Printing Dictionary





Saw Block

Saxon, or Anglo-Saxon

Scale of Prices


Scandinavian Press





Set at Random

Set Matter

Set-Off Sheets

Set Out Paper

Sets Close

Sets Off

Set the Rounce

Sets Up to Himself

Set Up-close



Sharp Impression


Sheep’s Foot

Sherwin and Cope’s Press


Shooting Stick

Short Cross

Short Page

Short Pull


Side Stick








Slur Pin

Small Capitals

Small Numbers

Small Pica


Soft Ink

Solid Matter

Sop the Balls



Space Lines

Space Rules



Span Hitch

Specimen Page





Spottiswoode Press

Spring of a Form



Stack of Paper


Staining of Paper


Stand Still

Stanhope Press






Stolen Property

Strip a Form


Strong Ink




Swash Letters







It is the opinion of many of the most eminent Hebrew scholars, that this alphabet is the one made use of by the ancient Hebrews, and with which Moses himself wrote the Pentateuch; and that the Hebrew letters at present in use are those of the Chaldees of Babylon, introduced by Ezra in consequence of the Jews having forgotten their own characters during the Captivity. It agrees with the Hebrew and Syriac, in respect to the number and power of the letters, though it differs as to their forms, as may be seen from the annexed table:

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Figure. Name. Power. Number. Hebrew
‎ࠀ Alaph Spiritus lenis. 1. א
‎ࠁ Beth B or Bh. 2. ב
‎ࠂ Gamal G or Gh. 3. ג
‎ࠃ Dalath D or Dh. 4. ד
‎ࠄ He H. 5. ה
‎ࠅ Vau V or U. 6. ו
‎ࠆ Zain Z. 7. ז
‎ࠇ Cheth Hh. 8. ח
‎ࠈ Teth T. 9. ט
‎ࠉ Jud J. 10. י
‎ࠊ Caph C or Ch. 20. כ
‎ࠋ Lamad L. 30. ל
‎ࠌ Mim M. 40. מ
‎ࠍ Nun N. 50. נ
‎ࠎ Semchat S. 60. ס
‎ࠏ Ain Gn. 70. ע
‎ࠐ Pe P or Ph. 80. פ
‎ࠑ Tzade Tz. 90. צ
‎ࠒ Kuph K. 100. ק
‎ࠓ Risch R. 200. ר
‎ࠔ Schin S or Sch. 300. שׁ שׂ
‎ࠕ Thau T or Th. 400. ת

It will be readily perceived that this is one of the most simple of the Oriental alphabets, as there are no initials or medials, as is the case with the Arabic and Syriac; there are no letters lengthened for the sake of ornament, as in the Hebrew and Chaldee; and there are no finals.

With respect to pronunciation, ࠀ ‎ࠇ and ࠏ seem to differ very little from each other, if we may judge from their frequent permutation.

In writing the numbers, they follow the Hebrew system of notation, with this exception, that for 15 they use both ࠉࠄ ‎(10 and 5) with the Syrians, and ࠈࠅ ‎(9 and 6) with the Jews.

The Samaritans are altogether destitute of vowel points, and their power is to be collected from the cognate languages.

The quiescents are the same in Samaritan as in Hebrew and Chaldee, namely, four, ࠀ, ‎ࠄ, ‎ࠅ, ‎ࠉ. The situations and the points, by which each becomes quiescent, are the same as in Hebrew.

The Samaritans use also certain points and lines in writing, partly for the sake of distinction, and partly of abbreviation. The points are as follow:—

1. A thick point placed near the top of the letter distinguishes one word from another, thus [A] [A] and God said.

2. An imperfect sentence is indicated by two transverse points, in this manner, [A] saying

3. A period or perfect sentence is marked by two perpen­dicular points, thus, [A] [A] [A] upon the face of the deep.

4. The beginning of every verse is marked by an asterisk, as, [A] [A] And God said.

5. In long paragraphs a third point is added to the period, thus, [A], and in order to point off sections various lines are made use of, as, -[A], —[A], in which much is left to fancy.

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A line drawn above a letter denotes:—

1. That words with two meanings must not be received in their more general signification, as, [A] bedebher, in pestilence, not [A] bedabhar, in a word; [A] Sem, for a proper name, not an appellative; [A] El, for the name of God, and not the preposition.

2. Apocope, or elision of a letter, as, [A] for [A] atta, thou; [A] for [A] and he looked back.

3. The mark of a quiescent letter, as, [A] he placed.

4. The substitution of one letter for another, as, [A] for [A] his name.

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The preceding observations are abridged from the “Synopsis Institutionum Samaritanarum” of George Otho, printed at Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1707.

Samaritan in the British Founderies.

English. Oxford.

Pica. Caslon. Grover, to James, to Fry, to Thorowgood and Besley; cut for Walton’s Polyglot.

Small Pica. Fry, to Thorowgood and Besley.



The term Sanskṛita seems to have been given to the language so called by way of pre-eminence, and to distinguish it from the vulgar dialects called Prākṛita. The former is an epithet implying elegance and perfection, and the latter the contrary.

Several of the provinces of India have alphabets distinct from each other, in which they not only write their particular dialects, but even Sanskṛita. Indeed most of the alphabets, properly Indian, agree in the number, order, and power of their letters, with the Dēva-nāgari, the one here used, because it is that in which Sanskṛita is most commonly written, and which is the most elegant and approved.

All languages of the Hindu class are read from left to right.


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a ā i ī u ū ri ṛī ऌ ḷri
ḷrī ē ai ō au   ंam : ah
k kha ga gha nga
cha छ ch'ha ja jha ṅya
ṭa ṭha ḍa ḍha ṇa
ta tha da dha na
pa pha ba bha ma
ya ra la va
ṣa sha sa ha क्ष ksha

In speaking of the letters individually, it is the practice to use the term कार: kārah (make, form) after each of their names as here exhibited: thus the vowel अ a, is called अकार: a-kārah; and the consonant क ka, ककार: ka-kārah.


The simple vowels are reckoned five; for which there are ten characters: अ a, इ i, उ u, ऋ ṛi, ऌ ḷri, to denote the short sounds; and आ ā, ई ī, ऊ ū, ॠ ṛī, ॡ ḷrī their corresponding long sounds, which are directed to be held twice the time of the short.

Most of the vowels, occasionally, assume a very different shape 723 from that exhibited in the alphabet, which the following arrangement may serve to explain.

As Initials.

अ  आ  इ  ई  उ  ऊ  ऋ  ॠ  ऴ  ॡ  ए  ऐ  ओ  औ

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As Medials and Finals.

  ि      ी    ु    ू      ृ      ॄ      ॢ    ॣ      े      ै    ो  ौ

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Initials, Medials, and Finals, in composition with a Consonant.
अक आका इकि ईकी उकु ऊकू ऋकृ ॠकॄ
aka, ākā, iki, īkī, uku, ūkū, ṛikṛi, ṛīkṛī,
  ऌकॢ ॡकॣ एके ऐकै ओको औकौ  
  ḷrikḷri, ḷrīkḷrī, ēkē, aikai, ōkō, aukau.  

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In this manner the vowels may be combined with any other consonant.

As the letters have the same powers in composition which are given to them in the alphabet, and do not, as in our language, change their sound with their situation, a few observations on the pronunciation of each character in due order, may enable a person to read with tolerable accuracy and ease.

a, the first letter in the alphabet, has that obscure short sound which the French give to e, in the particle le, and which is very common in our language, though there be no distinct character for it; as in the words money, honey, and some others, where it is represented by o; and in but, shut, and the like, where u is the substitute. The letter अ never makes its appearance but as an initial; for when the sound of it is required after a consonant, as a medial or final, it is pronounced with it as in the alphabet; it being an invariable rule, that every open consonant, not followed by another vowel, must be pronounced as if अ a were written after it.

ā should have the same sound as is given to the former, held twice the length. It occurs, as a medial, in the word काल kāla, Time, the first syllable of which is pronounced nearly like the English word call. As a medial and final its character is ा.

i, and ई ī, are two characters to note the sound which the Italians give to the vowel i. The former is to be pronounced 724 short, like ee in meet (encounter), and the latter long, like the same letters in meet (fit). After a consonant, as a medial and final, as has been already observed, they are changed to ि and ी, which are placed as in the words मणि: manih, A jewel, and देवी dēvī, A goddess.

u, and ऊ ū, are to be articulated like oo in the English words foot, and fool. After a consonant they are usually subjoined; as in पु्त्र putrah, A son, and भू: bhūh, The earth; but occasionally, particularly after र r, on the side, thus रु ru, रू .

ṛi, and ॠ ṛī. The first of these sounds short, somewhat like ri in rit; and the second is the same held twice as long. ऋ ṛi short occurs in ऋत ṛita, Right, True. The other is very rarely used, except it be in the oblique cases of some nouns. In our characters a dot under the may serve to distinguish them from the syllables रि ri and री . As medials or finals they are always placed under their consonants, in this form, नृ nṛi, नॄ nṛī.

ḷri, and ॡ ḷrī. The short power is found in the word कॢप्त kḷripta, which the learned of Bengal soften into kḷipta, and which, probably, is the true pronunciation of it. The long form seldom, if ever, occurs but in grammars. Here too a dot under the will serve as a distinction, when we would explain them.

ē, though classed among diphthongs, differs not from the simple sound of e in where; and so it is pronounced in देव: dēvah, A god. It is said to be a compound of अ a and इ i.

ai is a diphthong, and is always sounded as the letter i in our alphabet; but it will be better to represent it by ai. There is an example of it in the word रै: raih, Wealth.

ō differs not from our o held long, as in stone; though it is said to be a diphthong composed of अ a and उ u.

au is decidedly a diphthong, having the power of ow in the word how; which in these letters would be written thus, हौ hau.

Here properly end the vowels, for  ं am, and : ah, are, correctly speaking, rather substitutes for the nasals, and ह ha, when 725 silent, at the end of a syllable. They are called अनुस्वार: anuswārah, and विसर्ग visargah. The one occurs in the pronouns अहं aham, I, and त्वं twam, Thou, and the other in स: sah, He.


The first five-and-twenty consonants are distributed into five classes, in the plural number called वर्गा: vargāh; in speaking of which, they are named after the first letter of each class: the first class being called कवर्ग: ka-vargah, the class of क ka; the second चवर्ग: cha-vargah, the class of च cha; and so for the rest. Some grammarians use the first letter of each class combined with उ, to denote all the letters in each class respectively, as, कु ku, for the first; चु chu, for the second; टु ṭu, for the third; तु tu, for the fourth; and पु pu, for the fifth class.

The First Class, or Gutturals, क ख ह घ ङ.

ka has the precise sound of hard c, but is better expressed by k, the power of which not being liable to change.

kha has the same sound uttered with greater force, as if combined with the letter ह ha. Ignorant transcribers are very apt to confound it with the letter ष sha.

ga is the hard g, as sounded in gun.

gha is the same aspirated.

nga is equivalent to ng in king. Generally speaking, every other nasal is resolved into this, before any letter of this class; or, at least, to be pronounced like it. In Dēva-nāgari manuscripts, it is, when silent, for the most part represented by the single dot [ ं] अनुस्वार: anuswāra.

The Second Class, or Palatals, च छ ज छ ञ.

cha has the exact power we express by ch, as in church.

ch’ha is the former aspirated.

ja has the power of g soft, as in Giles; but will be more certainly expressed by j, as in James.

jha is the aspirate of the former.

ṅa. This is the proper nasal of this class, which in composition is sounded rather softer than ङ nga, It seems to be formed by pressing the whole breadth of the tongue into the hollow 726 of the palate, the tip turned downwards, and forcing the sound through the nose, with the mouth open. It is chiefly used before letters of its own class; but in Dēva-nāgari manuscripts, as is the case with the other nasals, it is generally expressed by [ ं] anuswārah. It seldom appears with another consonant immediately before, or a vowel after it: indeed there are but few instances of it, (except in grammatical compositions,) one of which is in the root ज्ञ jnā, signifying know, and its derivatives, where the character ज्ञ is said to be a compound of ज ja and ञ ṅa, the just articulation of which is found so difficult, and the sound so harsh, that it is frequently softened into gyā, as if written ग्या. As the sound of ञ before another consonant approaches nearer to that of n than any other letter, it may be represented by it, with a mark over it, thus, .

The Third Class, or Cerebrals, ट ठ ड ढ ण.

This series of consonants is pronounced by turning and applying the tip of the tongue far back against the palate; which producing a hollow sound, as if proceeding from the head, it is distinguished by the term मूर्द्धन्य mūrddhanya, which Mr. Halhed, in his Grammar of the Bengal Language, has translated cerebral.

ṭa has the sound of t, articulated as above directed.

ṭha is the same aspirated.

ḍa differs from the common d only in the above particular. In Bengal it is generally pronounced like a very obtuse r.

ḍha is the same aspirated.

ṇa is distinguished from the common n by the manner of producing it, as above.

In our letters those of this class may be conveniently expressed by a dot under ṭ, ḍ, ṇ.

The Fourth Class, or Dentals, त थ द ध न.

ta is the common dental t.

tha is the former aspirated.

da has the power of our d.

dha is the aspirate of द da.

na is the common n. It is sometimes, like the other nasals, represented by anuswāra [ ं].

The Fifth Class, or Labials, प फ ब भ म.

pa corresponds with p.

pha is the former aspirated. In writing foreign words with these characters, this letter is used for the sound of f.

ba. This letter is very often confounded with व va. Its power is that of b.

bha is the aspirate of ब ba.

ma is m. When silent it is often expressed by [ ं] anuswāra; as in संवत् samvat, A year, an æra.

The Semi-Vowels, य र ल व.

ya. This letter, which is a palatal, like our y (with which it corresponds), is often put in the place of इ i and ई ī. Its proper power is that of y in yarn; but in Bengal they generally pronounce it as we do j, confounding it with ज ja.

ra is our r. It is esteemed a cerebral. In composition it frequently assumes two other forms. In the middle of a word, immediately preceding another consonant, it is mounted upon its head in this shape [A], when it is optional in the writer to double the letter with which it so coalesces: as in the word कार्य्य kāryya, An affair, which is pronounced kārya. After a consonant it is always subjoined in this shape [A], as in the word प्रकार prakāra, A sort or manner. This letter, in grammars, is generally called रेफ rēpha.

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la answers to our l. It is ranked among dentals.

va is generally pronounced like v, and is then a dento-labial; but when subjoined to another consonant, it is often necessarily articulated as our w, it being then frequently the natural substitute for उ u before another vowel; as द्वौ ḍwau, Two.

The Sibilants and Aspirate, श ष स ह.

ṣa. The proper sound of this letter is produced by applying the tip of the tongue to the fore-part of the palate, and passing the voice as in pronouncing our s, from which it may be distinguished by a dot under it, thus, . It is a palatal.

sha is generally pronounced as sh in shoe; but in the western parts of India it is frequently articulated like, and confounded with ख kha. It is a cerebral.


sa has precisely the power of s in Saint, and is esteemed a dental.

ha is h. At the end of a word, when silent, it is represented by [:] visarga. It is classed among gutturals. This properly is the last letter in the alphabet, क्ष ksha, as before observed, being a compound character.

There is another letter, not usually given in the Dēva-nāgar alphabet, in this form, ळ, which seems to have a power similar to that of the surd, or Welsh ll. It occurs in the Vēdas, and is included in some of the provincial alphabets.


The sound of अ a, it has been already mentioned, is given to every open consonant, not followed by another vowel; but as it must often happen that a word ends with a consonant, or that two or more consonants meet together without a vowel between them, it is proper the learner should know what is done in these two cases. If a word terminates in a consonant, the vowel is cut off by a small mark of elision, such as is seen under क ka in the word वाक् vāk, Speech, which written without it, thus, वाक, would be pronounced vāka. If two or more consonants meet together, it is a general rule that they coalesce, and form a compound character. Sometimes it so happens that the simple letters are not to be traced in the compound, instances of which occur in क्ष ksha, and ज्ञ jṅa, which are composed of क and ष and ज and ञ; but, in general, the shapes of the letters are so little altered, that they may be easily discriminated. There are several modes of forming these compounds: sometimes it is found convenient to put one letter under the other, and at others to blend them together, thus, द्ध; but the most usual way is to place them in their natural order, yet so that their bodies, as well as heads, may be in contact, omitting the final upright stroke of every letter that has one, except the last. In the word कार्त्स्न्यं kārtsnyam, Wholeness, there is a coalition of no less than five consonants; namely, र, त, स, न, and य; ra, in a new shape, is mounted upon the head, and त ta, स sa, and न na, deprived of their upright strokes, thus, [A] [A] [A], are connected, and finally united to य ya. A little practice will render this subject familiar to the learner.

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One stroke, thus ।, or two, thus ॥, serve to divide hemistichs and distichs.

A sort of sigma, in this shape, ऽ, is frequently used as an apostrophe, to show that a vowel has been dropped by rule.

A character like a crescent, with a dot between its horns, thus,  ँ, is occasionally put over a consonant, which by the rules of orthography has been substituted for a nasal.

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In the Vēda other diacritical marks are used, which do not occur in common books. A small perpen­dicular line over a vowel, thus [A], denotes that it is to be pronounced high; a parallel line drawn under a vowel, thus [A], denotes that it should be pronounced low; and a curved line over a vowel, thus [A], indicates that it must be pronounced in a manner to partake of both the former. The intention of these three marks seems to be the same as what was originally designed by the acute, the grave, and the circumflex accents. A figure of three is sometimes put after a vowel, thus अ३, or three lines over it, thus [A], to show that it is to be held longer than usual, as in calling, or crying.

Two dots, thus :, called visarga (विसर्ग), are used to denote a final ह. They are occasionally represented in this manner [A].

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A single dot over a letter, thus [ ं], is called anuswārah (अनुस्वार:), and denotes a final nasal.

The numerical figures are, १ 1 २ 2 ३ 3 ४ 4 ५ 5 ६ 6 ७ 7 ८ 8 ९ 9 ० 0.

In the Vēdas, the character for [ ं] anuswāra, before ष, स, ह, and र, is in this form, [A]; so for हंस is written [A].

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A Grammar of the Sanskrĭta Language, by Charles Wilkins, LL.D. F.R.S. 4to. 1808.

Sanskrit in the British Founderies.

English. Caslon; cut for Dr. Wilkins, Oriental Librarian to the East India Company.

Notes and Corrections: Sanskrita

The digraph ṛi (for vocalic ṛ) is no longer used, but was standard at the time the Dictionary was written. The sibilant this book calls ṣ is now transliterated ś, while the sibilant called sh is ṣ.

Combinations such as क्ष (kṣ ligature) and मणि (short i) may not display as intended in all devices. But if you know what Devanagari is supposed to look like, you probably know how to make it display appropriately.



A small thin saw, with a back to strengthen it, to cut furniture with. I would have the blade much narrower than it generally is, so broad only as to cut fairly through the furniture, before the back stops it from cutting deeper by resting on the saw block; it would then prevent the saw block from being cut so much as it generally is in a careless manner, sometimes even through at the front, till the saw comes in contact with the stone, and is spoiled.


A piece of wood on which to cut furniture to certain lengths; it is similar to a carpenter’s mitre block, with the addition of a cut at right angles. The customary place for using it is on the fore edge of the imposing stone.

saw block

SAXON, or Anglo-Saxon.

The Anglo-Saxon alphabet contains twenty-three letters; Q not being originally a Saxon letter.

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Form. Sound.
[A] A a a as in bar
B b b
[C] C c c as in choice
D d
[E] E e e as in feint
F f
[G] G g as in gem
[H] H h h
I ı i
K k k
L l l
[M] M m m
N n n
O o o
P p p
R r
[S] S s
T t
Ð Þ ð þ th
U u u
Ƿ ƿ w
X x x
Y y
Z z z

For anꝺ the Saxons used these abbreviations, ⁊ and [and]; for þaꞇ and þæꞇ they wrote ꝥ; and for oððe or, and the termination lıce ly, they wrote ł; as ł or; and ꞅoðe for ꞅoðlıce truly.

[Note.] We also find uł for or; Ƿıłłm. for Ƿıllelm, William; and [H]æł, for [H]ælenꝺ, Jesus; ł stands for leofeꞅꞇan, φίλτατοι, amicissimi, most friendly or beloved; apł, ap̃, or apo, for apoꞅꞇole, an apostle; apłaꞅ, apostles; [H]ıeꞃłm, Jerusalem; ꞅcıł, a shilling, money.

When an m was omitted, they made a short stroke over the preceding letter; as þā for þam.

[Note.] There are many other abbreviations and connectives; such as æꝼꞇ̃ æꝼꞇeꞃ, after; allm̃ allmıhꞇıᵹ, almighty; am̃, amen; ancen, ancenneꝺe, only begotten; b, ƀ, bıꞅc̃, bıꞅcop, a bishop; bꞃoð, bꞃoþ, bpoþeꞃn, brethren; caꞃc̃, caꞃceꞃne, a prison; cſt, Saxon abbreviation, Cꞃıꞅꞇ, xp̃eꞅ, Cꞃıꞅꞇeꞅ, Christ, Christ’s; c̃ƿ, cƿæð, saith; Saxon abbreviation for ꝺæᵹ, a day; ꝺꝺ, ꝺđ, David; ꝺꞃı̃h, ꝺꞃıhꞇ̃, Lord; ꝺñꞅ ꝺꞃıhꞇneꞅ, Lords; ꝼ̄ ꝼoꞃ, for, on account of; ᵹ̄, ᵹeaꞃe, a year; Iħꞅ, Iħc̃, Jesus; ꞅ. [M]. ꞅeınꞇe [M]aꞃıe, St. Mary; ꞅ. p. St. Peter; ƿũꞇ, ƿuꞇoꝺlıce, certainly, &c. See Thwaites, p. 1.


In studying the Anglo-Saxon tongue, it is of great consequence to remark, that the inevitable changes introduced by the lapse of time through successive ages; the existence of the three great dialects, and their frequent inter­mixture; the variety of Anglo-Saxon writers, and their little acquaintance with each other; but, above all, their total disregard of any settled rules of orthography; have occasioned many irregularities in the language, and thrown difficulties in the way of the learner, which at first sight appear truly formidable; but, on closer inspection, these difficulties present no insuperable obstacle.

The principal difficulty consists in this: The Anglo-Saxon writers often confounded some letters, and used them indifferently for each other. This is the case to a most surprising extent with the vowels and diphthongs; so that the consonants, though often treated in the same manner, form the only part of the language which possesses any thing like a fixed and permanent character.

Remarks on the Change of the Consonants required for derivation and declension.

B, F, or U, are often inter­changed; as

Bebeꞃ, beꝼoꞃ, a beaver. Iꝼıᵹ, ıueᵹ ivy. Obeꞃ, oꝼeꞃ, oueꞃ, over. [E]bolꞅan, eꝼolꞅan to blaspheme. Foꞇ, uoꞇ a foot.


C often inter­changes with G, K and Q; as

Ðonceꞅ, þonᵹeꞅ thoughts. [C]ẏð, kẏð kindred. [C]ẏnınᵹ, kẏnınᵹ a king. Aceꞃ, Akeꞃ a field. [C]ƿen, quen, a queen, wife, &c.

C and CC are also often changed into H, or Hh, before ꞅ or ð, and especially before ꞇ; as [S]ꞇꞃehꞇon they strewed, for ꞅꞇꞃecꞇon, from ꞅꞇꞃeccan. Ahꞅıan for acꞅıan or axıan to ask. ꞅehð for ꞅecð seeks, from ꞅecan to seek.

In Dan. Sax. C changes into ᵹ, h, hƿ and k; and ch changes into h.


D and T are often used indiscriminately for each other, and Ð is changed into ꝺ, especially in verbs; as ꞅeoðan to boil or seeth; ꞅoꝺen boiled, ic cƿæð I said; þu cƿæꝺe thou saidst. he ƿẏꞃð he is or becomes; þu ƿuꞃꝺe thou becomest.


In Dan. Sax. F changes into b and p.


G is often changed into h and ƿ; as

[H]eꞃeꞇoha for heꞃeꞇoᵹa a leader; Dahum for ꝺaᵹum with days; Geꞅƿıᵹan to be silent; ᵹeꞅuƿoꝺe he was silent or dumb; ꞅoꞃh for ꞅoꞃᵹe sorrow.

G inter­changes with I and Y, when I has a sort of a consonant sound; as ᵹeo, ıeo or ıu yore, formerly; ᵹeoᵹuð, ıeoᵹuð youth; ᵹeoc, ıoc or ıuc yoke.

G is often suppressed before n, or ᵹn lengthened into ᵹen; as þẏꞅıᵹne, þẏꞅıne from þẏꞅꞅ or þıꞅ this, and ænıᵹne, ænıne, from ænıᵹ any. G is often added to words that end with ı, as hıᵹ for hı they; and on the contrary G is often omitted in those words which end in ıᵹ; as ꝺꞃı for ꝺꞃıᵹ or ꝺꞃẏᵹ, dry.

In Dan. Sax. G is sometimes dropped, or changed into C, H, or K; and GS into X.


[H] is sometimes changed into ᵹ; as þaᵹ for þah he grew or throve, from þean to grow.

In Dan. Sax. [H] is sometimes added to words, and sometimes dropped; or it is changed into c, ᵹ, ch, or k; and [H]u into ƿ.


The Saxons originally expressed the sound of the modern K by C. As C also stood for a soft sound, it was difficult to know when it was to be sounded hard, and when soft To remove this difficulty, the Danes and Normans introduced the letter K to denote the hard sound of C.


L and N are often written double or single without any distinction at the end of monosyllables; but this reduplication ceases when words are lengthened, so that a consonant follows; as ƿell or ƿel well; ealle or al all (omnis); ealne, all (omnem); also ıc ꞅẏlle, þu ꞅẏlꞅꞇ, he ꞅylð, I sell, thou, &c.

In Dan. Sax. L is sometimes put for R.

M and N.

In Dan. Sax. these two letters are sometimes inter­changeable; and N is occasionally dropped.


The Saxon p and ƿ are easily mistaken for each other, both in MSS. and on coins; and even in printed books great care is sometimes necessary to distinguish these letters.

In Dan. Sax. P changes occasionally into B and U.


Q is not an original Saxon letter, and very seldom occurs in MSS.; Cw and Cu were commonly employed where Q is now used.


R in Dan. Sax. is occasionally added to words, and is sometimes changed into L.


S and Z are merely variations of the same original letter. The Z is only the S hard.

In Dan. Sax. Ss, Ð, or X are sometimes substituted for S.


T in Dan. Sax. occasionally changes in D and Ð.


In Dan. Sax. W changes into F and Ui; We into oe, u, ue; Wi, into u, uu; Wa, into uıæ, ƿæ; Wr, into war; and Wu, into u.


X is sometimes supplied by cꞅ; as neoꞃcꞅen for neoꞃxen quiet. In Dan. Sax. X inter­changes with S.


Z is only the S hard. See S.

Remarks on the Vowels and Diphthongs.

If the consonants,—those natural sinews of words and language,—suffer such changes, it may safely be presumed, that those flexible and yielding symbols, the vowels, would be exposed to still greater confusion; a confusion almost sufficient to induce one to imagine that they are of no weight or authority, in Anglo-Saxon orthography.


A kind of Italic a is much used in Anglo-Saxon MSS. Where we now use A or E, the diphthongs Æ, Œ, and Ea continually occur in Anglo-Saxon; but Œ more frequently in Dan. Sax.

The vowel A and its diphthongs thus inter­change.

A and O. See under O.

A and Æ: as ac, æc an oak; aceꞃ, æceꞃ a field; habban to have, ıc hæbbe I have; ꞅꞇan a stone; ꞅꞇænen stony; laꞃ doctrine; læꞃan to teach; an one; ænıᵹ any one.

Æ and EA: as æ, ea water; æc, eac eternal.

Æ and Œ: as æᵹhƿeꞃ, œᵹhƿeꞃ every where; æᵹhƿılc, œᵹhƿılc every one.

Æ and Y: as ælc, ẏlc each one.

In Dan. Sax. these occur indifferently:—A, æ, e, ea, o, eo; Æ, e, ıe, œ, o, ea, ue.


E inter­changes with [Æ]. It is often added to the end of Anglo-Saxon words where it does not naturally belong, and it is as often rejected where it does.

Eo is changed into ẏ and e, and ea into e, but more usually into ẏ.

[E]aðe, eðe easily; and ceaꞅꞇeꞃ, ceꞅꞇeꞃ a castle.

[S]eolꝼ, ꞅelꝼ, ꞅẏlꝼ self; ꞅẏllan, ꞅellan to give, sell, &c.

Neah near; nehꞅꞇ nearest; ealꝺ old; ꞅe ẏlꝺꞃa the elder; ƿealꝺan to rule, he ƿelꞇ or ƿẏlꞇ he rules; leaꞅ loose, lẏꞅan to loose; ᵹeleaꝼa belief, ᵹelẏꝼan to believe.

In Dan. Sax. these occur indifferently:—E, a, eo, œ, o, u, æ, ea, ẏ; ea, eo, ı, ẏ; eau, eoƿ; ee, e; eı, œ, ı; eo, a, e, ı, ıƿ, u; eu, ẏƿ.


I is inter­changed with e and y; as

Iᵹlanꝺ, eᵹlanꝺ, ẏᵹlanꝺ an island; eꝼel, ẏꝼel evil; ıꞃþlınᵹ, eaꞃþlınᵹ, ẏꞃþlınᵹ a farmer; ꞃen rain, ꞃınan to rain; beꞃnan to burn, bẏꞃnan to set on fire; cƿeþan to say, þu cƿẏꞅꞇ, cƿıꞅꞇ, thou sayest.

In Dan. Sax. these occur indifferently: I, ıa, ıo, eo, ẏ; ıœ, ıe, œ; ıuh, eoƿ.


O is changed into u, e and ẏ, and eo into ẏ; but sometimes into a, especially before n in a short or terminating syllable.

Oꝺe and oꝺ, into aꝺe and aꝺ; ꝺom judgment, ꝺeman to judge; ꝼꞃoꝼeꞃ comfort, ꝼꞃeꝼꞃıan to comfort; ꝼoꞇ a foot, ꝼeꞇ feet; boc a book, bec books; ꞅꞇoꞃm a storm, ꞅꞇẏꞃman to storm; ᵹolꝺ gold, ᵹẏlꝺen golden; ƿoꞃꝺ a word, anꝺƿẏꞃꝺan to answer; ƿeoꞃc a work, ƿẏꞃcean to work; heoꞃꝺ or hẏꞃꝺe a herd; ıoc, ıuc a yoke; ıeƿan, ıoƿan to show; man and mon a man; lanᵹ and lonᵹ long; ꞅanꝺ and ꞅonꝺ sand.

In Dan. Sax. these occur:—O, a, e, ı, u; œ, æ, e, o, ue, ƿe; oea, eo; oƿe, uu.


U is sometimes converted into ẏ: as ꞅcꞃuꝺ clothing, ꞅcꞃẏꝺan to clothe; cuþ known, cẏþan to make known.

In Dan. Sax. these are used indiscriminately:—U, b, ꝼ, o, oƿ, ƿe, ƿı, ƿu; ue, æ, œ, ƿe; uı, ƿ; uu, oƿe.


The Anglo-Saxon Y is the Greek Υ (upsilon), or, as the French call it, y Greque. The ẏ was not dotted in the oldest MSS.


Y is sometimes changed into u.

In Dan. Sax. these occur:—Y into e, ea, ı; and Yƿ into eu.

Further Remarks on the Letters.

The preceding observations on the consonants and vowels will render the following peculiarities less surprising, and may perhaps explain their causes.

The final letters of words are often omitted: as ƿomb, ƿom; ƿæᵹ or ƿeᵹ, ƿe.

A vowel near, or at the end of a word, is often absorbed by the preceding or succeeding consonant, especially if that consonant be a semi-vowel; but either that or the nearest vowel is still understood: as Luꝼꞅꞇ for luꝼaꞅꞇ lovest; luꝼð for luꝼað loveth; and other verbs in the 2d and 3d persons. Geƿꞃıxl for ᵹeƿꞃıxle changes; ꞅuꞅl ꞅuꞅel sulphur; ꞅƿæꝼl for ꞅƿæꝼel sulphur; bloꞅm for bloꞅma a blossom; boꞅm for boꞅum bosom; boꞇl for boꞇle a village, house, &c.; bꞃıꝺl for bꞃıꝺel a bridle.

Contractions of words are common: as N’ẏꞅꞇe for ne ƿıꞅꞇ knew not; n’æꝼꝺe for ne hæꝼeꝺ had not; ẏꞃn’ð for ẏꞃneð runneth.

In Dan. Sax., on the other hand, monosyllables are sometimes changed into longer words: as ƿꞃað anger, wrath, lengthened into ƿaꞃað. Other words contract two syllables into one; as cẏnınᵹ into kẏnᵹ a king.

The different letters suffer a very frequent change of position: as ꞇınꞇeꞃᵹe, ꞇınꞇꞃeᵹe pain; þıꞃꝺa, þꞃıꝺꝺa third.

A very great variety exists in writing the same word by different Anglo-Saxon authors, as will appear from the fol]lowing examples: ᵹeoᵹeþe, ᵹeoᵹoð, ᵹeoᵹuð, ᵹeᵹoþe, ıoᵹoð, ıuᵹuð youth; mæneᵹeo many, a multitude, is written mæneᵹo, mænıᵹeo, mænıᵹo, mænıᵹu, mænıo, mænıu, mænẏᵹeo, maneᵹeo, maneᵹu, manıᵹe, manıᵹo, manıᵹu, meneᵹeo, meneᵹo, meneᵹu, menıᵹeo, menıᵹo, menıᵹu, menıo, menıu.

Adjectives in the comparative degree end indifferently in aꞃ, æꞃ, eꞃ, ıꞃ, oꞃ, uꞃ, or ẏꞃ; and the superlative in aꞅꞇ, æꞅꞇ, eꞅꞇ, ıꞅꞇ, oꞅꞇ, uꞅꞇ, or ẏꞅꞇ.

Active participles end in anꝺ, anꝺe, ænꝺ, ænꝺe, enꝺ, ınꝺ, onꝺ, unꝺ or ẏnꝺ; and passive participles in aꝺ, æꝺ, eꝺ, ıꝺ, oꝺ, uꝺ, or ẏꝺ.

So also, [H]e ꝺıelꝼ, ꝺealꝼ, ꝺelꝼ or ꝺalꝼ he dug; and læꞅƿenꝺe, læꞅƿıᵹenꝺe, læꞅᵹenꝺe or læꞅıenꝺe feeding; ıc ƿuꞃpe, ıc ƿeoꞃpe, ıc ƿẏꞃpe, or ıc ƿeꞃpe I cast away; man, mon a man; he mæᵹe or muᵹe he may; he ꞅiᵹ, ꞅı, ꞅıe, ꞅe, ꞅıo, or ꞅeo he is; ꞅınꝺon, ꞅenꝺon, ꞅıenꝺon, ꞅınꞇ, ꞅıenꞇ, ꞅınd, ꞅın, ꞅıen, ꞅeon, are.

Some short words assume very different meanings: as bıᵹ, bıᵹe, bẏᵹe, beᵹ, beaᵹ, beah and beh, which, according to their connexion, signify indifferently, a turning, a crown, a gem, a bosom, buy, he turned, he submitted, &c. from buᵹan, to turn, bow, &c.The Elements of Anglo-Saxon Grammar. By the Rev. J. Bosworth, M.A. F.A.S., 8vo. 1823.

“The Saxon capitals which vary from those now used are C, E, G, H, M, and W. The small letters are d, f, g, r, s, t, and w, which are all Roman, except the Ƿ. ƿ. and some notes of abbreviations used by the Saxons, as Ð ð, þ th,ꝥ that, &c. Many other abbreviations were used by the Saxons. These notes of abbreviation are not the original members of an alphabet; they were the result of later reflection, and were introduced for dispatch.

“By an attentive observation of the different specimens of writing in England, we perceive the several gradations of change, by which one form of a Roman character has imperceptibly changed into another. The Saxon ƿ, says Mr. Whitaker, seems to have been only the Roman V 735 at first, and to have been lengthened into the Saxon character, and enlarged into the present Roman W, by bringing the principal stroke somewhat lower, and closing the top in the one, and by redoubling the whole in the other. The W is unknown, both to the Latin and its daughter languages, the French, the Spanish, and the Italian: it is composed of two characters, namely of the V or U doubled.

“The writing which prevailed in England from the coming of St. Augustin, in 596, to the middle of the eleventh century, is generally termed Saxon, and may be divided into five kinds, namely, the Roman Saxon, the set Saxon, the running hand Saxon, the mixed Saxon, and the elegant Saxon.”—Astle.

Elegant Saxon.—This writing was adopted in England in the tenth century, and was continued till the Norman conquest; but was not entirely disused till the middle of the thirteenth century.

All subsequent Saxon writers endeavour to keep as near as possible to the form of the letters in a book of Saxon Homilies in the Lambeth Library (No. 439), written in the tenth century. There is a beautiful specimen in the MSS. of the Rev. E. Thwaites, M.A. to be found in the Harleian MSS., at the British Museum (No. 1866). It is described in Nichols’s Lit. Anec., vol. iv. p. 140, as “one of the most lovely specimens of modern Saxon writing that can be imagined.” —Bosworth, p. 20.

About the year 1567, John Daye, who was patronized by Archbishop Parker, cut the first Saxon types which were used in England. In this year Asserius Menevensis was published by the direction of the archbishop in these characters; and in the same year Archbishop Ælfric’s Paschal Homily; and, in 1571, the Saxon Gospels. Daye’s Saxon types far excel in neatness and beauty any which have been since made, not excepting the neat types cast for F. Junius at Dort, which were given by him to the University of Oxford. Astle, p. 224.—Bosworth.

“The Saxon types which were used in printing St. Gregory’s Homily, having been burnt in the fire which consumed Mr. Bowyer’s house and all his printing materials [Jan. 30. 1712-13], Lord Chief Justice Parker was so munificently indulgent, as to be at the expence of cutting a new Saxon type for Mrs. Elstob’s Saxon Grammar, from fac similes by Mrs. Elstob; the punches and matrices of which Mr. Bowyer’s son presented, by the hands of Edward Rowe-Mores, esq; to the University of Oxford. See the Archæologia Antiq. Soc vol. i. p. xxvii.”—Gent. Mag., Oct. 1778, p. 455. Note.

Saxon Upper Case.

page image

[A] B [C] D [E] F [G]       Ð      
[H] I K L [M] N O              
P   R S T   Ƿ              
X Y Z       U              
1 2 3 4 5 6 7              
8 9 0       k              
Saxon Lower Case.

page image

      þ   e Thin Spaces.       ;    
b c ı ð    
Saxon symbol    
  l m n h o y p , ƿ en Quadr. em Quadr.
z   u Spaces. a   : Quadr.
x . -
Saxon in British Founderies.

Double Pica.—Fry, to Thorowgood and Besley.

Great Primer.—Fry, to Thorowgood and Besley.

English.—Caslon. Fry, to Thorowgood and Besley. Oxford. Wilson.

Pica.—Caslon. Fry, to Thorowgood and Besley. V. and J. Figgins. Oxford. Wilson.

Small Pica.—Fry, to Thorowgood and Besley. V. and J. Figgins. Oxford. Wilson.

Long Primer.—Caslon. Fry, to Thorowgood and Besley. V. and J. Figgins. Wilson.

Brevier.—Caslon. Fry, to Thorowgood and Besley. V. and J. Figgins. Wilson.

Notes and Corrections: Saxon

In this article only, capital letters shown in [brackets] are alternative letterforms that aren’t currently available. Refer back to the alphabet chart, where both forms are shown.

T in Dan. Sax. occasionally changes in D and Ð.
text unchanged: expected “changes into”

In Dan. Sax. W changes into F and Ui
text unchanged: expected “Uı”

U is sometimes converted into ẏ: as ꞅcꞃuꝺ clothing, ꞅcꞃẏꝺan to clothe
text has “ꞅcꞃyꝺan”

Contractions of words are common: as N’ẏꞅꞇe for ne ƿıꞅꞇ knew not; n’æꝼꝺe for ne hæꝼeꝺ had not; ẏꞃn’ð for ẏꞃneð runneth.
text has “N’yꞅꞇe” and “hæꝼed”

So also, [H]e ꝺıelꝼ, ꝺealꝼ, ꝺelꝼ or ꝺalꝼ he dug
text has “dealꝼ”


The following scale of prices is copied literally from the official scale published by the master printers in 1810. The alteration in the scale in 1816, as well as the subsequent alterations and explanations have been also accurately copied from the official notifications issued to the trade by the committee of master printers.

“Scale of Prices for Compositor’s Work,

Agreed upon at a General Meeting of Master Printers, at Stationers’ Hall, April 16, 1810; commencing on all Volumes or Periodical Numbers begun after the 30th Instant.

Art. 1. All works in the English language, common matter, with space lines, including English and Brevier, to be cast up at 5¾d. per 1000; if in Minion 6d. per 1000; in Nonpareil 6¾d. Without space lines, including English and Brevier, 6d. per 1000; in Minion 6¼d. in Nonpareil 7d.; in Pearl, with or without space lines, 8d.; Heads and Directions, or Signature lines, included. A thick space to be considered an en in the width, and an en to be reckoned an em in the length of the page: and where the number of letters amounts to 500—1000 to be charged; if under 500, not to be reckoned: and, if the calculation at per 1000 shall not amount to an odd threepence, the odd pence to be suppressed in the price of the work; but where it amounts to or exceeds threepence, there shall be sixpence charged. Em and en quadrats, or whatever is used at the beginning or end of lines, to be reckoned as an em in the width.”

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“6. Small-sized Folios, Quartos, Octavos, and works done in Great Primer, or larger type (English language,) which do not come to seven shillings when cast up at the usual rate, to be paid as follows: English, and larger type, not less than 7s.; Pica 8s. 6d.: English 12mo. to be paid not less than 10s. 6d.; and Pica not less than 11s. 6d. per sheet.

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* The following resolution of the committee of the association of master printers is published in their fourth report, [3d July, 1840,] “That in Book-work two Forms of Double Foolscap be considered as one sheet.”

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* The following inter­pretation of this article of the scale is given in a resolution of the committee of the master printers association, published in their fourth report, [3d July, 1840,] viz. “‘That there must be two Notes in every 10 sheets of a work to constitute the charge of 1s. per sheet for notes.’ E.g. if there should be only two notes, less than 20 lines each, in a work of more than 10 sheets, such work would not be liable to any charge for notes.”

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“13. Greek, Hebrew, Saxon, &c. or any of the dead characters, if one word and not exceeding three lines in any one sheet, to be paid for that sheet 1s. extra; all above to be paid according to their value.

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“Abstract of the Scale.

C = Common.
F = Foreign.
E = English.
2L = 2 Languages, or Foreign.
W = Without Accents.
A = With Accents.

  C F Diction­aries. Grammars,
E 2L E 2L W A
    d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d.
English to Brevier leaded 6 10
solid 6 10¼
Minion leaded 6 6¾* 7*        
solid 7 7* 7¼*        
Nonpareil leaded 7½* 7¾*        
solid 7 7¾* 8*        
Pearl leaded
or solid
8 9        
Notes constituting the Charge of One Shilling per Sheet.—See Article 11.
4to. and 8vo. 20 Lines
or 2 Notes
and not exceeding 4 Pages in 10 Sheets.
12mo. 1 Page
or 2 Notes
and not exceeding 6 Pages in 10 Sheets.
18mo. or above 2 Pages
or 2 Notes
and not exceeding 8 Pages in 10 Sheets.
Pamphlets 10 Lines
or 2 Notes
and not exceeding 2 Pages in 5 Sheets.”

A modification of the Compositors’ Scale took place in 1816, and the following notification was issued to the Trade:—

“At a Meeting of Master Printers held this day, pursuant to notice, for the purpose of taking into consideration the state of the Trade in general, in consequence of the alteration in the times;

“It was the opinion of this Meeting, that it would be highly expedient that, after the 19th of February, the following modification of the Compositors’ Scale of Prices of 1810, as far as regards Reprints, should take place.


“All Reprinted Works to be paid Three Farthings per 1000 less than the Scale of 1810. All Manuscript or Original Works shall continue to be paid for as at present.

“January 2. 1816.”

The following resolution is copied from Hansard’s Typographia:

At a Meeting of the Committee of Master Printers held March 11, 1816.

“It having been stated that doubts had arisen in the minds of several Masters as to what should be considered ‘Reprinted Works,’—Resolved, That they be informed that, under the above Resolutions, all ‘Reprinted Works’ were meant to be comprehended, whether printed sheet for sheet or otherwise; it being understood, that, in cases where the copy is rendered peculiarly troublesome by intricate manuscript insertions, a reasonable allowance may be made for the same to the Compositor.”

Reprints, according to the Resolution of January 2, 1816.

C = Common.
F = Foreign.
E = English.
2L = 2 Languages, or Foreign.
W = Without Accents.
A = With Accents.

  C F Diction­aries. Grammars,
E 2L E 2L W A
    d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d.
English to Brevier leaded 5
solid 6 8
Minion leaded 6 6* 6¼*        
solid 6¼* 6½*        
Nonpareil leaded 6 6¾* 7*        
solid 7 7* 7¼*        
Pearl leaded
or solid
8 8        

* In the Abstract under the head “Dictionaries,” the prices for Minion and Nonpareil are erroneous, being one farthing too much; this error passed unnoticed, till the publication of the “Third Report of the Committee of the Association of Master Printers” in 1839, where it is corrected. I have given the Scale as originally published.

“Scale of Prices for Presswork,

Agreed upon at a General Meeting of Master Printers, at Stationers’ Hall, Feb. 8, 1810; commencing on all Volumes or Periodical Numbers begun after the 28th Instant.

and upwards.
750 and 500. 250.
  d. d. d.
Not exceeding 52 Pica Ems, upon Small Pica and upwards 5 6
If on Long Primer, Bourgeois, or Brevier 6 7
All above 52 Pica Ems, upon Small Pica and upwards 6 7
If on Long Primer, Bourgeois, or Brevier 6 7
Long Primer and upwards, on Copy or Crown 5 6
Not exceeding 40 Pica Ems, upon Long Primer and upwards 5 6
If on Bourgeois or Brevier 6
All above 40 Pica Ems, and not less than Long Primer 7
If on Bourgeois or Brevier 6 6 7
Brevier and upwards, on Copy or Crown 5 6
Not exceeding 24 Pica Ems, upon Small Pica and upwards 5 6
If on Long Primer, Bourgeois, or Brevier 5 7
All above 24 Pica Ems, on Brevier or upwards 6 7
If less than Brevier 6 8
Brevier and upwards, on Copy or Crown 5 6
Not exceeding 21 Pica Ems, upon Long Primer and upwards 5 7
If on Bourgeois or Brevier 6 7
All above 21 Pica Ems, upon Long Primer and upwards 7 8
If on Bourgeois or Brevier 6 7 8
Long Primer, Bourgeois, or Brevier, on Copy or Crown 5 7
If not less than Small Pica 5 7
If on Long Primer, Bourgeois, or Brevier 6 7
If less than Brevier 6 7 8
If not less than Small Pica 6 7
If on Long Primer, Bourgeois, or Brevier 6 7 8
If less than Brevier 8 9
Post or Crown, 21 Pica Ems wide, 35 long 5 6 7
Pot, such as Lady’s and Christian Lady’s. Table Part, 6mo. 35 Pica Ems wide, 26 long 5 6 7
Pot, such as Lady’s and Christian Lady’s. Miscellany Part, 16 ditto wide, 26 long 5 6 7
Copy, Christian Gentleman’s, 26 wide, 35 long 5 6 7
Copy or Crown, not exceeding 17 Pica ems wide, 31 long, nor less than Brevier 5 6 7
Copy or Crown, not exceeding 21 Pica Ems wide, nor less than Long Primer 6

N.B. School Books on Copy or Crown are defined to be, Palairet’s French Grammar, Chambaud, Salisbury Spelling Book, Fox’s Lessons, Ward’s Latin Grammar, and all of a similar description.

Royal Broadsides 7
Demy Ditto, Size Wing or Cambridge
Goldsmith, Calendar Form
Ditto, Prog. 5
Twelves Demy, 19 Ems wide, 34 long, Calendar
Ditto, Prog. 5
Ditto, Crown, Size Rider 5
Octavo Foolscap, 20 Ems wide, 34 long, Cal. and Prog. 5
From No. 4 inclusive to any No. under 100
If 100, and under 200 5
If 200 or 250
Above 250, and under 400
If 400 or 500 5
If above 500, and under 700
If 700 or 750 5
All above 750

“N.B. Side Notes to be reckoned in the Width; Bottom Notes not to be regarded.

Works on Royal Paper to be paid One Halfpenny per Hour more than the above Prices.

Ditto on Foolscap or Pot, not less than 1000 Number, and wrought at one Pull, 4½d.

Ditto in Square Pages (like Entick’s Dictionary) and Works for the Public Offices, to be advanced One Halfpenny per Hour on the Scale of 1800.

Fine Paper of the same Size, if included within the Token, not to be charged extra; but, if of a larger Size, then to be paid according to the Scale.

Three or more Proofs pulled at one Time to be charged 4d. per Form; and, if made ready, to be charged as a Token.

Cards, large or small, to be paid 6½d. per 100.

Jobs without points to be paid 4½d. an hour.

Double Crown or Royal Broadsides, not exceeding 100 Number, to be paid 1s. 6d. if more than 100, to be paid 1s. per 100.

Demy Broadsides, not more than 100, to be paid 1s.; above 100, and not exceeding 500, to be paid 10d. per 100; if above 500, to be paid at the rate of 1s. 9d. per Token.

Broadsides requiring three Pulls to be paid one-third more.

No Form to be deemed a Broadside that comes in at one Pull at the Common Press.

Night-work to commence and be paid for, from Ten o’clock till Twelve, 1s.; all after to be paid 3d. an Hour extra till Six.—Morning work, commencing at Four o’Clock, to be paid 1s. extra.—Sunday work, if not exceeding 6 hours, to be paid for 1s. if for a longer time 2d. an hour.

It is to be distinctly understood that no Advance shall take place on any Works but those which are paid by the Scale.


An alteration in the prices of the first column took place in 1816, and the following notification of it was made:—

“At a Meeting of Master Printers held this day, pursuant to notice, for the purpose of taking into consideration the state of the Trade in general, in consequence of the alteration in the times;

“It was the opinion of this Meeting, that it would be highly expedient that, after the 19th of February, the following modification of the Pressmen’s Scale of Prices of 1810, as far as regards all Numbers exceeding the first 1000, should take place.

“Every Token above the first Four Tokens to be paid One Halfpenny per hour less than the Scale of 1810.

“January 2. 1816.”


4. Pemberton Row, Gough Square.
December 10. 1838.


I herewith transmit to you an Extract from the Proceedings which have taken place at a Special Meeting of the Committee convened this day for the purpose of “considering the case of the Refusal of the Compositors in Mr. Bentley’s Office to work upon his Magazine; and with a view to Conformity of Practice in our several Offices.”

“The Committee of Master Printers being informed that claims have been made by Compositors in some Offices for all Wrappers and Advertising Sheets to be set up by such Compositors only as were employed on the Periodicals to which they are attached, it was

“Unanimously Resolved,

“That such claim on the part of the Compositors is an innovation on the antient and accustomed usages of the Trade, and wholly incompatible with that control which a Master has a right to exercise over the mode of conducting his own business; and that such claim will in future be resisted by every Member of this Committee.”

“It having been stated by Mr. Bentley, that the Compositors in his Office had refused to proceed with his Magazine in consequence of his having acted on the general understanding of the Committee, that the Compositors were not entitled to the Standing Advertisements in Periodicals,

“It was Resolved,

“That Compositors are not entitled to such Standing Advertisements, or to any Standing Matter, such claim being also contrary to the antient and established practice of the Trade.

“That the above Resolutions be circulated among the Members of the Association, and that they be strongly recommended to act with the Committee in carrying them into effect.”

I am, Sir,

Your obedient Servant,


Hon. Sec.

Extract from

Third Report of the Committee of The Master Printers’ Association to the Annual General Meeting, held at Anderton’s Coffee House, July 5. 1839.

“In adverting to the dispute respecting Wrappers, which originated 744 in a case submitted at the Monthly Meeting in December, the Committee feel it to be due to the Members of the Association to acknowledge the ready support which they have on all occasions afforded them. To that firm co-operation on their part, no less than to the reasonableness of the Deputation appointed by the Compositors to confer with the Committee, may be attributed the very satisfactory adjustment of a question which had been a source of serious disagreement in several Offices.

“The following are the Regulations ultimately agreed upon, a copy of which has been sent to each Member of the Association:—

“That the Companionship on a Magazine or Review be entitled to the first or title-page of the Wrapper of such Magazine or Review; but not to the remaining pages of such Wrapper, nor to the Advertising Sheets which may accompany the Magazine or Review.

“That Standing Advertisements or stereo-blocks, if forming a complete page, or, when collected together, making one or more complete pages, in a Wrapper or Advertising Sheet of a Magazine or Review, shall not be chargeable: the Compositor to charge only for his time in making them up. The remainder of the matter in such Wrapper or Advertising Sheet, including Standing Advertisements or stereo-blocks not forming a complete page, to be charged by the Compositor, and cast up according to the 8th or 20th Rules of the Scale, as they may respectively apply. But the charge of 2s. 6d. as given by Rule 7. is not to be superadded.

“With regard to Standing Matter, the Committee adhere to their Resolution of December 10th, 1838.”

Having thus given an accurate copy of the official scale of 1810, with the alterations and explanations of the master printers, to the present time, I shall now add the explanation published by the London Union of Compositors, of the different articles of the scale.

Article I.] “In casting up a work, although it be printed in half sheets, it is cast up in sheets; in jobs less than a sheet, however, the casting-up is confined to the job, and the compositor loses or gains the five hundred letters, or the threepence (as stated in Art. 1.) as the case may chance to be.

“By the term common matter is understood the usual description of Bookwork, and not such matter as Appeal Cases, Bills in Parliament, &c. for which peculiar and distinct charges are made.—See Appendix.

Space Lines.—The reason of pearl being always paid the same price (whether leaded with a lead equal to its own body in thickness, or without a lead) has often excited surprise; but this surprise will cease when we learn that in the year 1810, when an advance of one halfpenny on leaded, and three farthings on solid took place, no advance whatever was made on the price of pearl, which consequently when solid, which it most frequently is, does not have that advance which was granted in 1810; and the compositor in casting it up at 8d. receives only the price which was paid thirty years back. In 1805, the difference between the price of nonpareil and pearl was seven farthings; in 1810, the difference was one penny.

Head and White Lines.—The head or folio line and the white or direction line are invariably reckoned in the square of the page. Head lines, when set up in a smaller type than the body of the work, are charged one shilling per sheet; and if any justification of figures, &c. occur, an allowance is made for extra trouble; but if the head be in larger type than the text, no extra charge can be made.

Reprints.—Annual Reports of societies, with lists of subscribers, &c. are not reprints. If the copy for a book be print-copy, but derived from various sources, such book is an original work, and paid for as manuscript. Works with MS. insertions are paid extra per sheet—not less than 1s.,—but if materially altered or much inter­lined, or consisting of half manuscript and half reprint, are considered as original works, and paid for as if they were all manuscript. Reprinted pamphlets (when more than one 745 sheet) are subject to the reduction above specified. No reduction is made for printed copy introduced into magazines, reviews, &c.

Diamond.—It is the custom of the trade to pay tenpence per thousand for diamond, whether leaded or unleaded.

Ruby.—This description of letter is not common, but it is paid an inter­mediate price allowed for those bodies between which it is cast; thus, a ruby (which is less than nonpareil and larger than a pearl) is cast up at 7½d. leaded or unleaded.”

Art. II.] “This mode of casting up works, which was agreed to in 1796, applies also to jobs, but not to large-letter display broadsides, the charge for which will be found in the Appendix.”

Art. III.] “In the scale of 1805, foreign works in bourgeois and brevier were paid one farthing per thousand extra; but in 1810 one price was established for type from english to brevier inclusive.

“Works in the German language and common type are paid the same as other foreign works; but if the German character be employed, it is paid as Greek without accents. The same price is also paid for the Irish character.”

Art. IV.] “The words ‘of every size,’ allude to the dimensions of the page; because formerly (that is, by the scale of 1801) duodecimo and eighteenmo dictionaries were paid one halfpenny per thousand more than those set up in octavo or quarto.

“In framing the above article, it was intended that such gazetteers or dictionaries of the arts and sciences as were attended with any extra trouble beyond usual descriptive matter should be paid the above dictionary price; and therefore, such gazetteers or dictionaries as contain many references, italics, contractions, &c. take the advanced price as dictionary matter.

“If the above works are in two columns an extra charge of not less than one shilling per sheet is made for column matter.”

Art. V.] “There is a strange anomaly in this article. It was intended to allow the compositor one farthing per thousand extra for the trouble occasioned by the admixture of italic, the frequent occurrence of single letters and monosyllables in grammars, spelling books, &c.; but if a compositor be employed on a grammar wholly in a foreign language, it is paid no more for than if it were a foreign work (see Article III.) It should, however, to be consistent, be allowed the halfpenny for foreign, and the farthing for grammar, and be cast up at 6½d. with space lines, and 6¾d. without space lines.

“The extra farthing per thousand for this kind of work is not to pay for column matter; but two column matter, in grammars, spelling-books, &c. is charged not less than one shilling per sheet; three and not exceeding four columns are charged one and one half; and above four columns are charged double.

“School Arithmetics, as well as the works above specified, are cast up at the above prices.

“If the works specified above be in smaller type than brevier, they take the advance granted for such type in Article I.”

“Art. VI.] “By the words ‘cast up at the usual rate,’ is meant works cast up without their extras; and though this article specifies small sized works in the English language, the principle is applied to foreign works also; and if foreign works amount only to the sums specified, they are entitled to an advance according to the number of thousands they contain as regulated by Art. 3. of the scale. For example, if a foreign folio or 8vo. work, in english type, without space lines, contain 13,000 letters, it would come to 7s. 0½d. Now, as the same work in the English language would come to 6s. 6d. and would consequently obtain by this Article an advance of 6d., so the foreign work is entitled to the like advance, and is paid 7s. 6d.; if it were not so, the compositor would not receive anything for the work being in a foreign language.”

Art. VII.] “The mere circumstance of a work being a periodical publication does not entitle it to the charge of 2s. 6d. per sheet. To justify this charge, the text must consist of two bodies, and be cast up to their respective founts. Publications, however, of more than one sized letter must not be cast up as all one body, to avoid the payment of the 2s. 6d. per sheet, but must be charged according to the proportion of type they contain, with the 2s. 6d. allowed by this article for the bodies.

“Reprints of this description of work (if more than a sheet) are cast up at three farthings per thousand less than the current number, but the 2s. 6d. per sheet is charged. No deduction, however, is made for printed copy introduced into the current numbers of these works.

“In Reviews, Magazines, &c. where leads are only occasionally used, or when used only in a small portion of the publication, no deduction is made.

“Reviews, Magazines, &c. are entitled to the charge for notes, although such notes are set up in one of the bodies used in the text.

“All matter pulled in galleys or slips is made up at the expense of the employer.”


“Art. VIII.] “Parts of works done in different houses, when unequal in their nature, are cast up according to the respective merits of the different parts; and if a sheet, or less than a sheet, it is considered a job, and cast up at the price specified in Art. XX. of the scale.

“The expression ‘nearly made up,’ is indefinite; but in works where two-thirds of the matter are made up, one shilling per sheet is charged upon the whole.

“In works of two or more volumes, when the letter of the first volume is all made up, and used for the second, no charge can be made for making up letter.”

Art IX.] “This article does not apply to half sheets or sheets of double foolscap, double demy, &c. imposed as sixteens, as these are cast up and take the extras as octavo. Sixty-fours and forty-eights, in whatever type, are paid 2s. 6d. the former, and 2s. the latter, per sheet, extra.”

Art X.] “This article allows the employer to give the alteration either to the pressman or to the compositor; but it more properly belongs to the compositor, and the general practice of the trade is for the compositor on the work to make the alteration. The article does not apply to cases where a re-imposition or transposition of pages is required; in all such cases the compositor is entitled to charge his time.”

Art XI.] “This article is by general acceptation understood to mean that, in a quarto or octavo volume, there must be one note of twenty lines, or two shorter ones, to constitute any charge, and that there must be on an average more than four pages in every ten sheets to carry a higher charge than one shilling a sheet; that is, in a work of forty 8vo. sheets, more than sixteen pages; for a fresh calculation is not made for every ten sheets. If, therefore, two notes, or one note of twenty lines, occur in an octavo or quarto volume—and two pages or two notes in eighteens and smaller-sized works, one shilling per sheet is paid for such works throughout.

“Where the notes exceed the quantity stipulated in the above article, an additional sixpence per sheet is charged, until the quantity of note entitles the compositor to a further advance, when, in order to ascertain what that advance should be, the whole of the notes are measured off, and cast up as a distinct body, and one shilling per sheet is charged for placing.

For example—A work of twenty sheets containing eighty pages of notes, or four pages in each sheet, is cast up as three-fourths pica (the body) and one-fourth long primer (the notes), as follows:

  Per sheet.
Pica, 40 by 40, at 6d. comes to 16s. ¾ths = £ 0 12 0
Long primer, 50 by 50, at ditto is 20s. ¼th   =   0   5 0
By letters   0 17 0
Making up, or placing notes   0   1 0
  £ 0 18 0

“The usual rule for the type for notes is two sixes less than the text; i.e. English text has Small Pica notes; Small Pica text, Bourgeois notes; Long Primer text, Brevier notes; but when under this size a proportionally less quantity of note is required to constitute the above charges. Thus—If in a work set in Small Pica, the notes should be set in Brevier, which is three sizes less than the text; the same number of thousands should be composed for 1s. per sheet, as would be equivalent to the number of thousands contained in the four pages of Bourgeois, i.e. if the four pages of Bourgeois contain 10,000 letters, no more than that number of brevier should be composed without an increased charge.

“To compensate the compositor for time employed in making up, altering references, &c., the notes, although in the same size as any type used in the text, take the charge of 1s. per sheet.

Notes upon notes, when set up in a smaller type than the note, are charged according to the rule laid down for notes.”

Art XII.] “In casting up a work with side-notes, the side-notes are not reckoned in the width of the page.

“Side-notes are cast up as double—that is, the length and breadth of the side-notes are taken, multiplied, and the product doubled. When the space between the notes do not exceed a broad quotation it is reckoned in measuring off the notes. The side-note width of the guard line and head lines are reckoned in measuring the depth of the notes. The reglets or leads between the text and side-note are reckoned in the width of the text, when the side-notes are cast up. One shilling per sheet for side-notes, in addition to their being cast up as double, is allowed for placing.


“Under-runners from side-notes are reckoned in the side-note, and paid 3d. each, in addition.

“When the bottom notes to law works, &c. are attended with extra trouble, in consequence of numerous contractions, an extra is paid.”

Art. XIII.] “The Saxon language is mentioned only in regard to the charge of one shilling per sheet, while works wholly done in that language seem to have been uninten­tionally omitted in the Scale; they are, however, paid the same as Greek without accents, according to Article XIV.

“The term ‘dead characters’ is extremely indefinite; and the charge allowed by this article is not limited to the languages of such nations as are extinct, but includes all languages for which roman or italic type is not employed, such as Sanskrit and other oriental characters; also German, Irish, &c. &c.

“This article defines only what charge is to be made for Greek, Hebrew, Saxon, &c. when introduced in small quantities in various parts of a sheet,—such as single words, half lines, or lines. If there be one word, and not more than three lines, the charge is one shilling for each character, in every sheet in which those characters occur: all above three lines is paid according to their value, preserving the 1s. per sheet for the first three lines. When the quantity of Greek, Hebrew, Saxon, &c. amounts to two-thirds, inter­spersed throughout the sheet, it is paid as all Greek, or an equivalent price allowed for the admixture.

“As it occasionally occurs that words in Greek, &c. are obliged to be set up in a different sized fount to the body of the work, when such is the case, extra is paid for justification.

“For the convenience of employers, and that each sheet of a work may be paid the same price, it is sometimes the practice to ascertain the quantity contained in the work, and put an average price upon each sheet. This was not formerly the general custom, nor is it, indeed, commendable, since by this mode it often happens that the task of setting up that part of a work containing the greatest quantity of Greek, &c. falls into the hands of those who have had no share of the lighter parts of the work, and thus endless and bitter disputes are caused by one man being called upon to perform that labour for which another has received the reward. The article limits the charge to ‘that sheet,’ and therefore a work in which small portions of Greek, &c. are introduced, should be charged according to the particular quantity in each sheet.”

Art. XIV.] “By ‘separate accents’ is meant the use of distinct accents with kerned letters.

“The composition of grammars being attended with extra trouble, ¼d. per 1000 is allowed for them. Therefore Grammars in Greek, Hebrew, &c. take the advance specified in Article V. Thus, a Greek grammar without space lines and accents is paid 9d. per 1000.

“Jobs in Greek, &c. of one sheet or under are also paid 1d. per thousand more than the prices above stated.

“It has been contended that works in Greek, Hebrew, &c. not being common matter, were not intended to be subject to the reduction upon reprints; but as the same advantage accrues to a compositor upon reprint Greek as upon reprint English, it is just that the reduction should be made; and therefore Greek, &c. set up from printed copy, is subject to the modification of the Scale proposed by the masters in 1816.”

Art. XV.] “The phrase ‘paid double’ signifies double the price of common matter. Although Hebrew with points is alone stated to be cast up as half body and half points doubled; yet Syriac, or any other language or character with points, is cast up in the same manner.

“Of the mode of casting up a work with points, the following is an example:—Supposing the work to be set up in small pica Hebrew with nonpareil points, it is cast up as half small pica and half nonpareil, that is, each page is charged as if it were a page of small pica and a page of nonpareil.

“Grammars, Dictionaries, &c. in these languages are cast up at double the price specified in Article V.

“This article applies only to works, or where several pages appear together. Small quantities of Arabic, Syriac &c. are paid according to Article XIII.”

Art. XVI.] “That is, if the sonnet type be long primer, the square of the page is taken as long primer, and the amount which the sheet or job would be paid as long primer is doubled.

“The rule is, however, but little applicable to the present style of letter-press music printing, the composition of which is now usually paid an ad valorem price, as double the price of sonnet type would not pay. Indeed, in music wholly instrumental, Art. 16. would be useless as a guide, as there would be no sonnet type employed.”


Art XVII.] “The charge of 2s. per sheet for Index matter does not include the charge for columns or tabular; and indexes cast up as tabular or table are charged 2s. in addition to what they come to by letters.”

Art. XVIII. “The expression, ‘not including the numbering,’ does not mean that the numbers are not to be reckoned in the square of the page, but that when the bookseller sends in his copy without numbers at the beginning of the article, or with incorrect numbers, and the compositor is required to alter them, or put in the numbers, he is entitled to make an extra charge for such numbering; in other words, 7d. per thousand does not include the charge for the trouble occasioned to the compositor by altering or marking in the numbers prefixed to the books.

“If a booksellers’ catalogue only make a sheet, or less than a sheet, it is cast up at no more than 7d. per thousand.

“Booksellers’ lists or advertisements are charged as a job at 7d. per thousand when only making a sheet or under; but if done in smaller type than brevier, they take the proportionate advance specified in Article 1.

“When notes or remarks in smaller type are inserted in a bookseller’s catalogue, they are paid the same as bottom notes.

“Catalogues in two columns are paid one shilling per sheet for columns.

“The words ‘in whatever language,’ mean that the foreign languages, where roman type is used, viz. Latin, Italian, French, &c. take no extra charge; but Greek, Hebrew, Syriac, &c. are paid according to Article 13.”

“Art. XIX.] “The compositor’s day’s work is reckoned twelve hours; if, therefore, business require it, the compositor on the piece works from 8 till 10 in the evening, and from 6 to 8 in the morning, without any extra charge; but if required to come before 6, or called to work after 10, he immediately claims 1s., because he has already worked two hours beyond the ordinary time, without any extra charge. Sunday work, for any portion of time less than six hours, is paid 1s.

“Compositors on the establishment, when required to work beyond the recognised hours, are entitled to charge extra.—See Appendix.”

Art. XX.] “Auctioneers’ Catalogues and Particulars, of whatever extent, or whether leaded or unleaded, are cast up at 6d. per 1000; if any smaller type or other extras occur in a catalogue, they are paid in the same way as extras upon bookwork. The conditions in smaller type, when standing, are paid as an ordinary page of the catalogue; but if set up, are charged according to the type in which they are set.”

“Jobs are not cast up as sheets or half sheets, but according to the number of pages they may contain. They are also subject to the regulations in Art. 1.—‘A thick space,’ &c. see Art. 1. to the end of that Article.”

Art. XXI.] “This article has occasionally been misconstrued; and it has been supposed that if any matter be on the third page, the compositors ought to charge the job as four pages; this, however, is not the case—for, in jobs, it requires matter on three pages, in order that they may be charged as four. Thus, a circular of two pages, printed on the first and third page, is only charged as two pages; but if there be matter on the first, second, and third, it is charged as four; or if there be matter on the first and second, and an indorse on the fourth, it is charged as four. This definition will appear correct when it is observed that the indefinite article is used in the scale, which does not say, constituting the third, but constituting a third.”

Art. XXII.] “This article means that ‘common matter’ or undisplayed broadsides, when set up in type ‘such as’ is used for leases, deeds, &c. are to be charged, if larger than crown, the double of common matter, but if on crown or under, to be paid one and one-half common matter; and if table, to be paid for as double. That this is the true inter­pretation of this article is evident from the introduction of the words ‘whether table or common matter,’ which were not in the scale of 1805, and which were inserted to prevent more than double being charged for broadside tables above the dimensions of crown. In Ireland, table broadsides above medium are paid treble; but by the above article, however few or numerous the columns may be, the charge is to be that of double common matter.

Art. XXIII.] “When blank pages at the end of a work are filled up on its return from the author with fresh matter, or booksellers’ lists, or advertisements, the compositor charges the value of the matter, deducting the price of the blank, excepting the time for making up the blank. Matter driven out by the insertion of leads is charged by the compositor, but his time in doing so is not chargeable.

“The compositors on a work are entitled to correct the author’s proofs.”

Art. XXIV.] “In jobs, it is sometimes necessary to put the imprint nearly at the extremity of the paper, leaving a large blank between the last line and the printer’s name. In all such cases, the blank is not cast up, but the job is considered to be two lines longer than the last line of matter. Previous to 1805, the imprint was not cast 749 up when it had a large blank before it; but as the compositor frequently had to set up the imprint, it was agreed that he should charge two lines for it.”

As the Scale of 1805 may be useful as an article of reference, I give it literally from an official copy which has been in my possession from that time.

Regulations and Scale of Prices for Compositors’ Work,

“Article 1. All works in the English language, common matter, including English and Brevier, to be cast up, as settled in December 1800, at fivepence farthing per thousand; if in Minion (being a type not very prevalent), to be cast up at fivepence halfpenny; in Nonpareil, sixpence farthing; and Pearl, eightpence; Heads and Directions, or Signature lines, included. A thick space to be considered an en in the width, and an en to be reckoned an em in the length of the page: and, where the number of letters amounts to five hundred, a thousand to be charged; if under five hundred, not to be reckoned: and if the calculation at per thousand shall not amount to an odd threepence, the odd pence to be suppressed in the price of the work; but where it amounts to or exceeds threepence, there shall be sixpence charged.

“2. Works printed in Great Primer to be cast up as English; and all works in larger type than Great Primer as half English and half Great Primer.

“3. All works in a foreign language, though common type, to be cast up at fivepence three farthings per thousand, including English and Long Primer; if in Bourgeois or Brevier, sixpence per thousand; Minion, sixpence farthing; Nonpareil, sevenpence; and Pearl, eightpence three farthings.

“4. English Dictionaries of every size to be paid fivepence three farthings per thousand. (In this article are not included Gazetteers, Geographical Dictionaries, Dictionaries of Arts and Sciences, and works of a similar description, except those attended with extra trouble beyond usual descriptive matter.) Dictionaries of two or more languages of every size to be paid sixpence per thousand. If smaller type than Brevier, to take the proportionate advance specified in Article 1.

“5. English Grammars, Spelling Books, and works of those descriptions, in Brevier or larger type, to be cast up at fivepence halfpenny per thousand; if in two languages, or foreign language, to be cast up at fivepence three farthings per thousand.

“6. Small sized Folios, Quartos, Octavos, and works done in Great Primer or larger type (English language) which do not come to six shillings when cast up at the usual rate, to be paid as follows: English and larger type, not less than six shillings; Pica, seven shillings and sixpence: English Twelves to be paid not less than nine shillings and sixpence; and Pica not less than ten shillings and sixpence per sheet.

“7. Reviews, Magazines, and works of a similar description consisting of various sized letter, if cast up to the different bodies, to be paid two shillings per sheet extra.

“8. Pamphlets of five sheets and under, and parts of works done in different houses, amounting to not more than five sheets, to be paid one shilling per sheet extra; but, as it frequently occurs that works exceeding a Pamphlet are often nearly made up without a return of letter, all such works shall be considered as Pamphlets, and paid for as such.

“9. Works done in Sixteens, Eighteens, Twenty-fours, or Thirty-twos, on Small Pica and upwards, to be paid one shilling and sixpence extra per sheet. If on Long Primer, or smaller type, one shilling per sheet extra. Forty-eights to be paid two shillings per sheet extra, and Sixty-fours two shillings and sixpence per sheet extra.

“10. Works requiring an Alteration or Alterations of Margin, to be paid for each Alteration one shilling to the Pressmen if altered by them, and sixpence to the Compositor, as a compensation for making up the Furniture; if altered by the Compositor, then he is to be paid one shilling for the Alteration, and the Pressmen sixpence for the delay. This article to be determined on solely at the option of the Employer.

“11. Bottom Notes consisting of twenty lines (or two Notes, though not amounting to twenty lines), and not exceeding four pages, in every Ten Sheets, in Quarto or Octavo:—One page (or two notes, though not amounting to one page) and not exceeding six pages, in Twelves:—Two pages (or two notes, though not amounting to two pages) and not exceeding eight, in Eighteens or above; to be paid one shilling per sheet:—But under the above proportion no charge to be made. Bottom Notes consisting of ten lines (or two notes, though not amounting to ten lines) in a Pamphlet of five sheets or under, and not exceeding two pages, to be paid one shilling per sheet extra. Quotations, Mottos, Contents to Chapters, &c. in smaller type than the body, to be considered as notes. [Where the Notes shall be in Nonpareil or Pearl, in Twelves, the number of pages to be restricted to four; in Eighteens, to five pages: 750 and, if the number of sheets or notes in a volume shall exceed what is stipulated, to take the proportionate advance.]

“12. Side Notes to Folios and Quartos not exceeding a broad quotation, if only chap. or date, and not exceeding three explanatory lines on an average in each page, to be paid one shilling per sheet; in Octavo, if only chap. or date, and not exceeding three explanatory lines on an average in each page, one shilling and sixpence per sheet. Cut-in Notes in smaller type than the body to be paid for in a similar manner.

Side and Bottom Notes to many, particularly Historical and Law Works, if attended with more than ordinary trouble, to be settled between the Employer and Journeyman.

“13. Greek, Hebrew, Saxon, &c. or any of the dead characters, if one word and not exceeding three lines in any one sheet, to be paid for that sheet one shilling extra: all above to be paid ad valorem.

“14. Greek without accents to be paid eightpence per thousand; if with separate accents, ninepence halfpenny per thousand: the Asper not to be considered an Accent.

“15. Hebrew, Arabic, Syriac, &c. to be paid double:—Hebrew with Points to be cast up as half Body and half Points doubled.

“16. Music to be paid double the body of the sonnet type.

“17. Index Matter, though but one measure, to be paid one shilling per sheet extra.

“18. Booksellers’ Catalogues to be cast up at sixpence per thousand, not including the numbering.

“19. Em and En Quadrats, or whatever is used at the beginning or end of lines, to be reckoned as an Em in the width.

“20. Night Work to commence and be paid for, from Eleven o’clock till One, one shilling; till Two, one shilling and sixpence; and threepence per hour extra till Six.—Morning Work, commencing at Four o’clock, to be paid one shilling extra.—Sunday Work to be paid twopence per hour, provided it amount to not less than one shilling.

“21. Jobs of One Sheet or under (except Auctioneers’ Catalogues and Particulars) to be cast up at sixpence halfpenny per thousand; if done in smaller type than Brevier, to take the proportionate advance specified in Article 1.

“22. Jobs in Foreign Language, of One Sheet or under (except Auctioneers’ Catalogues) to be cast up at sevenpence halfpenny per thousand; if done in smaller type than Brevier, to take the proportionate advance specified in Article 1.

“23. Where Two Pages only are imposed, either opposite to or at the back of each other, they shall be paid for as Two Pages; but if with an Indorse, or any other kind of matter constituting a third, then to be paid as a Sheet, if in Folio; a Half-sheet if in Quarto; and so on.

“24. Broadsides, such as Leases, Deeds, and Charter Parties, above the dimensions of Crown, to be paid the double of common matter; on Crown and under, to be paid one and one-half common matter.—The Indorse to be paid one-fourth of the inside page.

“25. All Corrections to be paid sixpence per hour.

“26. The Imprint to be considered as two lines in the square of the page.

“27. Different Volumes of the same work to be paid for distinctly, ad valorem.

“This Scale to commence on Monday, the fourth day of March 1805.

“Any Disputes that may arise in future, we agree to refer to the Decision of the Committee of Masters.

“On behalf of the Masters. “On behalf of the Compositors.
(Signed) John Nichols (Signed) Edward Davenport
  Luke Hansard   James Atkinson
  Thomas Bensley   Charles Fagan
  George Woodfall   Samuel Charles Fawcett
  Charles Baldwin   William Magrath
  Thomas Gillet   Philemon Chalk
  David Nathan Shury   Charles Higly
  William Ruffy.   Henry Dench.”
Notes and Corrections: Scale of Prices

[1810 scale, Art. 19] if not exceeding 6 hours, to be paid for 1s.;
; missing

[1805 scale, Art. 11] Bottom Notes consisting of twenty lines (or two Notes, though not amounting to twenty lines), and not exceeding four pages
text has “exceeeding”


Is that kind of scale commonly sold by some ironmongers in bundles; and of which, the scabbards for swords are made: the Compositor cuts it quadrat high, and to his length.—M. Till within these last few years it was supplied by the Printers Joiners in bundles of sixty sheets each, four feet long, and varying in width from five inches to ten; it is now supplied in slips quadrat high. In Moxon’s time it appears to have been used to branch out matter as we use leads at present, but, as these are so much superior, they have superseded it 751 in that department; and it is now seldom employed, except in forms next the crosses, to facilitate the making of register at press, and in making margin uniform.—See Paper.


See Runic.


A new press has just been introduced to public notice (August 1841), under the patronage of Count Rosen, a Swedish nobleman, but being too late for insertion in the alphabetical order, I give a notice of it at the end. There are two of these presses now at work in the extensive establishment of Messrs. William Clowes and Sons, under the name of “The Scandinavian Self-inking Press,” invented by Mr. C. A. Holm, of Stockholm, who has taken out a patent for it. It is a press with a platen which descends perpen­dicularly, and at its regular rate of working produces 550 impressions in an hour, which I have ascertained by personal inspection. It requires two boys to each press to lay on and take off the paper, and to turn down and raise the tympan, and one superintendent is fully competent to attend to two presses. By dispensing with woollen blankets in the tympans and substituting paper, it produces fine impressions, as the specimens published of large and finely executed engravings on wood testify. There is a contrivance which causes a rest or pause when the pressure is at its maximum, and gives time for the ink to be firmly attached to the paper. The motive power may be either hand labour or steam, those in use at Messrs. Clowes’s establishment are worked by steam; they do not occupy more room than any other press that will print paper of the same dimensions, and are very simple in their construction. The inking apparatus is so arranged that the distributing rollers have three or four different motions, the object and effect of which are to produce a perfectly equal and uniform distribution of the ink. They are manufactured by Messrs. Braithwaite, Milner, and Co., engineers, in the New Road.

Notes and Corrections: Scandinavian Press

This article was printed as a last-minute addition at the very end of the book (page 815). For the ebook it has been moved to its proper alpha­betical place.


or Illyrian alphabet, “is ascribed to St. Jerom The Bulgarian letters were originally the same with the Sclavonian. There are several letters in these alphabets, which seem to be of northern original, which are adapted to sounds peculiar to the languages of the people descended from the Scythians who settled in Europe.”—Astle. See Servien. Russian.


The name of a class of types, which, as the appellation implies, is an imitation of writing. The French call it Anglaise.

There is no character connected with our language on which so much labour has been expended within the last twenty-five years as on this. The old Scripts were so notoriously stiff and formal, that they could hardly be said to bear any other resemblance to writing than in the mere shapes of the letters; these were cast on a square shank, with all the ascenders and descenders hanging over the body, which is styled kerned. These kerned letters, having no support, were liable on pressure to break off, and the fount became so disfigured thereby that the use of Script was abandoned by almost common consent. In 1815 Messrs. Firmin Didot and Sons introduced a new Script, cut with great freedom, and cast on a rhomboidal shank, with triangular blocks having a corresponding angle on one side, and the other two sides forming a right angle, with which to justify the beginnings and endings of lines. In order to enable the printer to form complete words without any apparent junction, a great number of parts of letters, parts of common words, and double letters, were added to the regular alphabet; thus encumbering the plan with such a variety of sorts that it required great care, and was very tedious to compose correctly.

This plan was very popular on the Continent, and almost universally adopted; and so much importance was attached to it that Messrs. Didot and Sons took out an English patent for it, which they attempted to enforce against the letter founders of this country a few years afterwards, but which was resisted, and the claim to invention abandoned.

Since 1820 the English letter founders have produced a variety of beautiful Scripts of different sizes, but generally a modification of the French rhomboidal body plan; still the difficulty of composition remained to a great extent, and materially detracted from its general utility.

Within the last five years a further improvement has been made by the introduction of a new square-bodied Script, for which we are also indebted to French artists, Messrs. Laurent and Deberney, who have given it the name of Américain, which is so beautifully cut, and managed, that the effect of the whole, when well worked, is excellent.

The kern, instead of being unsupported, is protected by the shank of the letter, having two angles thus squiggle thrown out at the head of the two opposite corners of the body, so as to give support to both ascenders and descenders; the opposite angles of the letters are cast with a corresponding slope to receive the hanging over letters without their incurring any danger of riding upon each other.

This plan obviates all the difficulties of the two former ones, and requires only a pair of common cases. It is easily composed, and there is not more risk of damage than attends the working of any other description of delicate type. The sizes of this Script at present in the trade are, Canon, Two Lines English, Two Lines Pica, Great Primer, and Pica.

SCRIPT UPPER CASE.—Slanting body.

page image

The sorts marked with 1 are cast thin, for joining with the letters which commence with a junction stroke, as m, n, r, v, w, x, y, z, and the compounds commencing with those letters. Those marked with 2, and distinguished by an extra nick, are cast thick, to go before a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, k, l, o, p, q, t, u, &c.

SCRIPT LOWER CASE.—Slanting body.

page image



See Runic.

Second at the Press.

See First.

Second Pull.

See First Pull.—M.


A section, marked thus §, is the division of a discourse, or chapter, into less parts or portions.—Murray. It is also used in printing as a reference to notes.

Seditious Libels.

See Libels.


See Punctuation.


“The alphabets of the nations descended from the Scythians established in Europe, namely, the Servien, the Russian, the Sclavonian, and the Bulgarian, are all derived from the Greek. The Servien letters are called the Cyrillitan characters, from St. Cyril, who converted the Moravians to Christianity; smaller characters were afterwards introduced, called Glogolitici. The Russian letters are immediately derived from those used by St. Cyril.”Astle.


When compositors cannot make up their matter into pages as they compose it, either by reason of their working in companionship, or from other causes, they put it in galleys till they can make up; this is termed Setting at Random. When a compositor is obliged to set a great quantity at random, so that it becomes inconvenient, on account of the number of galleys it occupies, and the room it takes up on the cases, he ties it up in moderate-sized pieces and puts it on page papers under his frame, with a bit of paper stuck in each with a number, to mark the order; if it be a work in quarto or folio, too large for page papers, he ties a cord round the matter in each galley and keeps it on the slices of his slice galley under his frame, till he makes up.


Matter that is composed, but not worked off, whether it be made up into pages or at random, is called set matter, to distinguish it from matter for distribution.


Sheets of waste paper that are used upon the tympan sheet, to prevent the ink setting-off on the sheets that are successively printed when the reiteration is working; they are changed as soon as any setting-off is perceptible. They are slipped under the points at their edges, and are quickly changed, or turned, which is always done to economize the use of paper.

Set-off Sheets are also used upon the cylinders of machines that perfect, for the same purpose.

A sheet of thin paper is inter­leaved between every impression of fine work, particularly if it be large heavy paper and large type, to prevent setting-off in the heap; the work is hung up to dry with these sheets in, which are taken out by the warehouseman before the work is piled away, who then knocks them up, folds them in quires, and takes care of them till they are wanted again by the Pressmen.

Paper for these purposes is supplied by the warehouseman, who gives for the first waste or spoiled impressions; for the other tissue paper is generally used, and with care it will last a long time.


Counting out the proper quantity by the warehouseman, to wet—M. We now term it Giving out Paper, which see.

Sets Clean.

See Clean Proof.

Sets Close.

See Get In.—M. The phrase is now used for close spacing.

Sets Foul.

See Foul Proof.—M.


Work that is newly wrought off at the press often sets off, especially if it be fat beaten with soft ink: for when it comes to be 755 beaten, or sometimes only hard pressed, by the Bookbinder, the moist ink spreads and delates itself round about the face of every letter, and sullies and stains the whole white paper.—M. We do not now include this spreading and delating of the ink in the meaning of setting off, but use the term only when one printed sheet parts with some of its ink to the sheet on which it is laid, or in the press, or in the process of binding, which it will do with large letter, which requires much ink, or when a book is pressed, or bound, before the ink is sufficiently dry: the Bookbinder’s hammer is a severe test; and where a book is required to be bound as soon as printed, the best plan, perhaps, is to have it cold pressed, which flattens the impression of the types, and renders it unnecessary to beat so much as when this mode of proceeding is not adopted. In printing fine work at press set-off sheets are used to prevent one sheet defacing another.—See Set-off Sheets.


Fixing the girts so that the Rounce stand in the most advantageous position to run the carriage in easily.—M.


When a compositor has received the making-up from a companion, and has composed the inter­mediate matter, he has set up to himself; that is, he has composed the matter that followed his companion’s last page and preceded the part he commenced with, and has joined the two parts, so as to enable him to make up. See Join, and Making-up, to give the.

Sets Wide.

See Drive out.—M. We now use the term for wide spacing.


When two or more companions are on the same piece of work, and when any one of them composes all his copy, so that there is none inter­mediate between the close of his and the beginning of the companion’s that follows him, it is said, he has set up close, or, he has set close up.


A sheet of paper folded into seventy-two leaves or one hundred and forty-four pages is termed seventy-twos or seventy-twomo.


The square metal the face of a letter stands on, is called the Shank of a Letter.—M.


This expression is used two ways by printers: some say it is a sharp impression when much blanket is used, and the impression of the types on the paper is deep: others hold, and I am of the opinion, that it is a sharp impression when no more than the face of the types appears on the paper, with the lines clear and smooth, and of a full colour, with as little indention as possible on the paper. Pressmen and their employers should know in which sense they each use the term, otherwise it may cause a serious mistake in work, as the two meanings embrace the best as well as the commonest work.


Something similar to those used by tailors; they are employed to cut brass rule, scaleboard, thin reglet, &c. to proper lengths. The shears best adapted to this purpose have blades short in proportion to their handles.


Is all made of iron, with an hammer head at one end, to drive the ball nails into the ball stocks, and a claw at the other end, to draw the ball nails out of the ball stocks.—M. It is customary to have one for each press, which in a wooden press is suspended by the head from two nails driven into the near cheek of the press, just below the cap. It is a very useful article to the pressman; but is often applied instead of the mallet and shooting stick, to tighten or to loosen 756 quoins, though it occasionally makes a batter by slipping; I do not like to see it used for this purpose.


See Persian.


See Till.

Sherwin and Cope’s press


The Imperial Press. Dr. Lardner thus describes this press:—In this beautiful and compact machine, the works upon which the power depends are almost wholly concealed within the head of the press, and are in themselves extremely few and simple. The leverage connected with the bar is similar in principle to that of the Stanhope press; and the distinguishing peculiarity of this press consists in the manner in which the lever, called the chill, is made to act upon the piston, as represented in the engraving of the working parts. The stout cast-iron lever or chill terminates in a sort of polished toe or point. This last-mentioned projection of the lever is made to act on a cup or knuckle acting upon the head of a stout iron bolt, which simply drops down a perforation of the piston, so as to rest upon the uppermost of two steel wedges, one of which, by its connexion with a screw in the front, admits of being pushed forward or drawn back, so as to elevate or lower the bolt, and thus regulate, by altering the length of the piston, the bearing of the platen upon the types. The head-bolt passes through a hole perforated somewhat obliquely; by which ingenious contrivance, a side twist, which would otherwise be occasioned by the motion of the head gear is avoided. It will now easily be perceived 757 how, by the operation of the bar, the toe is made to act upon the inside bolt, and thus force down the piston, which, after the impression has been taken, is carried back again, by means of two stout steel springs attached to the insides of the cheeks of the press, and thus on the return of the bar lift the platen from the face of the types and allow the carriage with the form to be run out. These springs, operating uniformly, cause the action of the piston to be very smooth. The Imperial press, is, I believe, in high estimation for easiness in the pull, which gives it speed in working, and for evenness of impression.

On the first introduction of this press the toe of the lever or chill worked on a flat surface on the top of the bolt; the introduction of the cup or knuckle is a subsequent improvement.

They are made of different sizes, from foolscap folio to double royal.

Figure showing the Works which produce the Power.

detail of handle


An old shoe with the hind quarter cut away, hung upon a nail through the heel at the end of the imposing stone, into which to put bad letters when correcting. When full, the person who has the care of the materials empties it into the old metal box.


Is a perfect wedge about six inches long, and its thicker end two inches broad, and an inch and an half thick; and its thin end about an inch and an half broad, and half an inch thick; made of box wood.—M. They are not now made so thick.

The use of a shooting stick is to drive the quoins with a mallet, both in locking-up and unlocking a form; they are 8½ inches long.

shooting stick

As the thin end of a wooden shooting stick always wears down rapidly, or splits, some houses have adopted metal ones, made of brass, well secured in a strong wooden handle, with a square piece cut out of the 758 end, leaving one side a little longer than the other, with a more acute angle; these are very useful where the quoining room is small, and the quoins are of course thin.


See Chase.—M. The shortest and also the broadest bar that divides a chase into quarters; there is a groove in the upper side of it to admit the spurs of the points to be pressed into it without injuring their points. This cross is dovetailed in the middle of the sides of the chase, for folios, quartos, and octavos, without the long cross for folios; there is another dovetail in the rim of the chase, leaving about two thirds of the chase on one side of the short cross and one third on the other; the cross is fitted into these dovetails for twelves, and separates the offcut from the other part of the sheet. I would always place the short cross in the middle of the chase for eighteens, where the margin will admit it, as it divides the pages more equally, and makes the form safer when locked up; in this case the cross occupies the place of a gutter instead of a back.


A page that is not full of matter; as the end of a chapter, a book, or a volume. Though it is termed a short page, yet the term only applies to what appears when printed, for in reality the page is, or ought to be, made up to the exact length of the other pages in the sheet, the blank part being filled up with furniture. I would always put a lead at the least after the last line of the matter, and next to that a piece of thick reglet cut to the measure, to prevent any letters dropping down, and a line of quotations, or large quadrats, at the bottom, which will keep the other pages in register; the vacancy between these may then be filled up with furniture to make the page of a proper length, and if they be not so long as the exact width of the page it will not be material; but if it be made up entirely with furniture, the adjoining pages will be twisted and out of register, when the form is locked up, for it is not possible to cut the pieces so accurate to the width as a line of quadrats, for the gutter to rest against. If the page be very short, it will be better to have an additional line of quadrats or quotations in the middle.


When the pull is so justified, that a sufficient pressure is produced when the bar is brought about half way over, or a little more; this pull is adopted in small light forms, where despatch is required.

Short Ribs.

See Cramp Irons.


This is a term used in the Warehouse; and is part of the process of Knocking-up, when the paper is laid in heaps, after having been taken down from the poles, to make it lie even at the edges. It is performed by taking hold of a few quires of the paper loosely at the sides, and holding the far side a little lower than that next the body, upon the table, when, shaking both hands, it gradually projects the lower sheets; then lifting it up and bending it a little, it is let drop on its edge upon the table; by repeating this process two or three times, the parcel becomes even at the edges, and is in a fit state to be piled away. It is a process in which expertness can only be acquired by practice, and observation.

Side Notes.

See Marginal Notes.


The same as foot stick, except that they are placed against the side of the page, as their name signifies. See Foot Stick.


By this term are meant, notes, breviatures, letters set for words, characters, short hand.

We find sigla in the most ancient MSS.: some specimens of such as were used in the sixth, seventh, and eighth centuries, are here given. 759 Some of these sigla were made by the Antiquarians who wrote the book, and others afterwards for the illustration of the text. The annexed sigla may be explained thus:—

1. H. S. i.e. Hic suppleas, or hæc supplenda.

2. H. D. i.e. Hic deficit, or hæc deficiunt.

3. Paragraphus, a note of division.

4. Diple, to mark out a quotation from the Old Testament.

5. Crisimon, being composed of X and P, which stands for Christ.

6. Hederacei folii Figura, an ivy leaf, the ancient mark of division.

7. Ancora superior. To denote a very remarkable passage.

8. Denotes, the beginning of a lesson.

9. Signifies good.

10. Stands for something very kind, or benevolent.

11. Points out a fine or admirable passage.

12. L. D. lepide dictum. Finely said.

illustrations of the twelve listed Sigla

Many writers have employed their pens in elucidating the sigla on coins and medals; among others, Octavius de Strada in Aurea Numismata, &c. where we read C. Cæsar. Divi. F. IMP. Cos. III. Vir R. P. C. that is, Caii Cæsaris Divi filius imperator consul Triumvir reipublicæ constituendæ. A number of similar examples may be found in the same author, and in Æneas Vicus Parmensis de Augustarum imaginibus.

As to epitaphs or sepulchral inscriptions, it was common to begin them with these literary signs, D. M. S. signifying Diis Manibus Sacrum, and, as still is customary with us, on such occasions, the glorious actions, praises, origin, age, and rank of the deceased, with the time of his death, were set forth.

It is a fact too well known to require any particular elucidation, that it was customary with the ancients to burn the bodies of the dead, and to deposit the remains in urns or vessels, as appears from the funeral obsequies of Patroclus and Achilles in Homer.

Altars erected to the Supreme Being are of the highest antiquity, but by the ambition and corruption of mankind were afterwards prostituted to flatter both the living and the dead. Inscriptions, or literary signs, frequently appeared on those altars; as Ar. Don. D. that is, Aram dono dedit, and such like.

Public Statues were erected to Kings, Emperors, and others, both before and after their death, on which the names of the dedicators were frequently inscribed in literary signs. As in this inscription, Civ. Interamnanæ Civ. Utriusque Sex. Aer. Coll. Post Ob. H. P. D. that is, Cives Interamnanæ civitatis utriusque sexus ære collato post obitum hujus patronæ dedicarunt.

The Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans used forms of saluting or complimentary expressions at the beginning of their letters, and then proceeded to the subject of the letters themselves.

The Latin method was to place the name of the writer first, afterwards that of the person to whom the letter was addressed. The names were either put simply without any epithet in literary signs, as C. Att. S. 760 that is Cicero Attico Salutem; or the dignity or rank of the person was added, as, C. S. D. Planc. Imp. Cos. Des. that is, Cicero Salutem dicit Planco Imperatori Consuli designato. The epistolary writings of the Romans abound with examples of this kind.

The Military Sigla amongst the Romans are treated of by Vegetius and Frontinus.

See John Nicholaus, who hath written professedly upon the Sigla of the Ancients;—J. Nicolai Tractatus de Siglis Veterum. Lugd. Bat. 1703, 4to.

A competent knowledge of these literary signs, or verbal contractions used by the ancients, is of the utmost importance to those who wish to be familiarly acquainted with ancient history. These Sigla or Signs frequently appear on marbles, coins, and medals, and occur in those inestimable volumes of antiquity, which have transmitted to us the most important truths relative to the religion, manners, customs, arts and sciences, of ancient nations. These are keys, as it were, to unlock the most precious volumes of antiquity; they introduce us to a more speedy acquaintance with all the various works of ancient artists and writers. The instruction to be derived from this branch of polite learning is of itself a sufficient spur to stimulate attention and industry; but its utility, which is no less obvious, is an additional incentive to augment our application and desires, when we consider, that there are no ancient documents, either on metals, marbles, precious stones, bark, parchment, paper, or other materials, which do not abound with these literary contractions, and that it will be very difficult to understand them without this necessary knowledge.—Astle. See Records.


A letter of the alphabet placed at the bottom of the first page of each sheet of a work, to denote, alphabetically, the order of the sheets.

It is customary to commence with B on the first sheet of the body of the work, and to go regularly through the alphabet, with the exception of the letters J, V, and W, which are never used as signatures; and which had, in fact, no existence in the alphabet at the time of the invention of printing; I expressing both I and J; U, both U and V; and UU the double letter W. If the work extend to more sheets in number than there are letters in the alphabet, the succeeding sheets go on with a second alphabet, which commences with A, and both the letters are usually given, in this manner, A A, or Aa, and sometimes, to avoid the repetition, thus, 2 A; if a third alphabet be necessary it is always, at the present day, placed with the number before it, as 3 A. The printer’s first alphabet consists of twenty-two letters, and the second and succeeding ones of twenty-three.

As a guide to the bookbinder there are other signatures used in a sheet besides the first—in a sheet of octavo the first page has B, the third has B 2, the fifth has B 3, and the seventh has B 4: in a sheet of twelves they are carried to B 6; B 5 being the first page of the offcut; and however numerous the pages may be in a sheet with one signature, when they are all inserted, they are continued to the last odd page before the middle of the sheet, but never carried beyond the middle. In general they are all omitted except the two first, to show the first fold of the paper, and the first on the offcut. Small capitals are more frequently used for signatures than large capitals, as disfiguring the foot of the page in a slighter manner.

Sometimes figures are used instead of letters, but not often; the Gentleman’s Magazine is an instance.

skip to end of this section

No. of
Signature. Folio.
1 B 1
2 C 5
3 D 9
4 E 13
5 F 17
6 G 21
7 H 25
8 I 29
9 K 33
10 L 37
11 M 41
12 N 45
13 O 49
14 P 53
15 Q 57
16 R 61
17 S 65
18 T 69
19 U 73
20 X 77
21 Y 81
22 Z 85
23 2 A 89
24 B 93
25 C 97
26 D 101
27 E 105
28 F 109
29 G 113
30 H 117
31 I 121
32 K 125
33 L 129
34 M 133
35 N 137
36 O 141
37 P 145
38 Q 149
39 R 153
40 S 157
41 T 161
42 U 165
43 X 169
44 Y 173
45 Z 177
46 3 A 181
47 B 185
48 C 189
49 D 193
50 E 197
51 F 201
52 G 205
53 H 209
54 I 213
55 K 217
56 L 221
57 M 225
58 N 229
59 O 233
60 P 237
61 Q 241
62 R 245
63 S 249
64 T 253
65 U 257
66 X 261
67 Y 265
68 Z 269
69 4 A 273
70 B 277
71 C 281
72 D 285
73 E 289
74 F 293
75 G 297
76 H 301
77 I 305
78 K 309
79 L 313
80 M 317
81 N 321
82 O 325
83 P 329
84 Q 333
85 R 337
86 S 341
87 T 345
88 U 349
89 X 353
90 Y 357
91 Z 361
92 5 A 365
93 B 369
94 C 373
95 D 377
96 E 381
97 F 385
98 G 389
99 H 393
100 I 397
101 K 401
102 L 405
103 M 409
104 N 413
105 O 417
106 P 421
107 Q 425
108 R 429
109 S 433
110 T 437
111 U 441
112 X 445
113 Y 449
114 Z 453
115 6 A 457
116 B 461
117 C 465
118 D 469
119 E 473
120 F 477
121 G 481
122 H 485
123 I 489
124 K 493
125 L 497
126 M 501
127 N 505
128 O 509
129 P 513
130 Q 517
131 R 521
132 S 525
133 T 529
134 U 533
135 X 537
136 Y 541
137 Z 545
138 7 A 549
139 B 553
140 C 557
141 D 561
142 E 565
143 F 569
144 G 573
145 H 577
146 I 581
147 K 585
148 L 589
149 M 593
150 N 597
151 O 601
152 P 605
153 Q 609
154 R 613
155 S 617
156 T 621
157 U 625
158 X 629
159 Y 633
160 Z 637
161 8 A 641
162 B 645
163 C 649
164 D 653
165 E 657
166 F 661
167 G 665
168 H 669
169 I 673
170 K 677
171 L 681
172 M 685
173 N 689
174 O 693
175 P 697
176 Q 701
177 R 705
178 S 709
179 T 713
180 U 717
181 X 721
182 Y 725
183 Z 729
762 184 9 A 733
185 B 737
186 C 741
187 D 745
188 E 749
189 F 753
190 G 757
191 H 761
192 I 765
193 K 769
194 L 773
195 M 777
196 N 781
197 O 785
198 P 789
199 Q 793
200 R 797
201 S 801
202 T 805
203 U 809
204 X 813
205 Y 817
206 Z 821
207 10 A 825
208 B 829
209 C 833
210 D 837
211 E 841
212 F 845
213 G 849
214 H 853
215 I 857
216 K 861
217 L 865
218 M 869
219 N 873
220 O 877
221 P 881
222 Q 885
223 R 889
224 S 893
225 T 897
226 U 901
227 X 905
228 Y 909
229 Z 913
230 11 A 917
231 B 921
232 C 925
233 D 929
234 E 933
235 F 937
236 G 941
237 H 945
238 I 949
239 K 953
240 L 957
241 M 961
242 N 965
243 O 969
244 P 973
245 Q 977
246 R 981
247 S 985
248 T 989
249 U 993
250 X 997
251 Y 1001
252 Z 1005
253 12 A 1009
254 B 1013
255 C 1017
256 D 1021
257 E 1025
258 F 1029
259 G 1033
260 H 1037
261 I 1041
262 K 1045
263 L 1049
264 M 1053
265 N 1057
266 O 1061
267 P 1065
268 Q 1069
269 R 1073
270 S 1077
271 T 1081
272 U 1085
273 X 1089
274 Y 1093
275 Z 1097
276 13 A 1101
277 B 1105
278 C 1109
279 D 1113
280 E 1117
281 F 1121
282 G 1125
283 H 1129
284 I 1133
285 K 1137
286 L 1141
287 M 1145
288 N 1149
289 O 1153
290 P 1157
291 Q 1161
292 R 1165
293 S 1169
294 T 1173
295 U 1177
296 X 1181
297 Y 1185
298 Z 1189
299 14 A 1193
300 B 1197
301 C 1201
302 D 1205
303 E 1209
304 F 1213
305 G 1217
306 H 1221
307 I 1225
308 K 1229
309 L 1233
310 M 1237
311 N 1241
312 O 1245
313 P 1249
314 Q 1253
315 R 1257
316 S 1261
317 T 1265
318 U 1269
319 X 1273
320 Y 1277
321 Z 1281
322 15 A 1285
323 B 1289
324 C 1293
325 D 1297
326 E 1301
327 F 1305
328 G 1309
329 H 1313
330 I 1317
331 K 1321
332 L 1325
333 M 1329
334 N 1333
335 O 1337
336 P 1341
337 Q 1345
338 R 1349
339 S 1353
340 T 1357
341 U 1361
342 X 1365
343 Y 1369
344 Z 1373
345 16 A 1377
346 B 1381
347 C 1385
348 D 1389
349 E 1393
350 F 1397
351 G 1401
352 H 1405
353 I 1409
354 K 1413
355 L 1417
356 M 1421
357 N 1425
358 O 1429
359 P 1433
360 Q 1437
361 R 1441
362 S 1445
363 T 1449
364 U 1453
365 X 1457
366 Y 1461
367 Z 1465
763 368 17 A 1469
369 B 1473
370 C 1477
371 D 1481
372 E 1485
373 F 1489
374 G 1493
375 H 1497
376 I 1501
377 K 1505
378 L 1509
379 M 1513
380 N 1517
381 O 1521
382 P 1525
383 Q 1529
384 R 1533
385 S 1537
386 T 1541
387 U 1545
388 X 1549
389 Y 1553
390 Z 1557
391 18 A 1561
392 B 1565
393 C 1569
394 D 1573
395 E 1577
396 F 1581
397 G 1585
398 H 1589
399 I 1593
400 K 1597
401 L 1601
402 M 1605
403 N 1609
404 O 1613
405 P 1617
406 Q 1621
407 R 1625
408 S 1629
409 T 1633
410 U 1637
411 X 1641
412 Y 1645
413 Z 1649
414 19 A 1653
415 B 1657
416 C 1661
417 D 1665
418 E 1669
419 F 1673
420 G 1677
421 H 1681
422 I 1685
423 K 1689
424 L 1693
425 M 1697
426 N 1701
427 O 1705
428 P 1709
429 Q 1713
430 R 1717
431 S 1721
432 T 1725
433 U 1729
434 X 1733
435 Y 1737
436 Z 1741
437 20 A 1745
438 B 1749
439 C 1753
440 D 1757
441 E 1761
442 F 1765
443 G 1769
444 H 1773
445 I 1777
446 K 1781
447 L 1785
448 M 1789
449 N 1793
450 O 1797
451 P 1801
452 Q 1805
453 R 1809
454 S 1813
455 T 1817
456 U 1821
457 X 1825
458 Y 1829
459 Z 1833
460 21 A 1837
461 B 1841
462 C 1845
463 D 1849
464 E 1853
465 F 1857
466 G 1861
467 H 1865
468 I 1869
469 K 1873
470 L 1877
471 M 1881
472 N 1885
473 O 1889
474 P 1893
475 Q 1897
476 R 1901
477 S 1905
478 T 1909
479 U 1913
480 X 1917
481 Y 1921
482 Z 1925
483 22 A 1929
484 B 1933
485 C 1937
486 D 1941
487 E 1945
488 F 1949
489 G 1953
490 H 1957
491 I 1961
492 K 1965
493 L 1969
494 M 1973
495 N 1977
496 O 1981
497 P 1985
498 Q 1989
499 R 1993
500 S 1997
501 T 2001
502 U 2005
503 X 2009
504 Y 2013
505 Z 2017
506 23 A 2021
507 B 2025
508 C 2029
509 D 2033
510 E 2037
511 F 2041
512 G 2045
513 H 2049
514 I 2053
515 K 2057
516 L 2061
517 M 2065
518 N 2069
519 O 2073
520 P 2077
521 Q 2081
522 R 2085
523 S 2089
524 T 2093
525 U 2097
526 X 2101
527 Y 2105
528 Z 2109
529 24 A 2113
530 B 2117
531 C 2121
532 D 2125
533 E 2129
534 F 2133
535 G 2137
536 H 2141
537 I 2145
538 K 2149
539 L 2153
540 M 2157
541 N 2161
542 O 2165
543 P 2169
544 Q 2173
545 R 2177
546 S 2181
547 T 2185
548 U 2189
549 X 2193
550 Y 2197
551 Z 2201
764 552 25 A 2205
553 B 2209
554 C 2213
555 D 2217
556 E 2221
557 F 2225
558 G 2229
559 H 2233
560 I 2237
561 K 2241
562 L 2245
563 M 2249
564 N 2253
565 O 2257
566 P 2261
567 Q 2265
568 R 2269
569 S 2273
570 T 2277
571 U 2281
572 X 2285
573 Y 2289
574 Z 2293
575 26 A 2297
576 B 2301
577 C 2305
578 D 2309
579 E 2313
580 F 2317
581 G 2321
582 H 2325
583 I 2329
584 K 2333
585 L 2337
586 M 2341
587 N 2345
588 O 2349
589 P 2353
590 Q 2357
591 R 2361
592 S 2365
593 T 2369
594 U 2373
595 X 2377
596 Y 2381
597 Z 2385
598 27 A 2389
599 B 2393
600 C 2397
601 D 2401
602 E 2405
603 F 2409
604 G 2413
605 H 2417
606 I 2421
607 K 2425
608 L 2429
609 M 2433
610 N 2437
611 O 2441
612 P 2445
613 Q 2449
614 R 2453
615 S 2457
616 T 2461
617 U 2465
618 X 2469
619 Y 2473
620 Z 2477
621 28 A 2481
622 B 2485
623 C 2489
624 D 2493
625 E 2497
626 F 2501
627 G 2505
628 H 2509
629 I 2513
630 K 2517
631 L 2521
632 M 2525
633 N 2529
634 O 2533
635 P 2537
636 Q 2541
637 R 2545
638 S 2549
639 T 2553
640 U 2557
641 X 2561
642 Y 2565
643 Z 2569
644 29 A 2573
645 B 2577
646 C 2581
647 D 2585
648 E 2589
649 F 2593
650 G 2597
651 H 2601
652 I 2605
653 K 2609
654 L 2613
655 M 2617
656 N 2621
657 O 2625
658 P 2629
659 Q 2633
660 R 2637
661 S 2641
662 T 2645
663 U 2649
664 X 2653
665 Y 2657
666 Z 2661
667 30 A 2665
668 B 2669
669 C 2673
670 D 2677
671 E 2681
672 F 2685
673 G 2689
674 H 2693
675 I 2697
676 K 2701
677 L 2705
678 M 2709
679 N 2713
680 O 2717
681 P 2721
682 Q 2725
683 R 2729
684 S 2733
685 T 2737
686 U 2741
687 X 2745
688 Y 2749
689 Z 2753
690 31 A 2757
691 B 2761
692 C 2765
693 D 2769
694 E 2773
695 F 2777
696 G 2781
697 H 2785
698 I 2789
699 K 2793
700 L 2797
701 M 2801
702 N 2805
703 O 2809
704 P 2813
705 Q 2817
706 R 2821
707 S 2825
708 T 2829
709 U 2833
710 X 2837
711 Y 2841
712 Z 2845
713 32 A 2849
714 B 2853
715 C 2857
716 D 2861
717 E 2865
718 F 2869
719 G 2873
720 H 2877
721 I 2881
722 K 2885
723 L 2889
724 M 2893
725 N 2897
726 O 2901
727 P 2905
728 Q 2909
729 R 2913
730 S 2917
731 T 2921
732 U 2925
733 X 2929
734 Y 2933
735 Z 2937
765 736 33 A 2941
737 B 2945
738 C 2949
739 D 2953
740 E 2957
741 F 2961
742 G 2965
743 H 2969
744 I 2973
745 K 2977
746 L 2981
747 M 2985
748 N 2989
749 O 2993
750 P 2997
751 Q 3001
752 R 3005
753 S 3009
754 T 3013
755 U 3017
756 X 3021
757 Y 3025
758 Z 3029
759 34 A 3033
760 B 3037
761 C 3041
762 D 3045
763 E 3049
764 F 3053
765 G 3057
766 H 3061
767 I 3065
768 K 3069
769 L 3073
770 M 3077
771 N 3081
772 O 3085
773 P 3089
774 Q 3093
775 R 3097
776 S 3101
777 T 3105
778 U 3109
779 X 3113
780 Y 3117
781 Z 3121
782 35 A 3125
783 B 3129
784 C 3133
785 D 3137
786 E 3141
787 F 3145
788 G 3149
789 H 3153
790 I 3157
791 K 3161
792 L 3165
793 M 3169
794 N 3173
795 O 3177
796 P 3181
797 Q 3185
798 R 3189
799 S 3193
800 T 3197
801 U 3201
802 X 3205
803 Y 3209
804 Z 3213
805 36 A 3217
806 B 3221
807 C 3225
808 D 3229
809 E 3233
810 F 3237
811 G 3241
812 H 3245
813 I 3249
814 K 3253
815 L 3257
816 M 3261
817 N 3265
818 O 3269
819 P 3273
820 Q 3277
821 R 3281
822 S 3285
823 T 3289
824 U 3293
825 X 3297
826 Y 3301
827 Z 3305
828 37 A 3309
829 B 3313
830 C 3317
831 D 3321
832 E 3325
833 F 3329
834 G 3333
835 H 3337
836 I 3341
837 K 3345
838 L 3349
839 M 3353
840 N 3357
841 O 3361
842 P 3365
843 Q 3369
844 R 3373
845 S 3377
846 T 3381
847 U 3385
848 X 3389
849 Y 3393
850 Z 3397
851 38 A 3401
852 B 3405
853 C 3409
854 D 3413
855 E 3417
856 F 3421
857 G 3425
858 H 3429
859 I 3433
860 K 3437
861 L 3441
862 M 3445
863 N 3449
864 O 3453
865 P 3457
866 Q 3461
867 R 3465
868 S 3469
869 T 3473
870 U 3477
871 X 3481
872 Y 3485
873 Z 3489
874 39 A 3493
875 B 3497
876 C 3501
877 D 3505
878 E 3509
879 F 3513
880 G 3517
881 H 3521
882 I 3525
883 K 3529
884 L 3533
885 M 3537
886 N 3541
887 O 3545
888 P 3549
889 Q 3553
890 R 3557
891 S 3561
892 T 3565
893 U 3569
894 X 3573
895 Y 3577
896 Z 3581
897 40 A 3585
898 B 3589
899 C 3593
900 D 3597
901 E 3601
902 F 3605
903 G 3609
904 H 3613
905 I 3617
906 K 3621
907 L 3625
908 M 3629
909 N 3633
910 O 3637
911 P 3641
912 Q 3645
913 R 3649
914 S 3653
915 T 3657
916 U 3661
917 X 3665
918 Y 3669
919 Z 3673
766 920 41 A 3677
921 B 3681
922 C 3685
923 D 3689
924 E 3693
925 F 3697
926 G 3701
927 H 3705
928 I 3709
929 K 3713
930 L 3717
931 M 3721
932 N 3725
933 O 3729
934 P 3733
935 Q 3737
936 R 3741
937 S 3745
938 T 3749
939 U 3753
940 X 3757
941 Y 3761
942 Z 3765
943 42 A 3769
944 B 3773
945 C 3777
946 D 3781
947 E 3785
948 F 3789
949 G 3793
950 H 3797
951 I 3801
952 K 3805
953 L 3809
954 M 3813
955 N 3817
956 O 3821
957 P 3825
958 Q 3829
959 R 3833
960 S 3837
961 T 3841
962 U 3845
963 X 3849
964 Y 3853
965 Z 3857
966 43 A 3861
967 B 3865
968 C 3869
969 D 3873
970 E 3877
971 F 3881
972 G 3885
973 H 3889
974 I 3893
975 K 3897
976 L 3901
977 M 3905
978 N 3909
979 O 3913
980 P 3917
981 Q 3921
982 R 3925
983 S 3929
984 T 3933
985 U 3937
986 X 3941
987 Y 3945
988 Z 3949
989 44 A 3953
990 B 3957
991 C 3961
992 D 3965
993 E 3969
994 F 3973
995 G 3977
996 H 3981
997 I 3985
998 K 3989
999 L 3993
1000 M 3997
1001 N 4001
1002 O 4005
1003 P 4009
1004 Q 4013
1005 R 4017
1006 S 4021
1007 T 4025
1008 U 4029
1009 X 4033
1010 Y 4037
1011 Z 4041
1012 45 A 4045
1013 B 4049
1014 C 4053
1015 D 4057
1016 E 4061
1017 F 4065
1018 G 4069
1019 H 4073
1020 I 4077
1021 K 4081
1022 L 4085
1023 M 4089
1024 N 4093
1025 O 4097
1026 P 4101
1027 Q 4105
1028 R 4109
1029 S 4113
1030 T 4117
1031 U 4121
1032 X 4125
1033 Y 4129
1034 Z 4133
1035 46 A 4137
1036 B 4141
1037 C 4145
1038 D 4149
1039 E 4153
1040 F 4157
1041 G 4161
1042 H 4165
1043 I 4169
1044 K 4173
1045 L 4177
1046 M 4181
1047 N 4185
1048 O 4189
1049 P 4193
1050 Q 4197
1051 R 4201
1052 S 4205
1053 T 4209
1054 U 4213
1055 X 4217
1056 Y 4221
1057 Z 4225
1058 47 A 4229
1059 B 4233
1060 C 4237
1061 D 4241
1062 E 4245
1063 F 4249
1064 G 4253
1065 H 4257
1066 I 4261
1067 K 4265
1068 L 4269
1069 M 4273
1070 N 4277
1071 O 4281
1072 P 4285
1073 Q 4289
1074 R 4293
1075 S 4297
1076 T 4301
1077 U 4305
1078 X 4309
1079 Y 4313
1080 Z 4317
1081 48 A 4321
1082 B 4325
1083 C 4329
1084 D 4333
1085 E 4337
1086 F 4341
1087 G 4345
1088 H 4349
1089 I 4353
1090 K 4357
1091 L 4361
1092 M 4365
1093 N 4369
1094 O 4373
1095 P 4377
1096 Q 4381
1097 R 4385
1098 S 4389
1099 T 4393
1100 U 4397
1101 X 4401
1102 Y 4405
1103 Z 4409
767 1104 49 A 4413
1105 B 4417
1106 C 4421
1107 D 4425
1108 E 4429
1109 F 4433
1110 G 4437
1111 H 4441
1112 I 4445
1113 K 4449
1114 L 4453
1115 M 4457
1116 N 4461
1117 O 4465
1118 P 4469
1119 Q 4473
1120 R 4477
1121 S 4481
1122 T 4485
1123 U 4489
1124 X 4493
1125 Y 4497
1126 Z 4501
1127 50 A 4505
1128 B 4509
1129 C 4513
1130 D 4517
1131 E 4521
1132 F 4525
1133 G 4529
1134 H 4533
1135 I 4537
1136 K 4541
1137 L 4545
1138 M 4549
1139 N 4553
1140 O 4557
1141 P 4561
1142 Q 4565
1143 R 4569
1144 S 4573
1145 T 4577
1146 U 4581
1147 X 4585
1148 Y 4589
1149 Z 4593
1150 51 A 4597
1151 B 4601
1152 C 4605
1153 D 4609
1154 E 4613
1155 F 4617
1156 G 4621
1157 H 4625
1158 I 4629
1159 K 4633
1160 L 4637
1161 M 4641
1162 N 4645
1163 O 4649
1164 P 4653
1165 Q 4657
1166 R 4661
1167 S 4665
1168 T 4669
1169 U 4673
1170 X 4677
1171 Y 4681
1172 Z 4685
1173 52 A 4689
1174 B 4693
1175 C 4697
1176 D 4701
1177 E 4705
1178 F 4709
1179 G 4713
1180 H 4717
1181 I 4721
1182 K 4725
1183 L 4729
1184 M 4733
1185 N 4737
1186 O 4741
1187 P 4745
1188 Q 4749
1189 R 4753
1190 S 4757
1191 T 4761
1192 U 4765
1193 X 4769
1194 Y 4773
1195 Z 4777
1196 53 A 4781
1197 B 4785
1198 C 4789
1199 D 4793
1200 E 4797
1201 F 4801
1202 G 4805
1203 H 4809
1204 I 4813
1205 K 4817
1206 L 4821
1207 M 4825
1208 N 4829
1209 O 4833
1210 P 4837
1211 Q 4841
1212 R 4845
1213 S 4849
1214 T 4853
1215 U 4857
1216 X 4861
1217 Y 4865
1218 Z 4869
1219 54 A 4873
1220 B 4877
1221 C 4881
1222 D 4885
1223 E 4889
1224 F 4893
1225 G 4897
1226 H 4901
1227 I 4905
1228 K 4909
1229 L 4913
1230 M 4917
1231 N 4921
1232 O 4925
1233 P 4929
1234 Q 4933
1235 R 4937
1236 S 4941
1237 T 4945
1238 U 4949
1239 X 4953
1240 Y 4957
1241 Z 4961
1242 55 A 4965
1243 B 4969
1244 C 4973
1245 D 4977
1246 E 4981
1247 F 4985
1248 G 4989
1249 H 4993
1250 I 4997
1251 K 5001
1252 L 5005
1253 M 5009
1254 N 5013
1255 O 5017
1256 P 5021
1257 Q 5025
1258 R 5029
1259 S 5033
1260 T 5037
1261 U 5041
1262 X 5045
1263 Y 5049
1264 Z 5053
1265 56 A 5057
1266 B 5061
1267 C 5065
1268 D 5069
1269 E 5073
1270 F 5077
1271 G 5081
1272 H 5085
1273 I 5089
1274 K 5093
1275 L 5097
1276 M 5101
1277 N 5105
1278 O 5109
1279 P 5113
1280 Q 5117
1281 R 5121
1282 S 5125
1283 T 5129
1284 U 5133
1285 X 5137
1286 Y 5141
1287 Z 5145
768 1288 57 A 5149
1289 B 5153
1290 C 5157
1291 D 5161
1292 E 5165
1293 F 5169
1294 G 5173
1295 H 5177
1296 I 5181
1297 K 5185
1298 L 5189
1299 M 5193
1300 N 5197
1301 O 5201
1302 P 5205
1303 Q 5209
1304 R 5213
1305 S 5217
1306 T 5221
1307 U 5225
1308 X 5229
1309 Y 5233
1310 Z 5237
1311 58 A 5241
1312 B 5245
1313 C 5249
1314 D 5253
1315 E 5257
1316 F 5261
1317 G 5265
1318 H 5269
1319 I 5273
1320 K 5277
1321 L 5281
1322 M 5285
1323 N 5289
1324 O 5293
1325 P 5297
1326 Q 5301
1327 R 5305
1328 S 5309
1329 T 5313
1330 U 5317
1331 X 5321
1332 Y 5325
1333 Z 5329
1334 59 A 5333
1335 B 5337
1336 C 5341
1337 D 5345
1338 E 5349
1339 F 5353
1340 G 5357
1341 H 5361
1342 I 5365
1343 K 5369
1344 L 5373
1345 M 5377
1346 N 5381
1347 O 5385
1348 P 5389
1349 Q 5393
1350 R 5397
1351 S 5401
1352 T 5405
1353 U 5409
1354 X 5413
1355 Y 5417
1356 Z 5421
1357 60 A 5425
1358 B 5429
1359 C 5433
1360 D 5437
1361 E 5441
1362 F 5445
1363 G 5449
1364 H 5453
1365 I 5457
1366 K 5461
1367 L 5465
1368 M 5469
1369 N 5473
1370 O 5477
1371 P 5481
1372 Q 5485
1373 R 5489
1374 S 5493
1375 T 5497
1376 U 5501
1377 X 5505
1378 Y 5509
1379 Z 5513
1380 61 A 5517
1381 B 5521
1382 C 5525
1383 D 5529
1384 E 5533
1385 F 5537
1386 G 5541
1387 H 5545
1388 I 5549
1389 K 5553
1390 L 5557
1391 M 5561
1392 N 5565
1393 O 5569
1394 P 5573
1395 Q 5577
1396 R 5581
1397 S 5585
1398 T 5589
1399 U 5593
1400 X 5597
1401 Y 5601
1402 Z 5605
1403 62 A 5609
1404 B 5613
1405 C 5617
1406 D 5621
1407 E 5625
1408 F 5629
1409 G 5633
1410 H 5637
1411 I 5641
1412 K 5645
1413 L 5649
1414 M 5653
1415 N 5657
1416 O 5661
1417 P 5665
1418 Q 5669
1419 R 5673
1420 S 5677
1421 T 5681
1422 U 5685
1423 X 5689
1424 Y 5693
1425 Z 5697
1426 63 A 5701
1427 B 5705
1428 C 5709
1429 D 5713
1430 E 5717
1431 F 5721
1432 G 5725
1433 H 5729
1434 I 5733
1435 K 5737
1436 L 5741
1437 M 5745
1438 N 5749
1439 O 5753
1440 P 5757
1441 Q 5761
1442 R 5765
1443 S 5769
1444 T 5773
1445 U 5777
1446 X 5781
1447 Y 5785
1448 Z 5789
1449 64 A 5793
1450 B 5797
1451 C 5801
1452 D 5805
1453 E 5809
1454 F 5813
1455 G 5817
1456 H 5821
1457 I 5825
1458 K 5829
1459 L 5833
1460 M 5837
1461 N 5841
1462 O 5845
1463 P 5849
1464 Q 5853
1465 R 5857
1466 S 5861
1467 T 5865
1468 U 5869
1469 X 5873
1470 Y 5877
1471 Z 5881
769 1472 65 A 5885
1473 B 5889
1474 C 5893
1475 D 5897
1476 E 5901
1477 F 5905
1478 G 5909
1479 H 5913
1480 I 5917
1481 K 5921
1482 L 5925
1483 M 5929
1484 N 5933
1485 O 5937
1486 P 5941
1487 Q 5945
1488 R 5949
1489 S 5953
1490 T 5957
1491 U 5961
1492 X 5965
1493 Y 5969
1494 Z 5973
1495 66 A 5977
1496 B 5981
1497 C 5985
1498 D 5989
1499 E 5993
1500 F 5997
1501 G 6001
1502 H 6005
1503 I 6009
1504 K 6013
1505 L 6017
1506 M 6021
1507 N 6025
1508 O 6029
1509 P 6033
1510 Q 6037
1511 R 6041
1512 S 6045
1513 T 6049
1514 U 6053
1515 X 6057
1516 Y 6061
1517 Z 6065
1518 67 A 6069
1519 B 6073
1520 C 6077
1521 D 6081
1522 E 6085
1523 F 6089
1524 G 6093
1525 H 6097
1526 I 6101
1527 K 6105
1528 L 6109
1529 M 6113
1530 N 6117
1531 O 6121
1532 P 6125
1533 Q 6129
1534 R 6133
1535 S 6137
1536 T 6141
1537 U 6145
1538 X 6149
1539 Y 6153
1540 Z 6157
1541 68 A 6161
1542 B 6165
1543 C 6169
1544 D 6173
1545 E 6177
1546 F 6181
1547 G 6185
1548 H 6189
1549 I 6193
1550 K 6197
1551 L 6201
1552 M 6205
1553 N 6209
1554 O 6213
1555 P 6217
1556 Q 6221
1557 R 6225
1558 S 6229
1559 T 6233
1560 U 6237
1561 X 6241
1562 Y 6245
1563 Z 6249
1564 69 A 6253
1565 B 6257
1566 C 6261
1567 D 6265
1568 E 6269
1569 F 6273
1570 G 6277
1571 H 6281
1572 I 6285
1573 K 6289
1574 L 6293
1575 M 6297
1576 N 6301
1577 O 6305
1578 P 6309
1579 Q 6313
1580 R 6317
1581 S 6321
1582 T 6325
1583 U 6329
1584 X 6333
1585 Y 6337
1586 Z 6341
1587 70 A 6345
1588 B 6349
1589 C 6353
1590 D 6357
1591 E 6361
1592 F 6365
1593 G 6369
1594 H 6373
1595 I 6377
1596 K 6381
1597 L 6385
1598 M 6389
1599 N 6393
1600 O 6397
1601 P 6401
1602 Q 6405
1603 R 6409
1604 S 6413
1605 T 6417
1606 U 6421
1607 X 6425
1608 Y 6429
1609 Z 6433
1610 71 A 6437
1611 B 6441
1612 C 6445
1613 D 6449
1614 E 6453
1615 F 6457
1616 G 6461
1617 H 6465
1618 I 6469
1619 K 6473
1620 L 6477
1621 M 6481
1622 N 6485
1623 O 6489
1624 P 6493
1625 Q 6497
1626 R 6501
1627 S 6505
1628 T 6509
1629 U 6513
1630 X 6517
1631 Y 6521
1632 Z 6525
1633 72 A 6529
1634 B 6533
1635 C 6537
1636 D 6541
1637 E 6545
1638 F 6549
1639 G 6553
1640 H 6557
1641 I 6561
1642 K 6565
1643 L 6569
1644 M 6573
1645 N 6577
1646 O 6581
1647 P 6585
1648 Q 6589
1649 R 6593
1650 S 6597
1651 T 6601
1652 U 6605
1653 X 6609
1654 Y 6613
1655 Z 6617
No. of
Signature. Folio.
1 B 1
2 C 9
3 D 17
4 E 25
5 F 33
6 G 41
7 H 49
8 I 57
9 K 65
10 L 73
11 M 81
12 N 89
13 O 97
14 P 105
15 Q 113
16 R 121
17 S 129
18 T 137
19 U 145
20 X 153
21 Y 161
22 Z 169
23 2 A 177
24 B 185
25 C 193
26 D 201
27 E 209
28 F 217
29 G 225
30 H 233
31 I 241
32 K 249
33 L 257
34 M 265
35 N 273
36 O 281
37 P 289
38 Q 297
39 R 305
40 S 313
41 T 321
43 X 345
45 Z 353
46 3 A 361
47 B 369
48 C 377
49 D 385
50 E 393
51 F 401
52 G 409
53 H 417
54 I 425
55 K 433
56 L 441
57 M 449
58 N 457
59 O 465
60 P 473
61 Q 481
62 R 489
63 S 497
64 T 505
65 U 513
66 X 521
67 Y 529
68 Z 537
69 4 A 545
70 B 553
71 C 561
72 D 569
73 E 577
74 F 585
75 G 593
76 H 601
77 I 609
78 K 617
79 L 625
80 M 633
81 N 641
82 O 649
83 P 657
84 Q 665
85 R 673
86 S 681
87 T 689
88 U 697
89 X 705
90 Y 713
91 Z 721
92 5 A 729
93 B 737
94 C 745
95 D 753
96 E 761
97 F 769
98 G 777
99 H 785
100 I 793
101 K 801
102 L 809
103 M 817
104 N 825
105 O 833
106 P 841
107 Q 849
108 R 857
109 S 865
110 T 873
111 U 881
112 X 889
113 Y 897
114 Z 905
115 6 A 913
116 B 921
117 C 929
118 D 937
119 E 945
120 F 953
121 G 961
122 H 969
123 I 977
124 K 985
125 L 993
126 M 1001
127 N 1009
128 O 1017
129 P 1025
130 Q 1033
131 R 1041
132 S 1049
133 T 1057
134 U 1065
135 X 1073
136 Y 1081
137 Z 1089
No. of
Signature. Folio.
1 B 1
2 C 17
3 D 33
4 E 49
5 F 65
6 G 81
7 H 97
8 I 113
9 K 129
10 L 145
11 M 161
12 N 177
13 O 193
14 P 209
15 Q 225
16 R 241
17 S 257
18 T 273
19 U 289
20 X 305
21 Y 321
22 Z 337
23 2 A 353
24 B 369
25 C 385
26 D 401
27 E 417
28 F 433
29 G 449
30 H 465
31 I 481
32 K 497
33 L 513
34 M 529
35 N 545
36 O 561
37 P 577
38 Q 593
39 R 609
40 S 625
41 T 641
42 U 657
43 X 673
44 Y 689
45 Z 705
46 3 A 721
47 B 737
48 C 753
49 D 769
50 E 785
51 F 801
52 G 817
53 H 833
54 I 849
55 K 865
56 L 881
57 M 897
58 N 913
59 O 929
60 P 945
61 Q 961
62 R 977
63 S 993
64 T 1009
65 U 1025
66 X 1041
67 Y 1057
68 Z 1073
69 4 A 1089
70 B 1105
71 C 1121
72 E 1153
74 F 1169
75 G 1185
76 H 1201
77 I 1217
78 K 1233
79 L 1249
80 M 1265
81 N 1281
82 O 1297
83 P 1313
84 Q 1329
85 R 1345
86 S 1361
87 T 1377
88 U 1393
89 X 1409
90 Y 1425
91 Z 1441
No. of
Signature. Folio.
1 B 1
2 C 13
3 D 25
4 E 37
5 F 49
6 G 61
7 H 73
8 I 85
9 K 97
10 L 109
11 M 121
12 N 133
13 O 145
14 P 157
15 Q 169
16 R 181
17 S 193
18 T 205
19 U 217
20 X 229
21 Y 241
22 Z 253
23 2 A 265
24 B 277
25 C 289
26 D 301
27 E 313
28 F 325
29 G 337
30 H 349
31 I 361
32 K 373
33 L 385
34 M 397
35 N 409
36 O 421
37 P 433
38 Q 445
39 R 457
40 S 469
41 T 481
42 U 493
43 X 505
44 Y 517
45 Z 529
46 3 A 541
47 B 553
48 C 565
49 D 577
50 E 589
51 F 601
52 G 613
53 H 625
54 I 637
55 K 649
56 L 661
57 M 673
58 N 685
59 O 697
60 P 709
61 Q 721
62 R 733
63 S 745
64 T 757
65 U 769
66 X 781
67 Y 793
68 Z 805
No. of
Signature. Folio.
1 B 1
2 C 25
3 D 49
4 E 73
5 F 97
6 G 121
7 H 145
8 I 169
9 K 193
10 L 217
11 M 241
12 N 265
13 O 289
14 P 313
15 Q 337
16 R 361
17 S 385
18 T 409
19 U 433
20 X 457
21 Y 481
22 Z 505
23 2 A 529
24 B 553
25 C 577
26 D 601
27 E 625
28 F 649
29 G 673
30 H 697
31 I 721
32 K 745
33 L 769
34 M 793
35 N 817
36 O 841
37 P 865
38 Q 889
39 R 913
40 S 937
41 T 961
42 U 985
43 X 009
44 Y 1033
45 Z 1057
46 3 A 1081
47 B 1105
48 C 1129
49 D 1153
50 E 1177
51 F 1201
52 G 1225
53 H 1249
54 I 1273
55 K 1297
56 L 1321
57 M 1345
58 N 1369
59 O 1393
60 P 1417
61 Q 1441
62 R 1465
63 S 1489
64 T 1513
65 U 1537
66 X 1561
67 Y 1585
68 Z 1609
SHEET OF 16mo.
No. of
Signature. Folio.
1 B 1
2 C 33
3 D 65
4 E 97
5 F 129
6 G 161
7 H 193
8 I 225
9 K 257
10 L 289
11 M 321
12 N 353
13 O 385
14 P 417
15 Q 449
16 R 481
17 S 513
18 T 545
19 U 577
20 X 609
21 Y 641
22 Z 673
23 2 A 705
24 B 737
25 C 769
26 D 801
27 E 833
28 F 865
29 G 897
30 H 929
31 I 961
32 K 993
33 L 1025
34 M 1057
35 N 1089
36 O 1121
37 P 1153
38 Q 1185
39 R 1217
40 S 1249
41 T 1281
42 U 1313
43 X 1345
44 Y 1377
45 Z 1409
No. of
Signature. Folio.
1 B 1
2 C 19
3 D 37
4 E 55
5 F 73
6 G 91
7 H 109
8 I 127
9 K 145
10 L 163
11 M 181
12 N 199
13 O 217
14 P 235
15 Q 253
16 R 271
17 S 289
18 T 307
19 U 325
20 X 343
21 Y 361
22 Z 379
23 2A 397
24 B 415
25 C 433
26 D 451
27 E 469
28 F 487
29 G 505
30 H 523
31 I 541
32 K 559
33 L 577
34 M 595
35 N 613
36 O 631
37 P 649
38 Q 667
39 R 685
40 S 703
41 T 721
42 U 739
43 X 757
44 Y 775
45 Z 793
SHEET OF 18mo.
No. of
Signature. Folio.
1 B 1
  C 13
  D 25
2 E 37
  F 49
  G 61
3 H 73
  I 85
  K 97
4 L 109
  M 121
  N 133
5 O 145
  P 157
  Q 169
6 R 181
  S 193
  T 205
7 U 217
  X 229
  Y 241
8 Z 253
  2A 265
  B 277
9 C 289
  D 301
  E 313
10 F 325
  G 337
  H 349
11 I 361
  K 373
  L 385
12 M 397
  N 409
  O 421
13 P 433
  Q 445
  R 457
14 S 469
  T 481
  U 493
15 X 505
  Y 517
  Z 529
16 3A 541
  B 553
  C 565
17 D 577
  E 589
  F 601
18 G 613
  H 625
  I 637
19 K 649
  L 661
  M 673
20 N 685
  O 697
  P 709
21 Q 721
  R 733
  S 745
22 T 757
  U 769
  X 781
23 Y 793
  Z 805

I have extended these tables of Signatures and folios to 18mo., which is a size that has been much in use of late years; and in the table of 18mo. I have given it as usually imposed, as three half sheets of 12mo. with three signatures; the first signature in each sheet is with a capital letter, the inter­mediate signatures are small capitals.

Notes and Corrections: Signature

In the second paragraph, letters shown in boldface (I, U, UU) were printed in blackletter.

they are continued to the last odd page before the middle of the sheet, but never carried beyond the middle
[Makes sense. But I have personally seen books that extended the signature numbering to the first page after the middle, as B5 (page 9) in an octavo.]

1655   Z   6617
[Query: Under what conceivable circumstances would one produce a book consisting of one thousand, six hundred and fifty-five separate folios? There aren’t that many maps in the world.]


A sheet of paper folded into sixteen leaves or thirty-two pages is termed a sixteens or sixteenmo.


A sheet of paper folded into sixty-four leaves or one hundred and twenty-eight pages is termed sixty-fours or sixty-fourmo.



The false bottom of a large galley, made to slide out, for the purpose of keeping a quarto or a folio page upon it, without disturbing it, as being safer than transferring it to a page paper. See Galley.

Slice is also the name of an iron implement used in the ink block to transfer the ink from the tub or other receptacle, and to scrape it together in a mass, clear of the balls when ink is taken with them; it has an iron pin through it near the bottom of the handle, so that if it falls flat on the ink block, it will rest on this pin, which prevents the handle from being smeared with ink.


In printing encyclopædias, dictionaries of arts or sciences, and similar works, which frequently undergo great alterations in the proofs, they are occasionally pulled on slips of paper, of the length and half the breadth of a demy leaf of paper. This is done on account of the facility of adding new subject matter, or taking some away, without having to overrun and to re-make up the sheet, after it has been imposed in pages.


When from any cause at press, the impression on the paper is smeared, it is said to Slur.

This may arise from many causes—if the tympan joints are loose, it will be produced by the least lateral movement of the tympan after it is turned down—if the ear of the frisket touches the inside of the cheek in running in, it will cause it—if the press runs close, so that the inner tympan touches the face of the platen, it is very likely to slur; and I have often observed this in wooden presses that had been altered to obtain the additional power, for the platen was brought so low and near to the face of the letter in the form, as not to allow room to run in clear. In presses where the tympans are large, if the slur pin does not act, that corner of the tympan will come in contact with the form first, and cause a slur, particularly if the tympans are in any way rickety, or twisted by drawing on the parchment. Where the winter has been justified with cards, to produce a greater spring in the pull, it has been known to produce slurring. The first step towards curing this defect is to ascertain from what cause it arises; and then it is not difficult: but it has often caused great trouble to discover the cause.

The following are my old Pressman’s directions “To prevent Slurring and Maculing;” and though it will be perceived that some of them apply only to wooden presses, yet the whole may be useful.

“1. Keep the face of the inner tympan and platen clean and dry.

“2. Be sure that the parchments are tight both on the inner and outer tympans; also that the tympans are not rickety, nor the joints slack.

“3. Guide cramps are a great preventive to slurring and maculing.

“4. The tenons in the head and winter must exactly fit the mortises in the cheeks.


“5. The short bolts must be screwed tightly up, to fix the nut or box firmly in the head, and must not have the least play.

“6. The garter must fit the spindle and hose, and the spindle must fit the hose, as exactly as possible.

“7. The hose must work perpen­dicularly, and steady in the shelves.

“8. The platen must be tightly and properly tied, or otherwise fixed, so that it shall come down upon the face of all the types in the form at the same moment.

“9. The wheel must be well justified on the spit.

“10. The railing of the inner tympan must not rub against the platen, in running in or out.

“11. The shanks of the points must not be so far over the outer part of the tympan as to rub against the cheeks of the press.

“12. If a clumsy smith has made the joints of the frisket so thick as to cause the tympan to rub against the face of the platen, he must alter them at his own expense.

“13. The shelves must be quite steady.

“14. The press stone must be worked down with hard pulling until it becomes a fixture.

“15. The frisket must be quite even, and fall flat on the form; and the paper which is pasted on it must not bag.

“16. Fix the winter as solid as possible.

“17. Let the tympans fall easily on the form, neither driving them from you, nor pulling them to you in letting them down; neither let the platen touch them till they are quite run in, nor run them out till the platen is quite clear of them.

“Exclusively of the aforesaid, there may be many other causes of slurring, which the pressman can only discover by close attention. I have often found cork bearers a great preventive.

“I have heard many complaints of the middle pages of a twelves form maculing at a two-pull press; but this is not always the fault of the press. The cause frequently is owing to blankets being in the tympan which have been used for folios, quartos, octavos, &c. &c.; and instead of its being a macule, it is nothing more than that part of the blanket which had covered the short cross of other work, and in the twelves form caused a deep and ugly impression, looking like a macule: this evil can only be remedied by new blankets, or confining the use of them to 12mo. forms.”


A flat-headed screw, that goes through the off side of the outer tympan, near the head band, so as to rest on the chase or furniture. Its use is to prevent the off corner of the tympan from coming down on the types before the other parts, which when it happens causes slurring.


Capitals of a smaller size than the regular capitals of a fount, but cast on the same body; thus the small capitals of Double Pica are about the same height as English capitals. They bear off more from each other, and are stouter, in proportion to their size, than the capitals of the same fount. They are used for running titles; for heads of chapters; for emphatic words; and for subordinate lines in titles and jobs. Till of late years small capitals were only cast in England to founts of Roman letter; the type founders cast them now occasionally to Italic letter, and they form a useful sort.

Moxon does not mention small capitals; nor are they in the plan of the cases of Roman letter which he gives in his work. See Sorts.


Under 1500 laid on, is accounted a small 776 number. See Great Numbers; and see Lay on.—M. We now look on all numbers under 500 to be small numbers.


The name of a type, one size larger than Long Primer and one smaller than Pica. It is half the body of Double Pica in depth. Moxon does not enumerate it in his Table of the sizes of each body; but, after giving the names of the different types, he says, “These are the bodies most of use in England; but the Dutch have several other bodies: which because there is little and almost no perceivable difference from some of these mentioned, I think they are not worth naming. Yet we have one body more which is sometimes used in England; that is a Small Pica, but I account it no great discretion in a master printer to provide it: because it differs so little from the Pica, that unless the workmen be carefuller than they sometimes are, it may be mingled with the Pica, and so the beauty of both founts may be spoiled.” See Types.

This was published in 1683, and opinion has changed so much respecting this size, that at the present day there are perhaps more works printed with it than with any other size.


Workmen when they are out of constant work, do sometimes accept of a day or two’s work, or a week’s work at another printing house: this by-work they call Smouting.—M. In fact we only term it smouting when the business of a house is slack, or, in other words, when work is insufficient to employ fully the workmen regularly employed, and they go to some other house for temporary employment, till such time as there is sufficient for them in their own house, when they return.

Soaking Pull.

See Easy Pull.—M.

Sockets for the Gallows.

See Gallows Sockets.


Ink or varnish moderately boiled.—M. It is now generally termed Weak Ink.

The varnish of soft or weak ink is not so strong as that for fine ink; it does not require so much time and labour to distribute it on the balls and rollers, and it more readily covers the face of the type: on these accounts, as well as the expense, it is used for common work, as it enables the pressman to make more riddance; it is also used for machine printing, as the rollers passing rapidly over the forms with their own weight only, are found not competent to coat the face of the type with strong ink.

Soft Pull.

See Easy Pull.—M.


See Ancient Customs.—M.

Solid Dig.

See Bad Work.


Matter that is composed without any leads between the lines, is termed solid matter; in the scale of prices of 1810 it is designated ‘without space lines.’ Previously to that time it was paid the same price as leaded matter, but then there was an advance allowed on it. See Scale.


When a pressman has taken too much ink, he is said to sop the balls.—M.


The letters that lie in every box of the case are separately called Sorts in Printers and Founders language; thus, a is a sort, b is a sort, c is a sort, &c.—M.

In houses that have more founts than one of the same sized letter, it would preserve uniformity in the appearance of their work, if the following sorts were all of the same fount in the same sized type, particularly in lists of names, indexes, and articles that run on sorts, as by that 777 means all the sorts in the office might be brought into use, when necessary, which would frequently be of great advantage, both for the convenience of the printer and the appearance of the work: under the present plan, where every fount varies in its proportions and appearance, the printer, in the before-mentioned cases, is put to a great inconvenience and expense, or else has to spoil the appearance of his work by mixing the founts. The adoption of this plan would also be of advantage to the type founder.

Capitals and small capitals.

Figures and fractions.

Metal rules and braces.

Points— , ; : . ! ? ( [ and references * † ‡ § ‖ ¶.

Superiors, and the pound £.

The following additional sorts would also be found useful, and conduce to the more regular appearance of printing.

Accented capitals and small capitals.

Capital and small capital Ç ç.

Points to superiors— , ; : . ’

The Spanish ñ.


When a pressman has got near the bottom of his heap, and, rapping his knuckles on it, the boards of the horse sound nearly as if he had struck the wood, he says, he is in soundings.


generally called Leads by printers. Thin pieces of type metal, cast to different thicknesses, and different lengths, quadrat high, to put between the lines of matter to make it more open; they are also used to branch out titles, small jobs, and parts of a work where necessary.


Fine lines, cast type high, in short thin pieces, to answer the purpose of brass rule in table work where a number of short pieces of a precise length are required. Two of them are generally equal to a pearl body.


The adjustment of the distance between the words in a line, so that there shall not be any glaring disproportion; also extending a word or a line of capitals by putting spaces between the letters. See Composing.


Ñ has a peculiar nasal sound, like the French gn: the English have no sound like it, except in the last four letters of the word minion, which bear some resemblance to the last three of the word riñon, in Spanish: as niño, piña.

The note of inter­rogation is not only used at the conclusion of an inter­rogatory, but also placed, inverted, at the beginning, in order to warn the reader, unless the preceding words convey a sufficient warning; as ¿Que es lo que vm. acostumbra? preguntó al enfermo.

The note of admiration is also inverted at the beginning of ejaculations, when the preceding words are not sufficient to prepare the reader; as ¡Pastas dulces y viandas suculentas! exclamó suspenso y admirado el doctor.—M‘Henry’s Grammar.


[Query, Span-hitch.] A slight kind of pull at a common wood-press.—Hansard.


When a new work is put in hand, a specimen page, that is, a page of the proposed size and letter, is composed, and pulled in a neat manner on paper similar to that which is meant to be used. This is to show the effect of the work when printed. It sometimes occurs, that two or three pages are required, of different sizes, and of different letter, before the author or publisher decides in what way the work shall be done. These are called Specimen Pages.


If the work be not proceeded with, these specimen pages are charged by the master printer to his employer; if it goes on, they are included in the general charge.


See Orthography.


The screw to which the bar of the press is affixed, and which produces the pressure on the platen.

The upper part of the spindle is round, on which a screw is cut, that works in the nut fixed in the head; the next part lower is square, with a square hole in it to receive the end of the bar; the lower part is round and tapering and goes through the hose, to which it is attached by the garter, the spindle having a groove cut round it, into which the two semicircular ends of the garter enter and encircle it, by which contrivance the platen is raised on the return of the bar; the lowest end of the spindle is called the toe, which is hardened steel, and works in the stud of the platen.


See Devil.—M.

Every chapel is haunted by a spirit, called Ralph. When any man resists the decision of the chapel, and it is determined to enforce it, Ralph, or the spirit, is said to walk; and whatever mischief is done to the resisting party to enforce submission, which is always performed secretly, is invariably imputed to Ralph, or the spirit. See Chapel.


The iron spindle on which the drum or wheel and the rounce are fixed, to run the carriage in and out with. It is square in the middle part, where the wheel is fixed, and has a square end for the rounce to fit on: it works in two pieces of iron, screwed to the outsides of the frame of the wooden ribs.


Sponge is used both by compositors and pressmen—by compositors, to wet matter that is tied up previous to distributing it—to wet matter that is not tied up, to prevent it going into pie—and in correcting to wet matter, particularly if it be small letter, when it is necessary to transpose it: by pressmen, to wet their tympans with.


This is a beautiful contrivance, and was, as I understand, the invention of Andrew Spottiswoode, Esq., who has several of them in action in his extensive establishment. It is moved by steam, and prints two forms at the same time, which pass alternately under the platen, producing at its average rate of working seven hundred impressions of each form in the hour.

The frisket is attached to the tympan at the bottom near the tympan joints, so that when the tympan is lifted from the form by the machinery they open at the upper end, contrary to the usual way in presses worked by manual labour, and the printed sheet is left by the tympan resting on the frisket, where the paper was previously laid on.

I believe this is the first successful application of steam, as a motive power, to printing presses with a platen and a perpen­dicular pressure. I heard the late Alexander Tilloch, Esq., say that he intended to apply it to the presses with which the Star newspaper was printed, but he never carried it into effect; and Mr. Koenig came to England solely for this purpose; but after some years passed in making experiments, assisted by English capital, he was completely foiled in the attempt, and afterwards worked upon Mr. Nicholson’s plan, and produced a machine to print with cylinders.—See Machine.


When a form has a great quantity of furniture in it, and is locked up very tight, it frequently springs up in the middle, so as to endanger its bursting upward; it is then said, the form springs, or it is termed the spring of the form.

In this case it is advisable to examine the furniture, for some pieces may not be planed square by the joiner, and to change them for others 779 of the same size that appear perfect, and do not lock up very tight; tighten the quoins gradually, and frequently plane down while you are locking up; these measures will generally remedy the evil.


The point that pricks the hole in the paper at press, to make register with.


A page or form is squabbled when the letters of one or more lines are got into any of the adjacent lines; or that the letter or letters are twisted about out of their square position.—M.

Stack of Books.

See Pile of Books.


When paper is received into the warehouse from the stationer, it is piled up in tiers of four, five, six, or eight bundles in each tier, and is called a stack of paper, or a pile of paper.

The warehouseman in piling his paper considers the height of his room, that he may not take up more of the floor than is absolutely necessary, to enable him to stow as much as possible: thus, if he receive one hundred reams, and has height, he will make a stack of six in preference to two or four or five. He crosses the joinings of the bundles in each tier to bind them together, as a bricklayer does in building a square pillar; and I have always found the stack strengthened by laying on every third or fourth tier a number of stout wrappers spread over the bundles.

Paper should never be stacked without inter­posing something between the bottom of it and the floor, to prevent any water that might accidentally be spilled coming in contact with it, which would certainly mildew and spoil it if it were not perceived at the first; and even then it would require a great deal of trouble to prevent it: where there are not regular stages made, some short pieces of old poling laid a little distance from each other upon the floor will answer very well.


A platform raised a few inches from the floor, to pile books or paper upon, for the purpose of preserving the bottom of the pile from injury, in case of water being spilt in the warehouse.

Where there are no regular stages in a warehouse, substitutes, which answer the purpose very well, may be easily provided, by taking an old paper board, or any pieces of board, and putting three pieces of an old pole under each of them on which to pile the books.


The master printers of the metropolis, till within a few years, dined together annually at some good coffee house or tea gardens in the vicinity of London; and one of the regular toasts after dinner was, “The well-staining of Paper.”


3 & 4 W. 4. c. 97. s. 12. It is among other things enacted, That * * * * “if any Person shall fraudulently use, join, fix, or place for, with, or upon any Vellum, Parchment, or Paper any Stamp, Mark, or Impression which shall have been cut, torn, or gotten off or removed from any other Vellum, Parchment, or Paper; * * * * then and in every such Case every Person so offending, and every Person knowingly and wilfully aiding, abetting, or assisting any Person in committing any such Offence, and being thereof lawfully convicted, shall be adjudged guilty of Felony, and shall be liable, at the Discretion of the Court, to be transported beyond the Seas for Life, or for any term not less than seven Years, or to be imprisoned for any Term not exceeding four Years nor less than two Years.”


A compositor is said to stand still, if he be out of copy, or out of letter: a pressman, if he has not a form to lay on, or is prevented working by any other cause. A compositor says he is standing still for copy, or for letter—a pressman says he is standing still for a form, &c.


The merits of the Stanhope press, and its superiority, are so well established in the minds of printers, from long experience 780 of its valuable properties, that any additional praise from me would be an act of supererogation; I shall therefore confine myself to giving engravings of it, and a rather full description.

Stanhope press: front view

Stanhope press: side view

Stanhope press: top view

Stanhope press: section

Figs. 1. and 2. are elevations, fig. 3. a plan, and fig. 4. a section. A A is a massive frame of cast iron, formed in one piece: this is the body of the press, in the upper part of which a nut is fixed for the reception of the screw b, and its point operates upon the upper end of a slider, d, which is fitted into a dovetail groove formed between two vertical bars, e, e, of the frame. The slider has the platen, D D, firmly attached to the lower end of it; and being accurately fitted between the guides e, e, the platen must rise and fall parallel to itself when the screw, b, is turned. The weight of the platen and slider are counter­balanced by a heavy weight, E, behind the press, which is suspended from a lever, F, and this acts upon the slider to lift it up, and keep it always bearing against the point of the screw. At G G are two projecting pieces, cast all in one with the main frame, to support the carriage when the pull is made; to these the rails, H H, are screwed, and placed truly horizontal for the carriage, I, to run upon them, when it is carried under the press to receive the impression, or drawn out to remove the printed sheet. The carriage is moved by the rounce or handle K, with a spit and leather girths, very similar to the wooden press. Upon the spit, or axle of the handle K, a wheel, L, is fixed, and round this leather girths are passed, one extending to the back of the carriage to draw it in, and the other, which passes round the wheel in an opposite direction, to draw it out. By this means, 781 when the handle is turned one way it draws out the carriage, and by reversing the motion it is carried in. There is likewise a check strap, f, from the wheel down to the wooden base, M M, of the frame, and this limits the motion of the wheel, and consequently the excursion of the carriage. The principal improvement of Earl Stanhope’s press consists in the manner of giving motion to the screw, b, of it, which is not done simply by a bar or lever attached to the screw, but by a second lever; e. gr. the screw, b, has a short lever, g, fixed upon the upper end of it, and this communicates by an iron bar, or link, h, to another lever, i, of rather shorter radius, which is fixed upon the upper end of a second spindle, l, and to this the bar or handle, k, is fixed. Now when the workman pulls this handle, he turns round the spindle, l, and by the connexion of the rod, h, the screw, b, turns with it, and causes the platen to descend and produce the pressure. But it is not simply this alone, for the power of the lever, k, is transmitted to the screw in a ratio proportioned to the effect required at the different parts of the pull; thus at first, when the pressman takes the bar, k, it lies in a direction parallel to the frame, or across the press, and the short lever, i, (being nearly perpen­dicular thereto,) is also nearly at right angles to the connecting rod h; but the lever, g, of the screw makes a considerable angle with the rod, which therefore acts upon a shorter radius to turn the screw; because the real power exerted by any action upon a lever, is not to be considered as acting with the full length of the lever between its centres, but with the distance in a perpen­dicular drawn from the line in which the action is applied to the centre of the lever. Therefore, when the pressman first takes the handle, k, the lever, i, acts with its full length upon a shorter length of leverage, g, on the screw, which will consequently be turned more rapidly than if the bar itself was attached to it; but on continuing the pull, the situation of the levers change, that of the screw, g, continually increasing in its acting length, because it comes nearer to a perpen­dicular with the connecting rod, and at the same time the lever, i, diminishes its acting length, because, by the obliquity of the lever, the rod, h, approaches the centre, and the perpen­dicular distance diminishes; the bar or handle also comes to a more favourable position for the man to pull, because he draws nearly at right angles to its length. All these causes combined have the best effect in producing an immense pressure, without loss of time; because, in the first instance, the lever acts with an increased motion upon the screw, and brings the platen down very quickly upon the paper, but by that time the levers have assumed such a position as to exert a more powerful action upon each other, and this action continues to increase as the bar is drawn forwards, until the lever, i, and the connecting rod are brought nearly into a straight line, and then the power is immensely great, and capable of producing any requisite pressure which the parts of the press will sustain without yielding. The handle is sometimes made to come to rest against a stop, which prevents it moving further, and therefore regulates the degree of pressure given upon the work; but to give the means of increasing or diminishing this pressure for different kinds of work, the stop is made moveable to a small extent. Another plan is adopted by some makers of the Stanhope press, viz. to have a screw adjustment at the end of the connecting rod, h, by which it can be shortened; it is done by fitting the centre pin which unites it to the lever, g, in a bearing piece, which slides in a groove formed in the rod, and is regulated by the screw. This shortening of the connecting rod produces a greater or less descent of the platen, when the handle is brought to the stop.


The carriage of the press is represented with wheels, m, m, beneath, to take off the friction of moving upon the ribs, HH. These wheels are shown at fig. 4., which is a section of the screw and the platen, with the carriage beneath it: their axles, n, are fitted to springs, p, and these are adjustable by means of screws, r, so that the carriage will be borne up to any required height. This is so regulated, that when the carriage is run into the press, its lower surface shall bear lightly upon the solid cheeks, G, which are part of the body of the press, and these support it when the pressure is applied, the same as the winter of the old press: but the wheels by their springs act to bear up great part of the weight of the carriage with the types upon it, and diminish the friction, yet do not destroy the contact of the carriage upon the ribs, because this would not give the carriage that solidity of bearing which is requisite for resisting the pull. This is only at the time when the carriage is run into the press, because as it runs out, the ribs on which the wheels run rise higher, and therefore the wheels support the whole weight. The manner in which the wheels run in rebates or recesses in the edges of the ribs is shown at fig. 1. The carriage is made of cast iron, in the form of a box, with several cross partitions, which are all cast in one piece, and although made of thin metal, are exceedingly strong: the upper surface is made truly flat, by turning it in a lathe. The same of the platen, which is likewise a shallow box: the slider, d, has a plate formed on the lower end of it, which is fixed by four screws upon the top of the platen, and thus they are united. At the four angles of the carriage, pieces of iron are screwed on, to form bearings for the quoins or wedges which are driven in to fasten the form of types upon it in the true position for printing. The tympan, P, (fig. 2.) is attached to the carriage by joints, with an iron bracket or stop to catch it when it is thrown back: the frisket, R, is joined to the tympan, and when opened out, rests against a frame suspended from the ceiling. The register points are the same as in the wooden press, and all the operations of working are exactly the same. The iron frame, A, of the press is screwed down upon the wooden base, M, by bolts, which pass through feet, s s, projecting from the lower part of the iron frame. Another wooden beam is fixed into the former at right angles, so as to form a cross, which lies upon the floor. The ribs, H, for the carriage to run upon are supported from the wooden base by an iron bracket, T.

The advantages of the iron presses in working are very considerable, both in saving labour and time. The first arises from the beautiful contrivance of the levers, the power of the press being almost incalculable at the moment of producing the impression; and this is not attended with a correspondent loss of time, as is the case in all other mechanical powers, because the power is only exerted at the moment of pressure, being before that adapted to bring down the platen as quickly as possible. This great power of the press admits of a saving of time, by printing the whole sheet of paper at one pull, the platen being made sufficiently large for that purpose; whereas, in the old press, the platen is only half the size of the sheet. In the Stanhope press, the whole surface is printed at once, with far less power upon the handle than the old press. This arises not only from the levers, but from the iron framing of the press, which will not admit of any yielding, as the wood always does, and indeed is intended to do, the head being packed up with elastic substances, such as scaleboard, pasteboard, and the felt of an old hat. In this case much power is lost, for in an elastic press the pressure is gained by screwing or straining the parts up to a certain degree of 783 tension, and the effort to return produces the pressure: now in this case, the handle will make a considerable effort to return, which, though it is in reality giving back to the workman a portion of the power he exerted on the press, is only an additional labour, as it obliges him to bear the strain a longer time than he otherwise would. The iron presses have very little elasticity, and those who use them find it advantageous to diminish the thickness of the blankets in the tympan; the lever has then very little tendency to return; in fact, if the pull be so justified as that, when the bar is pulled home, the end of the lever, i, that is attached to the connecting rod, h, passes in a small degree the centre of the second spindle, l, the pressure is past its maximum power, the press bar has no tendency to return, and the pressman can rest upon his pull in fine work, without any exertion.

Stationers’ Company.

See Donations.


—The straight flat strokes of a straight letter is called stem.—M.


—The surface of a page of types cast in one piece, of type metal, about the eighth of an inch thick, and turned in a lathe at the back of the plate, so that the whole of the plates of a volume shall be of one uniform thickness.

When they are required to be printed they are mounted on what are called Risers: these risers, with the thickness of the stereotype plate, are precisely the same height as the types, so that when a form is composed of stereotype plates and types, the pressure shall be equal on both.—See Risers.

The spaces and quadrats are cast higher than for the common process; and when the form is ready, the face of it is oiled with a brush, then burnt plaster of Paris (gypsum) mixed with water to the consistence of cream is poured upon it; when the plaster is sufficiently hardened it is taken off from the types and forms a matrix in which to cast a fac-simile of the types; this matrix is then placed in an oven to dry, and made hot, when it is secured in a frame and immersed in a caldron of melted metal, where it remains some time; when it is taken out, and cool, it goes to a person styled the Picker, to remove any superfluous metal, and to remedy any defects; it is then, generally, turned at the back to a specific thickness, and to remove any inequalities; after this it is ready for press. For the details of the process I refer the reader to “An Essay on the Origin and Progress of Stereotype Printing: including a Description of the various Processes. By Thomas Hodgson, Newcastle: printed by and for S. Hodgson, &c. 1820.”

This process was first practised by William Ged, of Edinburgh, who commenced in the year 1725. After much perseverance he formed an engagement with the University of Cambridge to print Bibles and Prayer-books; but the plan received so much opposition from the workmen, in making errors and batters, that it was discontinued, and the plates were ultimately sent to Mr. Caslon’s foundery to be melted down. Mr. Hansard, in his Typographia says,—“But a remnant escaped from Caslon’s cormorant crucible; and I have the opportunity of here presenting my readers with an opposite view of a pair of the very malefactors; and challenge any other to dispute the palm of venerable antiquity with them: they have been rather roughly treated, but besides the purpose for which they are here exhibited, will serve to show the style of type, typography, and stereotype of those days.”

Mr. Tilloch had a page of Ged’s casting given to him by Mr. Murray, of Fleet Street, bookseller, which I have seen: there is also a plate of 784 Ged’s casting, at the Royal Institution, containing fourteen pages of a Common Prayer, presented by Mr. Frederick Kanmacher, of Apothecaries Hall, from which I had impressions printed.—See “Biographical Memoirs of William Ged. By John Nichols.” 8vo. London, 1781. “Dissertation upon English Typographical Founders and Founderies, by Edward Rowe Mores, A.M. and A.S.S.”

Notes and Corrections: Stereotype

Fun fact: The technical term for a stereotype plate is cliché.

Stereotype-Plate Risers.

See Risers.


When a word has been struck out, in reading a proof, and it is afterwards decided that it shall remain, then it is usual to make dots under the word which has had the pen run through it and write the word stet opposite to it in the margin, which is the third person singular, imperative mood, of the neuter verb sto, to stand, to endure, or abide.—See Correcting.


The composing stick, commonly so called.—M. See Composing Stick.


When a compositor has arranged as many lines in his composing stick as it will contain, it is termed a stickfull.—M.

Stiff Justifying.

See Hard Justifying.


The Act of the 25th of Geo. II. c. 36. s. 1. inflicted a penalty of fifty pounds upon any person who should print or publish any advertisement offering a reward for the recovery of any property that had been stolen and no questions asked; this section has been repealed by the Act of the 7 & 8 Geo. IV. c. 27., one of Mr. Peel’s Acts; and by another of Mr. Peel’s Acts, of the 7 & 8 Geo. IV. c. 29. s. 59., it is re-enacted, with some verbal alterations and the addition of the words “or lost,” as may be perceived by the following extract, which it is of importance for printers to be acquainted with.

s. 59. “That if any Person shall publicly advertise a Reward for the Return of any Property whatsoever, which shall have been stolen or lost, and shall in such Advertisement use any Words purporting that no Questions will be asked, or shall make use of any Words in any public Advertisements purporting that a Reward will be given or paid for any Property which shall have been stolen or lost, without seizing or making any Enquiry after the Person producing such Property, or shall promise or offer in any such public Advertisement to return to any Pawnbroker or other Person who may have bought or advanced Money by Way of Loan upon any Property stolen or lost, the Money so paid or advanced, or any other Sum of Money or Reward for the Return of such Property, or if any Person shall print or publish any such Advertisement, in any of the above Cases, every such Person shall forfeit the Sum of Fifty Pounds for every such Offence, to any Person who will sue for the same by Action of Debt, to be recovered with full Costs of Suit.”

s. 69. By this section it is enacted, “That it shall be lawful for the King’s Majesty to extend his Royal Mercy to any Person imprisoned by virtue of this Act, although he shall be imprisoned for Nonpayment of Money to some Party other than the Crown.”


See Points.

Strahan, Andrew.

See Donations.

Strahan, William.

See Donations.


Taking the furniture away from the pages.—M.


Strokes are fat, lean, fine, hair.—M. The hair strokes of letters are now termed ceriphs by the founders.


Ink made with a powerfully binding varnish, so as to prevent the separation of the colouring matter and the spread of the varnish in the paper. It is usually made with superior colouring materials, and more care taken in grinding it than with common ink. See Engravings on Wood; Fine Presswork; and for more details I refer the reader to my treatise on the Preparation of Printing Ink.


A piece of hardened steel, a little hollowed at the top, on which the toe of the spindle works. It is square on the outside, and 785 fitted into the cup of the platen, but so as to be taken out, when it wants altering or repairing.


In a press, a piece of wood nailed across the wooden ribs on the under side, close to the winter, to keep them steady in their place.

In Moxon’s time a summer was for a different purpose; viz. to prevent the cheeks of the press from springing open; the winter was dovetailed into the cheeks, to answer this purpose: after describing the winter, he adds—

“But yet I think it very convenient to have a Summer also, the more firmly and surer to keep the cheeks together; this Summer is only a Rail Tennanted, and let into Mortesses made in the inside of the Cheeks, and Screwed to them with long Screws, similar to those used for Bed-Posts; its depth four Inches and an half, and its breadth eight Inches, viz. the breadth of the Cheeks.”

Sunday, Public Meeting on.

See Public Meetings.


Superiors are small letters and figures, upon the upper part of the shank of the body, so that they range with the top of the letter to which they belong; as, abcdefgh, 1234567890; they are generally used as references to notes, and occasionally in abbreviated words; as Mr, Master; Mrs, Mistress; Do, Ditto; No, (Numero,) for Number, and in many other instances; also in contracted words, in the printed Records. See Records. References. It would be a convenience if the type founders would cast the , ; : and . to them, as it has not a good appearance, when a point is necessary, to see a comma or any other point used that has been cast for the regular body; it is too large, and does not range in line.


See Newspapers.


In the seventeenth century Italick capitals, in which some of the letters had their terminations projecting considerably beyond the shank, were in use: this projection was called a swash; as—

outlined swash letters



The Swedish Alphabet consists of twenty-eight letters.

page image

Name and Figure. Power.
A A a sounds like the English a in psalm.
B B b be
C C c ce
D D d de
E E e has a sound between the slender a and the e, or as it is commonly pronounced in the article the, de.
F F f f
G G g ge
H H h ho
I I i j sounds like the English ee in bee, bi.
J   longt i (i.e. long i)
K K k ko
L L l l
M M m m
N N n n
O O o (the Greek ω) sounds nearest to the narrow oo in rood.
P P p pe
Q Q q koo
R R r err
S S s s
T T t te
U U u sounds like the English u in ruin.
V V v ve
W W w  
X X x ex
Y Y y sounds like the French u in une, syn, sight.
Z Z z satah
Å Å å sounds like the English o in long, lång.
Aͤ* aͤ sounds like the English a in name, nämna.
Oͤ* oͤ sounds like the French eu in feu; bröd, bread, or nearest to i before r, as in thirsty, törstig.

The order they here stand in is that of the Swedish Alphabet.

* These letters in the Roman characters are Ä and Ö.

The Swedish language has no diphthongs. When two vowels occur together, they must both be heard, as bēēdiga, brōār.—Brunnmark’s Swedish Grammar. London, 1805.

Notes and Corrections: Swedish

they must both be heard, as bēēdiga, brōār.
word “brōār” printed in plain (non-italic) type



When the boys sweep the composing room in a morning, all the letters and spaces that are on the floor in each frame are carefully gathered up and placed on the bulk belonging to it, and it is the customary rule for the compositor to distribute them the first thing; what are swept together from the middle of the room are collected from the dust before it is taken away, and put in some appointed place for the person who has the care of the materials to distribute.


See Fire Eater.

Symbols, Chemical.

See Formulæ.


Under this appellation are classed three different alphabets. 788 The first and most ancient of these, called Estranghelo, is formed with square rectangular characters; another alphabet, a little smaller, has letters slightly differing from the first, for greater facility in writing; the third is that known generally by the name of Syriac, and is the only one existing in type in England. The Syriac reads from right to left.

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of the
Names of the
Figures of the Letters. Power
of the
1. Olaph ܐ   A. 1.
2. Beth ܒ   B. 2.
3. Gomal ܓ   G. 3.
4. Dolath ܕ   D. 4.
5. He ܗ   H. 5.
6. Vau ܘ   V. 6.
7. Zaïn ܙ   Z. 7.
8. Cheth ܚ   Ch. 8.
9. Teth ܛ   T. 9.
10. Jud ܝ   L. 10.
11. Coph ܟ   C. 20.
12. Lomad ܠ   L. 30.
13. Mim ܡ   M. 40.
14. Nun ܢ   N. 50.
15. Semchat ܣ ܤ S. 60.
16. Ngae ܥ   A. 70.
17. Pe ܦ   P. 80.
18. Tzode ܨ   Tz. 90.
19. Koph ܩ   K. 100.
20. Risch ܪ   R. 200.
21. Schin ܫ   Sch. 300.
22. Thau ܬ   T. 400.

Olaph, when followed by Lomad, is written obliquely, as [A]. But when Lomad is followed by Olaph, it is written in the beginning of words thus, [A] not; in the middle thus, [A] he is bewailed; and at the end thus, [A] it rolls.

The pronunciation of the letters is the same as in Hebrew and Chaldee; yet it may be observed, (1.) that Olaph, in certain cases, takes the sound of Jud, as, [A] ojar air, [A] mlojo fulness, [A] sojem placing; (2.) that Vau initial is to be pronounced as the consonant v, but when medial or final, as the vowel u; (3.) that initial Jud with Chebhozo is pronounced as i, as, [A] ileph he learned; (4.) that Ngae followed by He has the sound of [A], as, [A] ehadh he remembered; and (5.) that the aspirated sibilant Schin has no peculiar point by which it may be distinguished from the simple sibilant Sin.

The numbers are expressed by the same letters as in Hebrew, excepting that [A] denotes 15, [A] 20, and [A] 50. A point above the line is used to convert the tens into hundreds, as [A] 100, [A] 200, [A] 300, &c., although the four first hundreds may be expressed also by the four last letters of the alphabet. An oblique line, slanting to the right, under the first nine letters, serves to denote thousands, as [A] 1000, [A] 2000; and a similar line, but transverse, designates the tens of thousands, as [A] 10,000, [A] 20,000.

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The vowels are five in number, which are represented either by figures or by points, according as the ancient or modern system is followed, but very frequently both are met with together. The simple vowels are—

[A] [A] [A] [A] [A]

and both figures and points are joined with consonants in the following manner:—

Petocho [A] or [A] ba.

Rebhozo [A] or [A] or [A] be.

Chebhozo [A] or [A] bi.

Zekopho [A] or [A] bo.

Ozozo [A] or [A] or [A] bu.

Formerly the marks for the vowels E and I were only written below the line, as [A] be and [A] bi; and the vowels A, O, and U, were only written above, as [A] ba, [A] bo, [A] bu; but now they are placed sometimes above and sometimes below, as may be most convenient in writing. The points never change their places.

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Zekopho does not give precisely the sound of o, but an obscure sound between o and a, as we find in 1 Cor. xvi. 22. [A] [A] Maran-atha, and in Mark xiv. 36. [A] Abba.

Ozozo is never written without Vau ([A]), except in [A] all, and [A] because of.

When the point Ozozo is above the line, it denotes Kibbutz; but when below the line, Shurek.

The diphthongs are formed by the combination of the vowels with the points, of which these are the most used, [A] au, [A] ai, [A] oi, [A] ou.

The vowel marks are not always annexed to the letters to which they belong, but sometimes to the preceding or subsequent letter, and sometimes omitted altogether, so that grammatical analogy must always be attended to by the reader, as, for example, in the word [A] of a son, the point [A] does not belong to the [A] over which it is placed, but to the [A] following.

Three letters ([A] [A] [A]) become quiescent under certain circumstances. Olaph, with the vowels Petocho, Rebhozo, and Zekopho in the middle and at the end of a word; with Chebhozo only at the end. Vau always with Ozozo, and in foreign names also with Zekopho. Lastly, Jud with Rebhozo and Chebhozo.

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Olaph never allows of sheva before it, but brings its own vowel into its place, and in that case becomes quiescent.

The vowels are doubtful as respects their quantity, and at one time are short, and at another long; the difference is to be traced from analogy.

There are also two points, called Kuschoï and Ruchoch, used for showing the peculiar power of certain letters, and generally distinguished in manuscripts by a difference in the colour of the ink. Kuschoï is a point placed above the six letters [A] [A] [A] [A] [A] [A] begadcephat. It answers to the dagesh in Hebrew, and takes away the aspiration properly belonging to those letters; thus [A] is equivalent to b, [A] to g, [A] to d, [A] to k, [A] to p, [A] to t, also to bb, gg, dd, kk, pp, tt. Ruchoch is a point placed below the six letters [A] [A] [A] [A] [A] [A] begadcephat; it shows that the letters are to be aspirated, and answers to the Hebrew raphe; thus [A] is equivalent to bh, [A] to gh, [A] to dh, [A] to the Greek χ, [A] to φ, [A] to θ. These points are rarely expressed, unless where there is an ambiguity to be explained.

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Besides those before spoken of, certain lines or points are also employed, having a use partly in orthography, and partly in etymology. To orthography belong—

1. A small transverse line written above combined numbers, or contracted words, as [A] 15, [A] for [A] praise.

2. A similar small line, called virgula occultans, under certain letters, which, when indicated thus, are of no value, and to be passed over in reading, so as scarcely to be heard in pronunciation. Thus [A] [A] 790 is not pronounced kore ano, but koreno; and [A] [A] not omar ano, but omarno. Olaph, Dolath, He, Lomad, Nun, and Risch, are the letters most subject to its influence.

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3. A diacritical point, changed in its situation in order to avoid an ambiguity in reading. The following may be taken as cases of this sort:—

[A] [A] miserable. [A] [A] evil.
[A] [A] weeping (part.). [A] [A] weeping (subs.).
[A] [A] a judge. [A] [A] judgment.

The following belong to etymology:—

1. Two points are used to distinguish the numbers of nouns, because there is often no variation of case or of termination, or mutation of letters, to distinguish the singular from the plural. These two points are called Ribbui, multitude, and are placed over the letter, similarly to the Hebrew tzeri, in this manner [A]. But if Risch ([A]), which always has a point above it, to distinguish it from the Dolath ([A]), should occur in the word, then the single point of Risch coalesces with the double point thus, [A]. In the verbs, the double point indicates the feminine third person plural of the preterites.

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2. A point is placed beneath the line in all the persons of the preterite (excepting the first person singular, where it is placed above), and besides this, the third person singular has another at the left side.

3. The present active participle has a point above the line, but when Vau is in the middle of the word, the point is placed below.

4. The infinitive and imperative often have a point placed beneath them, but this is not regular.

5. The second and third persons of the future have a point below the line, but the first person has the point above.

6. The imperatives of all the passives require the virgula under the second vowel.

There are no accents expressed in Syriac. The stress in pronunciation ought to be laid on the last or penultimate syllables; and in this respect the analogy of the Chaldee is to be attended to.

In the derivation of words from the Hebrew, letters may frequently undergo mutation with others of the same class, or of the same organ, and also sibilants with linguals.

The servile letters are eleven in number, as in Hebrew, and are the same, saving that Dolath is servile, and on the other hand Schin is radical.

The preceding observations are extracted from Gaspar Waser’s Grammatica Syra, Leyden, 1619, and from Jacob Alting’s Synopsis Institutionum Chaldæarum et Syrarum, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1717.

Syriac in the British Founderies.

Double Pica. V. & J. Figgins; cut under the direction and partly at the expense of the late Claudius Buchanan.

English. Caslon; cut for Walton’s Polyglot, 1657. V. & J. Figgins; cut under the same circumstances as the Double Pica. Oxford.

Long Primer. Caslon. Fry, to Thorowgood and Besley. V. & J. Figgins; cut under the same circumstances as the Double Pica.

Brevier. V. & J. Figgins; cut under the same circumstances as the Double Pica.


Nonpareil. Fry, to Thorowgood and Besley; cut for Bagster’s Polyglot.

Notes and Corrections: Syriac

Font support for Syriac is very limited. Since you are not likely to be able to read it—and I certainly can’t write it—I have used page images for the entire article. As elsewhere, [A] represents any character that could not be shown as printed.

The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.