is when the furniture is taken away from all sides of the form or page. See Strip a Form.
The names distinguished by an asterisk * and an obelisk † were taken from Dr. Adam Clarke’s Bibliographical Miscellany, where they form two lists. The additional names were collected by myself.
In the towns marked * printing was carried on in the fifteenth century; and Dr. A. Clarke says—“In this List, great care has been taken not to omit one place where printing was carried on prior to the year 1500.”—“In this list, because the name refers to the work executed there, the genitive case has been retained. Panzer in his list has followed the same plan. This will be of some use to the mere English scholar, as he will at once see the same form of the word in its alphabetical order in this list, which he finds in the title of his book.”
In the towns marked † printing has been established and carried on since the fifteenth century, and Dr. A. Clarke observes—“This part might have been much enlarged, but it was not judged indispensably necessary. As the most difficult names are here explained, which usually occur in the titles of books, the residue it is hoped will occasion little embarrassment to any scholar.”—“It may be necessary to observe, for the information of the less experienced reader, that in this Supplement, as the Latin name stands in reference to no printed work, the nominative case has been always used.”
|*||Abbatis Villæ||Abbeville, France.|
|†||Aboa||Abo, capital of Swedish Finland.|
|†||Abrincæ||Avranches, an ancient town of France.|
|*||Acqui. See Albæ.|
|*||Æssii. See Essii.|
|*||Albæ, or Acqui||A town of Montferrat, 25 miles from Genoa.|
|Albani Fanum||St. Albans, Hertfordshire.|
|*||S. Albani Villæ|
|*||Alta villæ||Eltville, near Mayence.|
|†||Amstelodamum—Amst. Amstel.||Amsterdam, Holland.|
|Andreapolis—Andrea||St. Andrews, Scotland.|
|†||Aneda and Edenburgum||Edinburgh, Scotland.|
|†||Anseola||Ansloe or Opsloe, now , Norway.|
|*||Antverpiæ—Ant. Antverp.||Antwerp, Netherlands.|
|*||Anvera, Anvers, Anverso||Antwerp.|
|Aquæ Augustæ||Bayonne, Gascony.|
|Aquæ calidæ||Bath, Somersetshire.|
|Aquæ, urbs Helvetiorum||Baden, Germany.|
|†||Aquæ Sextiæ||Aix, Provence, France.|
|492 †||Aquis-Granum, or Aqua-Grani||Aix-la-Chapelle, Westphalia.|
|*||Argentinæ and Argentorati—Argent.||Strasburg, on the Lower Rhine.|
|†||Arnoldi Villa||Arnheim, Guelderland.|
|Aturensium civitas||Aire, France.|
|*||Augustæ Vindelicorum—Aug: Vind: August: Vindel:||Augsburg, Germany.|
|Augusta Rauracorum||Aust, near Basil.|
|Augusta Tiberii||Ratisbon, Germany.|
|*||Aureliani, or Gabani||Orleans, France.|
|*||Babenberge and Bambergæ||Bamberg, Bohemia.|
|Bajocæ, Bajocassina||Baieux, Normandy.|
|*||Bambergæ and Babenberge||Bamberg, Bohemia.|
|*||Barchinone and Barcilone||Barcelona, Spain.|
|*||Barci||Barco, in the province of Breschia.|
|*||Barcilone and Barchinone||Barcelona, Spain.|
|*||Basilæ—Bas: Basil||Basil or Bâle, Switzerland.|
|*||Beronæ, and Beronis Villæ||Beraun or Beraum, Bohemia.|
|†||Bipontium||Deux Ponts, Germany.|
|†||Bravum Burgi||Burgos, Spain.|
|*||Brixiæ||Bresse or Breschia, Italy.|
|*||Brunnæ||Brinn or Brunn, Moravia.|
|†||Brunopolis||Brunswick, Lower Saxony.|
|*||Bruxellis||Bruxells or Brussels, France. [Now belonging to Belgium.]|
|*||Budæ||Buda, or Offen, Lower Hungary.|
|*||Burgdorffii||Burgdorf, Switzerland, also a town of Lower Saxony.|
|*||Burgis (Bravum Burgi)||Burgos, Spain.|
|493 *||Cadomi||Caen, France.|
|*||Cæsar Augustæ||Saragossa, Spain.|
|*||Camberiaci. See Chamberii.|
|*||Carpen. or Carpentorati||Carpentras, France.|
|*||Cassale Majori||Cassale Maggiore, Milan.|
|*||Cassale Sancti Euaxii||Casal of S. Evaxius, Montferrat.|
|*||Cassellæ and Cassellis||Cassel, Italy, near Turin.|
|Castellum Aquarum||Baden, Switzerland.|
|Castellum Cattorum||Cassel, Germany.|
|†||Castellum Nozanum||Nizza, Italy, near Lucca.|
|Castra Alata||Edinburgh, Scotland.|
|Castra Constantia||Constance, Switzerland.|
|Castra Ulpia||Cleve, Germany.|
|†||Cecerræ||Cervera, Catalonia, Spain.|
|†||Chilonium||Kiel, Lower Saxony.|
|Chrysopolis. See Bisuntii.|
|Civitas||Chester and Caerleon.|
|*||Civitas Austriæ||Not Vienna in Austria, but a city of Friul in the state of Venice.|
|Claudia. Claudia castra||Gloucester.|
|Clavasii||Chivas or Chivasio and Chivazzio, Piedmont.|
|*||Coburgi and Koburgi||Coburg, Germany.|
|*||Codaniæ. See Hafniæ.|
|Colippo||St. Sebastian, Portugal.|
|*||Colle or Collis||Colle, Tuscany.|
|Colonia Agrippina.—Col: Ag: Colon: Agrip:||Cologne, Germany.|
|Colonia Allobrogum—Col: Allob:||Geneva, Switzerland.|
|†||Colonia Julia Romana, and Colonia Romulensis||Seville, Spain.|
|Complutum||Alcala, New Castile, Spain.|
|†||Confluentes, or Confluentia||Coblentz, France.|
|494 †||Conimbrica||Coimbra, Portugal.|
|†||Cortona||A town of Tuscany.|
|†||Crema||Capital of Cremasco, Italy.|
|*||Monaster. S. Cucufatis||Monastery of St. Cucufat, near Barcelona.|
|*||Culemburgi||Culemburg, Dutch Guelderland.|
|*||Cusentiæ||Cosenza, or Cosence, Naples, capital of Calabria.|
|†||Cusurgis||Prague, capital of Bohemia.|
|†||Cygnea||Zuickaw, or Zwickau, Upper Saxony.|
|*||Daventriæ||Deventer, capital of Overyssel.|
|†||Derpatum, or Torpatum||Derp, Russia.|
|†||Divona Cadurci||Cahors, France.|
|†||Dola apud Sequanos||Dole, France.|
|*||Domus fratrum Communis Vitæ||Vallis Sanctæ Mariæ. A society of monks in the diocese of Rheingau, near Mentz, Germany.|
|†||Duisburgum, or Teutoburgum||Duisburg, Westphalia.|
|†||Durocorturum||Reims, or Rheims, France.|
|†||Edinburgum. See Aneda.|
|*||Eistetæ. See Eustadiæ.|
|†||Elbenga||Elbing, Western Prussia.|
|*||Eltwilæ. See Alta Villæ.|
|Elwa||St. Asaph, N. Wales.|
|†||Embricum, or Embrica||Emmeric, Duchy of Cleves, Germany.|
|*||Engaddi, or Engebal||A place in Switzerland.|
|*||Erfordiæ||Erfurt, Upper Saxony.|
|†||Erfurtum||Erfurt, Upper Saxony.|
|*||Ergoviæ. Same as Beronis Villæ.|
|*||Essii, Æssii, and Œxii||Jesi, in Ancona, Italy.|
|495 *||Esslingæ||Eslingen, Suabia, Wirtemberg.|
|*||Eustadii, or Eistetæ||Neustadt, Germany.|
|†||Faventia||Faenza, or Fayence, Italy.|
|†||Firmium, or Firmum Picenum||Ferma, Italy.|
|*||Fivizani||A town in Italy.|
|†||Fontanetum Comitis||Fontenai-le-Comte, France.|
|*||Forilivii. The ancient Forum Livii||Forli, Italy.|
|†||Forum Cornelii||Imola, Italy.|
|†||Franco-Furtum-ad-Mœnum||Franckfort on the Maine, Germany.|
|†||Franco-Furtum-ad-Oderam||Franckfort on the Oder, Germany.|
|*||Friuli. Anciently Forojulium and Forojuliensis Civitas||Capital of the Frioul.|
|Gabani. See Aureliani.|
|*||Gandavi||Gand or Ghent, Flanders.|
|†||Gandia||A sea-port, Valentia, Spain.|
|*||Genennæ and Genevæ||Geneva.|
|*||Gondæ, or Goudæ||Turgow, Holland.|
|†||Gotha||A town of Upper Saxony.|
|†||Gottinga and Tullifurdum||Gottingen, Lower Saxony.|
|*||Grudisca||A town in the county of Goritz, Germany.|
|Gratiæ portus||Havre-de-Grace, France.|
|†||Gripswaldia||Gripswald, Swedish Pomerania.|
|†||Groninga||Groningen, United Provinces.|
|*||Hafniæ and Codaniæ||Copenhagen, Denmark.|
|Haga Comitis—H. Com:||The Hague.|
|†||Hala Magdeburgica, or||, Holland.|
|*||Hamburgii||Hamburg, a free imperial city of Lower Saxony, in the duchy of Holstein.|
|496||Hannonia||Hainault, Low Countries.|
|*||Hanoviæ||Probably the same with Hagenoæ.|
|*||Hasselti||Hasselt, Liege, Germany.|
|Helenopolis||Franckfort upon the Main.|
|†||Helmestadium||Helmestadt, Brunswick, Germany.|
|*||Herbipoli||Wurtzburg, Franconia, Germany.|
|*||Ilardæ||Lerida, Catalonia, Spain.|
|*||Inspruc||A town of Germany, in the Tyrol.|
|†||Isca Damnoniorum||Exeter, Devonshire.|
|Isurium||Aldborough, Yorkshire, or Boroughbridge, Yorkshire.|
|*||Januæ. See Genuæ.|
|†||Jena||A strong town of Upper Saxony, in Thuringia.|
|*||Koburgi. See Coburgi.|
|*||Lantenaci and Landenaci||Loudeac, France.|
|*||Leeuwe||A fortified town of Austrian Brabant.|
|*||Leiriæ||Leiria, or Leria, Portugal.|
|*||Castr. Lemovicensi||Limoges, France.|
|Leovardiæ||Leuwarden, West Frieseland.|
|*||Leridæ. See Ilardæ.|
|*||Licii||Lecce, Naples, in Otranto.|
|*||Lodeaci. See Lantenaci.|
|*||Lubecæ||Lubec, Holstein, Lower Saxony.|
|497 *||Lucæ||Lucca, Italy.|
|†||Lugdunum Batavorum—L. Bat:—Lugd: Bat:—Lugdun: Batav:||Leyden, Holland.|
|†||Lundinum Scanorum||Lunden, Holstein, Lower Saxony.|
|*||Luneburgi||Lunenburg, Lower Saxony.|
|†||Lutetia—Lutet:||Paris. See Parisiis.|
|Lutetiæ Parisior:—Lutet: Par:||Paris.|
|†||Macerata||A town in the marquisate of Ancona, Italy.|
|Machlinia||Meckelen, Dutch Brabant.|
|Malines, French Brabant.|
|Magontia||Mentz, Mayence, Germany.|
|†||Manhemium||Manheim, palatinate of the Rhine, Germany.|
|†||Mantua Carpetanorum||Madrid. See Madriti.|
|†||Marpurgum||Marpurg, Hesse-Cassel, Germany.|
|Metelli castrum||Middleburg, Zealand.|
|*||Moguntiæ—Mogunt:||Mayence or Mentz, Germany.|
|*||Monast. Montis Serrati||Mount Serrat. A very high mountain in Spain, on which is an ancient monastery, dedicated to the Virgin Mary.|
|Mons Badonicus||Bath, Somersetshire.|
|†||Mons-Monachorum||A place near Bamberg, Bohemia.|
|†||Mons Regalis||Mont Real or Mont Royal, Sicily.|
|†||Mons-Regius, or Regiomons||Konigsberg, Prussia.|
|Mons Rosarum||Montross, Scotland.|
|Mons Solis||Bath, Somersetshire.|
|Montes||Mons, Low Countries.|
|*||Nannetibus||Nantz or Nantes, France.|
|Neoportus||Newport, Isle of Wight.|
|*||Nonantulæ||Nonente? a small town in the duchy of Modena, Italy.|
|*||Norimbergæ—Norimb:||Nuremberg, Franconia, Germany.|
|*||Novæ Pilznæ||Pilsen, Bohemia.|
|*||Noviomagii||Nimeguen, Dutch Guelderland.|
|*||Novis||Novi, Genoa, Italy.|
|*||Nozani||Nizza, Lucca, Italy.|
|†||Olysippo, or Ulisippo||Lisbon. See Ulyssipone.|
|†||Onate, or Ognatæ||In Spain.|
|*||Oppenheimii||Oppenheim, Palatinate of the Rhine, Germany.|
|*||Ortonnæ||Ortona del Mare, Sicily.|
|*||Palentiæ, or Palencia||A town of Spain, in Leon.|
|*||Pampelunæ and Pompeiopoli||Pampeluna, Spain.|
|*||Papiæ and Ticini||Pavia, Italy.|
|*||Pataviæ vel Passavii||Passau, Bavaria.|
|Pax Augusta||Badajos, Spain.|
|†||Petropolis||St. Petersburg, Russia.|
|*||Pheibiæ. See Plebisacii.|
|Pheugarum||Halberstadt, Lower Saxony.|
|Pintia Vaccæorum||Valladolid, Spain.|
|*||Pisæ||Pisa, Tuscany, Italy.|
|*||Pisciæ||Pescia, Tuscany, Italy.|
|*||Placentiæ||Placentia or Placenza, Italy.|
|*||Plebisacii and Pheibiæ||Piobe de Sacco, Italy.|
|*||Polliano||A town of Italy, in the Veronese.|
|†||Pollianum Rus.||See Polliano.|
|499 *||Pompeiopoli. See Pampelunæ.|
|†||Pompelon. See Pampelunæ.|
|†||Pons Oeni||Inspruck, Tyrol, Germany.|
|*||Portesii||Portici, a village near Naples; or Portenza, a town of ditto.|
|Quercetum||Quesnoy, Low Countries.|
|Quintinopolis||S. Quintin, Picardy.|
|†||Quitoa||Quito, Peru, South America.|
|†||Redones, or Condate||Rennes, France.|
|*||Reenen||Reinen, Venetian territory.|
|†||Regiomons. See Mons Regius.|
|†||Regium Lepidi. See Regii.|
|†||Remi||Reims, or Rheims, France.|
|*||Reutlingæ||Reutlingen, Swabia, Wirtemberg.|
|Rhodopolis||Rostock, Lower Saxony.|
|Rosarum urbs||Rostock, Lower Saxony.|
|*||Rostochii||Rostock, Mecklenberg, Lower Saxony.|
|†||Rubens Mons||A Priory of the order of Clugny.|
|†||Sæna||Sienna, Tuscany. See Senia.|
|†||Sætobris||Setuval Setubal, St. Ubes, Portugal.|
|*||Salmanticæ||Salamanca, Leon, Spain.|
|†||Sanctus Ursius. See Ursius Sanctus.|
|Santonum portus||Rochelle, France.|
|*||Savonæ||Savona, Genoa, Italy.|
|†||Segodunum. See Rutheni.|
|†||Segontia||Siguenza, New Castile, Spain.|
|*||Soncini||Soncino, in the Cremonese, Italy.|
|*||Soræ, vel Soriæ||Whether Sora a town of Naples, or Soria a town of Spain, in Old Castile, is not known.|
|Sorbiodunum and Sorviodunum||Salisbury, Wiltshire.|
|500 *||Monast. Sortem||A monastery of the Præmonstrants, in Suevia, in Germany.|
|†||Stockholmia and Holmia||Stockholm, Sweden.|
|†||Subiacus||Sublac, or Subbiaco, a monastery in the Campagna di Roma.|
|†||Taraco||Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain.|
|*||Tarrazonæ||Tarazona, Arragon, Spain.|
|†||Telo Martius||Toulon, France.|
|Theoci curia||Tewksbury, Gloucestershire.|
|Theonis villa||Thionville, Luxemburg.|
|Theodorodunum and Theorodunum||Wells, Somersetshire.|
|*||Thessalonicæ||Salonichi, the ancient Thessalonica, Macedonia.|
|†||Ticinum. See Papiæ.|
|†||Tigurum and Tigurinus Pagus||Zuric, Switzerland.|
|Tileburgum||Tilbury, on the Thames.|
|*||Toleti||Toledo, New Castile, Spain.|
|†||Tolosa-Palladia-Tectosagum||Toulouse, France. It was not at this town, but a small town of Biscaye, that the editions printed in the fifteenth century with the imprint Tolosæ were executed.|
|*||Trajecti. See Ultrajecti.|
|Trajecti ad Oderam||Frankfort upon the Oder.|
|Trajecti ad Rhenum—Traj: ad Rhen:||Utrecht, Holland.|
|Trajecti Batavorum—Traj: Bat:||Utrecht, Holland.|
|†||Trajectum ad Mosam||Maestricht, Netherlands.|
|†||Tranquebaria||Tranquebar, coast of Coromandel, Hindostan.|
|†||Trevi apud Ancones.||See Trevii.|
|*||Trevii||Trevi, Umbria, Italy.|
|*||Tubingæ||Tubingen, Swabia, Wirtemberg.|
|*||Tusculani Lacus Benaci||Tusculanum, Lombardy. [? Tusculum, now Frescati.]|
|Tybur. Tyburis||Tivoli, Italy.|
|*||Tzennæ. See Zinnæ.|
|†||Ulisippo. See Ulyssipone.|
|*||Ultrajecti—Ult: Ultraj:||Utrecht, United Provinces.|
|†||Upsale||In Upland, Sweden.|
|†||Ursius Sanctus||A place near Vicenza.|
|†||Urso||Ossuna, Andalusia, Spain.|
|501 *||Utini||Udino, Venetian Friuli, Italy.|
|*||Vallisoleti||Valladolid, Old Castile, Spain.|
|†||Venetia. See Venetiis.|
|Venta Belgarum||Winchester, Hampshire.|
|Veredunum. Verodunum||Verdun, Lorraine.|
|†||Vesontio||Besançon, France. See Bisuntii.|
|*||Viennæ Austriæ||Vienna or Wien, the metropolis of Austria.|
|*||Viennæ in Delphinatu||Vienne, Dauphiny.|
|Viennæ Pannoniæ||Vienna, Austria.|
|Villa Faustini||St. Edmond’s Bury.|
|†||Vilna||Wilna, Lithuania, Poland.|
|Vindinum||Cenomanum or Subdinum, Mans, the capital of La Sarthe.|
|Vinegia—Vin: Vineg:||Venice, Italy.|
|*||Viqueriæ||Viqueria, probably some town in Italy. Some think that Voghera, in the duchy of Milan, is meant.|
|†||Vittemberga, or Vittebarea||Wittemberg, Germany.|
|†||Vratislavia||Breslaw, Silesia, Germany.|
|Warovie. Warsavia||Warsaw, Poland.|
|*||Xericæ||“Yerica.—Oppid. nobili in regno Valentino. Panzer. (Serigo?) I know nothing more of this place.”—Dr. A. Clarke.|
|*||Zamoræ||Zamora, Leon, Spain.|
|†||Zamoscium||Zamoski, a strong town of Poland, in Red Russia, now the Austrian kingdom of Lodomeria.|
|*||Zinnæ or Tzennæ||A monastery belonging to the order of Cistercian monks in Saxony.|
|*||Zwollis||Zwoll, Overyssel, United Provinces.|
Unexpected alphabetization such as “Trecis” after “Trajectum” is in the original. In the modern names, “Chablies” is consistently spelled that way. Missing diacritical marks, especially umlauts in German cities, are unchanged. Missing or invisible punctuation has been silently supplied.
Ansloe or Opsloe, now Christiania, Norway.
text has “Christiana”
[It is now once again called Opsloe, with spelling simplified to Oslo.]
text unchanged: expected Caersallog
Canonium Chelmsford, Essex.
[Error of fact: Canonium is Kelvedon; Chelmsford was ‘Cæsaromagus’.]
Civitas Austriæ Not Vienna in Austria, but a city of Friul in the state of Venice.
text unchanged: expected “Friuli”
Hala Magdeburgica Hasderwick, Holland.
text unchanged: expected “Harderwick”
Magontiacum Mentz, or Mayence, Germany.
“or” printed in plain (non-italic) type
Monsalbanus . . . Monsdolorosus
text unchanged: expected “Mons Albanus”, “Mons Dolorosus” in two words
Pollianum Rus. See Polliano.
[Did the author fail to notice that “Polliano” is the immediately preceding line, so the two names could perfectly well have been bracketed together, as is done elsewhere?]
Phorcæ . . . Promentour
[Both are blank in the Modern column.]
Sætobris Setuval or Setubal, St. Ubes, Portugal.
“or” printed in plain (non-italic) type
Zamoscium Zamoski, a strong town of Poland, in Red Russia, now the Austrian kingdom of Lodomeria.
[It is not every day you see “Red Russia” in texts predating 1917.]
The technical name of a piece of furniture equal in width to a narrow quotation.
Explanation of some Terms used in Natural History.
|Amphibious.||Capable of living by land or water.|
|Animalcules.||Small animals, generally invisible without the assistance of the microscope.|
|Annulated.||Marked with rings.|
|Antlers.||Horns overhanging the brows.|
|Aquatic.||Living or growing in the water.|
|Bifid.||Divided into two parts, or cleft.|
|Bimaculated.||With two spots, or two series of spots.|
|Bivalve.||With two shells or openings.|
|Callosity.||A hard lump, an excrescence.|
|Canine.||Belonging to the dog kind.|
|Carinated.||In the shape of a keel.|
|Carnivorous.||Feeding on flesh.|
|Cartilaginous.||Furnished with cartilages.|
|Cere.||A skin over the bill of birds; sometimes movable, as in parrots.|
|Cetaceous.||Of the whale kind.|
|Cinereous.||Of the colour of ashes.|
|Columbine.||Belonging to the dove kind.|
|Crustaceous.||Covered with a crust; as lobsters, &c.|
|Digitated.||Having the feet divided into parts, like toes or fingers, as in dogs.|
|Dorsal.||Belonging to the back.|
|Exsanguineous.||Without blood, as worms.|
|Entomology.||A description of insects.|
|Feline.||Belonging to the cat kind.|
|Ferruginous.||Of an iron or rust colour.|
|Frugivorous.||Feeding on seeds.|
|Gallinaceous.||Belonging to the hen kind.|
|Gestation.||The time of going with young.|
|Granivorous.||Feeding on grain.|
|Herbivorous.||Feeding on grass.|
|Ichthyology.||A description of fishes.|
|Imbricated.||Tiled or plated over each other.|
|Incubation.||The act of a bird sitting on her eggs.|
|Insectivorous.||Feeding on insects.|
|Lateral.||Belonging to the side, placed sideways.|
|Migratory.||Coming and going at certain seasons.|
|Multivalve.||With many shells or openings.|
|Nascent.||Very young, growing.|
|Nictitating.||Winking; applied to a membrane with which birds cover their eyes at pleasure.|
|Obfuscated.||Of a darkish colour.|
|Olfactory.||Relating to smell.|
|Ornithology.||A description of birds.|
|Parturition.||The act of bringing forth young.|
|Passerine.||Belonging to the sparrow kind.|
|Pectoral.||Belonging to the breast.|
|Piscivorous.||Feeding on fishes.|
|Predaceous.||Formed to pursue prey.|
|Quadrifid.||Divided into four parts.|
|Ruminating.||Chewing the cud.|
|Semilunar.||In the form of a half-moon.|
|503 Subulated.||Formed like an awl.|
|Testaceous.||Covered with a shell; as oysters, &c.|
|Truncated.||Appearing as if cut off.|
|Univalve.||With one shell or opening.|
|Ventral.||Belonging to the belly.|
|Viviparous.||Bringing forth the young alive.|
|Webbed.||Connected with a membrane, as the claws of aquatic birds.|
|Zoologists.||Writers on animated nature.|
|Zoology.||The history of animated nature.|
|Zoophite.||An animal plant, or sensitive vegetable.|
9 Geo. 4. c. 66. s. 2. “And whereas the Publication of the Nautical Almanack, constructed by proper Persons for the finding of the Longitude at Sea, is of great Importance to the Safety of Ships and Persons, and highly conducive to the general Interests of Commerce and Navigation; be it therefore enacted, That it shall and may be lawful to and for the Lord High Admiral, or the Commissioners for executing the Office of Lord High Admiral, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, for the Time being, to cause such Nautical Almanacks, or other useful Table or Tables, which he or they shall from Time to Time judge necessary and useful in order to facilitate the Method of discovering the Longitude at Sea, to be constructed, printed, published, and vended, free of all Stamp Duty whatever, in the same Manner as the Commissioners under the said Act of the Fifty-eighth Year of His late Majesty’s Reign might or could do; and that every Person who, without the special Licence and Authority of the Lord High Admiral or Commissioners for executing the Office of Lord High Admiral aforesaid for the Time being, to be signified under the Hand of the Secretary of the Admiralty for the Time being, shall print, publish, or vend, or cause to be printed, published, or vended, any such Almanack or Almanacks, or other Table or Tables, shall, for every Copy of such Almanack or Table so printed, published, or vended, forfeit and pay the Sum of Twenty Pounds, to be recovered with Costs of Suit, by any Person to be authorized for that Purpose by the Lord High Admiral or Commissioners for executing the Office of Lord High Admiral aforesaid, (such Authority to be signified under the Hand of the Secretary of the Admiralty as aforesaid,) by Action of Debt, Bill, Plaint, or Information, in any of His Majesty’s Courts of Record at Westminster; and that the Proceeds of the said Penalty, when recovered, shall be paid and applied to the Use of the Royal Hospital for Seamen at Greenwich.”
That cheek of the press which is on the side at which the pressmen stand to beat and pull.
So much of the punch as is sunk into the matrice is called the neck; and when that letter is cast of metal, it is so much as comes above the square of the shank, viz. above the beard.—M.
—M. The same as our Case Racks, which see.
A printing office in which newspapers only are printed; a term used to distinguish them from book houses and job houses.
The following report on the regular mode of working on Newspapers, contains much interesting information respecting this branch of the printing business.
I feel gratified in being able to give a copy of it, as it is little known beyond the circle of the newspaper department, and I am satisfied it will prove serviceable to the trade at large, for newspapers are now frequently printed in book houses, where the regulations connected with them are not generally known: and I also think I am acting in accordance with the motives of the Committee that drew it up, in giving it more publicity; for they say, a Committee was appointed “to draw up, and circulate, for the information of the trade, a statement of the regular mode of working on newspapers—‘to guide the ignorant, to guard the unwary;’ to assist them in their labours, and to maintain that harmony which should ever subsist between two branches in one profession.” And, “your Committee have extracted from, or inserted 504 at length, every document relating to regulations or prices since 1785, which they trust will not be considered uninteresting, and, handed down as records, may yet be useful.”
“Of a Committee appointed to draw up a Statement of the regular Mode of working on Newspapers, for the Information of the Trade; to examine Documents, and to report the same.—Read July 29, 1820.
“The object which your Committee were directed to accomplish (that of giving a fair scale of work, mode, time, and price, on all Newspapers, wherever published) has been entered into with zeal on their parts, and they trust will be found to your satisfaction. They have examined the bases of all official agreements, and all acknowledged and understood rules; and have particularly adhered to their instructions, by keeping in view, ‘that it was to guide the ignorant, to prevent the evil intentions of the unprincipled, and, if possible, to form a closer bond of union among yourselves.’
“Laws are rendered more sacred, more valid, by age; and in performance of the task assigned them, the Committee commenced their labours by tracing the Regulations for News Work back to a certain period, in order to support them in their declaration, that they had been introduced on fair principles, that they had been cordially agreed to by the Masters, had been acted upon by the employed for so great a length of time, and that any innovation made on those regulations by an employer, or set of men acting for themselves, without the concurrence of the general body of News Compositors, should be opposed, and those concerned in such an attempt treated as enemies to their fellow-workmen, and marked as acting inimically to the interests of their profession.
“It was necessary for your Committee, for the maintenance of the superstructure, to examine its foundation; with this view they have, from oral testimony, been enabled to collect the size and price of various Newspapers from 1770. They consisted of 16 small columns, some 18, some 19, and others 20 ems Long Primer wide. The galley was 130 or 132 lines, and 50 after-lines, Long Primer; Brevier galley 96, after-lines 38. (The only exception was the old Daily Advertiser, which contained 12 columns of 25 ems Long Primer wide, the galley in proportion.) The prices were, full hands 27s.; supernumeraries 13s.; galley 2s. 2d.; 5d. per thousand; and over hours 6d. Supernumeraries (a term which explains itself) were not known ten years prior to this date. Most of the papers were small folios; and as they were nearly all connected with, or done in Book-houses, the eldest apprentice, upon a press of matter, was usually called in to assist. Upon the subdivision of the labour into galleys, and the size of the papers extending, a man was employed if any deficiency arose in the quantity required. Advertisements increased; the use of small type was extended, and the Supernumerary became a fixture.
“Prior to 1776, controversial essays, domestic news, and extracts from the official communications in the London Gazette, appear to have filled the small columns of the Journals; but the American war commencing this year, they assumed a new consequence, by first venturing to give daily Reports of the Debates in Parliament.
“In 1777 there were seven Morning Papers, eight of three times, one twice a week, and two weekly. The first Sunday Paper came out in 1778; in a few weeks it was followed by a second: and a third was brought out in the succeeding year. The weekly Journals paid 24s. In 1780 a new Daily Journal arose, with a different appearance from the others, which seems to have induced a further alteration. The prices remained the same, but the employment of more hands was rendered necessary. The hour of beginning varied, some commencing business at eleven, others at two, and some so late as three o’clock.
“In 1784, the first year after the peace, another Journal started for public favour, in which Minion was introduced. The old method of display was discarded, a new taste appeared in the arrangement of the matter in the inner form, and the former advertisement style was completely exploded. Rivalry commenced, and the other Newspapers soon made a correspondent change. Your Committee have thus reached the period when they meet with the first printed document relating to the composing part of the printing business. It is a request, in the form of a Circular, by the body of Compositors, for an advance of one halfpenny (Book-work being then paid 4d. per 1000), dated April 6, 1785, and consisting of eight propositions; which were not finally determined upon by the Employers till the 25th of November following. The proposition and answer relating to News-work were as follow:
“‘Prop. 4. That the Compositors employed on Daily Newspapers, now paid at the rate of 27s. per week, be in future paid 1l. 11s. 6d. per week, and over hours paid as at present—Answ. This cannot be a matter of general regulation, as the trouble of every paper differs from that of another.’505
“Your Committee have no other document of this date: it will be observed that the prices were low, and that the over hours were paid for; but it was considered impossible to make the request ‘a matter of general regulation,’ as every Journal differed in its trouble from another. The Book-men, however, received an advance of one-eighth, or 2s. 6d. in the pound, and the establishments in Book-houses varied from 1l. 1s. to 1l. 7s.
“1786.—The advance on Book-work commenced on the 1st of January, and in the month of March following the Newsmen, on Daily Papers only, received a rise of 4s. 6d., which made the price for full hands 1l. 11s. 6d., and for Supernumeraries 15s.; the galley 2s. 6d. A few Journals only of the other class rose to 27s. At this time there were eight Morning Papers, eight of three times a week, two Weekly, and three Sunday Journals. In 1788 the first Daily Evening Paper made its appearance, and the men received the same price as the Morning Papers; a second came out in 1791, and was paid in like manner.
“1793.—For a number of years the Compositors employed on Book-work had been labouring under an intolerable grievance, and although they did not demand a rise per thousand, requested, as a new regulation, that the head and direction lines of pages, and the en and em quadrats at the sides, should be paid for. Their Circular was dated the 14th January, and on the 11th March following, the masters agreed to the proposition of paying the head and direction lines, but not the ens and ems.
“The News department appears to have been in full employment at this period. By a strong competition for public favour (which commenced, as already observed, prior to the termination of the American war, and from the year 1785 to 1793), the Journals underwent a most material alteration. It was a remarkable epoch, including the most eventful seven years of the last century. The disarrangements, both civil and political, concomitant to a return to peace after a long war—the wars in India—the troubles in Germany, in Flanders, Brabant, Holland—the French Revolution—and the commencement of a war with France—all occurring within the dates just mentioned, caused a strong political feeling in the public mind; of course, information from all quarters was eagerly sought, and as readily given by the Editors of the Daily Journals, among whom, as with their readers, party spirit rose to its utmost height, and no expence was spared to gratify it. In this period nineteen new journals put forth their claims for public support—the majority, however, were ‘born but to die!’—two of the older Papers also expired; but their places were occupied by seven juniors. The number now amounted to eleven Morning and two Evening Papers; seven of three times a week, one Weekly, and five Sunday papers. An alteration in the method of display, and a new mode in the arrangement of the matter, became now very general. One Journal went beyond the rest, by its introduction of French rules, the small capitals for particular paragraphs, and discarding nearly all the double letters, and the long s. Your Committee are also enabled to state, by comparing the modes of work prior to 1785, with the necessary alterations at the period they have now mentioned, that a complete revolution was also effected in the nature of News-work. It became necessary, therefore, that the price should keep pace with the labour, and an advance was solicited. The first printed document, solely from Newsmen, is dated April 4, 1793, signed by 145 Newsmen, and their request was supported by the signatures of 281 Bookmen. It contains four propositions:—the first for an advance of 4s. 6d. per week on Morning and Evening papers; the second related to the hours of working and the charge for over-hours, which then was but 6d. per hour; the third, to Papers published three times a week; and the fourth, to supernumeraries, but it did not state their price. All these propositions were modified ten years afterwards.
“The address which accompanied these propositions, and the requests made in it, being so applicable to the present mode of work, your Committee are satisfied with defending every iota requited by their predecessors. Although twenty-seven years have elapsed since they were submitted to the employers, yet, if required at the present moment, the same arguments might be used in their support. In fact, they must be considered the foundation-stones of the edifice. Your Committee will introduce the document.
“London, April 4, 1793.
“‘The Compositors employed on Newspapers, impressed with the opinion of your candour in hearing and redressing any real grievances they may complain of, presume to submit to your consideration the following statement:
“‘Previous to the year 1786, the weekly salary of Daily Newspaper Compositors was 1l. 7s., a sum which, considering the regularity and moderation of the hours of attendance, was thought fully adequate to their trouble. Owing, however, to a competition for Public favour among the various newspapers, by giving a long detail of Parliamentary Debates, entering at large into the politics of Europe, and the irregularity 506 and uncertainty of the arrival of mails, the hours of attendance were necessarily increased, which, together with the enhanced price of Provisions, made an advance of salary necessary, and which was at that time cheerfully acquiesced in by the Proprietors of Daily Newspapers, as perfectly reasonable; but no advance was then given to Evening Papers.
“‘The Compositors on both Daily and Evening Papers, upon a comparative view of the trouble and attendance requisite at that period and at the present time, and the still increased price of the necessaries of life, humbly propose and request an addition to their Salary, which they trust the Gentlemen Proprietors of Newspapers will not think unreasonable, when the following circumstances are taken into consideration:
“‘That at the rate of twelve hours’ Composition, and at least two hours’ Distribution, the present Salary of Compositors employed on Daily Papers amounts to no more than Fourpence Halfpenny an hour, which, considering the irregular hours of attendance, working by night, and on Sundays, and of being constantly at command, the Compositors humbly think, and trust, the Gentlemen Proprietors of Newspapers will agree with them in opinion is by no means adequate to their labour.
“‘That as Compositors on Evening Papers obtained no advance in the year 1786, and that as their labour has been gradually increasing ever since that time, it is hoped their joining in the present application will not be thought unreasonable.
“‘It is humbly proposed, for the above reasons, that an increase should take place upon the Salaries of Compositors on Newspapers, in the following proportion, viz.
“‘I. That an advance of 4s. 6d. per week take place on the present Salary of every Compositor fully employed on Daily Papers.
“‘II. That if, owing to the length of Proceedings in Parliament, or other late Matter, the Compositors employed on Daily Papers should be detained above twelve hours on Saturday, to be reckoned from the time of beginning to compose on Friday, they be paid Sixpence per hour extra for the same, or an equal proportion of time allowed on Sunday, in the same manner as is usual on other Days of the Week.
“‘III. That 3s. be added to the present Weekly Salary of Compositors fully employed on Evening Papers published three times a week.
“‘IV. That the Salary of Supernumeraries employed on either of the above be increased in proportion.
“‘These, Sir, are the propositions submitted to you, to be laid before the Gentlemen Proprietors, not doubting but that the reasonableness of the Compositors’ demands will be evident to you, and that it will meet with your approbation and concurrence, especially when it is considered that the advance they require is so nearly proportionate to that lately obtained on Book-work.’
“It will be necessary to state that the terms Evening Papers used in this document, allude only to the desire expressed in the third proposition. The words Daily Newspapers, repeated in the second and fourth paragraphs of the Address, and in the first proposition, sufficiently show that no distinction was intended to be made between Daily Morning and Daily Evening Papers. But this request of the Newsmen did not seem to be answered with cordiality by the Masters, for your Committee have a copy of the Report of the News Committee, dated April 20, 1793, which, after mentioning the names of 15 Delegates present, at two in the afternoon, previous to the general meeting to be held at seven in the evening, states
“‘That, pursuant to a printed circular Letter, signed ‘JOHN BELL,’ the Committee adjourn to Anderton’s Coffee-house, to hold a conference as requested, on some Propositions laid before the Printers and Proprietors of Newspapers, by the Journeymen employed by them.—Adjourned accordingly.
“‘Six o’Clock, P.M.
“‘The Delegates having returned to the Hole-in-the-Wall, report to the General Meeting.
“‘That they met with the Representatives from the following Newspapers, viz.
“‘That these Gentlemen did not chuse to hold any conference on the Subject to which your Delegates were invited.
“‘That the professional Printers present, though personally requested, declined entering upon the Subject, the Discussion of which your Delegates were required to attend.
“‘That the above-mentioned John Bell, instead of attending to the Business to which they were expressly called, endeavoured to persuade them to accede to the following Resolutions, as particularly advantageous to the Employers and Employed, viz.507
“‘April 20, 1793.
“‘At an Adjourned Meeting of the Proprietors and Representatives of the Daily Newspapers, held this Day at Anderton’s Coffee-house, to consider the Propositions of the Daily Newspaper Compositors,
“‘Present,—The Representatives of the Ledger,—Herald,—World,—Morning Chronicle,—Oracle,—True Briton.
“‘Considering the Requisitions and Pretensions of the Newspaper Compositors in the most extensive and liberal Points of View, so far as they are connected with the fair Interests of their Employers, it was resolved, to recommend the Prices and Regulations in future for Newspaper work to be fixed on the following Plan:
“‘That each regular Compositor be paid One Pound Fourteen Shillings per Week.
“‘That the Hours of regular Attendance for composing, be from Three o’Clock in the Afternoon until the Paper goes to Press.
“‘That whenever the Time of going to Press shall exceed Three o’Clock in the Morning, the Times of Attendance on the same Day shall be in the following Manner, viz.
“‘When the Paper goes to Press at—
|3||to begin at||3|
“‘That the Supernumerary Compositors shall be allowed one Shilling per Week over and above their present Pay, supposing that such Supernumerary shall compose one Column per Day, and so in Proportion.
“‘That your Delegates felt the Indignity offered to them, but bore it with the Patience which the Justice of the cause in which they were engaged only could warrant.
“‘That your Delegates, with a becoming Dignity, rejected the Resolutions of the said John Bell.
“‘That your Delegates, from the Consideration of the Labour required, find their first Proposition unanswered, unopposed, and therefore just.’
“‘Ten o’Clock, P.M.
“‘The General Meeting unanimously approve of the Conduct of the Delegation; and further resolve,
“‘That the Original Propositions standing uncontroverted, the same be strictly adhered to.’
“The Resolution in the last paragraph of this Report was most rigidly adhered to; and your Committee cannot but lament, that the first attempt of your brethren to introduce Laws and Regulations for the reciprocal benefit of the employer and employed, was met by such proposition on the part of one Proprietor, that, in order to carry their point, they were obliged to enter into a Resolution that a general notice of quitting their situations, according to the custom of the trade, should be given. Before the expiration of the fortnight, however, an accommodation was proposed by the Employers individually; but upon the principle that a material difference existed, both in labour and comfort, between an Evening and a Morning Paper, the Newsmen agreed to a distinction being made in the price. Morning Papers received the sum required of 4s. 6d., but Evening Papers only 2s. 6d. The wages of the former were 1l. 16s.; Supernumeraries 17s.; the galley 2s. 10d.: the Evening Papers were 34s.; Supernumeraries 16s.; the galley 2s. 8d. Within this period the term Assistants was first recognized. Your Committee are not enabled to state whether any satisfactory agreement was entered into with respect to the second Proposition of the Journeymen relating to the commencing work on Sundays. It would appear that they only requested that day’s indulgence, for they already possessed it on the others. Some of the Journals at this time paid but 6d. per hour, while others, more liberal, paid on those of the Morning 7½d. and on the Evening 7d. for over-hours or Assistants.
“In the month of October, 1793, the same year of the rise, your Committee find that the Journeymen had occasion, from the accumulation of labour on Daily Newspapers, to object to the employment of Apprentices, as a strong desire was evinced, at this period, of returning to the system, by employing run-aways, or turn-overs, as they were denominated. The Employers conceiving they had been forced to accede to the rise in the month of April preceding, appeared determined to take advantage of the men, by paying themselves for their defeat by the difference of price between Apprentices and Journeymen. Suspicion had been long awake that some innovation was intended, and the scheme soon developed itself; the Newsmen assembled, and entered into certain Resolutions, which, with a statement of their case, were sent round the Trade for the concurrence or disapproval of the Bookmen. They were readily adopted 508 by the latter, and your Committee present an Extract from the Journeymen’s Address, and their Resolutions.
“‘October 1, 1793.
“‘Can any reasonable Advocate be found for the Introduction of Apprentices on Newspapers? We do not believe there can.—A Companionship on a Newspaper, distinct and different in its Nature from Book-work, requires equal Attention, equal Exertion, and equal Interest. And can this be expected (we ask) from an Apprentice? Companionships find it their mutual interest to be watchful over each other, and see that each does an equal share; which, if not done, is easily remedied among themselves. But who is it that will say this can be done with an Apprentice? A Journeyman must be attentive, or, from the Representations of his Companions, he loses his situation. But how is this to take place in regard to Apprentices? If complaints are made to the Printer, how can he rectify them? It is evident to us that he cannot. Your time of employment is not to be forced on an Apprentice; he can refuse to work either by Night or on Sunday, and be justified in his refusal; and Magistrates must sanction him. Indeed, experience has proved that it is generally impossible to keep an Apprentice to the Business on a Newspaper with regularity; they have no interest to bind them; they have no obligation to compel them. Need there be a further Argument used in support of our opinion? We trust not. Under these circumstances, then, there is only one thing remaining for us to recommend—to unite in a firm Phalanx, and to be unanimous.’
“‘I. That Newspaper printing, being necessarily conducted by Companionships, requires in each Companion corresponding abilities, corresponding modes of reasoning, and corresponding interests.
“‘II. That an Apprentice, not being at liberty to act for himself, cannot be supposed to possess an equal and independent mode of reasoning, and therefore has not a corresponding interest.
“‘III. That the introduction of an Apprentice upon a Newspaper will occasion a clashing of interests, which may, in the end, prove highly detrimental, not only to the Companionship, but to the Property on which they are engaged, and likewise to the whole body of Compositors, by enlarging the field for the employment of Apprentices.
“‘IV. That therefore the Compositors on Newspapers are firmly and decidedly of opinion, that an Apprentice is by no means an adequate Companion.
“‘V. And therefore they will resist, to the utmost of their power, any attempt (if any such attempt should happen) to obtrude an Apprentice upon them.’
“The system, however, commenced in the month of October, upon one Journal, which lasted about five years—and upon another which continued nearly eleven years; but in the end you were successful; and men were again engaged upon these Journals on a fair principle. The fate of some who had worked with the boys should have served as a warning—they were neglected, despised, and ultimately driven from the profession. Your Committee cannot refrain from congratulating the Journeymen of that period on their unanimity and perseverance; and at this moment, upon a due consideration of the present state of our business, rejoice in their patriotism, and return thanks to every individual now in being concerned in the opposition given to the attempt.
“1801.]—Your Committee have thus led you to the conclusion of the second period of seven years, through the whole of which the country was engaged in a war with nearly all the European quarter of the globe, and, as has been stated for 1793, your labour increased with the demand for news by the public, and by the struggles of the Journals for pre-eminence, which, added to the alarming price of provisions and all other family requisites, made it again necessary to solicit an advance of wages. In the month of November, 1800, the Book-men requested a rise, and certain regulations applicable to their department. It was granted to the amount of 1-6th, and took place on the 1st of January, 1801. Shortly after, almost gratuitously, the News department received an advance of 1-9th (or 4s.) on Morning, and 1-11th (or 3s.) on Evening Papers. The former were now 2l.; Supernumeraries 19s.; per galley 3s. 2d.; Assistants 9½d. per hour; the Evening, 1l. 17s.; Supernumeraries 17s.; per galley 2s. 10d.; Assistants 8½d. per hour.
“Thus terminated the third rise from 1785. In this period several disputes occurred; but your Committee will only repeat those relating to the general interest. From the extensive sale of some of the Evening Papers, the work was obliged to be performed in a manner that, from its evil tendency, required some modification; the hours for composition were not so well defined as hereafter they appear to have been, and the following 509 Resolution, as applicable to Evening Papers, was agreed to among the Newsmen; ‘That all composition cease when the day’s publication goes to press—all work afterwards to be paid for as extra, or deducted from the first work of the next publication.’ This did not apply to the second or third editions of the day’s paper; that being completed, those additions could have no claim on the following publication. The quantity and quality of the matter were also better defined within this period. Brevier was the smallest type till 1784, when Minion was introduced; and the adequate number of lines, by their proportion to Long Primer and width of column, were regulated by the Companionships and their Printers. This continued till 1793, when the different proportions were generally understood, and a printed graduated Scale for Long Primer, Brevier, and Minion, according to width, was found in each News-house. This appears to have been requisite, as your Committee learn, that, from 1789, it was the custom on some Journals to widen their columns, during the sitting of Parliament, one or two ems, and reducing them in the recess. At this date a misunderstanding still existed relative to the hour of beginning on Sundays. Certain regulations were adopted respecting the twelve hours’ work (including refreshment time, galley and ‘lines,’ and correcting), and the time of commencing on that day.—Your Committee must observe, that the Compositors employed on Morning Papers at this period were not uniform in their hours of beginning on Sundays, and disputes frequently occurred on that point. This might have arisen from the different temper and politics of the Journals on which they were engaged; some entering at length on the Friday night’s Debates in Parliament, Foreign News, &c., while others were content with giving the Public a moderate portion of both. Competition, however, soon made the labour on the Journals equal, and, in 1803, the hour of commencing on the Sunday, regulated by the Saturday’s finish, became general.
“Your Committee also state that they have endeavoured to trace the origin of what are termed the ‘after-lines’ of the first work; tradition has vaguely assisted them in their research. They learn that they were general in 1777, but differing in amount. The term is not mentioned in the Propositions of 1793, but is acknowledged in the Regulations before mentioned; your Committee are therefore led to conclude that they arose with the subdivision of labour on the smaller Papers, prior to 1770, and suppose that custom, arising from local convenience, sanctioned their adoption by your predecessors.
“1809.]—In pursuing their plan, your Committee observe nothing of material consequence occurring in the News department till the year 1809, when the still-increasing price of provisions rendered it necessary for the Compositors to solicit a rise of prices, and on the 19th of May the Newsmen issued a Circular, addressed ‘To the Proprietors of Newspapers,’ requesting an advance of 1-5th on their wages,—i.e. 8s. per week on Morning, and 6s. per week on Evening Papers.
“In the two former Circulars, certain propositions were submitted, to be accepted, modified, or rejected; but the present one was accompanied by the first and regular Scale for News Work, and signed by 198 Newsmen. Your Committee will introduce an extract from the introductory paragraphs and the Scale itself, which completed the edifice you had long laboured to rear.
“After stating the necessity the Newsmen were under of soliciting the assistance of the Employers to enable them, by their industry, to make their existence comfortable, they point out the moderation of their request, by giving a comparative statement of the prices for family necessaries, between 1793 and 1809, by which it appeared, that in sixteen years they were nearly doubled. They further add, that
“‘It has been observed by the Duke of Portland, in his letter to the Lord Lieutenant of Oxford, that ‘there is no reason why the labour of the Handicraftsman, the Mechanic, and the Artizan, should not keep pace with the advance on the articles of the Farmer, Grazier,’ &c. Upon this principle, the justice of which is too evident to need the smallest comment, might we not calculate, as Morning Papers, in 1793, were paid 36s., and Evening Papers 34s. that we should now receive nearly 3l. 12s. on the Morning Papers, instead of 2l.; and nearly 3l. 8s. instead of 1l. 17s. on the Evening?
“‘There is another consideration to which we must beg to call your attention; at the time of the last advance a ratio of one-sixth was obtained on all works in Book*-houses, which proportion was not received by those employed on Newspapers; four shillings only being granted on Morning Papers, which before that time were 36s., and three shillings on Evening Papers, which previously were 34s., being only one-ninth on the former, and scarcely an eleventh on the latter. These circumstances, together with the great increase of labour on Papers of late years, arising from the introduction of so large a portion of small letter, are considerations which, we hope, will not be passed over without that deliberation they deserve.
“‘From an impartial view of the comparative statements and the proposed advance, 510 it will be seen that we have kept perfectly within the limits prescribed by justice. We have pursued this line of conduct from a solicitude to avoid the introduction of any thing which might prevent your ready compliance with our request.
|Daily Morning Papers to be paid||£2||8||0|
|Per Galley on ditto||0||3||9½|
|Daily Evening Papers||2||3||0|
|Per Galley on Ditto||0||3||7|
“‘That Ten Hours Composition be the specific time for Daily Evening Papers.
“‘That Assistance be paid at per Hour in proportion to the sum per Galley, considering the Galley as Four Hours Composition.
“‘Papers Three Times a-Week, and Weekly Papers, to take an advance in proportion to that on Evening Papers.
“‘☞ That the above advance do take place from Saturday the 3d of June, 1809.’
“This request was verbally and negatively answered in the different News Houses, and the 3d of June passed over as if no solicitation for a rise of prices had been made. The Journeymen felt the necessity of perseverance, and the following Circular was sent to the Employers, dated June 13, signed by the same number of men:
“‘Gentlemen,—We cannot help expressing our surprise at the manner in which our request has been passed over; nearly a month has elapsed, and no answer has been communicated. Had we in our Scale gone further than the urgency of the times renders necessary, or had we neglected to shew that respect which your situations in life require, we might have anticipated such indifference; but feeling our conduct not liable to such objection, we are entirely at a loss to assign any motive for the want of attention to our present circumstances; and we feel ourselves under the necessity of requesting an answer by Saturday next; a noncompliance with which will be considered as a refusal of our propositions.’
“This second Circular received no answer, and on the 20th of June, the regular notice of quitting was given to the different Printers; but before the fortnight had elapsed, each Journeyman received a copy of a Report of a Committee of Masters, dated June 30, accompanied by a string of Resolutions, but not meeting the request of the men.
“Your Committee regret that the document is too voluminous for insertion, but they will make a few extracts in furtherance of their present object. It commences with stating, that ‘A General Meeting of the Proprietors of London Morning and Evening Papers was held this day (June 30, 1809), Mr. Stuart in the Chair, to take into consideration the Report of the Committee appointed to enquire into, and report their opinion upon the Circular Letter of the Compositors, respecting certain alleged grievances, and demanding an advance of Wages; present five Daily Morning, and five Daily Evening Papers,’ and that the said Report was read.—To answer the above-mentioned ‘Circular Letter,’ eleven paragraphs are given, and a comparative Table of the Prices of Necessaries, from 1793 to 1809, in contradiction to that given in by the Journeymen.
“The first paragraph condemns the strong spirit evinced by the men in demanding so large a rise as 20 per cent. on their labour; and protests against the ‘Scale proposed,’ as containing ‘Rules and Restrictions new to the Trade, and embarrassing to the Proprietors, while no reciprocal benefit or advantage is held out.’
“The second attempts to controvert the assertion of the Newsmen, that they ‘experienced difficulties in procuring the necessaries of life,’ by declaring it ‘a matter of surprise and regret, that any thing so unfounded should be advanced on so serious an occasion by a body of men, generally speaking, so intelligent and respectable;’ and after comparing your prices and situation with your Brethren on Book-work and other mechanics, conclude with stating, that
“‘Their claims to high wages do not rest on the difficulties in obtaining the necessaries of life, but on the disagreeable hours of labour. They make more money than falls to the lot of 39-40ths of the men in Britain, and they can procure not only all the necessaries of life, but even more of its comforts, than 99 out of every 100 men in Europe. It is lamentable to see men so insensible to the blessings of their situation!’
“Your Committee cannot congratulate you on the comforts or blessings of your situation; they leave to your own feelings the fallacy of assertions so hackneyed, and proceed to the third paragraph, which calls the quotation from the ‘Duke of Portland’s Letter,’ a ‘misrepresentation, and a pretended extract,’ and concludes with finding a meaning not intended by his Grace of Portland—‘that the arbitrary fixing of wages was a most alarming evil.’
“The fourth respects the statement of the prices of necessaries, and will not admit the 511 propriety of introducing the year 1793 in comparison with 1809, because the Compositors ‘then received all they asked, and a new compact was formed with them on their own terms.’ A difference appears in the Compositors statement and that of your Employers, for the year 1793, of !
“The fifth acknowledges the calculation for 1809 to be correct—10s. 4½d.; and as the prices for 1800 were 8s. 9½d., there only remained a difference of 1s. 6¾d. to 1809; a loss they conceived you might well bear ‘without incurring the penalties of starvation.’
“Your Committee feel it necessary to quote the sixth at length;—it needs no comment.
“‘The reference the Compositors make to the increased labour on Newspapers, in consequence of the introduction of small letter, is unjust, is absurd, and we cannot understand how they could allow so unfounded a complaint to escape them. The proprietors have always paid, and paid smartly too, for this introduction. The Compositors have limited hours of employment, limited quantities of work, and they compose only one number of letters, whether small or large, agreeably to the universal rule of the business.’
“The seventh mentions Apprentices, which your Committee will not repeat, considering that question set at rest.
“The eighth recommends that ‘the false assertions, groundless complaints, and extravagant pretensions of the Compositors should be met by a firm and determined resistance;’ and for fear that you should be intoxicated by success to demand ‘double wages,’ state, that they ‘have therefore considered a plan of establishing a society of Compositors under an Act of Parliament, connecting with it a benefit society, which, they are confident, will enable the trade to go on, and which they may hereafter submit to you;’ but without stating who were to be the honoured Members of such society.
“The ninth paragraph, after expressing the indignance of the Masters at the extravagant demands of the men, recommends that the wages should be put upon a footing with Book-work in 1800; acknowledging that the rise on the latter was 1-6th, while that on News-work was but 1-9th on Morning, and 1-11th on Evening Papers, and propose that 2s. per week should be added to the Morning Papers, but that only 1s. should be given to the Evening Papers, ‘the difference in the labour and hours of work being much more than 4s. per week.’
“The tenth recommends that no alteration in the hours of composition on Evening Papers be permitted.
“The eleventh expresses the anxiety of the Committee to give the Compositors a detailed answer, in order that the latter might clearly understand and appreciate their own interests; and the whole concludes with the following
“‘Resolved,—That the Report of the Committee now read be agreed to.
“‘Resolved,—That the Newspaper Compositors have not made out a case entitling them to a rise of wages; but that as they complain their rise in 1800 was not equal to the rise in Book Houses, a Regulation do now take place, putting them both on a footing.
“‘Resolved,—That as the labour on Morning is considerably heavier than on Evening Papers, the latter are not entitled to the same indulgence on this occasion as the former.
“‘Resolved,—That from Saturday the 15th of July, 1809, the wages of Compositors on Daily Morning Papers shall be two Guineas per week, and on daily Evening Papers Thirty-eight Shillings; and that the Galley on the former shall be Three Shillings and Four-pence, on the latter Three Shillings and Two-pence.
“‘Resolved,—That the Circular Letter of the Journeymen Compositors, together with the Report of the Committee of Masters and these Resolutions, signed by the Chairman, be printed in the form of a letter, and that some one Proprietor of each Newspaper shall personally deliver to each Compositor, while at work in his house, a Copy of the said printed Letter.
(Signed) “‘D. STUART, Chairman.
“‘Turk’s Head Coffee House, Strand,
June 30, 1809.’
“After some discussion, the Newsmen agreed to accept the offer made by the Proprietors in the Resolution above stated; but as the sums given were declared to be on the principle only of putting you on an equality with the Bookmen, in their advance in 1801, it was determined to continue united to support the original Propositions when an opportunity offered. This regulation gave the Morning Papers 2l. 2s.; 512 Supernumeraries 1l.; per galley 3s. 4d.; 10d. per hour; and Evening Papers 1l. 18s.; Supernumeraries 19s.; per galley 3s. 2d.; 9d. per hour.
“At this period the Book Compositors were soliciting a rise of 1-7th on their prices. The Newsmen were not long behind their brethren in claiming the same advance on their labour, and the long Report of the Masters, before mentioned, was answered, paragraph by paragraph, in a manner which must have convinced them, that if they would not allow the talent, they must acknowledge that all the justice in the dispute lay on your side. This answer is dated January 18, 1810. Your Committee cannot, in consequence of its length, insert it here, but, to suit their present purpose, will extract the answers to the second and fifth paragraphs.
“‘The profession of a man should be always equal to the support of himself and his family in a decent way. They should be supplied with not merely what will preserve animation, but what custom has rendered necessary for our comfort; and every man of family must feel the truth of the assertion—that at the present time he experiences difficulty in procuring such necessaries. With respect to the difference between the wages of Book and News Compositors, it will be observed, that the expences of a News Compositor are necessarily more than that of a Book Compositor, arising from the unseasonable hours of labour.—We believe the latter part of their paragraph will be found very deficient of truth; for there are but few mechanics with the same constant and regular exertion, but would equal, and exceed by far our incomes.’
“As the two dates given by the Journeymen for the prices of provisions were to be contradicted, they introduced three tables, and made a calculation by the rule of Subtraction. But the men were not to be deceived by this new system of Arithmetic, and combated by the old mode as follows:
“‘It would seem as if the sum of 1s. 6¾d. was considered as the loss we sustained in the course of a week; but it is the proportion it bears to 8s. 9½d.; and we find that it makes a difference in our weekly incomes of 7s. 1d., a sum which must be felt particularly by those having families.’
“The assertions made in the other paragraphs were most ably controverted, and your cause made doubly sure by the truths which accompanied its defence. The Employers never made a reply to it, because it was unanswerable; and your Committee cannot refrain from expressing their gratitude to all concerned in its production.
“1810.]—To proceed. The Book Masters acquiesced in the request of their Compositors for an advance, which was to take place on the 1st of May, and the Newsmen taking advantage of the acknowledgment made in the ninth paragraph before mentioned, demanded the rise of 1-7th to place them on an equality with their brethren in the Book department. Their request was not noticed. They still persevered, and to assist their cause the Bookmen came to a Resolution, that no man should apply for a situation on a Newspaper during the dispute.—Highly to their credit, and honourable to their character, not one application was made.
“The Newsmen still continued their exertions, and, on the 14th of May, the following proposition in MS. was presented to each Companionship:—
“‘The Proprietors of the Daily Newspapers, having taken the request of their Compositors for an advance of wages into consideration, and on referring to the whole series of rises from 1783, when Bookwork was 4d. per thousand, and Morning Papers were 1l. 7s. per week, find that 2l. 0s. 6d. on Morning Papers would be equal to 6d. per thousand, the present advanced price on Book-work.
“‘But the Proprietors unwilling wholly to disappoint the expectations of their Compositors, consent to give them an advance of 4s. on Morning Papers, and 3s. on Evening Papers, per week, making the wages on Morning Papers 2l. 6s. per man per week, and on Daily Evening Papers 2l. 1s.; to take place from Monday, May 21, 1810.’
“This was answered by the following Resolutions:
“‘At a General Meeting of the Compositors employed on Newspapers, held May 19, 1810, the following declarative Resolutions were agreed to unanimously:—
“‘Res. I. That in tracing our advances of wages from the year 1783 up to 1800, there not being extant any clear and certain records, and a perfect collection of documents containing all the circumstances, many important facts and transactions may be forgotten and lost.
“‘Res. II. That from the above consideration, it is evident, that to refer further back than 1800, in order to determine what ought to be the advance of wages on Newspapers, is unfair and improper; and it is contrary to right, according to the declared opinions of the Newspaper Proprietors themselves, as expressed (in a Report of their Committee, dated June 30, 1809, and generally circulated) in the following words of their own: ‘The Compositors have no right to refer further back than the year 1800, as they then received all they asked, and a new compact was made with them on their own terms.’
“‘Res. III. That the Newspaper Proprietors ought to give their Compositors an 513 advance of wages fully equal to the advance on Bookwork since 1800, conformably to the principle admitted by themselves in the above-mentioned document: where, after stating the allegation of the Newspaper Compositors that their advance in 1800 was not equal to the advance on Bookwork, and admitting the fact, they allow it to be (using their own words) a reasonable ground of complaint in your Compositors Circular.
“‘Res. IV. That, in the Scale of 1805, a considerable advance was granted to the Compositors on Bookwork in respect to Sunday-work, Night-work, and Morning-work, which required a correspondent advance on Newspapers, to which it is particularly applicable.
“‘Res. V. That, even if we had not the above indisputable grounds, we have in justice sufficient grounds in the exigencies of the times, as, according to the News Proprietors own statement of the comparative prices of the necessaries of life between 1800 and 1809, there was a rise of 1s. 6¾d. on 8s. 9½d., which makes a difference in our weekly incomes (taking the medium of Morning and Evening Papers) of upwards of 7s.
“‘Res. VI. That the Compositors on Bookwork have received less from their Employers than their exigencies required, and only what circumstances allowed. Those unfavourable circumstances were alleged to arise principally from the war, and, consequently, far from being applicable to the Newspaper branch of the Business, which derives its prosperity from the war. Therefore, there could be no reason why Compositors employed on Newspapers should not have an advance fully adequate to their exigencies.’
“A fortnight’s notice to quit was then given upon the Daily Papers, and on the day of its expiration the News Compositors were given to understand from the individual Printers, that the demand was acquiesced in, and your Scale, as it now stands, was acknowledged—Morning Papers 2l. 8s.; Supernumeraries 1l. 3s.; galley 3s. 10d.; 9d. per thousand; and Assistants 11½d. per hour.—Evening Papers 2l. 3s. 6d.; Supernumeraries 1l. 1s. 6d.; galley 3s. 7d.; 8½d. per thousand; and Assistants 10½d. per hour.
Thus terminated your last struggle. It will be found that in the space of twenty-four years, your prices and modes of work have equally changed with the appearance of the Journals. From the former rise to the present nothing appears worthy notice, excepting the alteration of measure during the sitting of Parliament; but from the great pressure of matter, and an alteration in the size of paper used, most of the Journals retained the same measure during the recess.
“Your Committee feel that some apology may be necessary for giving so minute a detail of what perhaps has occurred within your own memory; but the task imposed upon them embracing so wide a field, must plead their excuse; and having introduced the latter document to your notice, considering it the precursor of an understood and established ‘Scale of Prices,’ they trust its utility will compensate for the trespass.
“Having now advanced to the period (May, 1810) when your endeavours, after twelve months’ struggle, were crowned with success, your Committee, trusting to your own feelings, must beg to pause on the events of that time.”
[Then follow some observations which are not relevant to the present work, nor to the tracing of the history of prices, nor to the management of Newspapers in the metropolis.]
“In the year 1811, a dispute occurred on an Evening Paper, respecting the introduction of Apprentices, which lasted but six weeks.
“About the year 1813, Morning Papers of 20 columns became almost general. Papers of the present size have not rendered the use of small type less necessary than when they consisted but of sixteen columns; and the remarks made in the extracts from the documents before your Committee, of the years 1793–1810, are equally applicable as the same causes exist.
“In the commencement of the year 1816, the Trade was thrown into confusion by the introduction of Nonpareil, a type not recognised in former agreements respecting the price of Newspapers. The Companionship were required to compose it at Minion price and quantity; they refused, and in consequence left their situations; but others, in direct opposition to the interests of the profession, submitted to the demand. Ignorance could not be pleaded by them; for your Committee are well aware, that few men can be found incapable of casting up the galley on a Newspaper, or be unacquainted with the difference in price of Nonpareil and other types used in Book-houses. The bad example set by these men, with the desire of gain, may have induced others to follow their steps; but they cannot, unless you lose your unanimity, sap the foundation of your rights. It is therefore incumbent on your Committee to protest against any men taking upon themselves the right of deviating from your regulations, or of 514 settling either the price or quantity of the galley of smaller type than Minion, without a general understanding with their brethren of the profession. It has caused both trouble and expense, and been the means of removing good men to gratify the meanness or greediness of those, who have in the end been necessitated to throw themselves upon the mercy of their fellow-workmen, for permission to gain a subsistence among those they had, by their previous conduct, deprived of bread. Your Committee beg to state, that adding the difference in price given on Nonpareil or Pearl in Book-work to the price per thousand in News-work, will be found the equitable charge for those sizes; that is, 1d. per thousand extra on Nonpareil, and 2d. on Pearl. Thus the fair charge for Nonpareil on Morning Papers would be 10d. per thousand, Evening Papers 9½, Pearl, 11d. per thousand on Morning and 10½ on Evening Papers—or a reduction, in proportion to value, on the galley quantity.
“In the latter end of the same year a misunderstanding arose in consequence of a Morning and Evening Paper being done in the same place. It might have been considered a local dispute; but as certain Resolutions were passed at a delegated Meeting held on the 3d of January, 1817, your Committee cannot refrain from noticing it:
“‘At a delegated Meeting of News Compositors, held at the Coach and Horses, Water-lane, Fleet Street, Jan. 3, 1817, the following Resolutions were passed unanimously:
“‘Resolved, I. That it is the opinion of this Meeting, that there are but three classes of Workmen on Morning Papers that can be acknowledged by the Profession, viz., Full hands 2l. 8s. per week; Supernumeraries at 1l. 3s. per week; and Assistants at 11½d. per hour.
“‘Resolved, II. That we consider the situation of Finishers on a Morning Paper, (where no person is employed to do the preceding part of the work,) as an innovation that would tend to disorganize the system hitherto acted upon.
“‘Resolved, III. That under this consideration we recommend to our fellow-workmen to refuse any such situation should it be offered them.
“‘Resolved unanimously.—That with respect to the —— (having no precedent to act upon) and there not being a regular Companionship, we recommend to the persons employed thereon to regulate the trifling difference between them and their employer as amicably as possible, keeping in view that the interests of the profession are not invaded thereby.’
“This matter was amicably adjusted; but your Committee regret to state, that at the commencement of the following year, a dispute arose on another Journal, by a demand being made for eleven hours’ work (time and quantity)—or two measured galleys and a finish, sometimes extending to three hours. This mode was declared inadmissible by the trade; it was resisted; and you again triumphed by the sacrifice of situation only of those who refused their acquiescence.
“Nothing appears worthy of notice after the above date till the month of May in the present year, and while your interests impose upon your Committee the necessity of laying before you the circumstances that then arose, they will trespass upon your patience only so long as the subject demands.—After the introduction of Nonpareil on the Journal mentioned in the year 1816, the Trade were ignorant of the men and their modes of work; you had no interest in the enquiry, for they never could be respected who had deserted your standard, nor pitied when labouring under difficulties they had brought upon themselves. From an accidental occurrence, not necessary here to repeat, a request was made, that a statement of the situation of that Journal might be laid before you. Policy dictated the propriety of receiving it; if those employed acted up to the spirit of your laws, you would have nothing to condemn; but if, on the contrary, they had violated your system, you would have the opportunity of declaring against it, and of preventing the evil example from spreading further. Custom, it is said, will in time become law; so would your silence have permitted the unprincipled to gratify themselves by the sacrifice of your rights and interests, and to undermine your whole system before you were aware of the danger.
“By this statement it was discovered there were two modes of work on that Journal, both in direct opposition to the rules and prices agreed upon in 1810. From the pressure of advertisements, two companionships were formed, one for the outer, and another for the inner form; those engaged on the former were offered, and accepted an Evening Paper price per galley for Nonpareil, Minion quantity; while those on the latter were employed according to the custom of the trade. It is unnecessary to comment on the introduction of two companionships on a Daily Paper, much less to point out the absurdity of consenting to receive an Evening Paper price on a Morning Journal, upon the plea of its being performed by day-light; by the same parity of reasoning, you might demand a Morning Paper price for an Evening Journal, because, for a great part of the year, a portion of the work is done by candle-light. But an alteration on the inner-form system was shortly proposed, which was that rejected by yourselves in the year 1818—viz. two galleys and remaining till the paper went to 515 press. This was refused by the employed, and seven out of twelve deserted this ‘flag of blackest hue.’
“This circumstance, from the consequences that might probably follow, led to the appointment of a Committee to draw up, and circulate, for the information of the trade, a statement of the regular mode of working on Newspapers—‘to guide the ignorant, to guard the unwary.’ To assist them in their labours, and to maintain that harmony which should ever subsist between two branches in one profession, your Committee requested at a delegated Meeting of Book-men, the appointment of a gentleman from their body to assist them in the task assigned, which was most cheerfully met and cordially assented to.
“After the appointment of your Committee, another circumstance arose which necessarily occupied a portion of their time. The Proprietor of an obscure Evening Journal, out of which a Sunday Paper is formed, made a demand on the employed to complete the Weekly Journal, not merely with a reduction of wages, but absolutely for nothing!—as a kind of make-weight for the salary they received upon the other. This not being found in any article of your scale, was, of course, refused by the companionship, and the loss of situation followed: their places have been filled by some distinguished characters, now out of the pale, but whose memories will be cherished.
“Your Committee will, by recapitulating the events related under each date, bring the various Regulations into one point of view, which, attached to your Scale of 1810, will, it is trusted, fully accomplish the purpose for which your Committee received their appointment. In 1786 a rise of 1-6th (or 4s. 6d.) was obtained on Newspapers, but no Regulations were generally adopted; each Paper having its own mode, its internal management was regulated by existing circumstances; but in the year 1793, the nature of News-work, in a progress of seven years, was completely changed, and the price of necessaries increasing with the labour imposed, rendered it incumbent on your predecessors not only to solicit an advance of wages, but that the time and quantity should also be defined. This request was made by the Newsmen, and though sanctioned by the signatures of their brethren in the Book department, your Committee consider it as the first division of the Compositors into two branches of one profession. Their wishes were granted so far as related to a rise of 1-7th (or 4s. 6d.) on Morning Papers; but nothing relating to the hours of work or time of commencing on Sundays was determined upon. It was acknowledged that the Supernumeraries should receive a proportionate advance, but your Committee cannot pass over the distinction then made between Morning and Evening Papers without expressing their regret at the circumstance. The latter only received a rise of 1-13th, or 2s. 6d. In the same year the Resolutions were passed against the employment of Apprentices on Papers. Some years prior to this date they were to be found on many of the Journals, and particularly on those called Weekly, arising from the connection of both classes with Book-houses; but, from the circumstances already mentioned (1793), when Daily Papers required separate establishments, and were conducted by non-professional men, your brethren took the opportunity of objecting to their re-admission on the latter class. The Resolutions of that day now stand as Laws; you struggled—you conquered; and your Committee can only add that five attempts against them failed of success. A rise was gained 1801 of 4s. on Morning and 3s. on Evening Papers, making a still greater difference between the two classes of Journals. It was given and accepted without any reference to further regulations in the spirit of the proposition before quoted. The nature of the work and increase of labour on the Evening Journals from 1793 to 1800, required the adoption of the Resolution mentioned under the latter date:—‘That all Composition cease when the day’s publication goes to press—all work afterwards to be paid for as extra, or deducted from the first work of the next day’s publication.’ This regulation (with one exception) was generally accepted; the Printer had the choice of paying or deducting. A Scale of quantity, and a regulation for the twelve hours’ work, was also adopted. In the year 1809 it became necessary to solicit another rise. Twenty-four years had passed away; the system of News-work had ripened into perfection, and it merely required registering for the mutual convenience of the parties interested. With the request for an advance a Scale was introduced, which specifically defined the sum to be paid for labour. You accepted the offer of the Employers, which was a rise of 2s. on Morning, and 1s. on Evening Papers; but nothing was answered respecting the Scale, the sole object of your wishes. The following year you succeeded; and your Committee merely notice a fractional difference in the sums proposed and those now paid. The galley on a Morning Paper is stated at 3s. 9½d., now 3s. 10d.; and the Evening Journals at 2l. 3s., instead 2l. 3s. 6d. per week. With this difference the Scale stands complete; and for its support, with a clear definition, have the labours of your Committee been wholly directed. ‘To guide the ignorant, to frustrate the machinations of the unprincipled, and, if possible, to form a closer bond of union among yourselves,’ has 516 been their pleasing task. By a reference to the first Resolution of the Newsmen of May 19, 1810, it will be observed, that they lament the want of a perfect collection of documents by which they might correctly trace the advances of wages from 1785 to 1800—indeed they assert that no records were extant. Your Committee congratulate themselves upon being more fortunate, and have extracted from, or inserted at length, every document relating to Regulations or Prices since 1785, which they trust will not be considered uninteresting, and, handed down as records, may yet be useful. To prove the strength of your foundation, the Committee have embraced a period of fifty years, in which is included fifteen years prior to the date of the first document, and subsequently, through a space of thirty-five years, to the present time. In pursuing their duty, your Committee have not deviated from their path to obtrude upon your notice at this day all the misunderstandings which have arisen among the Journeymen, nor have they paused to revive the memory of local disputes with the employers; they have sought not ‘to rake the ashes of the dead’—they have endeavoured to avoid any reflection that might cause a blush in the living. The labours of your Committee will close with an Abstract of the Scale, and the Laws and necessary Regulations attached, which they trust will satisfactorily answer the purpose of their collection. You require nothing of the employers—they demand nothing from you; and shall it be said that your privileges must be forfeited by your own negligence, be scattered into air by the unprincipled, or sacrificed to the interest of a designing few?—Forbid it, spirit! while the recollection of the struggles of our predecessors lives amongst us. Your Committee conclude with soliciting your indulgence for any deficiency on their parts; but as your interest has been their sole object, your approbation their reward, they confidently trust the purity of their motives will be a sufficient apology for their unintentional errors.
E. M. DAVIS,
J. B. SPENCE.
“ABSTRACT OF THE SCALE.
|Per Week.||Per Galley.||Per Hour.|
|Morning Papers||£ 2||8s.||0d.||3s.||10d.||11½d.|
|Evening Papers||£ 2||3s.||6d.||3s.||7d.||10½d.|
“Assistants on other Journals are paid the same as Evening Papers; the Sunday Papers, having their galleys of various lengths, are paid at the rate of 8½d. per thousand, or 10d. per hour.
“Long Primer and Minion galleys, cast as nigh 5000 letters as possible (at present varying from that number to 5,200, partly arising from a variation in the founders’ standards), are, per thousand, on
|Long Primer and Minion||9d.||8½d.|
or a reduction, in proportion to value, on the galley quantity.
“The galley on Morning Papers consists of 120 lines Long Primer, and 40 after lines—Minion 88, and 30 after lines—on Papers 22 ems Long Primer wide; other widths in proportion; and a finish of five hours. Another mode is, one galley and a finish of six hours. Twelve hours on and twelve off (including refreshment time) was the original agreement.
“The time of beginning to be the same uniformly as agreed upon by the Printer and Companionship—i.e. either a two, three, or four o’clock Paper—and at whatever hour the Journal goes to press one morning regulates the hour of commencing work for the next day’s publication, provided it should be over the hour originally agreed upon—if under, the time is in the Compositors’ favour. The hour of commencing work on Sunday is regulated by the time of finishing on Saturday morning.
“Ten hours’ Composition is the specified time for Evening Papers.—All Composition to cease when the day’s Publication goes to Press; any work required afterwards to be paid for extra, or deducted from the first work of the next publication.—This does not apply to Second Editions; they being connected solely with the antecedent Paper, must be paid for extra.
“Newspapers in a foreign language take, of course, the same advance as is allowed on Book-work.
“A system termed Finishing having been formerly introduced, it is necessary to state, that no mode of working can be considered fair (except as before stated) otherwise than by the galley or hour.
“No Apprentices to be employed on Daily Papers.”
[Signed by 193 Newspaper Compositors.]517
Acts of Parliament relating to Newspapers.—The Act of the 39th of G. 3. c. 79., for the more effectual suppression of Societies established for Seditious and Treasonable Purposes, &c., which requires the entry of all Presses and Types with the Clerk of the Peace, and the affixing of the name and address of the Printer to his productions, with other regulations, does not extend, alter, or vary the then existing Acts of Parliament in force respecting the printing, &c. of Newspapers; for the 32d Section says—
“Provided also, That nothing herein contained shall extend, or be construed to extend, to alter or vary any Rule, Regulation, or Provision contained in any Act of Parliament now in force respecting the printing, publishing, or distributing any printed Newspaper, or other printed Paper.”
53 G. 3. c. 108. s. 19., “and that from and after the passing of this Act the several other Instruments herein-after specified, shall also be exempted from all Stamp Duty; (that is to say,) All Bonds to His Majesty, His Heirs and Successors, which shall be entered into by Cardmakers, for securing the Payment of the Stamp Duties on Playing Cards; and by the Proprietors, Printers, or Publishers of Newspapers, for securing the Payment of the Duties upon the Advertisements therein contained; and by Stationers or others, who sell Paper stamped for the Purpose of being used for printing Newspapers, for the due Performance and Observance of the Matters and Things required of them by the Act passed in the Thirty-eighth Year of His Majesty’s Reign for regulating the printing and Publication of Newspapers; and also all Warrants to sue and defend in the Courts Baron of any Honors or Manors which hold Pleas in Actions or Suits for any Debt or Damages not exceeding Five Pounds, as well as all Plaints, Summonses, Executions, Writs, and other Proceedings, in or issuing out of such Courts.”
6 & 7 W. 4. c. 76., “An Act to reduce the Duties on Newspapers, and to amend the Laws relating to the Duties on Newspapers and Advertisements.
“Whereas it is expedient to reduce the Stamp Duties now payable on Newspapers in Great Britain and Ireland respectively, and to consolidate and amend the Laws relating thereto, and also to the Duties on Advertisements: Be it therefore enacted by the King’s most Excellent Majesty, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the Authority of the same, That in lieu of the Stamp Duties on Newspapers by this Act repealed as herein-after mentioned, there shall be granted, raised, levied, and paid unto and for the Use of His Majesty, His Heirs and Successors, in and throughout the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the several Duties or Sums of Money set down in Figures, or otherwise specified and set forth, in the Schedule marked (A.) to this Act annexed; which said Schedule, and every Clause, Regulation, Matter, and Thing therein contained, shall be deemed and taken to be Part of this Act; and the said Duties hereby granted shall commence and take effect on the Fifteenth Day of September One thousand eight hundred and thirty-six, and shall be denominated and deemed to be Stamp Duties, and shall be under the Care and Management of the Commissioners of Stamps and Taxes, who are hereby empowered and required to provide and use proper and sufficient Dies for expressing and denoting the said Duties; and all the Powers, Provisions, Clauses, Regulations, and Directions, Fines, Forfeitures, Pains, and Penalties, contained in and imposed by the several Acts of Parliament in force relating to the Stamp Duties, and not repealed by this Act, shall be of full Force and Effect with respect to the Duties hereby granted, as far as the same are or shall be applicable, in all Cases not hereby expressly provided for, and shall be observed, applied, enforced, and put in execution for the raising, levying, collecting, and securing of the said Duties hereby granted and otherwise relating thereto, so far as the same shall not be superseded by and shall be consistent with the express Provisions of this Act, as fully and effectually to all Intents and Purposes as if the same had been herein repeated and specially enacted with reference to the said Duties hereby granted.
s. 2. “And be it enacted, That a Discount after the Rate of Twenty-five Pounds per Centum on the prompt Payment of any Sum amounting to Ten Pounds or upwards, for the Duties on Newspapers granted by this Act, shall be allowed to all Proprietors of Newspapers in Ireland on the Purchase of Stamps for the printing of Newspapers in Ireland, which Discount shall be denoted on the Face of every Stamp in respect of which the same shall be allowed: Provided always, that if any Newspaper shall be printed in Great Britain upon Paper stamped with a Stamp denoting the Allowance of any such Discount, such Stamp shall be of no Avail, and such Newspaper shall be deemed to be not duly stamped as required by this Act.
s. 3. “And be it enacted, That from and after the Thirty-first Day of December next after the passing of this Act, in the Stamp to be impressed on each and every Newspaper under the Provisions of this Act, the Title of such Newspaper, or some Part thereof, shall be expressed in such convenient Manner and Form as to the said Commissioners 518 of Stamps and Taxes shall seem expedient; and the said Commissioners shall cause a proper Die for stamping each such Newspaper to be prepared under their Directions, and a new or other Die to be from Time to Time prepared, in like Manner as they shall think necessary; and the reasonable Costs and Expences of preparing such Stamps or Dies shall be from Time to Time defrayed by the Proprietor of each such Newspaper, and paid when and as required by the said Commissioners to such Person as the said Commissioners shall appoint to receive the same, before any Paper shall be stamped under the Directions of such Commissioners for each such Newspaper; and that from and after the Thirty-first Day of December next after the passing of this Act no Newspaper liable to Duty under this Act shall be printed upon Paper not stamped with such Die, containing the Title of such Newspaper, or some Part thereof as aforesaid; and if any Newspaper shall be printed on Paper stamped otherwise than as aforesaid the Stamp thereon shall be of no Avail, and such Newspaper shall be deemed to be not duly stamped as required by this Act.
s. 4. “And be it enacted, That every Paper declared by the Schedule (A.) to this Act annexed to be chargeable with the Duties by this Act granted on Newspapers shall be deemed and taken to be a Newspaper within the Meaning of this Act and of every Act relating to the printing or publishing of Newspapers, and shall be subject and liable to all the Regulations by this Act imposed; and wheresoever in this Act or in any other Act or Acts relating to the printing or publishing of Newspapers the Word ‘Newspaper’ is or may be used, it shall be deemed and taken to mean and include any and every such Paper as aforesaid; and in all Proceedings at Law or otherwise, and upon all Occasions whatsoever, it shall be sufficient to describe by the Word ‘Newspaper’ any Paper by this Act declared to be a Newspaper, without further or otherwise designating or describing the same.
s. 5. “And be it enacted, That every Sheet or Piece of Paper which shall be published as a Supplement to any Newspaper, except the London Gazette and Dublin Gazette respectively, shall be printed with the same Title and Date as the Newspaper to which it shall be or shall purport to be a Supplement, with the Addition of the Words ‘Supplement to’ prefixed to such Title: and upon every such Newspaper, except as aforesaid, there shall be printed in conspicuous Characters some Words clearly indicating that a Supplement is published therewith; and if any Sheet or Piece of Paper shall be published as a Supplement to any Newspaper, such Supplement and the Newspaper to which the same shall relate, not having printed thereon respectively the several Particulars by this Act required to be printed thereon respectively, and in the Manner and Form by this Act directed, the Publisher of such Newspaper shall for every such Sheet or Piece of Paper so published as a Supplement, and for every Copy thereof, forfeit the Sum of Twenty Pounds; and if any Person shall sell, deliver out, or in any other Manner publish any Sheet or Piece of Paper which shall be or shall purport to be a Supplement to any Newspaper, without at the same Time selling or otherwise publishing and delivering therewith the Newspaper to which the same shall be or purport to be a Supplement, every such Person so offending shall for every such Offence forfeit the Sum of Twenty Pounds.
s. 6. “And be it enacted, That no Person shall print or publish, or shall cause to be printed or published, any Newspaper before there shall be delivered to the Commissioners of Stamps and Taxes, or to the proper authorized Officer at the Head Office for Stamps in Westminster, Edinburgh, or Dublin respectively, or to the Distributor of Stamps or other proper Officer appointed by the said Commissioners for the Purpose in or for the District within which such Newspaper shall be intended to be printed and published, a Declaration in Writing containing the several Matters and Things hereinafter for that Purpose specified; that is to say, every such Declaration shall set forth the correct Title of the Newspaper to which the same shall relate, and the true Description of the House or Building wherein such Newspaper is intended to be printed, and also of the House or Building wherein such Newspaper is intended to be published, by or for or on behalf of the Proprietor thereof, and shall also set forth the true Name, Addition, and Place of Abode of every Person who is intended to be the Printer or to conduct the actual printing of such Newspaper, and of every Person who is intended to be the Publisher thereof, and of every Person who shall be a Proprietor of such Newspaper who shall be resident out of the United Kingdom, and also of every Person resident in the United Kingdom who shall be a Proprietor of the same, if the Number of such last-mentioned Persons (exclusive of the Printer and Publisher) shall not exceed Two, and in case such Number shall exceed Two, then of such Two Persons, being such Proprietors resident in the United Kingdom, the Amount of whose respective proportional Shares in the Property or in the Profit or Loss of such Newspaper shall not be less than the proportional Share of any other Proprietor thereof resident in the United Kingdom, exclusive of the Printer and Publisher, and also where the 519 Number of such Proprietors resident in the United Kingdom shall exceed Two, the Amount of the proportional Shares or Interests of such several Proprietors whose Names shall be specified in such Declaration; and every such Declaration shall be made and signed by every Person named therein as Printer or Publisher of the Newspaper to which such Declaration shall relate, and by such of the said Persons named therein as Proprietors as shall be resident within the United Kingdom; and a Declaration of the like Import shall be made, signed, and delivered in like Manner whenever and so often as any Share, Interest, or Property soever in any Newspaper named in any such Declaration shall be assigned, transferred, divided, or changed by Act of the Parties or by Operation of Law, so that the respective proportional Shares or Interests of the Persons named in any such Declaration as Proprietors of such Newspaper, or either of them, shall respectively become less than the proportional Share or Interest of any other Proprietor thereof, exclusive of the Printer and Publisher, and also whenever and so often as any Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor named in any such Declaration, or the Person conducting the actual printing of the Newspaper named in any such Declaration shall be changed, or shall change his Place of Abode, and also whenever and so often as the Title of any such Newspaper or the Printing Office or the Place of Publication thereof shall be changed, and also whenever in any Case, or on any Occasion, or for any Purpose, the said Commissioners, or any Officer of Stamp Duties authorized in that Behalf, shall require such Declaration to be made, signed, and delivered, and shall cause Notice in Writing for that Purpose to be served upon any Person, or to be left or posted at any Place mentioned in the last preceding Declaration delivered as aforesaid, as being a Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor of such Newspaper, or as being the Place of printing or publishing any such Newspaper respectively; and every such Declaration shall be made before any One or more of the said Commissioners, or before any Officer of Stamp Duties or other Person appointed by the said Commissioners, either generally or specially in that Behalf; and such Commissioners or any One of them, and such Officer or other Person, are and is hereby severally and respectively authorized to take and receive such Declaration as aforesaid; and if any Person shall knowingly and wilfully sign and make any such Declaration in which shall be inserted or set forth the Name, Addition, or Place of Abode of any Person as a Proprietor, Publisher, Printer, or Conductor of the actual printing of any Newspaper to which such Declaration shall relate, who shall not be a Proprietor, Printer, or Publisher thereof, or from which shall be omitted the Name, Addition, or Place of Abode of any Proprietor, Publisher, Printer, or Conductor of the actual printing of such Newspaper, contrary to the true Meaning of this Act, or in which any Matter or Thing by this Act required to be set forth shall be set forth otherwise than according to the Truth, or from which any Matter or Thing required by this Act to be truly set forth shall be entirely omitted, every such Offender, being convicted thereof, shall be deemed guilty of a Misdemeanor.
s. 7. “And be it enacted, That if any Person shall knowingly and wilfully print or publish, or shall cause to be printed or published, or either as a Proprietor or otherwise sell or deliver out any Newspaper relating to which such Declaration as aforesaid, containing such Matters and Things as are required by this Act to be therein contained, shall not have been duly signed and made and delivered when and so often as by this Act is required, or any other Matter or Thing required by this Act to be done or performed shall not have been accordingly done or performed, every Person in any such Case offending shall forfeit for every such Act done the Sum of Fifty Pounds for every Day on which any such Newspaper shall be printed or published, sold or delivered out, before or until such Declaration shall be signed and made and delivered, or before or until such other Matter or Thing shall be done or performed as by this Act is directed; and every such Person shall be disabled from receiving any stamped Paper for printing such Newspaper until such Declaration shall be signed and made and delivered, or until such other Matter or Thing shall be done and performed.
s. 8. “And be it enacted, That all such Declarations as aforesaid shall be filed and kept in such Manner as the Commissioners of Stamps and Taxes shall direct for the safe Custody thereof; and Copies thereof, certified to be true Copies as by this Act is directed, shall respectively be admitted in all Proceedings, Civil and Criminal, and upon every Occasion whatsoever, touching any Newspaper mentioned in any such Declaration, or touching any Publication, Matter, or Thing contained in any such Newspaper, as conclusive Evidence of the Truth of all such Matters set forth in such Declaration as are hereby required to be therein set forth, and of their Continuance respectively in the same Condition down to the Time in question, against every Person who shall have signed such Declaration, unless it shall be proved that previous to such Time such Person became lunatic, or that previous to the Publication in question on such Trial such Person did duly sign and make a Declaration that such Person had 520 ceased to be a Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor of such Newspaper, and did duly deliver the same to the said Commissioners or to such Officer as aforesaid, or unless it shall be proved that previous to such Occasion as aforesaid a new Declaration of the same or a similar Nature respectively, or such as may be required by Law, was duly signed and made and delivered as aforesaid respecting the same Newspaper, in which the Person sought to be affected on such Trial did not join; and the said Commissioners, or the proper authorized Officer by whom any such Declaration shall be kept according to the Directions of this Act, shall, upon Application in Writing made to them or him respectively by any Person requiring a Copy certified according to this Act of any such Declaration as aforesaid, in order that the same may be produced in any Civil or Criminal Proceeding, deliver such certified Copy or cause the same to be delivered to the Person applying for the same upon Payment of the Sum of One Shilling, and no more; and in all Proceedings, and upon all Occasions whatsoever, a Copy of any such Declaration, certified to be a true Copy under the Hand of One of the said Commissioners or of any Officer in whose Possession the same shall be, upon Proof made that such Certificate hath been signed with the Handwriting of a Person described in or by such Certificate as such Commissioner or Officer, and whom it shall not be necessary to prove to be a Commissioner or Officer, shall be received in Evidence against any and every Person named in such Declaration as a Person making or signing the same as sufficient Proof of such Declaration, and that the same was duly signed and made according to this Act, and of the Contents thereof; and every such Copy so produced and certified shall have the same Effect for the Purposes of Evidence against any and every such Person named therein as aforesaid, to all Intents whatsoever, as if the original Declaration of which the Copy so produced and certified shall purport to be a Copy had been produced in Evidence, and been proved to have been duly signed and made by the Person appearing by such Copy to have signed and made the same as aforesaid; and whenever a certified Copy of any such Declaration shall have been produced in Evidence as aforesaid against any Person having signed and made such Declaration, and a Newspaper shall afterwards be produced in Evidence intituled in the same Manner as the Newspaper mentioned in such Declaration is intituled, and wherein the Name of the Printer and Publisher and the Place of printing shall be the same as the Name of the Printer and Publisher and the Place of printing mentioned in such Declaration, or shall purport to be the same, whether such Title, Name, and Place printed upon such Newspaper shall be set forth in the same Form of Words as is contained in the said Declaration, or in any Form of Words varying therefrom, it shall not be necessary for the Plaintiff, Informant, or Prosecutor in any Action, Prosecution, or other Proceeding, to prove that the Newspaper to which such Action, Prosecution, or other Proceeding may relate was purchased of the Defendant, or at any House, Shop, or Office belonging to or occupied by the Defendant, or by his Servants or Workmen, or where he may usually carry on the Business of printing or publishing such Newspaper, or where the same may be usually sold; and if any Person, not being one of the said Commissioners or the proper authorized Officer, shall give any Certificate purporting to be such Certificate as aforesaid, or shall presume to certify any of the Matters or Things by this Act directed to be certified by such Commissioner or Officer, or which such Commissioner or Officer is hereby empowered or intrusted to certify; or if any such Commissioner or Officer shall knowingly and wilfully falsely certify under his Hand that any such Declaration as is required to be made by this Act was duly signed and made before him, the same not having been so signed and made, or shall knowingly and wilfully falsely certify that any Copy of any Declaration is a true Copy of the Declaration of which the same is certified to be such Copy, the same not being such true Copy, every Person so offending shall forfeit the Sum of One hundred Pounds.
s. 9. “And be it enacted, That in any Suit, Prosecution, or Proceeding, Civil or Criminal, against any Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor of any Newspaper, Service at the House or Place mentioned in any such Declaration as aforesaid as the House or Place at which such Newspaper is printed or published, or intended so to be, of any Notice or other Matter required or directed by this Act to be given or left, or of any Summons, Subpœna, Rule, Order, Writ, or Process of what Nature soever, either to enforce an Appearance, or for any other Purpose whatsoever, shall be taken to be good and sufficient Service thereof respectively upon and against every Person named in such Declaration as the Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor of the Newspaper mentioned in such Declaration.
s. 10. “And be it enacted, That the Commissioners of Stamps and Taxes shall cause to be entered in a Book to be kept at the Head Office for Stamps in Westminster, Edinburgh, and Dublin respectively, the Title of every Newspaper registered at the said respective Offices, and also the Names of the Printers and Publishers thereof as the same appear in the Declarations required by this Act to be made relating to such 521 Newspapers respectively, and all Persons shall have free Liberty to search and inspect the said Book from Time to Time, during the Hours of Business at the said Offices, without Payment of any Fee or Reward.
s. 11. “And be it enacted, That no Person shall print or publish, or shall cause to be printed or published, any Newspaper, nor shall any Officer of Stamp Duties or any Vendor of Stamps for Newspapers sell or deliver any stamped Paper for Newspapers to any Printer or Publisher of any Newspaper, or to any Person on his Account, before or until such Printer and Publisher, together with the Proprietor of such Newspaper, or such One or more of the Proprietors thereof, as in the Judgment of the Commissioners of Stamps and Taxes or of the proper authorized Officer may be sufficient for the Purpose, together also with Two sufficient Sureties, to be approved of by the said Commissioners or such Officer as aforesaid, shall have entered into Security by Bond to His Majesty in such Sum as the said Commissioners or Officer shall think reasonable and sufficient for Payment of the Duties which shall or may from Time to Time be payable for the Advertisements which shall be printed or inserted in such Newspaper; and every such Bond, when duly executed, shall be delivered to and deposited with the proper authorized Officer at the respective Head Offices for Stamps in Westminster, Edinburgh, or Dublin, according as such Newspaper shall be printed in England, Scotland, or Ireland; and such Bond shall be renewed from Time to Time, with Sureties to be approved as aforesaid, whenever any One or more of the Parties thereto shall die, or become bankrupt or insolvent, or reside in Parts beyond the Sea, and also whenever and so often as the said Commissioners or any Officer of Stamp Duties authorized in that Behalf shall require the same to be renewed, and shall give Notice to the Printer, Publisher, or any Proprietor of such Newspaper for that Purpose; and every Person who shall print or publish, or shall cause to be printed or published, any Newspaper before such Bond shall have been entered into and delivered as aforesaid, or who shall neglect or refuse to renew such Bond in manner aforesaid whenever the same is or shall be required to be renewed by or in pursuance of this Act, shall forfeit the Sum of One hundred Pounds for every Day on which such Newspaper shall be so printed and published before such Bond shall have been entered into and delivered as aforesaid.
s. 12. “Provided always, and be it enacted, That no Person being a Printer or Publisher or Proprietor of any Newspaper at the Time of the Commencement of this Act, and who in pursuance of any Act in force immediately before the Commencement of this Act shall have signed and sworn and delivered any Affidavit, or shall have given or entered into any Bond or Security of the same Nature and for the like Purposes as any Declaration or Bond required by this Act, shall by reason of the passing of this Act be required or bound to deliver or make any new Declaration, or to give or enter into any new Bond or Security, touching any Newspaper mentioned in such former Affidavit or Bond or Security, but every such Affidavit and every such Bond or Security so made and delivered before the Commencement of this Act as to the Newspaper therein mentioned, whether the same shall be published before or after the Commencement of this Act, shall be deemed and taken to be a Compliance with this Act; and a Copy of every such Affidavit, certified as aforesaid, shall in all Proceedings and upon all Occasions whatsoever, be received as conclusive Evidence against any and every Person named in such Affidavit as a Person making, signing, or swearing the same, of all the Matters therein contained, in the same Manner as is herein-before provided with respect to any Declaration which may be made in pursuance of this Act, and shall be of the same Force and Effect to all Intents and Purposes as if the same had been made subsequent to the Commencement of this Act, and in conformity with the Provisions hereof: Provided nevertheless, that in case the Commissioners of Stamps and Taxes, or any authorized Officer of Stamp Duties, shall, by Notice in Writing to be given in the Manner herein-before directed, require a Declaration to be made and delivered, or any new Bond or Security to be given or entered into, in conformity with the Provisions of this Act, by any such Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor of any such Newspaper, or in case any Transfer, Change, or Alteration shall take place in the Share, Interest, or Property of any Person named in such Affidavit relating to any such Newspaper, or in the Place of Abode of the Printer or Publisher thereof, or of any Proprietor named in such Affidavit, or the Place of printing the same, or in the Person by whom the printing of such Newspaper shall be conducted, or in the Title of any such Newspaper, then and in every such case a Declaration shall be made and delivered, and a new Bond shall be entered into and given, according to the Provisions of this Act; and every Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor of any such Newspaper who shall knowingly and wilfully continue to print or publish any such Newspaper, after the happening of any of the Events aforesaid, before or until a Declaration containing all the Particulars required by this Act shall be made and delivered, and a new Bond shall be entered into and given, according to the Directions of this Act, shall be 522 subject to all such Penalties and Disabilities as such Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor would have been subject or liable to under this Act if no Declaration relating to such Newspaper had ever been made, nor any such Bond entered into: And provided also, that nothing contained in this Act shall extend to require the Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor of the London Gazette or Dublin Gazette to make any Declaration required by this Act; but the Printers and Publishers of the said respective Gazettes shall enter into the Bonds by this Act required, together with the Sureties herein-before mentioned for securing the Payment of the Duties upon all Advertisements which shall be printed in the said Gazettes respectively, and shall renew the same from Time to Time in like Manner as the Printers and Publishers of other Newspapers are or may be required to renew their respective Bonds by or under this Act.
s. 13. “And be it enacted, That the Printer or Publisher of every Newspaper printed or published in the City of London, Edinburgh, or Dublin, or within Twenty Miles of any of the said Cities respectively, shall, upon every Day on which such Newspaper shall be published, or on the Day next following which shall not be a Holiday, between the Hours of Ten and Three on each Day, deliver or cause to be delivered to the Commissioners of Stamps and Taxes, or to the proper authorized Officer, at the Head Office for Stamps in one of the said Cities respectively in or nearest to which such Newspaper shall be printed or published, One Copy of every such Newspaper, and of every second or other varied Edition or Impression thereof so printed or published, with the Name and Place of Abode of the Printer or Publisher thereof, signed and written thereon after the same shall be printed by his proper Hand and in his accustomed Manner of signing, or by some Person appointed and authorized by him for that Purpose, and of whose Appointment and Authority Notice in Writing, signed by such Printer or Publisher in the Presence of and attested by an Officer of Stamp Duties, shall be given to the said Commissioners, or to the Officer to whom such Copies are to be delivered; and the Printer or Publisher of every Newspaper printed or published in any other Place in the United Kingdom shall, upon every Day on which such Newspaper shall be published, or within Three Days next following, in like Manner between the Hours of Ten and Three, deliver or cause to be delivered to the Distributor of Stamps, or other authorized Officer in whose District such Newspaper shall be printed or published, Two Copies of every such Newspaper, and of every second or other varied Edition or Impression thereof so printed or published, with the Name and Place of Abode of the Printer or Publisher thereof signed and written thereon in manner aforesaid after the same shall be printed, and the same Copies shall be carefully kept by the said Commissioners, or by such Distributor or Officer as aforesaid, in such Manner as the said Commissioners shall direct; and such Printer or Publisher shall be entitled to demand and receive from the Commissioners, or such Distributor or Officer, once in every Week, the Amount of the ordinary Price of the Newspapers so delivered; and every Printer and Publisher of such Newspaper who shall neglect to deliver or cause to be delivered in manner herein-before directed, such Copy or Copies signed as aforesaid, shall for every such Neglect respectively forfeit the Sum of Twenty Pounds; and in case any Person shall make Application in Writing to the said Commissioners, or to such Distributor or Officer as aforesaid, in order that any Newspaper so signed as aforesaid may be produced in Evidence in any Proceeding, Civil or Criminal, the said Commissioners, or Distributor or Officer, shall, at the Expence of the Party applying, at any Time within Two Years from the Publication thereof, either cause such Newspaper to be produced in the Court in which and at the Time when the same is required to be produced, or shall deliver the same to the Party applying for the same, taking, according to their Discretion, reasonable Security, at the Expence of such Party, for returning the same to the said Commissioners, or such Distributor or Officer, within a certain period to be fixed by them respectively; and in case, by reason that such Newspaper shall have been previously applied for in manner aforesaid by any other Person, the same cannot be produced or cannot be delivered according to any subsequent Application, in such Case the said Commissioners, or such Distributor or Officer as aforesaid, shall cause the same to be produced, or shall deliver the same as soon as they are enabled so to do; and all Copies so delivered as aforesaid shall be Evidence against every Printer, Publisher, and Proprietor of every such Newspaper respectively in all Proceedings, Civil or Criminal, to be commenced and carried on, as well touching such Newspaper as any Matter or Thing therein contained, and touching any other Newspaper and any Matter or Thing therein contained which shall be of the same Title, Purport, or Effect with such Copy so delivered as aforesaid, although such Copy may vary in some Instances or Particulars, either as to Title, Purport, or Effect; and every Printer, Publisher, and Proprietor of any Copy so delivered as aforesaid, shall to all Intents and Purposes be deemed to be the Printer, Publisher, and Proprietor respectively of all Newspapers which shall be of the same 523 Title, Purport, or Effect with such Copies or Impressions so delivered as aforesaid, notwithstanding such Variance as aforesaid, unless such Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor respectively shall prove that such Newspapers were not printed or published by him, nor by nor with his Knowledge or Privity: Provided always, that if any Printer or Publisher of any Newspaper which shall not be printed and published in the Cities of London, Edinburgh, or Dublin, or within Twenty Miles of the said Cities respectively, shall find it more convenient to cause such Copies of such Newspaper to be delivered to any other Distributor of Stamps than the Distributor in whose District such Newspaper shall be published, and such Printer and Publisher shall state such Matter by Petition to the Commissioners of Stamps and Taxes, and pray that he may have Liberty to cause such Copies to be delivered to such other Distributor as he shall so name at the Office of such Distributor, it shall be lawful for the said Commissioners to order the same accordingly, and from and after the Date of such Order the Place of Publication of such Newspaper shall for that Purpose only be deemed and taken to be within the District of such other Distributor until the same shall be otherwise ordered by the said Commissioners.
s. 14. “And be it enacted, That at the end of every Newspaper, and of any and every Supplement Sheet or Piece of Paper, shall be printed the Christian Name and Surname, Addition, and Place of Abode, of the Printer and Publisher of the same, and also a true Description of the House or Building wherein the same is actually printed and published respectively, and the Day of the Week, Month, and Year on which the same is published; and if any Person shall knowingly and wilfully print or publish, or cause to be printed or published, any Newspaper or Supplement thereto whereon the several Particulars aforesaid shall not be printed, or whereon there shall be printed any false Name, Addition, Place, or Day, or whereon there shall be printed any Description of the Place of printing or publishing such Newspaper which shall be different in any respect from the Description of the House or Building mentioned in the Declaration required by this Act to be made relating to such Newspaper as the House or Building wherein such Newspaper is intended to be printed or published, every such Person shall for any and every such Offence forfeit the Sum of Twenty Pounds.
s. 15. “And be it enacted, That it shall not be lawful for any Person other than a Commissioner of Stamps and Taxes, or Officer of Stamp Duties, to sell, supply, or part with any Paper stamped for the purpose of being used for printing Newspapers thereon, unless nor until such Person shall be duly licensed and authorized by the said Commissioners to vend Newspaper Stamps, and shall have given Security by Bond to His Majesty, with sufficient Sureties, to be approved of by the said Commissioners, in such Sum as the said Commissioners shall think reasonable, and the several Conditions of such Bond shall be as follow; (that is to say,) that such Vendor of Newspaper Stamps shall and will deliver or cause to be delivered to the said Commissioners, within Four Days after the End of every Six Weeks, a true and accurate Account of the Quantities and Kinds of all Paper stamped as aforesaid by him sold, supplied, or delivered during such Six Weeks immediately preceding, and to what Persons, naming them; and that such Vendor will not sell, supply, or part with any such Paper to or on account of any Person other than a Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor of a Newspaper; and that such Vendor will not sell, supply, or part with such Paper to or on account of any such Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor, until the Person applying for the same shall have delivered to such Vendor a Certificate signed by One or more of the said Commissioners, or by the proper authorized Officer of Stamp Duties, purporting that such Security as is required by Law hath been given by the Printer, Publisher, and Proprietor respectively of the Newspaper for the printing of which such stamped Paper is to be sold, supplied, or parted with, and that such Declaration hath been made and delivered respecting the same as is by this Act required; and that such Vendor will not sell, supply, or part with any such Paper to or on account of any Printer, Proprietor, or Publisher of any Newspaper, with respect to whom Notice shall be given to such Vendor by the said Commissioners or any such Officer that such Security has not been duly given, or has not been renewed, pursuant to this Act, or is not remaining in Force, or that the Parties or any of them who have given the same are or is dead, or gone Abroad, or are or is not to be found, or that such Parties or any of them have or hath given Notice that they or he are or is no longer concerned as Printers, Publishers, or Proprietors, or as a Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor of such Newspaper, or that no such Declaration respecting the same, as required by this Act, hath been made and delivered, or that any such Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor hath become disabled or disqualified under this Act to be the Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor of any such Newspaper or to receive stamped Paper for the Purpose of printing the same; and if any Person as aforesaid shall sell, supply, or part with any such stamped Paper for the Purpose aforesaid without having given such Security as 524 aforesaid, or if any Person who shall obtain or receive any stamped Paper for the printing of any Newspaper of which he is or shall be the Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor, shall furnish or supply any other Person with any such stamped Paper, or if any Person shall use for the printing of any Newspaper any stamped Paper which he shall receive or be furnished with by or from any Person other than the said Commissioners or their Officers, or some Person duly authorized to sell or distribute such stamped Paper, every Person so offending shall for every such Offence forfeit the Sum of Fifty Pounds; and in any Proceeding for Recovery of such Penalty in the last-mentioned Case, it shall lie on the Person sought to be charged with such Offence to prove that the stamped Paper used by such Person in the printing of any Newspaper was obtained by such Person from the said Commissioners or their Officers, or from some Person duly authorized to sell or distribute such stamped Paper; any Law or Usage to the contrary notwithstanding.
s. 16. “And be it enacted, That every Person printing or publishing, or being concerned either as Proprietor or otherwise in printing or publishing, any Newspaper upon Paper not duly stamped, shall be deemed and taken to owe to his Majesty such Sums of Money as would have accrued to his Majesty in case the same had been printed upon Paper duly stamped; and whenever any Information or Bill shall be filed, or other Proceeding shall be had on His Majesty’s Behalf, for Discovery of the Matters aforesaid, and for an Account and Payment of such Sums, it shall not be lawful for the Defendant to plead or demur to such Information, Bill, or Proceeding, but he shall be compellable to make such Discovery as shall be thereby required to be made: Provided always, that such Discovery shall not be made use of as Evidence or otherwise in any Proceeding against any such Defendant except only in that Proceeding in which the Discovery is made.
s. 17. “And be it enacted, That if any Person shall knowingly and wilfully print or publish, or cause to be printed or published, any Newspaper on Paper not duly stamped according to Law, or if any Person shall knowingly and wilfully sell, utter, or expose to Sale, or shall dispose of or distribute, any Newspaper not duly stamped as aforesaid, or if any Person shall knowingly and wilfully have in his Possession any Newspaper not duly stamped as aforesaid, every Person so offending in any of the Cases aforesaid shall for every such Newspaper, and for every Copy thereof not duly stamped, forfeit the Sum of Twenty Pounds; and moreover it shall be lawful for any Officer of Stamp Duties, or for any Person appointed or authorized by the Commissioners of Stamps and Taxes in that Behalf, to seize and apprehend any such Offender as aforesaid, and to take him or cause him to be taken before any Justice of the Peace having Jurisdiction where the Offence shall be committed, who shall hear and determine the Matter in a summary Way; and if upon Conviction such Offender shall not immediately pay the Penalty or Penalties in which he shall be convicted, such Justice shall forthwith commit him to Prison for any Time not exceeding Three Calendar Months, nor less than One Calendar Month, unless such Penalty or Penalties shall be sooner paid: Provided always, that if any such Offender as aforesaid shall not be apprehended and proceeded against in the Manner herein-before directed, then the said Penalty or Penalties incurred by any such Offence as aforesaid shall be recoverable by any other of the Ways and Means provided for the Recovery of Penalties incurred under this Act.
s. 18. “And be it enacted, That if any Person shall knowingly and wilfully directly or indirectly send or carry, or endeavour to send or carry, or cause or procure to be sent or carried, or do or cause to be done any Act whatever for or towards the sending or carrying, or for or towards the causing or procuring to be sent or carried, or with Intent that the same should be sent or carried, out of any Part of the United Kingdom, any Newspaper, the same not being duly stamped according to Law, such Person shall forfeit for every such Offence the Sum of Fifty Pounds; and it shall be lawful for any Officer of Stamp Duties, or for any Person appointed or authorized by the Commissioners of Stamps and Taxes in that Behalf, without any other Warrant than this Act, to seize and take away all Newspapers not duly stamped wheresoever the same shall be found, unless the same shall be in the Possession of some Person having the Custody thereof by lawful Authority; and all Newspapers not duly stamped which shall be seized or taken under any of the Provisions of this Act shall be destroyed or otherwise disposed of as the Commissioners of Stamps and Taxes may direct.
s. 19. “And be it enacted, That if any Person shall file any Bill in any Court for the Discovery of the Name of any Person concerned as Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor of any Newspaper, or of any Matters relative to the printing or publishing of any Newspaper, in order the more effectually to bring or carry on any Suit or Action for Damages alleged to have been sustained by reason of any slanderous or libellous Matter contained in any such Newspaper respecting such Person, it shall not be lawful for the 525 Defendant to plead or demur to such Bill, but such Defendant shall be compellable to make the Discovery required: Provided always, that such Discovery shall not be made use of as Evidence or otherwise in any Proceeding against the Defendant, save only in that Proceeding for which the Discovery is made.
s. 20. “And be it enacted, That the Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor of every Newspaper shall, within Twenty-eight Days after the last Day of every Calendar Month, pay or cause to be paid the Duty chargeable on all and every Advertisement and Advertisements contained in or published with such Newspaper during the said Calendar Month to the Receiver General of Stamps and Taxes, or to the proper Officer appointed to receive the same, at the Head Office for Stamps in the Cities of Westminster, Edinburgh, or Dublin respectively, if such Newspaper shall be printed or published within any of the said Cities, or within Twenty Miles thereof respectively, and if the same shall be printed or published in any other Part of the United Kingdom, then to the Distributor of Stamps in whose District such Newspaper shall be printed or published; and if any Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor of any Newspaper shall neglect to pay within Ten Days next after Notice given to him by any Officer of Stamp Duties, after the Expiration of the said Term of Twenty-eight Days, the Duty on any such Advertisement, it shall be lawful for the Commissioners of Stamps and Taxes and their Officers, and they are hereby required, to refuse to sell or deliver, and also to give Notice to and to require any Vendor of such stamped Paper to refuse to sell or deliver, to or for the Use of such Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor, any such stamped Paper for printing such Newspaper thereon until all Arrears of Advertisement Duty, to the Payment of which such Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor may be subject, shall be duly paid and discharged up to and for the last Day of the Month next preceding the Month in which such Payment shall be made.
s. 21. “And be it enacted, That One printed Copy of every periodical literary Work or Paper (not being a Newspaper), containing or having published therewith any Advertisements or Advertisement liable to Stamp Duty, which shall be published within the Cities of London, Edinburgh, or Dublin respectively, or within Twenty Miles thereof respectively, shall, within the Space of Six Days next after the Publication thereof, be brought, together with all Advertisements printed therein, or published or intended to be published therewith, to the Head Office for Stamps in Westminster, Edinburgh, or Dublin, nearest to which such literary Work or Paper shall have been published, and the Title thereof, and the Christian Name and Surname of the Printer and Publisher thereof, with the Number of Advertisements contained therein or published therewith, and any Stamp Duty by Law payable in respect of such Advertisements shall be registered in a Book to be kept at such Office, and the Duty on such Advertisements shall be there paid to the Receiver General of Stamps and Taxes for the Time being, or his Deputy or Clerk, or the proper authorized Officer; and One printed Copy of every such literary Work or Paper as aforesaid which shall be published in any Place in the United Kingdom not being within the Cities of London, Edinburgh, or Dublin, or within Twenty Miles thereof respectively, shall, within the Space of Ten Days next after the Publication thereof, be brought, together with all such Advertisements as aforesaid, to the Head Distributor of Stamps for the Time being within the District in which such literary Work or Paper shall be published, and such Distributor is hereby required forthwith to register the same in manner aforesaid in a Book to be by him kept for that Purpose, and the Duty payable in respect of such Advertisements shall be thereupon paid to such Distributor; and if the Duty which shall be by Law payable in respect of any such Advertisements as aforesaid shall not be duly paid within the respective Times and in the Manner herein-before limited and appointed for that Purpose, the Printer and Publisher of such literary Work or Paper, and every other Person concerned in the printing or publishing thereof, and the Publisher of any such Advertisements, shall respectively forfeit the Sum of Twenty Pounds for every such Offence; and in any Action, Information, or other Proceeding for the Recovery of such Penalty, or for the Recovery of the Duty on any such Advertisements, Proof of the Payment of the said Duty shall lie upon the Defendant.
s. 22. “And be it enacted, That upon Information given before any Justice of the Peace upon the Oath of One or more credible Person or Persons (which Oath such Justice is hereby empowered and required to administer) that there is reasonable and probable Cause to suspect any Person of being or having been, at any Time within One Calendar Month last preceding, in any Way knowingly and wilfully engaged or concerned in printing, publishing, vending, or otherwise distributing any Newspaper not duly stamped as required by Law, or of being unlawfully possessed of any Newspapers not duly stamped as aforesaid, or that any Printing Press, Engine, Machine, Types, or other Implements or Utensils for printing is or are or have been by any Person knowingly and wilfully used within the Time last aforesaid for the Purpose of composing or 526 printing any Newspaper not duly stamped as aforesaid, or that any such Newspapers are sold or distributed, or kept for Sale or Distribution, or are unlawfully deposited in any Place, then and in every such Case it shall be lawful for such Justice and he is hereby required, upon the Application of any Officer of Stamp Duties, to grant a Warrant under his Hand, directed to any Constable or other Peace Officer, or any Officer of Stamp Duties, or other Person or Persons named in such Warrant, authorizing and empowering him or them, with such other Person or Persons as he or they shall call to his or their Assistance, to enter and search in the Daytime, any House, Room, Shop, Warehouse, Outhouse, Building, or other Place belonging to such suspected Person, or where such Person shall be suspected of being engaged or concerned or of having been engaged or concerned in the Commission of any such illegal Act as aforesaid, or where any such Printing Press, Engine, Machine, Types, Implements, or Utensils suspected to be or to have been used for any such illegal Purpose as aforesaid shall be or be suspected to be, or where any such Newspapers as aforesaid are suspected to be sold or distributed, or kept or deposited as aforesaid; and if upon any such Search as aforesaid any Newspapers not duly stamped as aforesaid, or any Printing Press, Engine, Machine, Types, Implements, or Utensils which shall have been used in printing or publishing any such Newspaper as aforesaid within the Time last aforesaid, shall be found, it shall be lawful for the Person or Persons named in such Warrant, and his or their Assistant or Assistants, to seize and take away the same, together with all other Presses, Engines, Machines, Types, Implements, Utensils, and Materials for printing belonging to the same Person, or which shall be found in the same House, Room, Shop, Warehouse, Outhouse, Building, or Place; and all such Presses, Engines, Machines, Types, Implements, Utensils, and Materials shall be forfeited to the Use of His Majesty, and shall be proceeded against to Condemnation in His Majesty’s Court of Exchequer in England, Scotland, or Ireland respectively, in like Manner as in the Case of any Goods seized as forfeited for any Breach of the Laws relating to His Majesty’s Revenues of Customs or Excise.
s. 23. “And be it enacted, That upon the Execution of any Warrant granted under this Act, authorizing any Search to be made in any House, Room, Shop, Warehouse, Outhouse, Building, or other Place, if on Demand of Admittance and Notice of any such Warrant the Door of any such House, Room, Shop, Warehouse, Outhouse, Building, or other Place shall not be forthwith opened, it shall be lawful for the Constable or other Peace Officer having the Execution of such Warrant, or for any other Person or Persons to whom such Warrant shall be directed, in the Presence of any Constable or other Peace Officer, in the Daytime, to break open such Door and to enter thereat for the Purpose of making such Search as aforesaid; and if any Person shall refuse to permit any Constable, Peace Officer, or Officer of Stamp Duties, or any other Person duly authorized in that Behalf, to enter into any House, Room, Shop, Warehouse, Outhouse, Building, or other Place for the Purpose of making any Search by or under this Act directed or authorized to be made, or shall resist, obstruct, molest, prevent, or hinder any such Constable, Officer, or Person as aforesaid in the making of any such Search, or in the Execution of any Warrant issued under or in pursuance of this Act, or in the seizing or taking away of any Goods, Chattels, Articles, Matters, or Things which may be lawfully seized or taken, or in the apprehending or detaining of any Offender or other Person who may lawfully be apprehended or detained, or otherwise in the Execution of any of the Duties, Powers, or Authorities given to or vested in any such Constable, Officer, or other Person as aforesaid by or under any of the Provisions of this Act, every Person so offending in any of the several Cases aforesaid shall forfeit for every such Offence the Sum of Twenty Pounds; and all Constables and other Peace Officers shall be and they are hereby required to be aiding and assisting in the Execution of all Warrants issued under this Act; and if any Constable or other Peace Officer shall neglect or refuse to do or perform any Service or Duty by this Act required or directed to be done or performed by him, or shall neglect or refuse to aid and assist in the Execution of any such Warrant as aforesaid, or of any of the Provisions of this Act, upon proper Application or Notice made or given to him in that Behalf, or shall neglect or refuse to execute or serve any Warrant or Summons granted or issued pursuant to any of the Provisions of this Act, every such Constable or Peace Officer shall forfeit Ten Pounds for every such Neglect or Refusal.
s. 24. “And be it enacted, That it shall be lawful for every Person having in his Possession any Printing Press, or any Engine or Machine for printing, if he shall think fit, to deliver or cause to be delivered in the Manner herein-after mentioned a Notice thereof signed with his own Hand in the Presence of and attested by an Officer of Stamp Duties, which Notice shall specify the Christian Name and Surname and Place of Abode of the Person possessed of any such Printing Press, Engine, or Machine, and a true Description of the House or Building and Place in which the same shall be 527 kept and used for printing; and every such Person who shall give any such Notice as aforesaid shall also at the same Time, if he shall think fit, deliver or cause to be delivered in like Manner a List of all or any of the periodical Papers for the printing of which any such Press, Engine, or Machine is used or intended to be used, and every such Person as aforesaid shall afterwards from Time to Time quarterly, that is to say, within Seven Days after the First Day of March, the First Day of June, the First Day of September, and the First Day of December in every Year, deliver or cause to be delivered in like Manner a similar List of all or any of such periodical Papers as aforesaid; and in the meantime and from Time to Time as often as such Person shall undertake or permit the printing with any such Press, Engine, or Machine as aforesaid of any periodical Paper not specified in the last quarterly List delivered by such Person, he shall, if he shall think fit, before the Commencement of the printing of such last-mentioned Paper, or within Three Days next after any Part or Number thereof shall be first printed with any such Press, Engine, or Machine as aforesaid, give Notice of the printing thereof in manner herein-after mentioned; and every such List and Notice of Papers for the printing of which any such Press, Engine, or Machine is used or intended to be used shall be signed by the Person possessed of such Printing Press, Engine, or Machine with his own Hand, or by some Person appointed and authorized by him for that Purpose, and of whose Appointment and Authority Notice in Writing signed by the Person possessed of such Press, Engine, or Machine as aforesaid, in the Presence of and attested by an Officer of Stamp Duties, shall be given to the said Commissioners, or to the Officer to whom such Lists as aforesaid are to be delivered; and every such List and Notice of Papers printed or to be printed as aforesaid shall specify and set forth the correct Title of every such Paper, and the Name and Place of Abode of the Printer thereof as the same shall appear in the Imprint, and also the Name and Place of Abode of the Person who shall employ the Person possessed of such Press, Engine, or Machine to print or work off such Paper, or who shall engage or use any such Press, Engine, or Machine for that Purpose; and every such Notice as aforesaid relating to the Possession of any Printing Press, Engine, or Machine, and also every List or Notice of the Papers printed or to be printed therewith, shall respectively be delivered to the Commissioners of Stamps and Taxes, or to some Officer appointed by them to receive the same respectively, at the Head Office for Stamps in Westminster, Edinburgh, or Dublin, according as the Person giving any such Notice or List shall reside in England, Scotland, or Ireland, or to the Distributor of Stamps for the District in which such Person shall reside.
s. 25. “And be it enacted. That no Person who shall have duly given such Notice as aforesaid of being possessed of any Press, Engine, or Machine for printing, and shall, within the respective Periods and in the Manner herein-before limited and directed for that Purpose, have delivered Lists and Notices of all or any of the periodical Papers for the printing of which any such Press, Engine, or Machine shall be used, shall be liable to any Penalty or Forfeiture under this Act in respect of any Paper, the same not being a registered Newspaper, truly specified in the last quarterly List delivered by such Person, or in any Notice duly given by him since the Delivery of the said List, by reason of such Paper having been printed with any such Press, Engine, or Machine of the Possession of which such Notice as aforesaid shall have been given, although such Paper may be liable to Stamp Duty, and may have been printed on Paper not duly stamped, unless the same shall be a registered Newspaper, or unless the same shall have been so printed as aforesaid after Notice given by the Commissioners of Stamps and Taxes, or some Officer of Stamp Duties, in the Manner herein-after mentioned; (that is to say,) provided always, that if a Notice signed by any One or more of the Commissioners of Stamps and Taxes, or by any Officer of Stamp Duties, shall be delivered to any Person possessed of any such Printing Press, Engine, or Machine, or shall be left for him at the Place mentioned in any Notice given by him as aforesaid as the Place of his Abode, or the Place where such Printing Press, Engine, or Machine is used for printing, informing him that any Paper is chargeable with Stamp Duty as a Newspaper under this Act, then if the same shall be so chargeable, and such Person shall after such Notice as aforesaid continue to print such Paper, or any subsequent Part or Number thereof, or any Paper of the like Nature, whether under the same or any different Form or Title, or if after such Notice as aforesaid such Person shall permit or suffer any Press, Engine, or Machine belonging to him or in his Possession to be used for the printing of any such Paper, Part, or Number as aforesaid, such Person shall be liable to all the Penalties and Forfeitures imposed by this Act for any Offence committed against any of the Provisions thereof, after such Notice as aforesaid, without any further or other Notice or Caution: Provided also, that every Person who shall neglect or omit to give any such Notice or to deliver any such List as aforesaid in the Manner and Form and within the Time herein-before directed and limited in 528 that Behalf, shall be liable to and chargeable with all Penalties and Forfeitures imposed by this Act for any Offence committed against the Provisions thereof, without any previous Notice or Caution whatsoever.
s. 26. “And be it enacted, That all Actions and Prosecutions which shall be brought or commenced against any Person for any thing done in pursuance or under the Authority of this Act shall be commenced and prosecuted within Three Calendar Months next after the Fact committed, and not afterwards, and shall in England or Ireland be brought and tried in the County or Place where the Cause of Action shall arise, and not elsewhere, and shall in Scotland be brought in the Court of Exchequer; and Notice in Writing of such Action, and of the Cause thereof, shall be given to the Defendant One Calendar Month at least before the Commencement of the Action; and the Defendant in such Action may plead the General Issue, and give this Act and any other Matter or Thing in Evidence at any Trial to be had thereupon; and if the Cause of Action shall appear to arise from any Matter or Thing done in pursuance and by the Authority of this Act, or if any such Action shall be brought after the Expiration of such Three Calendar Months, or shall be brought in any other County or Place than as aforesaid, or if Notice of such Action shall not have been given in manner aforesaid, or if Tender of sufficient Amends shall have been made before such Action commenced, or if a sufficient Sum of Money shall have been paid into Court after such Action commenced by or on behalf of the Defendant, the Jury shall find a Verdict for the Defendant; and if a Verdict shall pass for the Defendant, or if the Plaintiff shall become Nonsuit, or shall discontinue any such Action, or if, on Demurrer or otherwise, Judgment shall be given against the Plaintiff, the Defendant shall recover his full Costs of Suit as between Attorney and Client, and shall have the like Remedy for the same as any Defendant may have for Costs of Suit in other Cases at Law.
s. 27. “And be it enacted, That all pecuniary Penalties under this Act may be sued or prosecuted for and recovered for the Use of His Majesty in the Name of His Majesty’s Attorney General or Solicitor General in England or Ireland, or of His Majesty’s Advocate General or Solicitor General in Scotland, or of the Solicitor of Stamps and Taxes in England or Scotland, or of the Solicitor of Stamps in Ireland, or of any Person authorized to sue or prosecute for the same, by Writing under the Hands of the Commissioners of Stamps and Taxes, or in the Name of any Officer of Stamp Duties, by Action of Debt, Bill, Plaint, or Information in the Court of Exchequer at Westminster in respect of any Penalty incurred in England, and in the Court of Exchequer in Scotland in respect of any Penalty incurred in Scotland, and in the Court of Exchequer in Dublin or by Civil Bill in the Court of the Recorder, Chairman, or Assistant Barrister within whose local Jurisdiction any Offence shall have been committed, in respect of any Penalty incurred in Ireland, or in respect of any Penalty not exceeding Twenty Pounds by Information or Complaint before One or more Justice or Justices of the Peace in any Part of the United Kingdom, in manner by this Act provided; and it shall not be lawful for any Person other than as aforesaid to inform, sue, or prosecute for any such Penalty as aforesaid, except where, in the Case of apprehending an Offender by any Person appointed or authorized by the Commissioners of Stamps and Taxes in that Behalf, it is by this Act otherwise expressly provided and allowed; and it shall be lawful in all Cases for the Commissioners of Stamps and Taxes, either before or after any Proceedings commenced for Recovery of any such Penalty, to mitigate or compound any such Penalty as the said Commissioners shall think fit, and to stay any such Proceedings after the same shall have been commenced, and whether Judgment may have been obtained for such Penalty or not, on Payment of Part only of any such Penalty, with or without Costs, or on Payment only of the Costs incurred in such Proceeding, or of any Part thereof, or on such other Terms as such Commissioners shall judge reasonable: Provided always, that in no such Proceeding as aforesaid shall any Essoign, Protection, Wager of Law, nor more than One Imparlance be allowed; and all pecuniary Penalties imposed by or incurred under this Act, by whom or in whose Name soever the same shall be sued or prosecuted for or recovered, shall go and be applied to the Use of His Majesty, and shall be deemed to be and shall be accounted for as Part of His Majesty’s Revenue arising from Stamp Duties, any thing in any Act contained, or any Law or Usage, to the contrary in anywise notwithstanding: Provided always, that it shall be lawful for the Commissioners of Stamps and Taxes, at their Discretion, to give all or any Part of such Penalties as Rewards to any Person or Persons who shall have detected the Offenders, or given Information which may have led to their Prosecution and Conviction.
s. 28. “And be it enacted, That it shall be lawful for any Justice of the Peace within whose Jurisdiction any Offence the Penalty for which shall not exceed Twenty Pounds shall be committed against this Act, and such Justice is hereby required, upon any Information exhibited or Complaint made by any Person duly authorized in that 529 Behalf, to summon the Party accused and also the Witnesses on either Side to be and appear before the said Justice or before any other Justice of the Peace at a Time and Place to be appointed for that Purpose, and whether the Party accused shall appear or not it shall be lawful for the said Justice or any other Justice present at the Time and Place appointed for such Appearance to proceed to examine into the Fact, and upon due Proof made thereof to the Satisfaction of any such Justice, either by Confession of the Party accused or by the Oath of One or more credible Witness or Witnesses, to convict such Offender, and to give Judgment for the Penalty and Costs to be assessed by any such Justice, and to issue his Warrant for levying such Penalty and Costs, and also the reasonable Costs and Charges attending the Distress, on the Goods of such Offender, and to cause Sale to be made thereof in case the same shall not be redeemed within Five Days, rendering to the Party the Overplus, if any; and where Goods sufficient cannot be found to answer such Penalty and Costs, such Justice, or any other Justice of the District or Place in which such Conviction shall take place, shall commit such Offender to the Common Gaol or House of Correction, there to remain for any Time not exceeding Three Calendar Months nor less than One Calendar Month, unless such Penalty, Costs, and Charges shall be sooner paid and satisfied; and if any Person shall find himself aggrieved by the Judgment of any such Justice, it shall be lawful for such Person to appeal against the same to the Justices at the next General or Quarter Sessions of the Peace for the District or Place where the Offence shall have been committed, which shall be held next after the Expiration of Ten Days from the Day on which such Conviction shall have been made, of which Appeal Notice in Writing shall be given to the Prosecutor or Informer Seven clear Days previous to the first Day of such Sessions; and it shall be lawful for such Justices at such Sessions to examine Witnesses on Oath, and finally to hear and determine such Appeal; and in case any Conviction of such Justice shall be affirmed, it shall be lawful for the Justices at such Sessions to award and order the Person convicted to pay such Costs occasioned by such Appeal as to them shall seem meet: Provided always, that no Person convicted before any such Justice shall be entitled or permitted to appeal against such Conviction in manner aforesaid unless within Three Days after such Conviction made he shall enter into a Recognizance, with Two sufficient Sureties, before such Justice, to enter and prosecute such Appeal, and to pay the Amount of the Penalty and Costs in which he shall have been convicted, and also such further Costs as shall be awarded in case such Conviction shall be affirmed on such Appeal; provided also, that no such Proceedings so to be taken as aforesaid shall be quashed or vacated for Want of Form, or shall be removed by Certiorari, Suspension, Advocation, or Reduction, or by any other Writ or Process whatsoever into any Superior or other Court or Jurisdiction in any Part of the United Kingdom, any Law, Statute, or Usage to the contrary notwithstanding; and provided also, that it shall be lawful for any Justice of the Peace before whom any Person shall be convicted of any Offence against this Act to mitigate as he shall see fit any pecuniary Penalty by this Act imposed in Cases where such Justice shall see cause so to do; provided that all reasonable Costs and Charges incurred as well in discovering as in prosecuting for such Offence shall be always allowed, over and above the Sum to which such Penalty shall be mitigated, and provided that such Mitigation do not reduce the Penalty to less than One Fourth of the Penalty incurred, exclusive of such Costs and Charges, any thing herein contained to the contrary notwithstanding.
s. 29. “And be it enacted, That the Justice before whom any Person shall be convicted of any Offence under this Act shall cause the Conviction to be made out in the Manner and Form following, or in any other Form of Words to the like Effect, mutatis mutandis; (that is to say,)
‘Be it remembered, that on the Day of in the Year of our Lord at A. B. of was duly convicted before me, C. D. Esquire, one of His Majesty’s Justices of the Peace for the County of in pursuance of an Act passed in the Seventh Year of the Reign of King William the Fourth, intituled [Title of this Act], for that the said A. B. [here state the Offence], contrary to the Form of the Statute in that Case made and provided, for which Offence I do adjudge that the said A. B. hath forfeited the Sum of and [if the Justice mitigate the Penalty] which Sum of I do hereby mitigate to the Sum of over and above the Sum of which I do allow to E. F. for his reasonable Costs and Expences in prosecuting this Conviction. Given under my Hand and Seal this Day of .’
s. 30. “And be it enacted, That it shall be lawful for any Justice of the Peace to summon any Person to appear before such Justice or before any other Justice of the Peace to give Evidence touching any Offence against the Provisions of this Act; and if any Person who shall be so summoned shall neglect or refuse to appear, according to 530 the Exigency of such Summons, at the Time and Place therein for that Purpose named, without reasonable Matter of Excuse to be stated upon Oath and proved to the Satisfaction of such Justice before whom any Information or Complaint shall be depending or shall have been made touching any such Offence as aforesaid, or if such Person having appeared shall refuse to give Evidence respecting any such Offence or other Matter as aforesaid, then every Person so offending shall forfeit Ten Pounds.
s. 31. “And be it enacted, That in any Proceeding either in any Court, or before any Justice of the Peace, or otherwise, under this Act, or for summoning any Party, Witness, or other Person in or for the Purpose of any such Proceeding, it shall not be necessary that the original or any other Process or Summons, or any Notice, Demand, or Order whatsoever, should be personally served on the Defendant or Person to be summoned, but it shall be sufficient that such Process, Summons, Notice, Demand, or Order, or a Copy thereof respectively, be left at the last known Place of Abode of such Defendant or Person to be summoned.
s. 32. “And be it enacted, That the several Acts and Parts of Acts herein-after mentioned, or so much and such Part and Parts thereof as are now in force, and the Stamp Duties thereby granted, or such of them as are now payable upon or in respect of Newspapers, shall respectively remain and continue in force and be payable until and upon the Fourteenth Day of September One thousand eight hundred and thirty-six, and shall from thenceforth cease, determine, and be repealed, (that is to say,) the several Acts and Parts of Acts passed in the Parliaments of Great Britain herein-after specified; namely,
“So much of an Act of the Tenth Year of the Reign of Queen Anne, [ 19.] passed for the Purpose (amongst other Things) of laying Duties upon several Kinds of stamped Vellum, Parchment, and Paper, and upon certain printed Papers, Pamphlets, and Advertisements, as relates in any Manner to the Stamp Duties on Newspapers or the Duties on Advertisements, or as imposes any Penalty with relation to the said Duties or either of them:
“And so much of an Act of the Eleventh Year of the Reign of King George the First, [c. 8.] passed for the Purpose (amongst other Things) of explaining the said last-mentioned Act in relation to the Stamp Duties on Newspapers, as in any Manner relates to the Stamp Duties on Newspapers:
“And so much of an Act of the Sixteenth Year of the Reign of King George the Second, [c. 26.] passed for the Purpose (amongst other Things) of punishing the Vendors of unstamped Newspapers, as in any Manner relates to such Purpose:
“And so much of an Act passed in the Fifth Year of the Reign of King George the Third, [c. 46.] intituled An Act for altering the Stamp Duties upon Admissions into Corporations or Companies, and for further securing and improving the Stamp Duties in Great Britain, as requires Security to be given to His Majesty for Payment of the Duties on Advertisements:
“And the whole of an Act passed in the Thirteenth Year of the Reign of the said King George the Third, [c. 65.] intituled An Act for explaining Two Acts made in the Eleventh Fear of the Reign of King George the First and the Thirtieth Year of the Reign of His late Majesty in relation to the Stamp Duties upon Newspapers:
“And so much of an Act of the Sixteenth Year of the Reign of the said King George the Third, [c. 34.] passed for the Purpose (amongst other Things) of granting several Rates and Duties upon Indentures, Leases, Bonds, and other Deeds, and upon Cards, Dice, and Newspapers, as in any Manner relates to Newspapers or to the Stamp Duties thereon:
“And so much of an Act of the Twentieth Year of the Reign of the said King George the Third, [c. 28.] passed for the Purpose (amongst other Things) of granting additional Duties on Advertisements, as relates to such Duties:
“And so much of an Act passed in the Twenty-ninth Year of the Reign of the said King George the Third, [c. 50.] for granting additional Stamp Duties on Newspapers, Advertisements, Cards, and Dice, as in any Manner relates to Newspapers or Advertisements, or to the Duties thereon respectively:
“And the whole of an Act passed in the Thirty-fourth Year of the Reign of the said King George the Third, [c. 72.] intituled An Act to enable the Commissioners of His Majesty’s Stamp Duties to stamp the Paper used for printing Newspapers thereon in Sheets of Single Demy Paper instead of Sheets of Double Demy Paper:
“And so much of an Act of the Thirty-seventh Year of the said King George the Third, [c. 90.] passed for the Purpose (amongst other Things) of granting certain Stamp Duties on the several Matters therein mentioned, as in any Manner relates to Newspapers or to the Duties thereon, or to any Discount or Allowance in respect of the said Duties:
“And the whole of an Act passed in the Thirty-eighth Year of the Reign of the 531 said King George the Third, [c. 78.] intituled An Act for preventing the Mischiefs arising from the printing and publishing Newspapers and Papers of a like Nature by Persons not known, and for regulating the Printing and Publication of such Papers in other respects:
And the whole of Two several Acts passed in the Parliaments of Ireland herein-after specified; (that is to say,)
“An Act passed in the Twenty-third and Twenty-fourth Years of the Reign of the said King George the Third, [c. 28.] intituled An Act to secure the Liberty of the Press by preventing the Abuses arising from the Publication of traitorous, seditious, false, and slanderous Libels by Persons unknown:
“And an Act passed in the Thirty-eighth Year of the Reign of the said King George the Third, [c. 7.] for amending the said last-mentioned Act:
And the several Acts and Parts of Acts passed in the Parliaments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland herein-after specified; (that is to say,)
“So much of an Act passed in the Fortieth Year of the Reign of the said King George the Third, intituled An Act to revive, amend, continue, or make perpetual certain temporary Statutes, as makes perpetual or otherwise relates to the said Act passed in the Parliament of Ireland in the Thirty-eighth Year of the Reign of the said King:
“And so much of an Act passed in the Forty-first Year of the Reign of the said King George the Third, [c. 10.] for granting certain additional Stamp Duties, as in any Manner relates to the Stamp Duties on Newspapers, or to any Discount or Allowance in respect of the said last-mentioned Stamp Duties:
“And so much of an Act passed in the Forty-fourth Year of the Reign of the said King George the Third, [c. 98.] intituled An Act to repeal the several Duties under the Commissioners for managing the Duties upon stamped Vellum, Parchment, and Paper in Great Britain, and to grant new and additional Duties in lieu thereof, as in any Manner relates to Newspapers or to the Duties thereon, or to any Discount or Allowance in respect of the said Duties:
“And the whole of an Act passed in the Forty-ninth Year of the Reign of the said King George the Third, [c. 50.] intituled An Act to amend so much of an Act made in the Thirty-seventh year of His present Majesty, for granting to His Majesty certain Stamp Duties, as relates to the Limitation according to which the Discount on Newspapers is regulated:
“And the whole of an Act passed in the Fifty-fifth Year of the Reign of the said King George the Third, [c. 80.] intituled An Act to provide for the Collection and Management of Stamp Duties on Pamphlets, Almanacks, and in Ireland:
“And so much of another Act passed in the said Fifty-fifth Year of the Reign of the said King George the Third, [c. 185.] intituled An Act for repealing the Stamp Office Duties on Advertisements, Almanacks, Newspapers, Gold and Silver Plate, Stage Coaches and Licences for keeping Stage Coaches, now payable in Great Britain, and for granting new Duties in lieu thereof, as in any Manner relates to Newspapers or the Duties thereon, or to any Discount or Allowance in respect of the said Duties:
“And so much of an Act passed in the Fifty-sixth Year of the Reign of the said King George the Third, [c. 56.] intituled An Act to repeal the several Stamp Duties in Ireland, and also several Acts for the Collection and Management of the said Duties, and to grant new Stamp Duties in lieu thereof, and to make more effectual Regulations for collecting and managing the said Duties, as in any Manner relates to Newspapers or to the Duties thereon, or to any Discount or Allowance in respect of the said Duties:
“And so much of an Act passed in the Sixtieth Year of the Reign of the said King George the Third, [c. 9.] intituled An Act to subject certain Publications to the Duties of Stamps upon Newspapers, and to make other Regulations for restraining the Abuses arising from the Publication of blasphemous and seditious Libels, as subjects any Newspaper or other Paper or Pamphlet to any Stamp Duty:
“And the whole of an Act passed in the Sixth Year of the Reign of His late Majesty King George the Fourth, [c. 119.] intituled An Act to allow Newspapers to be printed upon Paper of a larger Size than is now allowed, and to reduce the Stamp Duties now payable upon Supplements to Newspapers and other Papers in Great Britain:
“And so much of an Act passed in the Third and Fourth Years of the Reign of His present Majesty, [c. 23.] intituled An Act to reduce the Stamp Duties on Advertisements and on certain Sea Insurances, to repeal the Stamp Duties on Pamphlets and on Receipts for Sums under Five Pounds, and to exempt Insurances on Farming Stock from Stamp Duties, as provides the Mode of collecting the Duty on Advertisements contained in or published with any Pamphlet, periodical Paper, or literary Work:
“And the whole of an Act passed in the Fifth Year of the Reign of His present 532 Majesty, [c. 2.] intituled An Act to amend an Act of the Thirty-eighth Year of King George the Third, for preventing the Mischiefs arising from the printing and publishing Newspapers and Papers of a like Nature by Persons not known, and for regulating the Printing and Publication of such Papers in other respects, and to discontinue certain Actions commenced under the Provisions of the said Act:
And the said several Acts and Parts of Acts herein-before specified shall be and the same are hereby repealed accordingly, save and except only so far as is herein in that Behalf provided.
s. 33. “Provided always, and be it enacted, That nothing in this Act contained shall extend or be construed to extend to repeal any of the herein-before mentioned Acts or Parts of Acts with respect to any Duty or Arrears of any Duty whatsoever which before or upon the said Fourteenth Day of September One thousand eight hundred and thirty-six shall have accrued and been incurred under or by virtue of the said Acts or Parts of Acts, or any of them respectively, and which shall then or at any Time afterwards be or become due or payable and remain in arrear and unpaid, or with respect to any Fine, Penalty, or Forfeiture or Punishment incurred and not recovered or suffered for or in respect of any Offence or Crime committed or to be committed against the said several Acts or Parts of Acts respectively, or any of them, upon or before the said Fourteenth Day of September One thousand eight hundred and thirty-six, or with respect to any Proceedings, Civil or Criminal, commenced or to be commenced against any Person for the Recovery of any such Arrears of Duty, or of any such Fine, Penalty, or Forfeiture, or for the Infliction of any such Punishment as aforesaid, but that all such Arrears of Duty, Fines, Penalties, Forfeitures, and Punishments shall and may respectively be sued or prosecuted for, recovered, obtained, and inflicted, by the same Ways and Means and in such and the same Manner as if this Act had not been passed: And provided also, that nothing in this Act contained shall extend or be construed to extend to repeal any of the said herein-before mentioned Acts or Parts of Acts so far as the same or any of them repeal the Whole or any Part of any other Act or Acts; and that no Matter or Thing whatever in this Act contained shall revive or be construed to revive, for any Period or Purpose whatsoever, any Act or Acts, or any Part of any Act or Acts, which before the passing of this Act shall have expired, or which by any Act or Acts passed before the passing of this Act shall have been repealed, and that the Repeal of any Act or Acts herein-before mentioned, or any other Matter or Thing in this Act contained, shall not extend or be construed to extend to repeal or annul or in any way to affect any Indemnity granted under or by virtue of any Act or Acts so repealed.
s. 34. “And be it enacted, That it shall be lawful for any Person having in his Possession any Paper stamped with any of the Duties hereby repealed, and not made use of, or who may at any Time hereafter have in his Possession any Paper stamped for denoting the Duties by this Act granted, and which may be rendered useless by reason of any Change of Dies or by the Operation of any of the Provisions of this Act, to bring the same to the Head Office for Stamps in London, Edinburgh, or Dublin respectively at any Time within Six Calendar Months next after the said Fifteenth Day of September One thousand eight hundred and thirty-six, or within Six Calendar Months next after the same shall be so rendered useless, in order that the Stamps thereon may be cancelled and allowed; and it shall be lawful for the Commissioners of Stamps and Taxes or their proper Officers to cancel and allow such Stamps accordingly, and to stamp such Paper or any Portion thereof, and any other Paper which shall be brought for that Purpose, with Stamps denoting the Duty by this Act granted to the Amount or Value of the Stamps so to be cancelled and allowed as aforesaid, after deducting the Amount of any Discount allowed thereon.
s. 35. “And in order to avoid the frequent Use of divers Terms and Expressions in this Act, and to prevent any Misconstruction of the Terms and Expressions used therein, be it enacted, That wherever in this Act, with reference to any Person, Matter, or Thing, any Word or Words is or are used importing the singular Number or the Masculine Gender only, yet such Word or Words shall be understood and construed to include several Persons as well as one Person, Females as well as Males, Bodies Politic or Corporate as well as Individuals, and several Matters or Things as well as one Matter or Thing, unless it be otherwise specially provided, or there be something in the Subject or Context repugnant to such Construction.
s. 36. “And be it enacted, That this Act may be amended, altered, or repealed by any Act or Acts to be passed in this present Session of Parliament.”
“Containing the Duties imposed by this Act on Newspapers; (that is to say,)533
|“For every Sheet or other Piece of Paper whereon any Newspaper shall be printed||0 0 1|
|“And where such Sheet or Piece of Paper shall contain on One Side thereof a Superficies, exclusive of the Margin of the Letter-press, exceeding One thousand five hundred and thirty Inches, and not exceeding Two thousand two hundred and ninety-five Inches, the additional Duty of||0 0 0½|
|“And where the same shall contain on One Side thereof a Superficies, exclusive of the Margin of the Letter-press, exceeding Two thousand two hundred and ninety-five Inches, the additional Duty of||0 0 1|
|“Provided always, that any Sheet or Piece of Paper containing on One Side thereof a Superficies, exclusive of the Margin of the Letter-press, not exceeding Seven hundred and sixty-five Inches, which shall be published with and as a Supplement to any Newspaper chargeable with any of the Duties aforesaid, shall be chargeable only with the Duty of||0 0 0½|
“And the following shall be deemed and taken to be Newspapers chargeable with the said Duties; viz.
“Any Paper containing public News, Intelligence, or Occurrences printed in any Part of the United Kingdom to be dispersed and made public:
“Also any Paper printed in any Part of the United Kingdom, weekly or oftener, or at Intervals not exceeding Twenty-six Days, containing only or principally Advertisements:
“And also any Paper containing any public News, Intelligence, or Occurrences, or any Remarks or Observations thereon, printed in any Part of the United Kingdom for Sale, and published periodically or in Parts or Numbers at Intervals not exceeding Twenty-six Days between the Publication of any Two such Papers, Parts, or Numbers, where any of the said Papers, Parts, or Numbers respectively shall not exceed Two Sheets of the Dimensions herein-after specified, (exclusive of any Cover or Blank Leaf, or any other Leaf upon which any Advertisement or other Notice shall be printed,) or shall be published for Sale for a less Sum than Sixpence, exclusive of the Duty by this Act imposed thereon: Provided always, that no Quantity of Paper less than a Quantity equal to Twenty-one Inches in Length and Seventeen Inches in Breadth, in whatever Way or Form the same may be made or may be divided into Leaves, or in whatever Way the same may be printed, shall, with reference to any such Paper, Part, or Number as aforesaid, be deemed or taken to be a Sheet of Paper:
“And provided also, that any of the several Papers herein-before described shall be liable to the Duties by this Act imposed thereon, in whatever Way or Form the same may be printed or folded, or divided into Leaves or stitched, and whether the same shall be folded, divided, or stitched, or not.
“Any Paper called ‘Police Gazette, or Hue and Cry,’ published in Great Britain by Authority of the Secretary of State, or in Ireland by the Authority of the Lord Lieutenant.
“Daily Accounts or Bills of Goods imported and exported, or Warrants or Certificates for the Delivery of Goods, and the Weekly Bills of Mortality, and also Papers containing any Lists of Prices Current, or of the State of the Markets, or any Account of the Arrival, Sailing, or other Circumstances relating to Merchant Ships or Vessels, or any other Matter wholly of a Commercial Nature; provided such Bills, Lists, or Accounts do not contain any other Matter than what hath been usually comprised therein.”
The printing of daily newspapers in the metropolis is a distinct branch from that of printing books and jobs, and is governed by different rules and regulations, so as to require a separate account of the process. The routine of business is uniform and regular, without that variety which occurs in a book house: the qualifications requisite for a compositor on a newspaper are, punctuality, quickness in composing, and clean proofs, so that no delay may take place from the deficiency of any one individual.534
As the Times newspaper is one of the largest daily papers in Europe, and as it is printed in a smaller type, and contains more matter than any other, it consequently requires and employs more people to prepare it for publication; and as it is generally acknowledged to be one of the best conducted papers for the arrangement of its matter, and the punctuality of its publication, I have selected it to give as a specimen of the manner of printing a daily morning newspaper in London.
The compositors employed to compose this great mass of intelligence day by day, and every day throughout the year, Saturday excepted, there being no publication on Sundays, are seventy-five, who are divided into two classes; viz., the night or news hands, and the advertisement hands. The first class consists of 39, who are divided into full hands, 14; supernumeraries, 10; assistants, 15; to these may be added 10 “outsiders,” who fill the frames of absentees in cases of sickness, or from other causes: they are not considered as belonging to the establishment, inasmuch as they hold no situation, and are consequently dependent upon the workmen. The advertisement department consists of 36 hands.
As it is desirable not to have to distribute letter after copy is taken, the compositors usually put their letter in after all the composing is completed, or take the opportunity when waiting for copy, to be ready for the evening, or else they attend sooner in the afternoon than the usual hour, for that purpose.
The full hands take copy at six o’clock in the evening, precisely, and go on without regard to the old rule of first work and finish, and the day’s work is considered to be completed at the expiration of eleven hours, five o’clock in the morning; if engaged after that time all hands are paid by the hour, the printer never availing himself of the choice of beginning an hour later on account of the lateness of the preceding morning. The full hands are expected to compose two galleys each per night, and all over lines are paid for extra, even though they are composed within the time prescribed by the rules laid down for the guidance of compositors.
The supernumeraries are expected to compose one galley each per night, and all over lines are paid for extra, the same as with the full hands.
The full hands have each three pairs of cases—Nonpareil, Minion, and Bourgeois; and as the most advantageous matter is generally set up in the smaller type, they claim the benefit of it as an equivalent for the labour of putting the forms to the machine.
The supernumeraries and assistants take copy at seven o’clock in the evening, and continue to work till all is composed, and should there be any standing still for want of copy, they are allowed at the rate of a quarter of a galley per hour for all the time they may have lost during the night. The assistants have no stated salary, but are paid by the galley, and share the same advantages as the supernumeraries, no distinction being made in the giving out of the copy.
The compositors in the news department have the privilege of composing a considerable quantity of extra or “back” matter to enable the printer to have at all times a resource in case of accident. This extra copy is given out and divided into half galley shares, and taken in rotation, thus preventing monopoly or favouritism.
As there is an immense quantity of letter in use, the division of which for distribution would occasion loss of time, and frequent disputes, the companionship pay a man to lay up the forms, mark the letter off for 535 each individual, and distribute the useless heads. He is also answerable for the clearance of the boards.
Each compositor has a number attached to his frame, and when he takes copy, his number is placed on the back of the copy, so that each man’s matter is immediately identified, and in case of a foul proof, or an out that will occasion much trouble, it is immediately handed to him who composed it without further inquiry, which prevents exposure and annoyance to the individual. The copy is also marked with progressive numbers, which prevents confusion by enabling the compositor to know with certainty, whom he follows in his composing, and to empty his stick in the proper galley so as to join the preceding matter.
As the matter is composed it is taken, a galley at a time, by the printer, and made up into columns; a proof of the column is then pulled upon the galley by one of the compositors, who all take it in turn; it is then given to the reader; after being attentively read and corrected, it is returned to the compositors to make the corrections, who take it in turn, two and two; the column is divided into four, the first compositor takes the first and third parts, and the second takes the second and fourth parts, and he who is the last in making his corrections, pulls a second proof, which is carefully revised, and when the revise is corrected the matter is ready for the paper. It thus goes on column after column, till the whole paper is composed, when it often occurs that the arrival of foreign intelligence increases the quantity considerably; matter of less immediate interest is, in this instance, taken away, and kept as back matter for a future day, to make room for the latest intelligence.
If the first compositor has six or more lines to compose of copy that he has in hand, he must give it up, and begin to correct immediately; but if he has less than six lines of copy in hand, he finishes it before he commences correcting: this regulation is adopted to prevent any interruption or delay in the progress of getting the paper out.
The full hands take it in turn to correct the revises, lock up the forms, and take them to the machines to be worked off.
The advertisement department is not regulated after the same manner as the news department, there being no distinction of grades, nor any fixed salaries, nor is there any precise time of commencing work, the uncertainty as to the time of advertisements being received at the office rendering it an impossibility to appoint any regular hour for beginning. The compositors are paid by the galley, not according to the scale of prices fixed for morning papers, but more after the scale of evening papers. The method adopted in this part of the establishment in taking copy is the same as in other offices, the first out of copy taking first, and so on, and as the compositors come out of copy their numbers are placed on a slate, which prevents disputes or confusion. The compositor marks his copy by putting his initials at the back of it; so that if any gross error be committed, and remain uncorrected, a wrong number in a reference, for instance, it can immediately be ascertained who composed it, and either the reader or the compositor is held responsible for the advertisement duty, the proof deciding which is to pay the fine for negligence.
The salary of a full hand is 2l. 8s. per week, but the average earnings are 3l. 12s. 6d.; the salary of a supernumerary is 1l. 3s. per week, and the average earnings are 3l.; it often happens that much higher bills are written, but the above may be taken as a fair average.
The whole establishment of the Times newspaper, including editors, reporters, compositors, readers, engineer, overseers of the machines, 536 persons to lay on, and to take off, clerks, &c. consists of one hundred and thirty-seven persons.
The following is the number of Stamps issued to four of the principal London morning newspapers in 1838 and 1839, and also the amount of advertisement duty paid by the said papers in each of the years 1837, 1838, and 1839, from official returns.
Number of Stamps issued.
Amount of Money paid by each Newspaper for Advertisement Duty.
London.—Daily, 6 morning, 5 evening; twice a week, 3, including London Gazette; three times a week, 4; weekly, Monday, 2; Tuesday, 3; Wednesday, 4; Thursday, 2; Friday, 1; Saturday, 8; Sunday, 27; tenth of every month, 1; first and fifteenth of every month, 1. Total, 67.
Country.—Bedfordshire, 1; Berkshire, 4; Buckinghamshire, 3; Cambridgeshire, 3; Cheshire, 6; Cornwall, 5; Cumberland, 4; Derbyshire, 4; Devonshire, 12; Dorsetshire, 3; Durham, 5; Essex, 5; Gloucestershire, 8; Hampshire, 4; Herefordshire, 2; Hertfordshire, 2; Kent, 13; Lancashire, 26; Leicestershire, 4; Lincolnshire, 5; Monmouthshire, 2; Norfolk, 2; Northamptonshire, 2; Northumberland, 6; Nottinghamshire, 3; Oxfordshire, 4; Shropshire, 6; Somersetshire, 14; Staffordshire, 5; Suffolk, 5; Surrey, there are no papers printed in this county, but there are 3 circulated by agents; Sussex, 6; Warwickshire, 9; Westmoreland, 2; Wiltshire, 5; Worcestershire, 5; Yorkshire, 28; Berwick-on-Tweed, 2. Total, 228.
Edinburgh.—Twice a week, 6; three times a week, 2; weekly, 6. Total, 14.
Aberdeen, 4; Ayr, 3; Dumfries, 3; Dundee, 3; Elgin, 1; Fife, 2; Glasgow, 11; Greenock, 2; Inverness, 3; John O’Groat’s Journal, 1; Kelso, 2; Kilmarnock, 1; Montrose, 1; Paisley, 1; Perth, 4; Stirling, 2. Total, 44.537
Dublin.—Daily, 3; twice a week, 2; three times a week, 6; weekly, 8. Total, 19.
Athlone, 1; Ballyshannon, 1; Belfast, 6; Carlow, 1; Clare, 1; Clonmel, 1; Connaught, 1; Cork, 3; Downpatrick, 1; Drogheda, 2; Enniskillen, 2; Fermanagh, 1; Galway, 1; Kerry, 2; Kilkenny, 2; Leinster, 2; Limerick, 3; Londonderry, 3; Mayo, 2; Munster, 1; Nenagh, 1; Newry, 2; Roscommon, 2; Sligo, 2; Tipperary, 2; Tuam, 1; Ulster, 1; Waterford, 4; Westmeath, 1; Wexford, 2. Total, 55.
Guernsey, 3; Jersey, 7; Isle of Man, 4. Total, 14.
|Other parts of Scotland||44|
|Other parts of Ireland||55|
Newspaper Postage.—3 & 4 Vict. c. 96. “An Act for the Regulation of the Duties of Postage.”
s. 1. “Be it therefore enacted by the Queen’s most Excellent Majesty, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the Authority of the same, That all Letters and Newspapers and other printed Papers, which shall be posted in any Town or Place within the United Kingdom, or shall be brought from Parts beyond the Seas to any Port or Place within the United Kingdom, or shall be sent by the Post between the United Kingdom and Places beyond the Seas, or between any of the other Places herein-after mentioned, or shall pass through the United Kingdom, shall be subject to the several Regulations and Rates herein-after contained.”
s. 12. “And be it enacted, That all Letters posted in any Town or Place within the United Kingdom shall, if written on stamped Paper or enclosed in stamped Covers, or having a Stamp or Stamps affixed thereto, and all printed Votes and Proceedings of the Imperial Parliament, and all Newspapers which shall be liable to Postage under this Act, shall, if posted in any Town or Place within the United Kingdom and enclosed in stamped Covers, or having a Stamp or Stamps affixed thereto, (the Stamp or Stamps in every such Case being affixed or appearing on the Outside, and of the Value or Amount herein-after expressed and specially provided under the Authority of this Act or of the said recited Act, [2 & 3 Vict. c. 52.] and if the Stamp shall not have been used before,) pass by the Post free of Postage, as herein-after mentioned.”
“And on all such printed Votes and Proceedings of Parliament and Newspapers the Stamp or Stamps shall be equal in Value or Amount to the Rates of Postage to which such Votes or Proceedings or Newspapers would have been liable under this Act:
“And that in all Cases in which the same shall be necessary, in order to place on any such Letters, printed Votes or Proceedings of Parliament, and Newspapers, the full Amount of Stamps hereby required as aforesaid, there shall be affixed thereto such a Number of Adhesive Stamps as alone or in Combination with 538 the Stamp on such Letters or Packets, or on the Envelope or Cover thereof, will be equal in Amount to the Rate of Postage to which such Letters, printed Votes or Proceedings of Parliament, and Newspapers would be liable under this Act.
s. 13. “And be it enacted, That in all Cases in which Letters posted in and addressed to Places within the United Kingdom shall be posted without any Stamp thereon, and without the Postage being pre-paid, there shall be charged on such Letters a Postage of Double the Amount to which such Letters would otherwise be liable under this Act; and in all Cases in which printed Votes or Proceedings of Parliament, or Newspapers liable to Postage under this Act, shall be posted without any Stamp thereon, there shall be charged on such Votes and Proceedings or Newspapers the Postage to which the same would be liable under this Act.”
s. 16. “And be it enacted, That in all Cases in which any Votes or Proceedings of Parliament, Newspapers, addressed to Places within the United Kingdom, shall be posted, having thereon or affixed thereto any Stamp or Stamps the Value or Amount of which shall be less than the Rate of Postage to which such Votes or Proceedings or Newspapers would be liable under this Act, there shall be charged on such Votes or Proceedings or Newspapers a Postage equal to the Amount of the Difference between the Value of such Stamp or Stamps and the Postage to which such Votes or Proceedings or Newspapers would be liable as aforesaid.
s. 17. “Provided always, and be it enacted, That it shall in all Cases be optional with the Parties sending any Letters, printed Votes or Proceedings of Parliament, or Newspapers, by the Post, to forward the same free of Postage by means of a proper Stamp or Stamps thereon or affixed thereto in manner herein-before provided, or to forward the same in like Manner as the same might otherwise have been forwarded under this Act; but nevertheless, in case any Letters, printed Votes or Proceedings of Parliament, or Newspapers, addressed to Places out of the United Kingdom, shall have thereon or affixed thereto any Stamp or Stamps being less in Amount or Value than the Rates of Postage to which such Letters, or such Votes or Proceedings, or Newspapers, would be liable under this Act, such Letters, printed Votes or Proceedings of Parliament, or Newspapers, if the Postage thereon be required by the Postmaster General under the Provisions of this Act to be paid when posted, shall not in any Case be forwarded by the Post, but shall, so far as may be practicable, be returned to the Senders thereof through the Dead Letter Office; and if the Postage on such Letters, printed Votes or Proceedings, or Newspapers, be not so required to be paid when posted, the same may be forwarded charged with such Postage as if no Stamp had been thereon or affixed thereto.”
s. 32. “And be it enacted, That the Foreign Postage marked on any Letter or Newspaper, or other printed Paper brought into the United Kingdom, shall in all Courts of Justice and other Places be received as conclusive Evidence of the Amount of Foreign Postage payable in respect of such Letter, Newspaper, or other printed Paper, in addition to the British Postage; and such Foreign Postage shall be recoverable within the United Kingdom and other Her Majesty’s Dominions as Postage due to Her Majesty.”
s. 36. “And for encouraging Masters of Vessels, not being Post Office Packets, to undertake the Conveyance of Letters; be it enacted, That the Postmaster General may allow to Masters of Vessels, on Letters and Newspapers conveyed by them for or on behalf of the Post Office between Places within the United Kingdom, a Sum not exceeding Two Shillings and Sixpence for each and every Number of One hundred of such Letters and Newspapers, and for any less Number in the like Proportion, and may allow to the Masters of Vessels bound from the United Kingdom to the East Indies a Sum not exceeding One Penny for each Letter and One Halfpenny for each Newspaper conveyed by them for or on behalf of the Post Office, and may allow to the Masters of all other Vessels a Sum not exceeding Two-pence for each Letter conveyed by them for or on behalf of the Post Office from the United Kingdom to Places beyond Sea, and may allow to the Masters of all Vessels not exceeding Two-pence for each Letter brought into the United Kingdom, which they shall deliver at the Post Office at the first Port at which they touch or arrive, or with which they communicate, (all which Gratuities may be paid at such Times and Places, and under all such Regulations and Restrictions, as the Postmaster General shall in his Discretion think fit); and every Master of a Vessel outward-bound shall receive on board his Vessel every Post Letter Bag tendered to him for Conveyance, and having received the same shall deliver it, on his Arrival at the Port or Place of his Destination, without Delay; and every Master of a Vessel inward-bound shall cause all Letters on board his Vessel (except those belonging to the Owners of the Vessel, or of the Goods on board, which do not exceed the prescribed Weights,) to be collected and enclosed in some Bag or 539 other Envelope, and to be sealed with his Seal, and to be addressed to any of Her Majesty’s Deputy Postmasters, that they may be in readiness to send on shore by his own Boat, or by the Pilot Boat, or by any other safe or convenient Means, in order that the same may be delivered at the first regular Post Office which can be communicated with, and at the regular Port or Place where the Vessel shall report, shall sign a Declaration in the Presence of the Person authorized by the Postmaster General at such Port or Place, who shall also sign the same.”
s. 42. “And be it enacted, That printed Newspapers may be sent free of Postage, or liable to Postage according to the Regulations and Rates herein-after set forth; (that is to say,)
By the Post, from one Town or Place to another, within the United Kingdom (except by private Ships), free:
By the Post of a Post Town, within the United Kingdom, addressed to a Person within the Limits of that Place or its Suburbs, One Penny each:
Between Places within the United Kingdom by private Ships, One Penny each:
By Packet Boats to any of Her Majesty’s Colonies and Possessions beyond the Seas, (including the East Indies, by Packet Boats from the United Kingdom, viâ Syria or Egypt,) free:
By private Ships, One Penny each.
Brought from the Colonies to the United Kingdom by Packet Boats, (including Newspapers from the East Indies, by Her Majesty’s Mediterranean Packet Boats,) whether directed to a Place within the United Kingdom or to any of Her Majesty’s Colonies beyond the Seas, to be forwarded from the United Kingdom by Packet Boats, free:
Brought from the Colonies to the United Kingdom by private Ships, addressed to Places within the United Kingdom, and delivered by the Master at the Post Office, One Penny each:
Sent by Packet Boat through the United Kingdom to a Foreign State, (subject to the Consent of the Lords of the Treasury,) free:
Newspapers between Foreign Countries and the United Kingdom, as follows:
Sent from the United Kingdom to any Foreign Port, either by Packet Boats or private Ships, Two-pence each:
When British Newspapers are allowed to pass by Post in a Foreign Country free, then British Newspapers addressed to such Foreign Country may be transmitted to any Foreign Port by Packet Boats, free:
If transmitted by private Ships, One Penny each.
Brought into the United Kingdom by Packet Boats or Private Ships, Two-pence each:
If British Newspapers are allowed to pass by Post free in a Foreign Country, Newspapers printed in that Country brought by Packet Boat to the United Kingdom, free:
If brought by private Vessels, One Penny each:
Foreign Newspapers sent by Packet Boat through the United Kingdom to the Colonies (subject to the Consent of the Commissioners of Her Majesty’s Treasury), free.
s. 43. “And be it enacted, That although Newspapers may be sent by the Post, and thereupon subject to the Rate of Postage set forth in the above Table, it shall not be compulsory to send them by Post.
s. 44. “And be it enacted, That no printed Paper, whether Newspaper or Votes and Proceedings in Parliament, or of the Colonial Legislature, shall be sent by the Post, either free or at the aforesaid Rates of Postage, unless the following Conditions shall be observed:
First, It shall be sent without a Cover, or in a Cover open at the Sides.
Second, There shall be no Word or Communication printed on the Paper after its Publication, or upon the Cover thereof, nor any Writing or Marks upon it or upon the Cover of it, except the Name and Address of the Person to whom sent.
Third, There shall be no Paper or Thing enclosed in or with any such Paper.540
Fourth, The said printed Papers shall be put into the Post Office at such Hours in the Day, and under all such Regulations, as the Postmaster General may appoint, including therein the Payment of Postage on such as are going out of the United Kingdom when put into the Post Office, if the Postmaster General shall so require.
Fifth, All Foreign Newspapers brought into the United Kingdom under this Act are to be printed in the Language of the Country from which they shall have been forwarded, unless the Commissioners of Her Majesty’s Treasury shall in any Case direct that any Foreign Newspapers shall be exempted from the Restriction hereby imposed.
s. 45. “And be it enacted, That the Postmaster General may examine any printed Paper or any Packet which shall be sent by the Post, without a Cover or in a Cover open at the Sides, in order to discover whether it is contrary in any respect to the Conditions hereby required to be observed, or to any Regulations which the Postmaster General, with the Consent of the Commissioners of Her Majesty’s Treasury, may from Time to Time make in respect of any Paper or Packet of such a Description, and also, in the Case of Newspapers, to ascertain in what Language the Newspapers brought into the United Kingdom from any Foreign Country shall be printed and published; and also in order to discover whether the Newspapers printed and published in the United Kingdom (excepting those printed in Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Sark, or Man, which, for the Purposes of this Act, are to be considered as Part of the United Kingdom) are duly stamped; and in case any one of the required Conditions has not been fulfilled, the whole of every such Paper or Packet shall be charged with Treble the Duty of Postage to which it would have been liable as a Letter, except as to Foreign Newspapers not printed in the Language of the Country from which they shall have been forwarded, which shall be charged with full Postage as Letters; and as to every such printed Paper going out of the United Kingdom, the Postmaster General may either detain the Paper or forward the same by the Post, charged with Treble the Duty of Postage to which it would have been liable as a Letter; and in case a Newspaper printed in the United Kingdom (except as aforesaid), and transmitted by the Post under this Act, shall appear not to have been duly stamped, the same shall be stopped and sent to the Commissioners of Stamps and Taxes.
s. 46. “And be it enacted, That in all Cases in which a Question shall arise whether a printed Paper is entitled to the Privilege of a Newspaper or other printed Paper hereby privileged, so far as respects the Transmission thereof by the Post under the Post Office Acts, the Question shall be referred to the Determination of the Postmaster General, whose Decision, with the Concurrence of the Lords of the Treasury, shall be final.
s. 47. “And for providing for the Transmission of Newspapers between the United Kingdom and Foreign Countries free of Postage, when satisfactory Proof shall be laid before the Postmaster General that British Newspapers addressed either to a Person or to a Place within a Foreign Country, and also that Newspapers addressed to a Person or a Place in the United Kingdom from such Foreign Country, are respectively allowed to pass by the Post within that Country free of Postage; be it enacted, That the Postmaster General may, with the Consent of the Commissioners of Her Majesty’s Treasury, transmit by the Post British Newspapers addressed to a Person or to a Place in such Foreign Country from the United Kingdom, to any Port out of the United Kingdom, other than Her Majesty’s Colonies and Possessions, free from Postage; and he may, with the like Consent, receive from such Foreign Country Foreign Newspapers free from Postage, or he may, with the like Consent, charge for every Newspaper transmitted to or received from a Foreign Country a Rate of Postage which he may consider equivalent to the Rates of Postage payable in that Country on Newspapers either transmitted from or received in that Country, but in all Cases, whether the Newspaper be transmitted free or otherwise, subject to a Sea Postage of One Penny, payable on the Newspaper being put into the Post Office, for every Newspaper delivered at the Post Office to be conveyed by Vessels not being Post Office Packets, and also to a like Postage for every Newspaper received by Vessels not Post Office Packets addressed to a Person or to a Place within the United Kingdom.
s. 48. “And whereas by reason of the Postage which may be charged on Newspapers in Foreign Countries, or from other Circumstances, it may be expedient again to impose the Rates of Two-pence on Newspapers; be it enacted, That the Postmaster General, with the Consent of the Lords of the Treasury, may again charge and demand the said respective Rates of Two-pence on Newspapers received from and sent to any Foreign Country.
s. 49. “And be it enacted, That the Postmaster General, with the Consent of the Commissioners of Her Majesty’s Treasury, may allow Colonial Newspapers to pass by 541 the Post between Places within any of Her Majesty’s Colonies, or by Packet Boat or private Ship, from one Colony to another Colony, whether through the United Kingdom or not; and also allow Foreign Newspapers to pass through the United Kingdom either to Her Majesty’s Colonies or from one Foreign Country to another Foreign Country, by Packet Boat or private Ship; and also allow British Newspapers to be sent to the Colonies through a Foreign Country, and Colonial Newspapers to be sent through a Foreign Country to the United Kingdom, or through the United Kingdom to a Foreign Country, free of Postage, or subject to such Rates of Postage and under all such Regulations and Restrictions as the Postmaster General, with such Consent as aforesaid, may think fit.
s. 50. “And be it enacted, That every British Newspaper sent by the Post to Places out of the United Kingdom shall in all Cases be put into a Post Office or Receiving Office in the United Kingdom within Seven Days next after the Day on which the same shall be published, the Day of Publication to be ascertained by the Date of such Paper; and in case a Paper shall be put into a Post Office after the Expiration of such Seven Days, the Postmaster General may either detain the Paper, or forward it by Post charged with full Postage as a Letter.
s. 51. “And be it enacted, That in case any Person to whom a printed Newspaper brought into the United Kingdom shall be directed shall have removed from the Place to which it shall be directed, before the Delivery thereof at that Place, it may (provided it shall not have been opened) be re-directed and forwarded by Post to such Person at any other Place within the United Kingdom free of Charge for such extra Conveyance; but if the Newspaper shall have been opened, it shall be charged with the same Rate as if it were a Letter from the Place of Re-direction to the Place at which it shall be ultimately delivered.
s. 52. “And be it enacted, That the Postmaster General may allow the Masters of Vessels, other than Packet Boats, a Sum not exceeding One Penny on every printed Newspaper, Foreign or Colonial, brought into the United Kingdom from a Port or Place out of the United Kingdom, and delivered by them at the Post Office of the Post Town at which they shall touch or arrive, and a Sum not exceeding One Penny on every printed Newspaper conveyed by them for or on behalf of the Post Office from the United Kingdom to any Port or Place out of the same, in respect of which no Gratuity is herein-before authorized to be allowed.”
s. 57. “And be it enacted, That the Postmaster General may at any Time hereafter charge, for the Use of Her Majesty, on all Letters, Newspapers, and other printed Papers sent by the Post, on which the Postage shall not be pre-paid, and which shall not be duly and properly stamped, and also on all Letters sent by the Post without being duly and properly stamped, although the Postage thereon shall be wholly or in part pre-paid, such higher Rates of Postage than would otherwise by Law be payable on such Letters, Newspapers, or other printed Papers as the Commissioners of Her Majesty’s Treasury by Warrant under their Hands shall from Time to Time deem expedient, and may also remit any of the Rates of British Postage or Inland Postage for the Time being payable by Law on the Transmission of Post Letters, Newspapers, or other printed Papers, to such Extent as the Lords of the Treasury shall from Time to Time direct.
s. 58. “And whereas Communications may from Time to Time be opened with Foreign Post Offices, which may render an Alteration in the Rates of Postage expedient; be it enacted, That it shall be lawful for the Commissioners of Her Majesty’s Treasury from Time to Time, and at any Time after the passing of this Act, by Warrant under their Hands, to alter and fix any of the Rates of British Postage or Inland Postage payable by Law on the Transmission by the Post of Foreign or Colonial Letters or Newspapers, or of any other printed Papers, and to subject the same to Rates of Postage according to the Weight thereof, and a Scale of Weight to be contained in such Warrant, and from Time to Time, by Warrant as aforesaid, to alter or repeal any such altered Rates, and make and establish any new or other Rates in lieu thereof, and from Time to Time, by Warrant as aforesaid, to appoint at what Time the Rates which may be payable are to be paid, and the Power hereby given to alter and fix Rates of Postage shall extend to any Increase or Reduction, or Remission of Postage.
s. 59. “And be it enacted, That the Rates of Postage from Time to Time to become payable under or by virtue of any Warrant of the Commissioners of Her Majesty’s Treasury, under this Act, shall be charged by and be paid to Her Majesty’s Postmaster General, for the Use of Her Majesty, on all Post Letters, Newspapers, or other printed Papers to which such Warrant shall extend; and that in all Cases in which any Rates of Postage shall be made payable under any such Warrant, every such Warrant shall be published in the London Gazette, and shall, within Fourteen Days after making the 542 same, be laid before both Houses of Parliament (if then sitting), or otherwise within Fourteen Days after Parliament shall re-assemble; provided that any Rates made payable by any such Warrant may be demanded and taken immediately after they shall have been so published in the London Gazette, although the same shall not then have been laid before Parliament.
s. 60. “And be it enacted, That in all Cases in which the Postage of any unstamped Letter shall not have been paid by the Sender, it shall be paid by the Person to whom the Letter is addressed on the Delivery thereof to him; but if the Letter be refused, or the Party to whom it is addressed shall be dead, or cannot be found, the Writer or Sender shall pay the Postage; and this Enactment shall apply to every Packet, Newspaper and Thing whatsoever chargeable with Postage which shall be transmitted by the Post.
s. 61. “And be it enacted, That it shall be lawful for the Commissioners of Her Majesty’s Treasury to make any Reduction or Increase or Alteration they may consider expedient in the Gratuities allowed by this Act to Masters of Vessels for Letters and Newspapers conveyed by them for or on behalf of the Post Office, or delivered by them to the Post Office, and to allow and authorize such Gratuities for the Conveyance of Letters and Newspapers to Masters of Vessels passing to or from or between any of Her Majesty’s Colonies or Possessions beyond the Seas, as they shall think fit, and also to allow and authorize any Gratuities to be paid to Pilots, Seamen, or others on the Letters and Newspapers they may bring to any Post Office from any Vessels.”
s. 71. “And be it enacted, That the following Terms and Expressions, whenever used in this or any other Post Office Act, shall have the several Interpretations herein-after respectively set forth, unless such Interpretations are repugnant to the Subject or inconsistent with the Context of the Provisions in which they may be found; (that is to say,) the Term “British Newspapers” shall mean Newspapers printed and published in the United Kingdom liable to the Stamp Duties and duly stamped, and also Newspapers printed in the Islands of Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Sark, or Man, although not liable to Stamp Duties; and the Term “inward-bound” shall be held to include Vessels bound as well to any Port in the United Kingdom as to any Port in any of her Majesty’s Colonies; and the Term “outward-bound” shall be held to include Vessels bound as well from any Port in the United Kingdom as from any Port in Her Majesty’s Colonies; and that the Term “United Kingdom” shall mean the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the Islands of Man, Jersey, Guernsey, Sark, and Alderney; and that the Term “Her Majesty’s Colonies” shall include every Port and Place within the Territorial Acquisitions now vested in the East India Company in Trust for Her Majesty, the Cape of Good Hope, the Island of Saint Helena, the Ionian Islands, and Honduras, as well as Her Majesty’s other Colonies and Possessions beyond the Seas (the Islands of Man, Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney and Sark only excepted); and that the Term “by the Post” shall extend to and include the Transmission of Post Letters as well by any General or Twopenny or Penny or Convention Post as by Packet Boat; and the Term “Post Town” shall include every City, Town, and Place where a Post Office is or shall be established; and that the several other Terms and Expressions used in this Act shall be construed according to the respective Interpretations of the Terms and Expressions contained in the said Act passed in the First Year of the Reign of Her present Majesty, intituled An Act for consolidating the Laws relative to Offences against the Post Office of the United Kingdom, and for regulating the Judicial Administration of the Post Office Laws, and for explaining certain Terms and Expressions employed in those Laws, so far as those Interpretations are not repugnant to the Subject or inconsistent with the Context of such Terms and Expressions.”
Newspapers, Ireland.—4 & 5 Will. 4. c. 71. “Whereas by an Act passed in the Parliament of Ireland in the Thirty-eighth Year of the Reign of King George the Third, intituled An Act to amend an Act passed in the Twenty-third and Twenty-fourth Years of the Reign of His present Majesty, intituled ‘An Act to secure the Liberty of the Press by preventing the Abuses arising from the Publication of traitorous, seditious, false, and slanderous Libels by Persons unknown,’ it is amongst other things enacted, that if any Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor, or Printers, Publishers, or Proprietors of any Newspaper, Intelligencer, or Occurrences, or any Paper serving the Purposes of a Newspaper, Intelligencer, or Occurrences, shall have become and be found a Lunatic or non compos mentis, or shall become and be found bankrupt, or shall be outlawed for any Crime, or shall be found guilty and receive Judgment for printing or publishing any traitorous, scandalous, false, or seditious Libel, or shall be charged by Indictment or Information with having published a traitorous, scandalous, false, or seditious Libel, and shall not within Six Days after a Copy of such Indictment or Information shall be served upon such Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor, or at the House or Place of printing or publishing the Paper in which the Newspaper containing such Libel shall 543 be printed, surrender himself, herself, or themselves to take his, her, or their Trial at the then next Commission of Oyer and Terminer, Quarter Sessions of the Peace, or Assizes for the City or County where he, she, or they shall be indicted as aforesaid, or where such Information as aforesaid is to be tried, every Printer and Publisher so neglecting, shall from thenceforth be disabled to be the Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor of any Newspaper, Intelligencer, or Occurrences, and the Commissioners of Stamp Duties are thereby required to refuse to deliver to such Person or Persons stamped Paper for the Purpose of printing a Newspaper; and by an Act passed in the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the Fifty-fifth Year of the Reign of His said Majesty King George the Third [55 Geo. 3. c. 80.], intituled An Act to provide for the Collection and Management of Stamp Duties on Pamphlets, Almanacks, and Newspapers in Ireland, it is also amongst other things enacted, that if any Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor of any Newspaper in Ireland, shall be by due Course of Law outlawed for any Criminal Offence, or receive Judgment for printing or publishing a traitorous or seditious Libel, the said Commissioners of Stamps in Ireland and their Officers respectively are thereby prohibited to sell or deliver to or for the Use of any such Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor so outlawed, or who shall have so received Judgment for such Libel, any stamped Paper for printing any Newspaper; and it is also further enacted, that if any Printer, Publisher, or Proprietor of any Newspaper which shall be at any Time published in Ireland shall have become a Bankrupt or non compos mentis, or shall be outlawed for any Crime, or shall receive Judgment for printing or publishing any traitorous or seditious Libel, then and in every such Case such Printer or Printers, Publisher or Publishers, Proprietor or Proprietors respectively, shall no longer be entitled to print or publish such Newspaper, but shall as to any such Right be considered from thenceforth as if he, she, or they never had made such Affidavit as in the said last-recited Act is mentioned: And whereas it is expedient to repeal the said recited Enactments; be it therefore enacted by the King’s most Excellent Majesty, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the Authority of the same, That from and after the passing of this Act so much of the said respective Acts as is herein-before recited shall be and the same is hereby repealed.”
for the year 1793, of 2½d.!
. in “d.” invisible
“So much of an Act of the Tenth Year of the Reign of Queen Anne, [c. 19.]
. in “c.” invisible
Collection and Management of Stamp Duties on Pamphlets, Almanacks, and Newspapers in Ireland:
text has “Newspaerps”
[Poor Wales! Even the islands get a category of their own—but Wales is no more than an afterthought to England.]
Votes or Proceedings of Parliament, Newspapers, addressed to Places
[Text unchanged. Something seems to be missing, but I can’t figure out what.]
A nick is a hollow cast crossways in the shanks of types, to make a distinction readily between different sorts and sizes; and to enable the compositor to perceive quickly the bottom of the letter as it lies in the case, when composing; as nicks are always cast on that side of the shank on which the bottom of the face of the letter is placed.
A great deal of inconvenience frequently arises, owing to the founders casting different founts of types with a similar nick in each. Although this may, at the first sight, appear of little moment, yet it is attended with much trouble: and works are frequently disfigured by it, notwithstanding all the care of the compositor and the reader, as will appear from the following statement.
A printer has cast a fount, we will suppose of Pica, in addition to another he had in the house, and this new Pica is of a different face from his old one; but not having given any particular directions, the founder casts it with a nick precisely the same as the other. The consequence is, when a compositor is distributing head lines, lines of italic, small capitals, or small jobs—in the hurry of business—through inadvertency—or carelessness—he frequently distributes them into the wrong cases, when it is almost impossible for another compositor who has occasion to use these cases next, to detect the error till he sees the proof; unless he is in the habit of reading his lines in the stick, which many are not. He has then a great deal of trouble to change the letters; and, with all the attention that the reader can bestow, a letter of the wrong fount will frequently escape his eye, and disfigure the page.
Even in founts that are next in size to each other; for instance,—Bourgeois and Long Primer, Long Primer and Small Pica, Small Pica and Pica, and Pica and English, head lines, &c., are not unfrequently distributed into wrong cases, where the nick is the same; and always 544 occasion loss of time in correcting the mistakes, and sometimes pass undiscovered.
I would recommend, in furnishing a new office with types, that every fount, commencing with the smallest, should have a different nick from that of the next size: thus Brevier, supposing it to be the smallest, might have three wide nicks, Bourgeois two closer ones, and Long Primer one; Small Pica the same as Brevier, Pica as Bourgeois, English as Long Primer; and here it might stop, for there is difference enough in the sizes above English for the eye to distinguish them readily, without varying the nick.
By going as far as three nicks, which is now generally done, a sufficient variety may be obtained to distinguish one fount from another without hesitation; but I would strongly advise that the nicks should be deep, as it allows the compositor to see quickly how the letters lie in the box, and enables him to pick them up with greater facility, particularly by candlelight.
A single nick may be—low on the shank, in the middle, or nearer the top; two nicks may be close together—at the bottom, in the middle, or at the top, or they may be wide apart; three nicks may be—two at bottom and one at top, two at top and one at bottom, or the three close together, at the bottom, the middle, or the top, or wide apart. Where there are a great number of founts, it would add to the distinguishing mark, if consisting of more than one nick, that one of them should be cast shallow: but where there is only one nick it ought always to be cast deep.
The name of a type, one size larger than Pearl and one smaller than Minion. Moxon spelt the name Nomparel, and the French to this day spell it Nompareille.
For the allowance of the duty on paper used in the printing of books in the Northern languages within the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, the universities of Scotland, and the university of Trinity College, Dublin, see Paper.
A great deal of information respecting the Northern languages will be found in Recherches sur les Langues Tartares, par M. Abel Remusat.
Quotations down the side of a page are called Notes.—M. At the present day we term these Marginal Notes; and usually mean, when we speak of notes, those at the bottom of a page, although they are sometimes termed Bottom Notes, or Foot Notes, which see.
for entering printing press, types, &c., with Clerk of the Peace, see Certificate.
See Lay On.—M.
The names of numerals are very different, not only in several parts of Asia, but in both North and South America.
“Small stones were used amongst uncivilized nations: hence the words calculate and calculation appear to have been derived from calculus, the Latin for a pebble-stone. Alphabetic letters had also a certain numerical value assigned them, and several Greek characters were employed to express particular numbers.
“The combination of Greek numerical characters was not well known to the Latins before the thirteenth century, although Greek numerical characters were frequently used in France and Germany, in episcopal letters, and continued to the eleventh century. But of all the Greek 545 ciphers the Episema βαῦ was most in use with the Latins: it gradually assumed the form of G with a tail, for so it appears in a Latin inscription of the year 296. It is found to have been used in the fifth century in Latin MSS. It was reckoned for 6, and this value has been evinced by such a number of monumental proofs, that there is no room to give it any other. Some of the learned, with even Mabillon, have been mistaken in estimating it as 5, but in a posthumous work he acknowledges his error.
“Those authors were led into this error by the medals of the Emperor Justinian having the episema for 5; but it is a certain fact that the coiners had been mistaken and confounded it with the tailed U, for the episema was still in use in the fourth century, and among the Latins was estimated as six, but under a form somewhat different. Whenever it appears in other monuments of the western nations of Europe of that very century, and the following, it is rarely used to express any number except 5.
“The Etruscans also used their letters for indicating numbers by writing them from right to left, and the ancient Danes copied the example in the application of their letters.
“The Romans, when they borrowed arts and sciences from the Greeks, learned also their method of using alphabetical numeration. This custom however was not very ancient among them. Before writing was yet current with them they made use of nails for reckoning years, and the method of driving those nails became in process of time a ceremony of their religion. The first eight Roman numerals were composed of the I and the V. The Roman ten was composed of the V proper, and the V inverted (𐌡), which characters served to reckon as far as forty, but when writing became more general, I, V, X, L, C, D, and M, were the only characters appropriated to the indication of numbers. The above seven letters, in their most extensive combination, produce six hundred and sixty-six thousand ranged thus, DCLXVIM. Some however pretend that the Romans were strangers to any higher number than 100,000. The want of ciphers obliged them to double, treble, and multiply their numerical characters four-fold; according as they had occasion to make them express units, tens, hundreds, &c. &c. For the sake of brevity they had recourse to another expedient; by drawing a small line over any of their numeral characters they made them stand for as many thousands as they contained units. Thus a small line over Ī made it 1000, and over X̄ expressed 10,000, &c.
“When the Romans wrote several units following, the first and last were longer than the rest IiiiiI: thus vir after those six units, signified sex-vir. D stood for 500, and the perpendicular line of this letter was sometimes separated from the body thus (IↃ,) without lessening its value. M, whether capital or uncial, expressed 1000. In the uncial form it sometimes assumed that of one of those figures, CIↃ, CD, ∞, . The cumbent X was also used to signify a similar number.
“As often as a figure of less value appears before a higher number, it denotes that so much must be deducted from the greater number: thus, I before V makes but four, I before X gives only nine, X preceding C produces only 90, and even two XX before C reckons for no more than 80. Such was the general practice with the ancient Romans with respect to their numerical letters, which is still continued in recording accounts in our Exchequer.
“In ancient MSS. 4 is written IIII and not IV, 9 thus VIIII, and not 546 IX, &c. Instead of V five units IIIII were sometimes used in the eighth century. Half was expressed by an S at the end of the figures, CIIS was put 102 and a half. This S sometimes appeared in the form of our 5.
“In some old MSS. those numerical figures LXL are used to express 90. The Roman numeral letters were generally used both in England, France, Italy, and Germany, from the earliest times to the middle of the fifteenth century.
“The ancient people of Spain made use of the same Roman ciphers as we do. The X with the top of the right hand stroke in form of a semi-circle reckoned for 40; it merits the more particular notice as it has misled many of the learned. The Roman ciphers however were continued in use with the Spaniards until the fifteenth century. The Germans used the Roman ciphers for a long time, nearly in the same manner as the French.”
“The points after the Roman ciphers were exceedingly various, and never rightly fixed. It is not known when the ancient custom was first introduced of placing an O at top immediately after the Roman characters, as Ao Mo Lo VIo &c.”—Astle.
|Unus, a, um,||I.||1.|
|Duo, æ, o,||II.||2.|
|Se- sex- decim,||XVI.||16.|
|Octodecim,||XVIII. or XIIX.||18.|
|Ducenti, æ, a,||CC.||200.|
|Trecenti, æ, a,||CCC.||300.|
|Quadringenti, æ, a,||CCCC.||400.|
|Quingenti, æ, a,||IↃ. or D.||500.|
|547 Sexcenti, æ, a,||DC.||600.|
|Septingenti, æ, a,||DCC.||700.|
|Octingenti, æ, a,||DCCC.||800.|
|Nongenti, æ, a,||DCCCC. or CM.||900.|
|Mille,||M. or CIↃ.||1,000.|
|IↃↃ. or V̄||5,000.|
|CCIↃↃ. or X̄.||10,000.|
|IↃↃↃ. or L̄.||50,000.|
|CCCIↃↃↃ. or C̄.||100,000.|
|IↃↃↃↃ. or D̄.||500,000.|
|Decies centena millia,||CCCCIↃↃↃↃ,
If the lesser number is placed before the greater, the lesser is to be deducted from the greater; thus IV signifies one less than five, i.e. four; IX, nine; XC, ninety.
If the lesser number be placed after the greater, the lesser is to be added to the greater; thus VI signifies one more than five, i.e. six; XI, eleven; CX, one hundred and ten.
An horizontal stroke over a numeral denotes a thousand: thus V̄ signifies five thousand; L̄, fifty thousand: M̄, a thousand times a thousand, or a million.
I, signifies one, because it is the smallest letter.
V, five, because it is sometimes used for U, the fifth vowel.
X, ten, because it represents two Vs.
L, fifty, from its resemblance to the lower half of C.
C, a hundred, centum.
IↃ or D, five hundred, the half of CIↃ.
M or CIↃ, a thousand, from mille. The latter figures joined at the top formed the ancient M.—Latin Vocabulary, 18mo. Lond. Valpy, 1823.
separated from the body thus (IↃ,)
[We are ahead of Savage here, because his only option was to turn an ordinary C upside-down, causing it to print below the line although it’s obvious what he meant.]
In the uncial form it sometimes assumed that of one of those figures, CIↃ, CD, ∞, . The cumbent X was also used to signify a similar number.
[If the author’s print shop had had the form ↀ available, he probably would have included it.]
Two bolts that pass through the head: they have square return heads, which clasp the under side of the nut of the spindle to keep it firm in its place.
It is also called the Box, which see.
marked thus †, is used as a reference to notes in the margin, or at the bottom of the page.
In printing it is technically called a dagger; and is the second reference used, when more than one occurs in a page.
Or, as everyone else in the world calls it, obelus.
A sheet of paper folded into eight leaves or sixteen pages is termed an octavo or 8vo.548
The first, third, fifth, seventh, and all uneven numbered pages, are Odd Pages.—M.
A pressman usually says, I am off, meaning he has wrought off his token, his heap, his form.—M. It is used also for part of the whole number that is to be worked; as, when a ream, or two reams are worked of a large number, he says, A ream’s off, Two reams off.
That cheek of the press which is on the opposite side to that at which the pressmen stand to beat and pull; the catch of the bar is fixed to the off cheek.
That part of a sheet which, when printed, cuts off, and when folded is inserted in the middle of the other part, which together form a regular and orderly succession of all the pages in the signature.
The best oil for presses is neats foot oil, which does not candy nor become glutinous, as almost all other oils do. On this account it is used in the machinery employed in cotton manufactories, where it is necessary to have as little friction as possible.
See Black Letter.
—M. See Unlock the Form.
Full of breaks and whites.—M.
In laying-up a form to wash it, the compositor, after unlocking the quoins, opens the matter with his fingers so as to suffer the water to penetrate among the letters and wash away the lye and ink.—M.
The first productions of the press were printed on one side of the paper only; as the art improved among the early printers they impressed both sides: and those early productions, when they are printed on both sides of the paper, are styled Opisthographic.
Abbreviations of Authors’ Names on Organic Remains.
|Beaum.||Elie de Beaumont.|
|Al. Brong.||Alex. Brongniart|
|Ad. Brong.||Adolphe Brongniart.|
|De C., or De Cau.||De Caumont.|
|De la B.||De la Beche.|
|Des M.||Des Moulins.|
|Fauj. de St. F.||Faujas de St. Fond.|
|M. de S.||Marcel de Serres.|
|Y. & B.||Young and Bird.|
De la Beche’s Geological Manual. 2d. edit. 12mo. 1832.
Query: How do you reconcile the words “Organic” and “Geological”? Answer: Think, for example, of petroleum.
For the allowance of the duty on paper used in the printing of books in the Oriental languages within the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, the universities of Scotland, and the university of Trinity College, Dublin, see Paper.
The orthography of the English Language is 549 attended with much uncertainty and perplexity. But a considerable part of this inconvenience may be remedied, by attending to the general laws of formation; and, for this end, the reader is presented with a view of such general maxims in spelling primitive and derivative words, as have been almost universally received.
Rule I.—Monosyllables ending with f, l, or s, preceded by a single vowel, double the final consonant; as staff, mill, pass, &c. The only exceptions are, of, if, as, is, has, was, yes, his, this, us, and thus.
Rule II.—Monosyllables ending with any consonant but f, l, or s, and preceded by a single vowel, never double the final consonant; excepting only, add, ebb, butt, egg, odd, err, inn, bunn, purr, and buzz.
Rule III.—Words ending with y, preceded by a consonant, form the plural of nouns, the persons of verbs, verbal nouns, past participles, comparatives, and superlatives, by changing y into i; as, spy, spies; I carry, thou carriest; he carrieth or carries; carrier, carried; happy, happier, happiest.
The present participle in ing, retains the y, that i may not be doubled; as, carry, carrying; bury, burying, &c.
But y, preceded by a vowel, in such instances as the above, is not changed; as, boy, boys; I cloy, he cloys, cloyed, &c; except in lay, pay, and say; from which are formed, laid, paid, and said; and their compounds, unlaid, unpaid, unsaid, &c.
Rule IV.—Words ending with y, preceded by a consonant, upon assuming an additional syllable beginning with a consonant, commonly change y into i; as, happy, happily, happiness. But when y is preceded by a vowel, it is very rarely changed in the additional syllable; as, coy, coyly; boy, boyish, boyhood; annoy, annoyed, annoyance; joy, joyless, joyful, &c.
Rule V.—Monosyllables, and words accented on the last syllable, ending with a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, double that consonant, when they take another syllable beginning with a vowel: as, wit, witty; thin, thinnish; to abet, an abettor; to begin, a beginner.
But if a diphthong precedes, or the accent is on the preceding syllable, the consonant remains single: as, to toil, toiling; to offer, an offering; maid, maiden, &c.
Rule VI.—Words ending with any double letter but l, and taking ness, less, ly, or ful, after them, preserve the letter double: as, harmlessness, carelessness, carelessly, stiffly, successful, distressful, &c. But those words which end with double l, and take ness, less, ly, or ful, after them, generally omit one l, as, fulness, skilless, fully, skilful, &c.
Rule VII.—Ness, less, ly, and ful, added to words ending with silent e, do not cut it off: as, paleness, guileless, closely, peaceful; except in a few words: as, duly, truly, awful.
Rule VIII.—Ment, added to words ending with silent e, generally preserves the e from elision: as, abatement, chastisement, incitement, &c. The words judgment, abridgment, acknowledgment, are deviations from the rule.
Like other terminations it changes y into i, when preceded by a consonant: as, accompany, accompaniment; merry, merriment.
Rule IX.—Able and ible, when incorporated into words ending with silent e, almost always cut it off: as, blame, blamable; cure, curable; sense, sensible, &c.; but if c or g soft comes before e in the original word, the e is then preserved in words compounded with able: as, change, changeable; peace, peaceable, &c.
Rule X.—When ing or ish is added to words ending with silent e, 550 the e is almost universally omitted: as, place, placing; lodge, lodging; slave, slavish; prude, prudish.
Rule XI.—Words taken into composition, often drop those letters which were superfluous in their simples; as, handful, dunghil, withal; also, chilblain, foretel.
The orthography of a great number of English words, is far from being uniform, even amongst writers of distinction. Thus, honour and honor, inquire and enquire, negotiate and negociate, control and controul, expense and expence, allege and alledge, surprise and surprize, abridgment and abridgement, and many other orthographical variations, are to be met with in the best modern publications. Some authority for deciding differences of this nature appears to be necessary; and where can we find one of equal pretensions with Dr. Johnson’s Dictionary? though a few of his decisions do not appear to be warranted by the principles of etymology and analogy, the stable foundations of his improvements.—“As the weight of truth and reason,” (says Nares in his ‘Elements of Orthoepy,’) “is irresistible, Dr. Johnson’s Dictionary has nearly fixed the external form of our language. Indeed, so convenient is it to have one acknowledged standard to recur to; so much preferable, in matters of this nature, is a trifling degree of irregularity, to a continual change, and fruitless pursuit of unattainable perfection; that it is earnestly to be hoped, that no author will henceforth, on light grounds, be tempted to innovate.”
The plural number of nouns is generally formed by adding s to the singular: as, dove, doves; face, faces; thought, thoughts. But when the substantive singular ends in x, ch soft, sh, ss, or s, we add es in the plural: as, box, boxes; church, churches; lash, lashes; kiss, kisses; rebus, rebusses. If the singular ends in ch hard, the plural is formed by adding s; as, monarch, monarchs; distich, distichs.
Nouns which end in o, have sometimes es added to the plural; as, cargo, echo, hero, negro, manifesto, potato, volcano, wo: and sometimes only s; as, folio, grotto, junto, nuncio, portico, punctilio, tyro.
Nouns ending in f, or fe, are rendered plural by the change of those terminations into ves: as, loaf, loaves; half, halves; wife, wives; except grief, relief, reproof, and several others, which form the plural by the addition of s. Those which end in ff, have the regular plural: as, ruff, ruffs; except, staff, staves.
Nouns which have y in the singular, with no other vowel in the same syllable, change it into ies in the plural: as, beauty, beauties; fly, flies. But the y is not changed, when there is another vowel in the syllable: as, key, keys; delay, delays; attorney, attorneys.
Some nouns become plural by changing the a of the singular into e: as, man, men; woman, women; alderman, aldermen. The words, ox and child, form oxen and children: brother, makes either brothers, or brethren. Sometimes the diphthong oo is changed into ee in the plural: as, foot, feet; goose, geese; tooth, teeth. Louse and mouse make lice and mice. Penny makes pence, or pennies, when the coin is meant; die, dice (for play); die, dies (for coining).
The following words, which have been adopted from the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin languages, are thus distinguished with respect to number.
* Genii, when denoting aërial spirits: Geniuses, when signifying persons of genius.
† Indexes, when it signifies pointers, or Tables of contents: Indices, when referring to algebraic quantities.—Murray.
The following observations relate to English and Scotch orthography, temp. Hen. VIII.:—
A is frequently used in Scottish orthography for o; as, aith for oath, ane for one, twa for two, hame for home, quha for who.
Qu is in Scottish commonly substituted for w, as, quha for who, quhair for where, quhilk for which.
U is in Scottish usually substituted for the English oo, as, guid or gude for good, stude for stood.
V and W, at the commencement of words and syllables, are used indiscriminately, and sometimes also at their termination, as, foryew for foryeve; w is in Scottish also substituted for u in the middle of syllables, as, swt for suit.
Y is in Scottish almost always used for th (being corrupted from the Anglo-Saxon þ), and its place supplied by z.
Z is in Scottish constantly used for y, being corrupted from the Anglo-Saxon ᵹ.
Verbs.—The following are some of the most commonly used irregular verbs, having a preterite and participle varying from those in use at the present time:—
To Be—in the second person singular Bes; in the third person Beis, Beth, or Beeth; in the third person plural Arn, Be, Ben, Been, Bene, Byn, or Er; in the third person plural of the preterite Werne.
To Bid—in the preterite Bode; in the participle Bode, Boden.
To Bind—in the preterite Bonde; in the participle Band, Bond, Bounde, Bounden.
To Bite—in the preterite Bote.
To Con or Can, to be able—in the third person singular Conith.—Michel can, to be powerful.
To Climb—in the preterite Clomb, Clame, Clambe, Clombe, Clomben.
To Cling—in the preterite Clong.
To Ferme (Sc.) to establish—in the participle Fermen.
To Fet, to fetch—in the preterite Fetten; in the participle Fette.—Ferfett, farfetched.
To Flete (Sc.) to float—in the preterite Flet.552
To Forbede or Forbid—in the preterite Forbod; in the participle Forboden, Forbode, Forbodden.
To Gar or Ger (Sc.) to cause—in the preterite and participle Gart, Gert.
To Geve, Gif, or Gyf, to give—in the preterite Gaf; in the participle Giffin, Goue, Gouun, or Gyffen.
To Glide—in the preterite Glode.
To Kithe (Sc.) to prove—in the preterite Kidde.
Man, Mone, or Moten (Sc.)—must.
To Mow, Moue, or May, to be able—in the preterite Mot, Mought, Moght, or Mowght; in the future Shall mow or may; subjunctive May mow; To mow in the infinitive.
To Owe—preterite Ought; as “He oweth to pay,” “They owe to come,”—“D. ought him thirty shillings,” “He ought suit,” “Kindness ought to us.”
To Preif or Pryve (Sc.) to prove—in the preterite and participle Prewit or Pryved.
To Recet or Receipt (Sc.) to harbour a criminal—in the participle Reset, Resettit, or Receipted.
To Rede, to advise—in the preterite Radde.
To Reve, Reffe, or Riffe (Sc.) to rob—in the preterite Reft; in the participle Reft, Reved, or Revin.
To Tyne, Tyin, Tyn, or Tynte (Sc.) to lose—in the participle Tint, Tynt.
To Vys or Wis, to know—in the preterite Vyst or Wist.
To Wete, Wite, or Wit, to know—in the preterite Wote; in the imperative Wateth, Witeth, know thou.
To Will—in the preterite Willed, Woled, Wold, or Wolde; preterpluperfect Had wold; future Shall will.
To Yeve, Yew, or Yeove, to give—in the preterite Yaf, Yave; future Shall or will Yeve; active participle Yeving; passive participle Yeven, frequently, and sometimes Yewin, Yoven, Yeoven, Yevin, and Yevyn.
Yede, Yode, went, preterite of A.S. gán to go.
To Yield—in the preterite Yald, Yalt, or Yold; in the participle Yelde, Yold, Yolde, Yolden.
His, or sometimes Is, is used after a masculine substantive as the sign of the genitive case, and occasionally united with the substantive, as, Kinghis. It occurs sometimes, though rarely, after a feminine substantive, as, “The Queen his affairs,” “The Queen is favour;” but her is more commonly used in that case, as, “Elizabeth Holland her house.”
blame, blamable; cure, curable; sense, sensible
[The Division article had some strong things to say about words combining English and Latin elements. Only by the remotest and most tenuous connections can “blame” be considered a Latin word.]
English and Scotch orthography, temp. Hen. VIII.
[Even Moxon did not publish until 1683. What has “temp. Hen. VIII” to say to anything?]
Z is in Scottish constantly used for y, being corrupted from the Anglo-Saxon ᵹ.
[Printed as shown, with insular g ᵹ, but he really means yogh ȝ.]
A compositor usually says, I am out, meaning he has set out his page, form, or copy.—M.
When a compositor has omitted a word or words, a line, a sentence, a paragraph, a page or a leaf of copy, which sometimes does happen, each of these omissions is called an Out: thus we say, An out of a word—of two words—of a line, &c.
The form that has the first page of the sheet in it. It is usual to work this form the last. See Lay on.
A compositor is said to be out of copy when he has composed all that is in his possession, and there is no supply for him to go on with. It is also termed standing still for copy.
When a compositor has no letter in his cases, and none to distribute, he is said to be out of letter.
Bad Register.—M. When the pages on both sides of a sheet do not print exactly upon each other; or when line 553 does not fall upon line, where they are intended to do so; or folios are not justified in the middle of the line; or when any thing on one side of a sheet does not print exactly on the back of a similar thing on the opposite side, which it is meant to do, it is said to be Out of Register, or Out, or It does not Register, or It is not in Register.
In octavos, twelves, sixteens, every outside page in a sheet is called an Out-Page; the rest are called In-Pages.—M.
The two quires on the outside of every ream of paper delivered from the maker; they have never more than twenty sheets in each, all of which are either damaged or torn, more or less. These quires are also called Cassie Quires, and Cording Quires. It is now uncommon to send any outside quires to letter-press printers; the paper sent to them for use being what is termed Perfect.
See Case Runs Over.
Pieces of paper pasted on the tympan sheet, or on a sheet between the tympans, to increase the pressure on particular parts of a form, to make the impression more regular, or more perfect. See Engravings on Wood. Fine Presswork. Making Ready.
If in a proof any matter is marked to be taken out, or to be inserted, in a page, or pages, it will be necessary to take matter from one page to another, to preserve them of a proper length, this is termed overrunning: it may be a few words only in a paragraph, and not extending beyond it; in this case it is termed overrunning a paragraph.
The best method of overrunning matter is to take the lines into a composing stick; the spacing and the justifying of the lines are better preserved by this means, than by spacing out upon the stone in the form, and feeling the ends of the lines with the fingers.
The manager or superintendent of a printing office. The duties of an overseer vary according to the size of the establishment, and the part that his principal takes in its management; but, generally speaking, he has the sole conducting of the practical department, receiving his general directions from the principal, and seeing that they are carried into execution in a proper manner. It is requisite, as a matter of course, that he should be intimately and practically acquainted with the business in all its details. It is of importance to the concern where he has the management, that he should blend urbanity with firmness; and show judgment and impartiality in giving out work, so that the business should proceed with regularity, and with satisfaction to all parties.
The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.