—Gilbert’s Reports in Equity.

Gilb. Ev.—Gilbert’s Law of Evidence.

Gilb. Ex.—Gilbert’s Executions.

Gilb. Exch.—Gilbert’s Treatise on the Exchequer.

Gilb. K. B.—Gilbert’s King’s Bench.

Gilb. Rem.—Gilbert’s Remainders.

Gilb. Us.—Gilbert’s Uses.

Godb.—Godbolt’s Reports.

Godol.; Godolph.—Godolphin.

Gods. Pat.—Godson on Patents.

Golds.—Goldsborough’s Reports.

Gow.—Gow’s Reports. Nisi Prius.

Greenw.—Greenwood on Courts.

Gro. de J. B.—Grotius de Jure Belli.

Gwill.—Gwillim’s Tithe Cases.

H.—Hilary Term.

H. Bl.—H. Black.

H. H. P. C.—Hales’s Hist Plac. Cor.

H. P. C.—Hales’s Pleas of the Crown.

Hagg. Adm. R.—Haggard’s Admiralty Reports.

Hagg.; Hagg. Con. Rep.—Haggard’s Reports of Cases in the Consistory Court of London.

Hagg. Eccl. Rep.—Haggard’s Ecclesiastical Reports.

Hale P. C.—Hale’s Pleas of the Crown.

Hale’s Sum.—Hale’s Summary of Pleas of the Crown.

Hans.—Hansard’s Entries.

Hans. Parl. Deb.—Hansard’s Parliamentary Debates.

Hard.—Hardres’s Reports. Exchequer.

Hardw.—Cases tempore Hardwicke.

Haw.; Hawk. P. C.—Hawkins’s Pleas of the Crown.


Het.—Hetley’s Reports.

H. T.; Hi.; Hil.—Hilary Term.

Highm. Lun.—Highmore on Lunacy.

Highm.—Highmore on Mortmain.

Hob.—Hobart’s Reports.

Holt.—Reports temp. Holt.

Holt Lib.—Holt on Libel.

Holt’s N. P. Rep.—Holt’s Nisi Prius Reports.

Holt’s Rep.—Holt’s Reports.

Holt Sh.—Holt on Shipping.

How. St. Tr.; Howell’s St. Tri.—Howell’s Collection of State Trials.

Hugh.; Hugh. Ent.—Hughes’s Entries.

Humph. R. P.—Humphrey on the English Law of Real Property.

Hut.—Hutton’s Reports.

Imp. C. P.—Impey’s Practice, Common Pleas.

Imp. K. B.—Impey’s Practice, King’s Bench.

Imp. Sh.—Impey’s Sheriff.

Imp. Pl.—Impey’s Pleader.

Infra, and Supra.—(Below, and Above.) References to the same division or subdivision.

Inst.—Lord Coke’s Institutes.

Inst. 2d & 3d.—Coke’s 2d, 3d, &c., Institutes.

Inst. 1, 2, 3.—Justinian’s Institutes, lib. 1. tit. 2. sec. 3.


J. & W.; Jac. & W.; Jac. & Walk.—Jacob and Walker’s Reports.

Jan. Angl.—Jani Anglorum.

Jenk.—Jenkins’s Reports. Exchequer.

1 Jon.—Sir William Jones’s Reports.

2 Jon.—Sir Thomas Jones’s Reports.


K. B.—King’s Bench.

K. C. R.—Reports tempore King C.

Keb.—Keble’s Reports. K. B.

Keilw.—Keilwey’s Reports.

Kel.; Kely.—Sir John Kelynge’s Reports.

Kely. 1, 2.—William Kelynge’s Reports, 2 parts.


Keny.—Kenyon’s Reports.

Kit.—Kitchin on Courts.

L. C.—Lord Chancellor.

La.—Lane’s Reports.

Lamb.—Lambard’s Eirenarcha.

Lat.—Latch’s Reports.

Ld. H.—Lord Hardwicke.

Ld. Raym.—Lord Raymond.

Le.—Ley’s Reports.

Leach; Lea. C. L.—Leach’s Crown Cases.

Leon.—Leonard’s Reports.

Lev.—Levinz’s Reports. C. P.

Lev. Ent.—Levinz’s Entries.

Lewin, C. C.—Lewin’s Crown Cases on Northern Circuit.

Lex Man.—Lex Maneriorum.

Lex Mercat. Red.—Lex Mercatoria Rediviva, by Beawes.

Ley.—Ley’s Reports.

Lib. Ass.—Liber Assisarum, or Pleas of the Crown.

Lib. Feud.—Liber Feudorum.

Lib. Int.—Liber Intrationum. Old Book of Entries.

Lib. Pl.—Liber Placitandi.

Lib. Reg.—Register Book.

Lib. Rub.—Red Book.

Lil.; Lill.—Lilly’s Report of Assize.

Lil. Abr.—Lilly’s Practical Register, Abridgment.

Lill. Ent.—Lilly’s Entries.

Lind.—Lindwood’s Provinciale.

Lit.; Litt. R.—Littleton’s Reports.

Lit. with S.—Littleton, S. for section.

Lofft.—Lofft’s Reports.

Long Quinto.—Year Book, pt. 10.

Lub. Pl.—Lubé on Pleading.

Lut. Ent.—Lutwyche’s Entries.

Lutw.—Lutwyche’s Reports.

M. T.; Mich.—Michaelmas Term.

M. & A.; Mont. & Ayr.—Montagu and Ayrton. Cases in Bankruptcy.

M. & B.—Montagu and Bligh.

M. & K.—Mylne and Keene.

M. & P.; Moo. & Pay.—Moore and Payne’s Reports. C. P.

M. & R.—Manning and Ryland’s King’s Bench Reports.


M. & S.—Maule and Selwyn’s Reports. K. B.

MS. C. C. R.—Manuscript Crown Cases reserved.

M. & Scott; Moore & S.—Moore and Scott. Reports of Cases argued in Common Pleas and Exchequer.

MS. (D.)—Manuscript of Mr. Durnford.

Mad.; Madd. Rep.—Maddock’s Reports in Vice Chancellor’s Court.

Mad. Chanc.—Maddock’s Chancery Practice.

Mad. Exch.—Madox’s History of the Exchequer.

Mad. Form.—Madox’s Formulare Anglicanum.

Mal.—Malyne’s Lex Mercatoria.

Man. & Gran.—Manning and Granger’s Exchequer Reports.

Manw.—Manwood’s Forest Laws.

Mar.—March’s Reports.

Mar. Ins.—Marshall’s Insurance.

Marsh.—Marshall’s Reports. Common Pleas.

Mee. & Ros.—Meeson and Roscoe.

Mer. R.; Mer. Ch. Rep.—Merivale’s Reports in Chancery.

Mir.—Horne’s Mirror of Justices.

Mireh.—Mirehouse on Tithes.

Mireh. Adv.—Mirehouse on Advowsons.

Mitf.—Mitford’s Pleading.

Mo.—Moore’s Reports.

Mo.; Moore (J. B.) Rept.—Moore’s Reports. C. P.

Mod.; Modern.—Modern Reports, in Law and Equity.

Mod. C.—Modern Cases.

Mod. C. L. & Eq.—Modern Cases in Law and Equity (8 and 9 Mod. Rep.)

Mod. Int.—Modus Intrandi.

Mod.; Mod. Rep.; Modern.—Modern Reports.

Moll.; Moll. de Jur. Mar.—Molloy de Jure Maritimo.

Mont. B. L.; Bt. Laws.—Montagu’s Bankrupt Laws.

Mont. & Bli.—Montague and Bligh.

Mon. Eq. Pl.—Montagu’s Equity Pleading.

Mon. Part.—Montagu on Partnership.

Mont.—Montagu’s New Decisions in Bankruptcy.

Mont. & Gregg. Dig.—Montagu and Gregg’s Digest of Bankrupt Laws.

M. & M., Mont. & Maca.—Montagu and Mac Arthur.

M., or Mood. C. C. R.—Moody’s Crown Cases reserved.

Moo. & Malk.; Moody & M.—Moody and Malkins’s Nisi Prius Reports.

Mood. & Rob.—Moody and Robinson’s Nisi Prius Reports.

Mos.—Moseley’s Reports.


M. P. Ex.—Modern Practice Exchequer.

MS. Sum.—Lord Hale’s Summary of Pleas of the Crown, with Manuscript Notes and Additions.

My. & Cr.—Mylne and Craig’s Chancery Reports.

Myl. & Kee.—Mylne and Keene.

N. Benl.—New Bendloe.

N. L.—Nelson’s Lutwyche.

N. & M.; N. & Man.; Nev. & Man.—Neville and Manning’s King’s Bench Reports.

N. Nov.—Novellæ (Juris Civilis).

N. R.; New Rep.—Bosanquet and Puller’s New Reports.

Nar. Con.—Nares on Convictions.

Nel. C. R.—Nelson’s Reports in Chancery.

Nels.—Nelson’s Justice.

No. N.—Novæ Narrationes.

Nol.; Nol. P. L.—Nolan’s Poor Laws.

Nol. Rep.—Nolan’s Reports.

Nol. Sett.—Nolan’s Settlement Cases.

North.—Northington’s Reports.

Noy.—Noy’s Reports.

O. Benl.—Old Bendloe.

Off. Br.—Officina Brevium.

Off. Ex.—Office of Executors.

Oldn. P.—Oldnall’s Welsh Practice.

Ord. Ch.—Orders in Chancery.

Ord. Cla.—Orders, Lord Clarendon’s.

Ow.—Owen’s Reports.

P.; Pas. (Pascha.)—Easter Term.

P. C.—Pleas of the Crown.

P. p.; Pla. Par.—Placita Parliamentaria.

Paley P. A.—Paley’s Law of Principal and Agent.

Pal. Con.—Paley on Conviction.

Pal.—Palmer’s Reports. King’s Bench.

Park.—Parker’s Reports. Exchequer.

Park. Ins.—Park on Insurance.

Par. L.—Shaw’s Parish Law.

Pat. Mort.—Patch on Mortgages.

Pea.; Peake’s Rep.—Peake’s Reports.

Peak. Ca.—Peake’s Cases at Nisi Prius.

Peak. Ev.—Peake’s Evidence.

Peckw.—Peckwell’s Election Cases.

Perk.—Perkins’s Conveyances.

Petersd. Ba.—Petersdorff on Bail.

Phill. Ev.—Phillips’ Law of Evidence.

Phillim.; Phil. Rep.—Phillimore’s Reports.

Pig.—Pigot’s Recoveries.

Pl.; Pla.—Placita.

Pl. Com.—Plowden’s Commentaries or Reports.

Plow.; Plowd.—Plowden’s Treatise on Tithes.

Pol.; Pollexf.—Pollexfen’s Reports.

Poph.—Popham’s Reports.

2 Poph.—Cases at the end of Popham’s Reports.

Post, & Ante. (After, and Before.)—References to divisions of same title.

Pow. Mort.—Powell on Mortgages.

Pow. Mort. by Cov.—Powell on Mortgages, by Coventry.

Poynt. Mar.—Poynter on Marriages.


P. R. C. P.—Pract. Register in Common Pleas.

Pract. Chan.—Practice in Chancery. 1672.

Pract. Reg.—Practical Register of Common Pleas.

Pr. Reg. Ch.—Practical Register in Chancery.

Pre. Ch.—Precedents in Chancery.

Pre. Es.—Preston on Estates.

Prest. Abs.—Preston on Abstracts.

Prest. Con.—Preston on Conveyancing.

Pr.; Pri.—Price’s Reports. Exchequer.

Priv. Lond.—Privilegia Londini.

Pr. St.—Private Statute.

Pult.—Pulton de Pace Regis et Regni. 1609.

P. W.; P. Wms.—Peere Williams’s Reports.

Quinti Quinto.—Year Book, 5 Hen. V.

Q. War.—Quo Warranto.

R.—Resolved, Repealed.

R. S. L.—Readings upon the Statutes. 1723.

Rast.—Rastall’s Entries and Statutes.


T. Raym.—Sir Thomas Raymond’s Reports.

Ld. Raym.—Lord Raymond’s Reports.

Raym. Ent.—Lord Raymond’s Entries.

Ree. E. L.—Reeve’s English Law.

Reg. Brev.—Register of Writs.

Reg. Jud.—Registrum Judiciale.

Reg. Pl.—Regula Placitandi.

Rep. (1, 2, &c.)—1, 2, &c. Coke’s Reports.

Rep. Eq.—Gilbert’s Reports in Equity.

Rep. Jur.—Repertorium Juridicum.

Rep. Q. A.—Reports tempore Q. Anne.

Rep. temp. Finch.—Finch’s Reports.

Ridg.—Ridgway’s Reports.

Rigge on Registr.—Rigge on Registering Deeds.

Ritson.—Ritson’s Office of Constable.

Ro. Abr.—Rolle’s Abridgment.

Ro. Rep.—Rolle’s Reports.

Rob.—Robinson’s Entries.

Rob. Adm.—Robinson’s Admiralty Reports.

Rob. App.—Robertson’s Appeal Cases.

Roll.—Roll of the Term.

Roll. & Roll. Abr.—Rolle, Rep. and Abridgment.

Rop. B. F.—Roper on Husband and Wife.

Rot. B. Rep.—Rose’s Bankruptcy Reports.

Rosc. Ev.—Roscoe on Evidence.

Rosc. Crim. Ev.—Roscoe on Criminal Evidence.


Run. Ejec.—Runnington’s Ejectment.


Russ. Cr.—Russell on Crimes and Misdemeanours.

Russ. & M.—Russell and Mylne’s Chancery Reports.

Russ. & Ry. C. C. R.—Russell and Ryan’s Crown Cases reserved.

Rushw.—Rushworth’s Collections.

Ry. F.—Rymer’s Fœdera.

Ry. & Mo.—Ryan and Moody’s Reports.

S.; Sect.; §.—Section.

S. B.—Upper Bench.

S. C.—Same Case.

S. & D.—Shaw and Dunlop’s Cases in Court of Session.

S. & L.; Sch. & Lef.—Schoales and Lefroy’s Reports. Chancery, in Ireland.

S. & St.; Sim. & St.—Simon’s and Stuart’s Reports. V. C. Court.

Salk.—Salkeld’s Reports.

Sand. U. T.—Sanders on Uses and Trusts.

Saund.—Saunders’s Reports.

Sav.—Savile’s Reports.

Say.—Sayer’s Reports.

Sel. Ca. Ch.—Select Cases in Chancery.


Seld. Tit. of Hon.—Selden’s Titles of Honour.

Sel. Pr.—Sellon’s Practice.

Selw. N. P.—Selwyn’s Law of Nisi Prius.

Sem.—Semble, seems.

Sess. Ca.—Sessions Cases.

Sess. Pap.—The Old Baily Sessions Papers.

Sett. & Rem.—Cases in K. B. concerning Settlements and Removals.

Shaw.—Shaw’s Justice.

Shaw P. L.—Shaw’s Parish Law.

Shep. Touchst.—Sheppard’s Touchstone.

Show.—Shower’s Reports.

Show. P. C.—Shower’s Cases in Parliament.

Sid.—Siderfin’s Reports.

Sim.—Simons’s Reports of Cases in Chancery.

Sim. & Stu.—Simons’s and Stuart’s Reports in the Vice Chancellor’s Court.

Simeon.—Simeon on Elections.

Skin.—Skinner’s Reports.

Smith.—Smith’s Reports.

Som.—Somers, Somner.


S. C. C.—Select Chancery Cases.

S. P.—Same Point.

St. Ca.—Stillingfleet’s Cases.

St. T.—State Trials.


Stark. C. L.—Starkie’s Criminal Law.

Stark. C. P.—Starkie’s Criminal Pleading.

Stark. Ev.—Starkie on Evidence.

Stark. N. P.—Starkie’s Nisi Prius Reports.

Staunf. P. C. & Pr.—Staunford’s Pleas of the Crown and Prerogative.

Stat. W., or W.—Statutes Westminster.

Steph. Plead.—Stephen on Pleading.

Str.; Stra.—Strange’s Reports in Law and Equity.

Sty.—Style’s Reports.

Sug. Pow.—Sugden on Powers.

Sug. Ven.; Sugden’s Vend. & Purch.—Sugden’s Law of Vendors and Purchasers.

Sw.; Swanst.—Swanston’s Reports in Chancery.

Swin.—Swinburne on Wills.

T. R.—Term. Rep., Teste Rege.

T. R. E., or T. E. R.—Tempore Regis Edwardi.

Talb.—Cases tempore Lord Talbot.

Taun.—Taunton’s Reports. C. P.

Terms of the L.—Terms of the Law.

Th. Dig.—Theloall’s Digest.

Th. Br.—Thesaurus Brevium.

Tidd. App.—Tidd’s Appendix.

Tidd. Co.—Tidd’s Costs.

Tidd’s Pr.—Tidd’s Practice.

Tol. Ex.—Toller’s Executors.

Tom. Dict.—Tomlin’s Law Dictionary.

Too. M. M.—Toone’s Magistrates’ Manual.

Too. Ov. G.—Toone’s Overseers’ Guide.

Toth.—Tothill’s Reports.

Town’s Jud.—Townsend’s Judgments.

Tr. Eq.—Treatise of Equity.

Trem.—Tremaine’s Pleas of the Crown.

Tri. per Pais.—Trials per Pais.

Trin.—Trinity Term.

Trye.—Trye’s Jus. Filazarii.

Turn.—Turner’s (Ch.) Reports.

Tyr. & Tynd. Dig.—Tyrwhitt and Tyndale’s Digest of Statutes.

Tyrr. Sugg.—Tyrrell’s Suggestions.

Tyrw.—Tyrwhitt’s Exchequer Reports.

Tyrw. & Gran.—Tyrwhitt and Granger’s Exchequer Reports.

V. & B.; Ves. & B.; Ves. & Beam.—Vesey and Beame’s Reports in Chancery.

V. C.—Vice Chancellor.

Vaugh.—Vaughan’s Reports.

Vent.—Ventris’s Reports.

Vern.—Vernon’s Reports in Chancery.

Ves. sen.—Vesey’s (sen.) Reports in Chancery.

Ves.; Ves. jun.—Vesey’s (jun.) Reports in Chancery.

Vet. Ent.—Old B. Entries.

Vet. N. B.—Old Nat. Brevium.

Vez.—Vezey’s Reports.

Vid.—Vidian’s Entries.


Vin. Abr.—Viner’s Abridgment.

Vin. Inst.—Viner’s Institutes.

W. 1. W. 2.—Statutes Westminster, 1, 2.

W. & S.—Wilson and Shaw.

Wat. Cop.—Watkins’s Copyholds.

Wats.—Watson on Awards; or, Watson’s Sheriff.

Wats. Cl.—Watson’s Clergyman’s Law.


Wats. P.—Watson’s Partnership.

Went. E.; Went. Off.; Went. Off. Ex.—Wentworth’s Office, and Duty of Executors.

Wight.—Wightwick’s Reports.

Wil.; Wils.—Wilson’s Reports in Chancery.

Will. R.—Willes’s Reports.

Wils. & Sh.—Wilson and Shaw’s Reports of Cases in House of Lords.

Win.—Winch’s Reports. Common Pleas. 1757.

Wi. Ent.—Winch’s Entries.

Wms. Just.—Williams’s Justice.

Wms. Prec.—Williams’s Precedents.

Wms.—Williams’s Rep., or Peere Williams.

Wood’s Inst.—Wood’s Institutes.

Woodf.—Woodfall’s Law of Landlord and Tenant.

Wr. Ten.—Wright’s Tenures.

Wy. Pr. R.—Wyatt’s Practical Register.

Y. B.; Yr. B.—Year Books. The Year Books are quoted by the Year of each King’s Reign, the folio, page and number of the Plea in the page, except par. 5, Liber Assisarum, for which see “Ass.” or “Lib. Ass.” ante.

Y. C. P.—Precedents of Proceedings on the Yeomanry Cavalry Act, published July 1822.

Yelv.—Yelverton’s Reports.

Younge & J.—Younge and Jervis’s Exchequer Reports.

The modes of quoting the Civil and Canon Laws.—The Institutions are contained in four Books: each Book is divided into Titles; and each Title into paragraphs; of which the first, described by the Letters pr. or princip. is not numbered. The Digests or Pandects are in fifty Books: each Book is distributed into Titles; each Title into Laws; and, very frequently, Laws into Paragraphs, of which the first is not numbered. The Code is comprised in twelve Books: each of which is divided, like the Digests, into Titles and Laws; and, sometimes, Laws into Paragraphs. The Novels are distinguished by their Number, Chapter, and Paragraph.

“The old way of quoting was much more troublesome, by only mentioning the Number, or initial Words, of the Paragraph or Law, without expressing the number either of Book or Title. Thus, § si adversus, 12 Inst, de Nuptiis, means the 12th Paragraph of the Title in the Institutions de Nuptiis, which Paragraph begins with the Words si adversus; and which a modern Civilian would cite thus, I. 1. 10. 12. So l. 30 D. de R. J. signifies the 30th Law of the Title in the Digests de Regulis Juris: according to the modern way thus, D. 50. 17. 30. Again, l. 5. § 3. ff. de Jurejur. means the 3d Paragraph of the 5th Law of the Title in the Digests de Jurejurando: better thus, D. 12. 2. 5. 3. And here note, that the Digests are sometimes referred to, as in the last instance, by a double f; and at other times by the Greek Π or π.

“The method of quoting the Roman Canon Law is as follows. The Decree, as said above, consists of three Parts; of which the first contains 101 Distinctions, each Distinction being subdivided into Canons: thus, 1 dist. c. 3. Lex (or 1 d. Lex) is the first Distinction, and 3d Canon, beginning with the word Lex. The second part of the Decree contains 36 Causes; each Cause comprehending several Questions, and each Question several Canons: thus 3. qu. 9. c. 2. Caveant is Cause the 3d, Question the 9th, and Canon the 2d, beginning with Caveant. The third part of the Decree contains 5 Distinctions, and is quoted as the first part, with the addition of the words de Consecratione; thus, de Consecr. dist. 2. can. Quia corpus (or, can. Quia corpus 35. dist. 2. d. Consecr.) means the 2d Distinction, and the 35th Canon of the Treatise de Consecratione, which Canon begins with Quia corpus.

“The Decretals are in three Parts; of which the first contains Gregory’s Decretals in 5 Books; each Book being divided into Titles, and each Title into Chapters: and these are cited by the name of the title, and the number of the chapter, with the addition of the word Extra, or the capital letter X: thus, c. 3. Extra de Usuris; is the 3d Chapter of the Title in Gregory’s Decretals, which is inscribed de Usuris; which 438 Title, by looking into the Index, is found to be the 19th of the 5th Book. Thus also, c. cum contingat. 36 X. de Offic. & Pot. Jud. Del. is the 36th Chapter, beginning with Cum contingat of the Title, in Gregory’s Decretals, which is inscribed de Officio et Potestate Judicis Delegati; and which, by consulting the Index, we find is the 29th Title of the 1st Book. The Sixth Decretal, and the Clementine Constitutions, each consisting of 5 Books, are quoted in the same manner as Gregory’s Decretals; only, instead of Extra or X, there is subjoined in sexto or in 6, and in Clementinis or in Clem. according as either part is referred to: thus, c. Si gratiose 5 de Rescrip. in 6, is the 5th Chapter, beginning with Si gratiose, of the Title de Rescriptis, in the 6th Decretal; the Title so inscribed being the 3d of the 1st Book: and Clem. 1. de Sent. et Re Judic. (or, de Sent. et R. J. ut calumniis, in Clem.) (or, c. ut calumniis 1. de Sent. et R. J. in Clem.) is the first Chapter of the Clementine Constitutions, under the Title de Sententiâ et Re Judicatâ; which Chapter begins with Ut calumniis, and belongs to the xith Title of the 2d Book.

“The Extravagants of John the 22d are contained in one Book, divided into 14 Titles: thus, Extravag. Ad Conditorem, Joh. 22. de V. S. means the Chapter, beginning with Ad Conditorem, of the Extravagants of John 22d; Title, de Verborum Signifi­cationibus. Lastly, the Extravagants of later Popes are called Communes, being distributed into 5 Books, and these again into Titles and Chapters: thus Extravag. Commun. c. Salvator. de Præbend. is the Chapter beginning with Salvator, among the Extravagantes Communes; Title, de Præbendis.”—Bibliotheca Legum. See Dr. Hallifax’s Analysis of the Roman Civil Law, and Butler’s Horæ Juridicæ Subsecivæ.

Notes and Corrections: Law Authorities

Ba. & Be.; Ball & B.
. after “Be.” missing

Cro. sometimes refers to Keilwey’s Reports, published by Serjt. Croke.
[Printed and italicized as shown. Does it belong immediately after the other “Cro.” entry?]


To arrange the pages of a sheet, or of a half sheet upon the imposing stone in their proper order, and to take the page papers from under them. See Imposing.

In the warehouse this term is used to denote the placing the printed sheets of a work upon the gathering table in their proper order, for the purpose of gathering them together into complete books.

When a long number has been printed, the warehouseman generally lays down a bundle only of each signature, that the heaps may not be too high for the boys to reach the top sheet in gathering.

The first sheet in the gathering is laid down at the extreme end of the table at the left hand, and the succeeding sheets follow to the right in regular order, with the signature to the front of the table. The person who lays them down should run the signature page over in each heap to see that they all lie the same way, and have not been turned in knocking up, or piling away, which, when it happens, and passes undiscovered, causes a great deal of trouble in collating. See Gathering.

Notes and Corrections: Lay Down

In the warehouse this term is used to denote the placing the printed sheets of a work
[Printed as shown; may not be an error.]


The Laying of Letter, or, To lay Letter, is the putting of new types into cases, in their proper situations.

When a new fount of types has to be laid, the first consideration is, are there new cases for it, or are there any spare cases in the house, or are there any that can be appropriated to it; and, how many pairs are to be occupied with it? If it be for a work to be done by a companionship, each compositor takes his proportionate share, and lays the letter for his own use: or, it may be an addition to a fount already in work; in which case also each takes his share, as it is looked on as more advantageous to lay letter than to distribute, particularly if it be of a small size. After having put the letter into the cases, and set it up as close as possible, there will be found many superabundant sorts; these are put into a pair of fount cases, and the compositors generally make their cases even, that 439 is, take out their superfluous sorts. If the fount cases will not contain all the sorts, the remainder are put into coffins, and placed in a basket or a letter box; if there should not be any fount cases, then all the spare sorts are put into coffins. The overseer should then be informed of the state of the fount, so that the house may cast up to the surplus sorts, if thought necessary.

I would not advise the laying of many pairs of cases with a moderate sized fount, as an additional pair or two can be easily made at any time.

Where the letter founder has tied up in one piece more than one sort, I would recommend the compositor to put the piece upon a galley, or he will mix the sorts, and give himself and the house unnecessary trouble in his proof; using a composing rule will save him trouble.


A phrase used for the number of books to be printed. Thus they say, There is 1000, 2000, 3000, &c. Laid on.—M. We also use the phrase, but without any regard to number; as, such a press is going to lay a form on—such a press has laid a form on—What form shall we lay on?

It is usual, when a work is printed in sheets, to take the inner form first; the only motive, to my knowledge, for this custom is, that, where there are many presses at work, it prevents the pressmen taking advantage of each other, by those who are first off choosing the form that has the least difficulty in working. An old reason assigned for this practice is, that it is advantageous to the bookbinders in beating the book, preparatory to binding it; as the indentions of the types face each other, and are more easily made smooth; but the indentions would face each other equally if the usual order of working the forms were reversed. When there are wood cuts in one form, and none in the other, then the form without cuts should be worked first; as working the cuts last prevents the indention of the types appearing on the engraving, which would otherwise necessarily take place to its prejudice.

The term is also used in printing at machines, where a boy lays a sheet on a board, or on a travelling web, in order to its being conveyed round the cylinders to be printed.


When the pressman lays sheets on the tympan, it is stiled Laying in Sheets.—M. The term is now obsolete.


When the pressman takes sheets off the tympan, and lays them on the heap, it is stiled Laying out Sheets.—M. Obsolete.


Before the letter of a worked-off form is distributed, or before it is cleared away, if the work be finished it is unlocked upon a board laid in the trough, and well rinsed with water, while the compositor keeps working the pages backward and forward with his hands, and continues pouring water on them till the lye and ink are washed away, and the water runs off clear: this is termed laying-up.

The board should always be washed clean on its upper side before the form is laid upon it.


Between the ends of the lines and the figures of reference, in indexes, contents, in many tables, and accounts, are placed, sometimes full points, sometimes hyphens, metal rules, or dotted quadrats; all these, without distinction, are termed Leaders. Full points with a sufficient space between them, or dotted quadrats, are now generally used, being looked upon as neater than hyphens or metal rules.


These articles are called leads by printers, and space lines by type founders. See Space Lines.


See Beat Lean.—M.



A letter whose stems and other strokes have not their full width.—M. As now understood, a letter of slender proportions compared to its height.—See Types.


5 & 6 W. 4. c. 65. “An act for preventing the Publication of Lectures without Consent.

s. 1. “Whereas Printers, Publishers, and other Persons have frequently taken the Liberty of printing and publishing Lectures delivered upon divers Subjects, without the Consent of the Authors of such Lectures, or the Persons delivering the same in public, to the great Detriment of such Authors and Lecturers: Be it enacted by the King’s most Excellent Majesty, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the Authority of the same, That from and after the First Day of September One thousand eight hundred and thirty-five the Author of any Lecture or Lectures, or the Person to whom he hath sold or otherwise conveyed the Copy thereof, in order to deliver the same in any School, Seminary, Institution, or other Place, or for any other purpose, shall have the sole Right and Liberty of printing and publishing such Lecture or Lectures; and that if any Person shall, by taking down the same in Short Hand or otherwise in Writing, or in any other Way obtain or make a Copy of such Lecture or Lectures, and shall print or lithograph or otherwise copy and publish the same, or cause the same to be printed, lithographed, or otherwise copied and published, without Leave of the Author thereof, or of the Persons to whom the Author thereof hath sold or otherwise conveyed the same, and every Person who, knowing the same to have been printed or copied and published without such Consent, shall sell, publish, or expose to sale, or cause to be sold, published, or exposed to sale, any such Lecture or Lectures, shall forfeit such printed or otherwise copied Lecture or Lectures, or Parts thereof, together with One Penny for every Sheet thereof which shall be found in his Custody, either printed, lithographed, or copied, or printing, lithographing, or copying, published or exposed to sale, contrary to the true Intent and Meaning of this Act, the one Moiety thereof to His Majesty, His Heirs or Successors, and the other Moiety thereof to any Person who shall sue for the same, to be recovered in any of His Majesty’s Courts of Record in Westminster, by Action of Debt, Bill, Plaint, or Information, in which no Wager of Law, Essoign, Privilege, or Protection, or more than One Imparlance, shall be allowed.

s. 2. “And be it further enacted, That any Printer or Publisher of any Newspaper who shall, without such Leave as aforesaid, print and publish in such Newspaper any Lecture or Lectures, shall be deemed and taken to be a Person printing and publishing without Leave within the Provisions of this Act, and liable to the aforesaid Forfeitures and Penalties in respect of such printing and publishing.

s. 3. “And be it further enacted, That no Person allowed for certain Fee or Reward, or otherwise, to attend and be present at any Lecture delivered in any Place, shall be deemed and taken to be licensed or to have Leave to print, copy, and publish such Lectures, only because of having Leave to attend such Lecture or Lectures.

s. 4. “Provided always, That nothing in this Act shall extend to prohibit any Person from printing, copying, and publishing any Lecture or Lectures which have or shall have been printed and published with Leave of the Authors thereof or their Assignees, and whereof the Time hath or shall have expired within which the sole Right to print and publish the same is given by an Act passed in the Eighth Year of the Reign of Queen Anne [c. 19.], intituled An Act for the Encouragement of Learning, by vesting the Copies of printed Books in the Authors or Purchasers of such Copies during the Times therein mentioned, and by another Act passed in the Fifty-fourth Year of the Reign of King George the Third [c. 156.], intituled An Act to amend the several Acts for the Encouragement of Learning, by securing the Copies and Copyright of printed Books to the Authors of such Books, or their Assigns, or to any Lectures which have been printed or published before the passing of this Act.

s. 5. “Provided further, That nothing in this Act shall extend to any Lecture or Lectures, or the printing, copying, or publishing any Lecture or Lectures, or Parts thereof, of the delivering of which Notice in Writing shall not have been given to Two Justices living within Five Miles from the Place where such Lecture or Lectures shall be delivered Two Days at the least before delivering the same, or to any Lecture or Lectures delivered in any University or public School or College, or on any public Foundation, or by any Individual in virtue of or according to any Gift, Endowment, or Foundation; and that the Law relating thereto shall remain the same as if this Act had not been passed.”


In Moxon’s time both the letter board and the paper board were made alike, similar to the present paper board; and 441 he strongly recommended to have the board made of one piece, without a joint: they are now different from each other. The letter board is made of two deals, about an inch thick, and the smallest size allows a demy chase to lie upon it without hanging over the edges; the deals are joined together on the under side by two dovetailed tapering tongues inserted into dovetailed tapering grooves, the contrary way to each other; and these tongues project below the bottom, so as to serve as feet for the board, to a depth rather more than equal to the height of letter, and allow the board to be placed upon a bulk, or upon another letter board, upon which pages or small jobs are placed, without the bottom of the board touching the face of the type. If the boards shrink, or the joint opens, the aperture can be immediately closed up again, by striking the edges with a mallet, and driving the tongues up tight.

The usual sizes of letter boards in a printing office are Demy and Royal; but when works on larger paper are printed, it is necessary to have boards of a corresponding size. The Demy boards are 26 inches by 22; the Royal 30 inches by 26.


A brush used in composing rooms, something like a polishing brush for shoes, but not quite so large; with which to brush dust off forms before they are taken to the proof press to have a proof pulled, and before they are taken into the press room to be worked. Every press ought also to have one, that if any dust, or particles of dirt, get upon the face of the letter, they may be brushed off.


By the Act of the 39th of George 3. cap. 79. s. 25. it is enacted, “That from and after the Expiration of Forty Days after the passing of this Act, every Person carrying on the Business of a Letter Founder, or Maker or Seller of Types for Printing, or of Printing Presses, shall cause Notice of his or her Intention to carry on such Business to be delivered to the Clerk of the Peace of the County, Stewartry, Riding, Division, City, Borough, Town, or Place, where such Person shall propose to carry on such Business, or his Deputy, in the Form prescribed in the Schedule to this Act annexed; and such Clerk of the Peace, or his Deputy, shall, and he is hereby authorized and required thereupon to grant a Certificate in the Form also prescribed in the said Schedule, for which such Clerk of the Peace, or his Deputy, shall receive a Fee of One Shilling, and no more, and shall file such Notice, and transmit an attested Copy thereof to one of his Majesty’s Principal Secretaries of State; and every Person who shall, after the Expiration of the said Forty Days, carry on such Business, or make or sell any Type for Printing, or Printing Press, without having given such Notice, and obtained such Certificate, shall forfeit and lose the Sum of Twenty Pounds.

s. 26. “And be it further enacted, That every Person who shall sell Types for Printing, or Printing Presses, as aforesaid, shall keep a fair Account in Writing of all Persons to whom any such Types or Presses shall be sold, and shall produce such Accounts to any Justice of the Peace who shall require the same; and if such Person shall neglect to keep such Account, or shall refuse to produce the same to any such Justice, on Demand in Writing to inspect the same, such Person shall forfeit and lose, for such Offence, the Sum of Twenty Pounds.” See Certificate.


“VI. FORM of Notice to the Clerk of the Peace, that any Person carries on the Business of a Letter Founder, or Maker or Seller of Types for Printing, or of Printing Presses.

To the Clerk of the Peace for [as the Case may be], or his Deputy.

I A. B. of      do hereby declare, That I intend to carry on the Business of a Letter Founder or Maker or Seller of Types for Printing, or of Printing Presses [as the Case may be], at      and I hereby require this Notice to be entered in pursuance of an Act, passed in the Thirty-ninth Year of the Reign of his Majesty King George the Third, [set forth the Title of the Act].

Signed in the Presence  

“VII. FORM of Certificate that the above Notice has been given.

I G. H. Clerk [or Deputy Clerk] of the Peace for [as the Case may be], do hereby certify, That A. B. of     hath delivered to me a Notice in Writing, 442 appearing to be signed by him, and attested by E. F. as a Witness to his signing the same, that he intends to carry on the Business of a Letter Founder, or Maker or Seller of Types for Printing, or of Printing Presses, at      and which Notice he has required to be entered in pursuance of an Act of the Thirty-ninth Year of his Majesty King George the Third, [set forth the Title of the Act].

Witness my Hand, this    Day of     .”


If the compositor has been careless in emptying his composing stick, so as to set the letter loosely down in the galley, and they stand not perfectly square and upright, the Letter Hangs: or if after overrunning on the correcting stone he has not set his letter in a square position again, before he locks up (for we may suppose when the pages are opened the letter stands loose, and more or less out of square), so then, the matter standing thus out of square, is said to Hang.—M.


blasphemous and seditious. Act 60 Geo. 3. cap. 8.—For the more effectual Prevention and Punishment of Blasphemous and Seditious Libels.

Commences by declaring that it is expedient to make more effectual provision for the punishment of blasphemous and seditious libels; and then proceeds to enact, “That from and after the passing of the Act, in every Case in which any Verdict or Judgment by default shall be had against any Person for composing, printing, or publishing any blasphemous Libel, or any seditious Libel, tending to bring into hatred or contempt the Person of His Majesty, his Heirs or Successors, or the Regent, or the Government and Constitution of the United Kingdom as by Law established, or either House of Parliament, or to excite His Majesty’s Subjects to attempt the Alteration of any Matter in Church or State as by Law established, otherwise than by lawful Means, it shall be lawful for the Judge, or the Court before whom or in which such Verdict shall have been given, or the Court in which such Judgment by default shall be had, to make an Order for the Seizure and carrying away and detaining in safe Custody, in such Manner as shall be directed in such Order, all Copies of the Libel which shall be in the Possession of the Person against whom such Verdict or Judgment shall have been had, or in the Possession of any other Person named in the Order for his Use; Evidence upon Oath having been previously given to the Satisfaction of such Court or Judge, that a Copy or Copies of the said Libel is or are in the Possession of such other Person for the Use of the Person against whom such Verdict or Judgment shall have been had as aforesaid; and in every such Case it shall be lawful for any Justice of the Peace, or for any Constable or other Peace-officer acting under any such Order, or for any Person or Persons acting with or in aid of any such Justice of the Peace, Constable, or other Peace-officer, to search for any Copies of such Libel in any House, Building, or other Place whatsoever belonging to the Person against whom any such Verdict or Judgment shall have been had, or to any other Person so named, in whose Possession any Copies of any such Libel, belonging to the Person against whom any such Verdict or Judgment shall have been had, shall be; and in case Admission shall be refused or not obtained within a reasonable Time after it shall have been first demanded, to enter by force by Day into any such House, Building, or Place whatsoever, and to carry away all Copies of the Libel there found, and to detain the same in safe Custody until the same shall be restored under the Provisions of this Act, or disposed of according to any further Order made in relation thereto.

s. 2. “That if in any such Case as aforesaid Judgment shall be arrested, or if, after Judgment shall have been entered, the same shall be reversed upon any Writ of Error, all Copies so seized shall be forthwith returned to the Person or Persons from whom the same shall have been so taken as aforesaid, free of all Charge and Expence, and without the Payment of any Fees whatever; and in every Case in which final Judgment shall be entered upon the Verdict so found against the Person or Persons charged with having composed, printed, or published such Libel, then all Copies so seized shall be disposed of as the Court in which such Judgment shall be given shall order and direct.

s. 3. “Provided that in Scotland, in every Case in which any Person or Persons shall be found Guilty before the Court of Justiciary, of composing, printing, or publishing any blasphemous or seditious Libel, or where Sentence of Fugitation shall have been pronounced against any Person or Persons, in consequence of their failing to appear to answer to any Indictment charging them with having composed, printed, or published any such Libel, then and in either of such Cases, it shall and may be lawful for the said Court to make an Order for the Seizure, carrying away, and detaining in safe Custody, all Copies of the Libel in the Possession of any such Person or Persons, or in the Possession of any other Person or Persons named in such Order, for his or their Use, 443 Evidence upon Oath having been previously given to the Satisfaction of such Court or Judge, that a Copy or Copies of the said Libel is or are in the Possession of such other Person for the Use of the Person against whom such Verdict or Judgment shall have been had as aforesaid; and every such Order so made shall and may be carried into effect, in such and the same Manner as any Order made by the Court of Justiciary, or any Circuit Court of Justiciary, may be carried into effect according to the Law and Practice of Scotland: Provided always, that in the Event of any Person or Persons being reponed against any such Sentence of Fugitation, and being thereafter acquitted, all Copies so seized shall be forthwith returned to the Person or Persons from whom the same shall have been so taken as aforesaid; and in all other Cases, the Copies so seized shall be disposed of in such Manner as the said Court may direct.

s. 4. “That if any Person shall be legally convicted of having, after the passing of this Act, composed, printed, or published any blasphemous Libel, or any such seditious Libel as aforesaid, and shall, after being so convicted, offend a second Time, and be thereof legally convicted before any Commission of Oyer and Terminer or Gaol Delivery, or in His Majesty’s Court of King’s-bench, such Person may, on such second Conviction, be adjudged, at the Discretion of the Court, either to suffer such Punishment as may now by Law be inflicted in Cases of high Misdemeanors, or to be banished from the United Kingdom, and all other Parts of His Majesty’s Dominions, for such Term of Years as the Court in which such Conviction shall take place shall order.

s. 5. “That in case any Person so sentenced and ordered to be banished as aforesaid, shall not depart from this United Kingdom within Thirty Days after the pronouncing of such Sentence and Order as aforesaid, for the Purpose of going into such Banishment as aforesaid, it shall and may be lawful to and for His Majesty to convey such Person to such Parts out of the Dominions of His said Majesty, as His Majesty by and with the Advice of his Privy Council shall direct.

s. 6. “That if any Offender, who shall be so ordered by any such Court as aforesaid to be banished in manner aforesaid shall, after the End of Forty Days from the Time such Sentence and Order hath been pronounced, be at large within any Part of the United Kingdom, or any other Part of His Majesty’s Dominions, without some lawful Cause, before the Expiration of the Term for which such Offender shall have been so ordered to be banished as aforesaid, every such Offender being so at large as aforesaid, being thereof lawfully convicted, shall be transported to such Place as shall be appointed by His Majesty for any Term not exceeding Fourteen Years; and such Offender may be tried, either before any Justices of Assize, Oyer and Terminer, Great Sessions, or Gaol Delivery, for the County, City, Liberty, Borough, or Place where such Offender shall be apprehended and taken, or where he or she was sentenced to Banishment; and the Clerk of Assize, Clerk of the Peace, or other Clerk or Officer of the Court having the Custody of the Records where such Order of Banishment shall have been made, shall, when thereunto required on His Majesty’s Behalf, make out and give a Certificate in Writing, signed by him, containing the Effect and Substance only (omitting the formal Part) of every Indictment and Conviction of such Offender, and of the Order for his or her Banishment, to the Justices of Assize, Oyer and Terminer, Great Sessions, or Gaol Delivery, where such Offender shall be indicted, for which Certificate Six Shillings and Eight Pence, and no more, shall be paid, and which Certificate shall be sufficient Proof of the Conviction and Order for Banishment of any such Offender.”

The remaining clauses relate to the mode of proceeding in case of former conviction, limitation of actions, &c.

11 G. 4. & 1 W. 4. c. 73. “An act to repeal so much of an Act of the Sixtieth Year of His late Majesty King George the Third, for the more effectual Prevention and Punishment of blasphemous and seditious Libels, as relates to the Sentence of Banishment for the Second Offence; and to provide some further Remedy against the Abuse of publishing Libels.

“Whereas by an Act passed in the Sixtieth Year of the Reign of His late Majesty King George the Third, intituled An Act for the more effectual Prevention and Punishment of blasphemous and seditious Libels, it was amongst other things enacted, that if any Person should, after the passing of that Act, be legally convicted of having composed, printed, or published any blasphemous Libel or any such seditious Libel as in the said Act is before mentioned, and should after being so convicted offend a second Time, and be thereof legally convicted before any Commission of Oyer and Terminer, or Gaol Delivery, or in His Majesty’s Court of King’s Bench, such Person might on such second Conviction be adjudged, at the Discretion of the Court, either to suffer such Punishment as might by Law be inflicted in Cases of high Misdemeanour, or to be banished from the United Kingdom and all other Parts of His Majesty’s Dominions for such Term of Years as the Court in which such Conviction should take place should order: And whereas it is expedient to repeal so much of the said Act as relates to the 444 Sentence of Banishment for the Second Offence; Be it therefore enacted by the King’s most Excellent Majesty, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the Authority of the same, That so much and such Parts of the said Act as relate to the Sentence of Banishment for the Second Offence be and the same is hereby wholly repealed.”

It hath been ruled that the finding a libel on a bookseller’s shelf is a publication of it by the bookseller; and that it is no excuse to say that the servant took it into the shop without the master’s knowledge; for the law presumes the master to be acquainted with what the servant does. Rex v. Dodd, 1 Sess. Cas. 33.Burn’s Justice of the Peace, vol. 3, p. 292, Art. Libel. See Publications, Periodical.


See Printing.


When a work is nearly completed, and perfect copies are required before the whole number can be worked off at press, it is customary when all the matter has been composed, and there is not convenience to lay every form on at a different press, to print short numbers of each, in order to make perfect books as soon as possible; thus, if there be 3000 copies of a work printing, 250 of each of the few last sheets may be worked, and when the pressmen have printed this number of one form and taken it off the press for the purpose of laying on another form, it is said they lift, or, they have lifted. This frequently takes place in periodical works, such as magazines, reviews, &c.; and also occasionally when a superior proof is wanted, or two or three copies of any thing particular are required, that will not admit of waiting till a press is off with its regular number: in these latter instances, the pressmen endeavour to pull them without the tympans, with a few sheets of proof paper over the form, that they may not disturb their overlays and making ready; and they mark the quoins which secured their form on the press, that they may replace it exactly in its situation with as little waste of time and paper as possible.

In the warehouse, each separate portion of printed paper, whether it consists of five or six sheets or more, that is placed upon the poles to dry, is termed a lift.


Two or more letters joined together, and cast on the same shank, are in a printing office called Ligatures.

The ligatures now used are few in number, having been reduced to æ, ff, ffi, ffl, fi, fl, and œ; within the last thirty years we had, in addition, [ct], as also [ſb], [ſh], [ſi], [ſk], [ſl], [ſſ], and ſt, which are now discarded, in consequence of our confining ourselves entirely to the s. In the leaf of an old book, De vita & gestis Scanderbegi, now lying before me, there are the following additional ones,—as, at, cta, et, es, ius, is, ij, iu, ll, ns, st, ſs, ſp, ta, and us.

I do not think it was an improvement to change the shape of the &, which, till the alteration, was really a ligature, being e and t joined together; the modern character has no meaning in it, neither the Roman & nor the Italic &.

Earl Stanhope proposed to abolish the present ligatures, by making the f more upright without being kerned, so as to admit an i, an l, or another f after it, and to introduce other ligatures, or, as he termed them, ‘logotypes,’ that more frequently occur, viz. th, in, an, re, se, to, of, and on.

Smith, in his Printer’s Grammar, says that Mr. Caslon introduced the [ſb] and the [ſk].—See Bill. Logotype.

Light Work.

See Easy Work.—M. Also Good Work.


See Companionship.



By literal errors in printing, are understood the mistakes of the compositors in single letters only, viz. the taking up a wrong letter, or inverting a right letter; the term is never applied to either outs or doubles.


The Libraries which are entitled to claim copies of new publications under the act of 6 & 7 W. 4. c. 110. are—

1. The King’s Library, since transferred to the British Museum.

2. The Library of the University of Oxford, commonly called the Bodleian.

3. The Library of the University of Cambridge.

4. The Library of the Faculty of Advocates at Edinburgh.

5. The Library of the College of the Holy Trinity in Dublin.

The two English Universities have the following privileges:—

1. The copyright in all works bequeathed to, or acquired by them, is vested in them in perpetuity, so long as the works are printed at their own presses.

2. They have (in common with the King’s Printers in England, Scotland, and Ireland,) the exclusive privilege of printing Bibles and Prayer Books; and an exemption from the duty on paper used for them.

[The Bibles and Prayer Books printed in Scotland and Ireland, are not allowed to be sold in England.]

3. They have the same privilege (in common with the King’s Printer in England) of printing the Statutes of the Realm.

4. They have an exemption from the duty on paper used in books for the purposes of classical instruction, and in all works in the learned languages, printed at their presses.

5. They have 500l. per annum paid to each of them by the nation, for the purpose of enabling them to assist poor scholars and fellows in printing their works.

The four Universities of Scotland, and Trinity College, Dublin, have the same advantage with respect to the perpetuity of their copyrights as the English Universities have.—(The printing of Bibles and Prayer Books, in both these countries, appears to be exclusively the right of the King’s Printer.) They have also an exemption from the duty on paper used in all works of classical instruction, and in the learned languages, printed at their presses.—The Scotch Universities do not appear to have ever made use of this privilege in the manner that Oxford and Cambridge have done; but by naming some individual as Printer to the University, have communicated to him the advantage derived from it.


The tightening of the quoins round a form with the mallet and shooting stick, to enable the compositor to lift it from the imposing stone, and that it may be moved about without the types or the furniture being displaced by such moving; as also that the form may be secure when working at press, so that the types do not draw out with beating.—See Imposing.


Two, or more, letters cast in one piece. There have been several attempts to introduce such short words, terminations, and prefixes, as are of frequent occurrence, cast in one piece, but they have never succeeded.—See Ligatures.


The cross that divides the chase the longest way; it is also the narrowest.


The name of a type, one size larger than Bourgeois, and one smaller than Small Pica.—See Types.

Long Pull.

See Easy Pull.—M.



M. To space a line or lines in a composing stick so that they shall not be tight; also to place wood cuts, or any other matter, in a page, so that they shall not be fast when locked up.

Lord’s Day, Public Meeting on the.

See Public Meetings.

Lost Property.

See Stolen Property.


6 & 7 Will. 4. c. 66. “An Act to prevent the advertising of Foreign and other illegal Lotteries.

“Whereas the Laws in force are insufficient to prevent the advertising of Foreign and other illegal Lotteries in this Kingdom, and it is expedient to make further Provision for that Purpose: Be it therefore enacted by the King’s most Excellent Majesty, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the Authority of the same, That from and after the passing of this Act, if any Person shall print or publish, or cause to be printed or published, any Advertisement or other Notice of or relating to the drawing or intended drawing of any Foreign Lottery, or of any Lottery or Lotteries not authorized by some Act or Acts of Parliament, or if any Person shall print or publish, or cause to be printed or published, any Advertisement or other Notice of or for the Sale of any Ticket or Tickets, Chance or Chances, or of any Share or Shares of any Ticket or Tickets, Chance or Chances of or in any such Lottery or Lotteries as aforesaid, or any Advertisement or Notice concerning or in any Manner relating to any such Lottery or Lotteries, or any Ticket, Chance, or Share, Tickets, Chances, or Shares thereof or therein, every Person so offending shall for every such Offence forfeit the Sum of Fifty Pounds, to be recovered, with full Costs of Suit, by Action of Debt, Bill, Plaint, or Information in any of His Majesty’s Courts of Record in Westminster or Dublin respectively, or in the Court of Session in Scotland; one Moiety thereof to the use of His Majesty, His Heirs and Successors, and the other Moiety thereof to the Use of the Person who shall inform or sue for the same.”


When the compositor has composed almost all his letters out of his case, he says his Case is Low.—M.


The case in which the small letters of an alphabet, the spaces, and quadrats are laid; it is placed upon the frame immediately below the fore edge of the upper case. See Case.


When balls stick together in distributing they are said to lug; they then diffuse the ink more equally and thinly on the surface, and make better work: they also retain on their surface particles of dust, or other small substances, and do not part with them to the letter in the form, which is a great advantage. Composition Balls, when too soft, will lug so much in distributing as to tear the composition and spoil the ball; when this is the case, they require to be placed in a dry situation for a short time, and exposed to a draught of air, which evaporates the superfluous moisture, and brings them into good condition; when time cannot be allowed for this mode of cure, sponging the surface with spirits of turpentine will promote the evaporation, and be of great service. See Flaring Balls.


The lye used for the purpose of cleaning a form is a solution of alkali in water; it ought to be made of the best pearl ash. The usual proportion is one pound of pearl ash to a gallon of soft water; it should be stirred up with a stick till the alkali dissolves, which soon takes place. It is generally kept in a large jar, with a cover to it, which some master printers lock; but more frequently the cover is loose for the pressmen to have free access to it; the cover should however be kept on, to prevent dust and dirt getting into the jar.

If hard water be used, it will require a greater quantity of pearl ash; as the acid in the water will combine with some of the alkali to neutralise it, which of course will have the effect of making the lye weaker than if soft water, with which there is no such combination, had been used.

An intelligent pressman once informed me, that in the country he had 447 frequently made lye, by boiling together a peck of wood ashes and nearly a quarter of a peck of quicklime, in a pailful and a half of soft water, and afterwards straining the decoction for use.

This is, in fact, soap lye, which is made caustic by the quicklime: lye from the soap boilers has indeed of late years been used by many master printers in the metropolis; but it requires to be kept constantly covered in order to exclude the air, which, when the lye is exposed, combines with it and renders it mild, thus destroying its power. I have always found that this lye affects the hands and makes them sore, as if chapped, when washed in it to take off ink.

In the choice of pearl ash the following table, from Vauquelin, may be found useful, which shows all the substances contained in six kinds of potash.

of Potash
of Potash
Carbonic Acid
and Water
1152 of Russian Potash 772 65 5 56 254=1152
1152 of American Potash 857 154 20 2 119=1152
1152 of Pearl Ash 754 80 4 6 308=1152
1152 of Treves Potash 720 165 44 24 199=1152
1152 of Dantzic Potash 603 152 14 79 304=1152
1152 of Vosges Potash 444 148 510 34 304=1152

There is evidently an error in this statement as to the component parts of the last article, the Vosges potash, which appears to be with respect to the quantity of the muriate of potash; but the table shows that the American potash is by far the best, and the Dantzic potash the worst of the six analysed.

The following observations from Kirwan on Manures, may also be serviceable, particularly to printers who are so situated as to find it necessary to make their lye from the ashes of vegetables.

“Alkaline salts are of great importance in several arts, the proportion of ashes afforded by different vegetables, and that of alkali by the ashes of each sort of vegetable, has been accurately attended to: the following are the best authenticated results of the experiments made with this view.

“One thousand pounds of the following vegetables, perfectly dry, and burned in a clean chimney and open fire, afforded the quantity of ashes, and saline matter, exhibited in the annexed tables.

One thousand Pounds. Pounds of Ashes. Pounds of Salt.
Stalks of Turkey Wheat or Maize   86·6 17·5
Ditto of Sunflower   57·2 20·
Vine branches.   34·   5·5
Box   29·   2·26
Sallow   28·   2·85
Elm   23·5   3·9
Oak   13·5   1·5
Aspin.   12·2   0·74
Beech.     5·8   1·27
Fir     3·4   0·45
Fern cut in August   36·46   4·25 Home.
Wormwood   97·44 73·     Wiegleb.
Fumitory 219· 79·     Id.
Table of the Saline Products from one thousand Pounds of the Ashes of the following Vegetables.
Saline Products.
Stalks of Turkey Wheat or Maize 198 lbs.
Ditto of Sunflower 349
Vine branches 162·6
Elm 166
Box   78
Sallow 102
Oak 111
Aspin.   61
Beech. 219
Fir 132
Fern cut in August 116, or 125 according to Wildenheim.
Wormwood 748
Fumitory 360
Heath. 115 Wildenheim.

Thus though fumitory gives the greatest weight of saline product from a given weight of the dry vegetable, yet from a given weight of ashes wormwood produces above double the weight of saline matter.

In Yorkshire the women use the ashes of the ash tree to make a lye to scour their pewter dishes and plates, in preference to the ashes of any other wood; as this is the result of experience, I should be led to suppose that they contain a great proportional quantity of pearl ash.


The brush used with lye to remove the ink that adheres to the types, the furniture, and the chase, after a form has been worked off, as also after proofs have been pulled. It is about nine or ten inches long by three inches broad, and the hairs are nearly two inches long.

lye trough


The lye trough is square and shallow, lined with lead, and its upper edge is bound with iron to preserve it from injury, which would otherwise arise from concussion when a form is lifted into it; there is also a loose board laid in it for the protection of the bottom. It is suspended on a frame by two centres, as here represented.

There is always some lye kept in this trough; and when a form has been worked off, it is laid in it, and the ink is brushed from the face of the letter, the furniture, and chase with the lye, previous to rinsing it with water. It is usually made capable of containing a royal chase.

The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.