Naturalist’s Miscellany

The Naturalist’s Miscellany
by George Shaw
Volume 11

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SOCIETATI LINNÆANÆ

LONDINENSI,

SCIENTIA NATURALIS

fovendæ, excolendæ, honesto flagranti studio,

UNDECIMUM HUNC

NATURÆ VIVARII

FASCICULUM,

D. D. D.
GEORGIUS SHAW,
FREDERICUS P. NODDER.

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TO THE

LINNÆAN SOCIETY of LONDON,

DISTINGUISHED BY ITS LAUDABLE ZEAL

in the pursuit of
NATURAL HISTORY,

THIS ELEVENTH VOLUME

of the

NATURALIST’S MISCELLANY

is

RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED,

by
GEORGE SHAW,
FREDERICK P. NODDER.

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397

Furcated Humming-Bird

London, Published Septr 1st 1799 by F P Nodder.

Notes

B

TROCHILUS FURCATUS.
Var.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum subulato-filiforme, apice tubulato, capite longius: Mandibula superior vaginans inferiorem.

Lingua filiformis, filis duobus coalitis tubulosa.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 189.

Character Specificus, &c.

TROCHILUS curvirostris cæruleo-violaceus, vertice collo uropygioque viridi-aureis, remigibus rectricibusque nigris, cauda bifurca.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 304.

TROCHILUS FURCATUS.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 486.

Var.

T. curvirostris niger, gula viridi-aurea, pectore cæruleo-violaceo, cauda furcata.

Rostrum levissime curvatum.

Veram magnitudinem depinximus aviculæ, coloribus adeo vividis superbientis, ut pulchriores vix v animo possibile sit concipere. Generat eam præcipue America Australis, nec non alias plerasque congeneres.

B2

the
FURCATED HUMMING-BIRD.
Var.

Generic Character.

Bill slender, tubular, the upper mandible sheathing the lower.

Tongue very long, extensile; formed of two conjoined cylindric tubes.

Toes three forward, one backward.

Specific Character, &c.

Curve-billed violet-blue HUMMING-BIRD, with the top of the head, the neck, and rump gold-green; the tail-feathers and wings black; the tail forked.

Var.

Curve-billed black HUMMING-BIRD, with gold-green throat, violet-blue breast, and forked tail.

The bill is but very slightly curved.

It is scarce possible to imagine colors more brilliant than those which decorate this beautiful bird: like most others of this genus, it is principally found in South America, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

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398

Machaon Butterfly

London, Published Septr 1st 1799 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

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PAPILIO MACHAON.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 774.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis caudatis concoloribus flavis, limbo fusco lunulis flavis, angulo ani fulvo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 750.
Eq. Achiv.

Raii. ins. 110.

Reaum. ins. 1. t. 29. 30.

Insecta omnia lepidoptera quæ in Britannia generantur tum magni­tudine tum venustate superans Papilio Machaon originem ducit ab eruca viridi, cujus fasciæ plurimæ nigræ serie macularum rubrarum insigniuntur. Instruitur caput tentaculis duobus brevibus, retractilibus. Plantas depascitur quæ umbelliferæ vocantur, præcipue foeniculum; aliquando etiam rutam, et alias nonnullas. In chrysalidem convertitur mense Julio, e qua mense Augusto erumpit Papilio. Interdum fit ut bina proles, v cujus alteram profert Maius, alteram Augustus, in eadem æstate exoriatur: altera nempe Maio e chrysalidibus prioris anni quæ per totam hyemem duraverant; altera Augusto, e chrysalidibus Julii, quæ non ultra tres hebdomadas vel mensem papilionem incluserant. Mirum hoc! et dignum omnino in quod inspiciant philosophi.

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MACHAON.

Generic Character.

Antennæ commonly thickening towards the end into a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

Black-and-yellow tail-winged BUTTERFLY, with the edges of the wings black with yellow crescents; the lower ones with a red spot at the interior tips.

Roesel. 1. class. 2. pl. 1.

Merian. ins. eur. 94. & 163.

Wilkes. pap. 47. pl. 1.

Esper. pap. 1.

The Swallow-tailed BUTTERFLY.

The Great Fennel BUTTERFLY.

The Papilio Machaon or Swallow-tailed Butterfly, the largest and most superb of all the British lepidoptera, proceeds from a green caterpillar, with numerous black bands, each marked by a row of red spots: the head is furnished with a pair of short retractile horns or tentacula. It feeds principally on v the umbelliferous plants, and is most frequently found on fennel: it is also sometimes seen on rue and other plants. It changes into a chrysalis in the month of July, and the fly appears in August; but it sometimes happens that two broods of this butterfly are produced in the course of the same summer; viz. the first in the month of May, having lain all winter in their chrysalis state; the second in August, from the chrysalises of July; having lain in that state not more than a month or three weeks. An extremely singular circumstance! and which well merits the attention of philosophic entomologists.

399

Punctated Ophicephalus

Pubd Septr 99 by F. P. Nodder.

Notes

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OPHICEPHALUS PUNCTATUS.

Character Genericus.

Caput squamis variis.

Bloch. ichth. 10. p. 113.

Character Specificus.

OPHICEPHALUS corpore nigro-punctato.

Bloch. ichth. 10. p. 115. t. 358.

In fluviis lacubusque Indicis præcipue invenitur Ophicephalus punctatus, longi­tudine, ut plurimum, pedali vel sesquipedali. Ophicephali genus instituit celeberrimus Blochius.

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the
PUNCTATED OPHICEPHALUS.

Generic Character.

Head coated with dissimilar scales.

Specific Character, &c.

Pale-brown OPHICEPHALUS, speckled with black points.

Spotted OPHICEPHALUS, or punctulated snake-head.

Der punctirte Schlangenkopf.

Bloch. ichth. 10. pl. 358.

The punctated Ophicephalus is principally found in the rivers and lakes of India, and is commonly about a foot or a foot and a half in length. The genus Ophicephalus was first instituted by the celebrated Dr. Bloch.

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400

Scarlet Hydrachna

Pubd Septr 99 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

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HYDRACHNA COCCINEA.

Character Genericus.

Caput, thorax et abdomen unita.

Palpi duo articulati.

Oculi duo, quatuor, sex.

Pedes octo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2395.

Character Specificus, &c.

HYDRACHNA coccinea subglobosa, supra punctis distantibus impressis.

H. impressa? Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. H. rubra distenta; punctis impressis, palpis brevibus.

Müll. hydr. n. 33. t. 9. f. 2?

A Domino Müllero institutum genus Hydrachna quasi vinculo quodam connectere videtur genera araneæ et acari. Raro crescunt hæc animalia in magni­tudinem, nomine aranearum aquaticarum vulgo cognita. Minime rara hæc species æstivo tempore in aquis purioribus, omnium forte quæ in Britannia generantur notatu dignissima est. Depingitur aucta magni­tudo, quæ, ut plurimum, quintam circiter unciæ partem attingit.

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SCARLET HYDRACHNA.

Generic Character.

Head, thorax, and abdomen united.

Feelers two, jointed.

Eyes two, four, or six.

Legs eight.

Specific Character, &c.

Subglobose scarlet HYDRACHNA, marked above with distant impressed points.

Scarlet HYDRACHNA, or red water-spider.

The genus Hydrachna, instituted by Müller, seems to form as it were a link of connexion between the genera of Acarus and Aranea. These animals are commonly known by the name of water-spiders, and are seldom of any considerable size. The present species, which is shewn as it appears when magnified, is perhaps the most remark­able of the British species, and is not uncommon in clear stagnant waters in the summer months. It grows to the length of about the fifth part of an inch.

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401

African Roller

London, Published Octr 1st 1799 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

C

CORACIAS AFRICANA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum cultratum apice incurvato, basi pennis denudatum.

Lingua cartilaginea, bifida.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 159.

Character Specificus, &c.

CORACIAS ferruginea, subtus cæruleo-purpurea, remigibus cyaneis, rectricibus thalassinis apice cyaneo-nigricantibus.

Coracias Afra. C. testaceo-rubra, subtus purpureo-rubescens, crisso cæruleo-viridi, remigibus rectricibusque cæruleis, apice nigricantibus.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 172.

Africana esse creditur rarissima avis, cujus veram magni­tudinem tertia parte deminutam in tabula depinximus. Facie seu habitu generali, cum rostrum sit latissimum, breve, et validum, simillima est Coraciæ tum Madagascariensi tum Orientali, a quibus tamen discrepat coloribus. In Museo Britannico asservatur specimen unde iconem hanc nostram delineari curavimus.

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the
AFRICAN ROLLER.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, bending a little towards the end; cultrated at the edges.

Nostrils narrow; naked.

Legs generally short: toes divided to their origin; three forwards and one backwards.

Specific Character, &c.

Ferruginous ROLLER, lilac-coloured beneath; with blue wing-feathers and sea-green tail tipped with black.

AFRICAN ROLLER.

Lath. syn. suppl. p. 86.

This extremely rare bird is supposed to be a native of Africa, and is preserved in the British Museum. It is nearly allied to the Oriental and Madagascar Rollers, having a remarkably broad, short, and strong beak; but differs in color from both those birds. The plate represents it about a third less than the natural size.

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402

Banded Anthias

London, Published Octr 1st 1799 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

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ANTHIAS DIAGRAMMA.

Character Genericus.

Caput totum squamosum; operculo anteriore serrato.

Bloch. ichth. 9. p. 86.

Character Specificus, &c.

ANTHIAS striis longitudinalibus brunneis.

Bloch. ichth. 9. p. 101. t. 320.

Perca DIAGRAMMA.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 1319.

Perca maxilla, superiore longiore, &c.

Sch. mus. 3. p. 79. t. 27. f. 18.

Anthias Diagramma Blochii, seu Perca Diagramma Linnæi, in variis Indiæ regionibus generatur, aquarum dulcium incola. Caro ejus habetur in deliciis. Crescere solet in longi­tudinem decem unciarum, piscesque minores, more reliqui generis, prædari.

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the
BANDED ANTHIAS.

Generic Character.

Head completely scaled: anterior gill-covers serrated.

Specific Character, &c.

White ANTHIAS, with longitudinal brown bands.

The brown-banded ANTHIAS.

The BANDED Perch.

The Anthias Diagramma of Bloch, or Perca Diagramma of Linnæus, is found in various parts of India, where it inhabits fresh waters. It grows to the length of about ten inches, and, like others of this genus, preys on the smaller fishes.

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403

Amboina Lizard

London, Published Octr 1st 1799 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

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LACERTA AMBOINENSIS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus tetrapodum, caudatum, nudum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 359.

Character Specificus, &c.

LACERTA cauda compressa longa, pinna caudali radiata, sutura dorsali dentata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2064.

Schlosser de Lacerta Amboinensi, Amst. 1768. t. 1.

Museorum Europæorum supellectilem rimantibus non sæpe se in conspectum dat lacerta amboinensis: nec sane rariorem continet genus. In insula Amboyna innascitur, degens ut plurimum prope aquas, sæpe etiam in ipsis aquis reperta. A Domino Schlossero multis abhinc annis accurate descripta est et icone eximia illustrata. In Museo Joannis Hunteri pulcherrimum exstat specimen. Ad longi­tudinem duorum pedum attingit hæc species, vel etiam majorem; et in ista generis divisione reponitur, quæ Iguanam, Basiliscum, et alias nonnullas lacertas amplec­titur. Caro hujus, ut et Iguanæ, optimum habere saporem dicitur.

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the
AMBOINA LIZARD.

Generic Character.

Body four-footed, tailed, naked.

Specific Character, &c.

Long-tailed variegated LIZARD, with radiated tail-fin, and dentated dorsal suture.

The variegated AMBOYNA LIZARD.

This animal is one of the rarest of the genus, and is seldom to be found in European Museums. It is a native of Amboyna, where it principally resides in watery places; and indeed is frequently found in the water. It has been accurately described by Dr. Schlosser several years ago, and the description is accompanied by an excellent figure. In the museum of Mr. John Hunter a most beautiful specimen occurs. This species grows to the length of two feet, or even more. It is of that particular tribe in the genus which contains the Guana, the Basilisk, and some others. Its flesh, like that of the Guana, is said to be excellent.

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404

Paris Butterfly

London, Published Octr 1st 1799 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

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PAPILIO PARIS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis caudatis nigris; posticis macula cyanea ocelloque purpureo; subtus ocellis septem.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 745.
Eq. Tr.

Clerk. ic. t. 13. f. 1.

Knorr. del. t. C. 3. f. 1.

Jablonsk. pap. 2. t. 14. f. 1. 2.

Papilionis hujus pulcherrimi, Sinæ, Cocinsinæ, et aliarum regionum Asiaticarum incolæ, exstat icon perelegans in splendido Domini Donovan opere de insectis Sinensibus, quorum coelatæ imagines eximiis coloribus inductæ summam perfectionis laudem videntur esse consecutæ. Specimen quod figuræ huic nostræ depingendæ inserviit in Museo Britannico asservatur.

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PARIS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ commonly thickening towards the end into a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character.

Black tail-winged BUTTERFLY speckled with green; with a large blue-green spot and a purple eye on each of the lower wings.

Cramer ins. 9. pl. 103. f. A. B.

Drury ins. 1. pl. 12. f. 1.

Donovan’s Chinese Insects, p. 1. pl. 1.

Of this beautiful Butterfly, which is a native of China, Cochinchina, and various other regions of the eastern world, a most elegant representation may be found in Mr. Donovan’s splendid publication on the Insects of China, a work in which delicacy of engraving and beauty of colouring have perhaps been carried to an unrivalled degree of excellence. The specimen from which the present figure was copied is preserved in the British Museum.

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405

Crested Tody

London, Published Novr 1st 1799 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

D

TODUS CRISTATUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum tenue, depressum, latum, basi setis patulis.

Nares ovatæ, parvæ.

Pedes gressorii, digitus exterior medio basi connexus.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 265.

Character Specificus, &c.

TODUS crista coccinea, corpore fusco albo-maculato.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 446.

Naturf. 17. p. 21. n. 5. t. 1.

TODUS regius β.

Lath. ind. orn. p.  

Avicula hæc in Guinea præcipue reperta, sedem sibi jure vindicat inter pulcherrimas sui generis. Magni­tudinem naturalem ostendit tabula.

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D2

the
CRESTED TODY.

Generic Character.

Bill thin, depressed, broad, with spreading bristles at the base.

Nostrils small, ovate.

Feet gressorial: the exterior toe connected with the middle at the base.

Specific Character.

Brown TODY, spotted with white, with crimson crest, tipped with black.

This species, which may justly be considered as one of the most beautiful of its genus, is chiefly found in Guinea. It is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

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406

Military Silurus

London, Published Novr 1st 1799 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

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SILURUS MILITARIS.

Character Genericus.

Caput nudum, magnum, latum; Os cirris tentaculatum.

Corpus elongatum, compressum, squamis nudum, mucosum; pinnarum pectoralium aut dorsalis radius primus spinosus, retro dentatus.

Character Specificus, &c.

SILURUS ossibus duobus capitis erectis, pinna dorsi postica adiposa, linea laterali flexuosa.

SILURUS pinna dorsali, postica adiposa, cirris duobus rigidis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 1356.

SILURUS ossibus duobus erectis in capite.

Bloch. ichth. 11. p. 13. t. 362.

Facie habituque peculiari magis quam pulchritudine notabilis Silurus militaris, flumina incolit Surinamensia, crescitque interdum in magnam molem. More aliorum congenerum, pisces minores, reliquaque ejusmodi prædando se sustentat. A splendidissimo opere Domini Blochii similitudinem hanc nostram mutuati sumus.

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the
MILITARY SILURUS.

Generic Character.

Head naked, large, broad; Mouth bearded with cirri.

Body elongated, compressed, without scales, covered with mucus: the first ray of the dorsal or pectoral fins serrated by reversed prickles.

Specific Character.

SILURUS with two upright bones on the head, an adipose back-fin, and flexuous lateral line.

The armed or military SILURUS.

The military Silurus, more distinguished by the singu­larity than the beauty of its appearance, is an inhabitant of the rivers of Surinam, where it sometimes grows to a very large size. Like the rest of the Siluri it is of a preda­cious nature, and feeds on the smaller fishes, &c. The present figure is taken from the splendid work of Dr. Bloch.

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407

Linear Libellula

London, Published Novr 1st 1799 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

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LIBELLULA LUCRETIA.

Character Genericus.

Os maxillosum: maxillis pluribus.

Antennæ thorace breviores.

Alæ extensæ.

Cauda (maris) hamoso-forcipata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 901.

Character Specificus, &c.

LIBELLULA alis immaculatis, abdomine longissimo.

LIBELLULA alis reticulatis, abdomine longissimo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2625.

Fab. spec. ins. 1. p. 528.

LIBELLULA LUCRETIA.

Drury ins. 2. p. 87. t. 48. f. 1.

In elegantissimo opere Domini Drury de Insectis exoticis primum depicta est hæc Libellulæ species. Caffrariam? incolit, et magni­tudine vera in tabula exprimitur.

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the
LINEAR LIBELLULA.

Generic Character.

Mouth consisting of several mandibles.

Antennæ very slender, filiform, shorter than the thorax.

Wings spreading.

Abdomen lengthened.

Specific Character, &c.

LIBELLULA with plain reticulated wings, and extremely long abdomen.

The linear LIBELLULA or Dragon-Fly.

The long-bodied DRAGON-FLY.

This species of Libellula was first figured in the elegant work of Mr. Drury on exotic insects; it is a native of Caffraria? and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

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408

Long-Armed Crab

London, Published Novr 1st 1799 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

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CANCER LONGIMANUS.

Character Genericus.

Pedes octo (rarius sex aut decem); insuper manus duæ chelatæ.

Palpi sex inæquales.

Oculi duo distantes, plurimis pedunculati; elongati, mobiles.

Mandibula cornea, crassa.

Labium triplex.

Cauda articulata, inermis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2963.

Character Specificus, &c.

CANCER thorace aculeato, manibus corpore longioribus, chelis brevissimis.

CANCER brachyurus thorace aculeato, manibus corpore longioribus, digito patulo, pollice curvato.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1047.

Seb. mus. 3. p. 47. t. 19. f. 8.

Præcipue distinguit hanc speciem insignis brachiorum longi­tudo. Maria incolit Europæa atque Indica, raro in magnam crescens molem.

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the
LONG-ARMED CRAB.

Generic Character.

Legs generally eight (in some species six or ten,) besides two claspers or chelated arms.

Feelers six, unequal.

Eyes two, generally distant, foot-stalked, moveable.

Tail articulated, unarmed.

Specific Character, &c.

CANCER with aculeated thorax, very long arms, and very short chelæ.

The long-armed CANCER or Crab.

This species is particularly distinguished by the enormous length of its arms. It is a native of the European and Indian seas, and is seldom found of a large size.

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409

Patagonian Penguin

London, Published Decr 1st 1799 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

E

PINGUINARIA PATACHONICA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum rectum, apice subincurvato.

Nares lineares.

Lingua retrorsum aculeata.

Alæ ad volandum ineptæ.

Pennæ minutissimæ.

Pedes compedes.

Character Specificus, &c.

PINGUINARIA fusco-cinerea, plumbeo irrorata, subtus alba, capite nigricante, fascia utrinque colli longi­tudinali flava.

APTENODYTES PATACHONICA. A. rostro pedibusque nigris, macula ad aures aurea.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 556.

PINGUINARIA PATACHONICA.

Museum Leverianum, No. 3. p. 144. t. 11.

Cimelia Physica. tab. 23.

Omnium hujus generis avium species in tabula longe est maxima, coloresque habet præ cæteris nitidos et elegantes. Rostrum illi nigrum est, apice flavescente, basique maxillæ inferioris crocea. Caput, v cum gula, collique parte postica, est atro-fuscum. In collo utrinque fascia longi­tudinalis flavissima conspicitur. Cætera avis a parte superiore est cinerea, singulis pennis apice cærules­cente terminatis, ita ut primo intuitu velut maculata appareat. Tota pars corporis inferior alba est: crura pedesque nigra. Eximia hæc species mundi Antarctici est incola, et præcipue prope Terram del Fuego conspicitur.

E2

the
PATAGONIAN PENGUIN.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, slightly bent at the tip.

Nostrils linear.

Tongue aculeated backwards.

Wings useless for flight.

Feathers extremely small.

Legs placed extremely backwards.

Specific Character, &c.

Cinereous-brown PENGUIN speckled with lead-color, white beneath, with blackish head, and a longi­tudinal yellow band on each side the neck.

PATAGONIAN PENGUIN.

Museum Leverianum, No. 3. p. 147. pl. 11.

Le Grand Manchot.

Buff. ois. 9. p. 399. pl. 30.

Manchot des isles Malouines.

Pl. enl. 975.

Of all the species of this singular genus that which is here repre­sented is the largest, as well as v the most elegant in its colors. The bill is black, with a yellowish tip; but the base of the lower mandible is orange-colored. The head, throat, and hind part of the neck are blackish-brown: on each side the neck is a longi­tudinal stripe of bright yellow: the remainder of the bird, on the upper parts, is of a deep ash-color, most of the feathers being tipped with blueish, so as to give the bird a speckled appearance: the whole under part is white. This curious species is a native of the southern hemisphere, and is principally found about Falkland islands.

410

Yellow Loricaria

London, Published Decr 1st 1799 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

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LORICARIA PLECOSTOMUS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus loricatum.

Os subtus.

Bloch. ichth. 11. p. 55.

Character Specificus, &c.

LORICARIA flava, fusco maculata, cauda striis plurimis transversis fuscis, dorso dipterygio.

LORICARIA PLECOSTOMUS. L. pinnis dorsi duabus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 508.

ACCIPENSER Indicus. A. ore cirris duobus.

Lin. mus. Ad. Frid. p. 55. t. 28. f. 4.

LORICARIA PLECOSTOMUS.

Bloch. 11. p. 57. t. 374.

Genus Loricaria paucas continet species, quarum illa in tabula depicta rivos incolit Americanos, in Brasilia præcipue reperta, longi­tudine, ut plurimum, pedali.

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the
YELLOW LORICARIA.

Generic Character.

Body mailed.

Mouth situated underneath.

Specific Character, &c.

YELLOW LORICARIA, spotted with brown, with two dorsal fins, and tail marked with several brown transverse stripes.

The genus Loricaria contains but very few species, of which that repre­sented on the present plate is a native of the American rivers, and is principally found in Brasil. Its general length is about a foot.

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411

Apodal Lizard

London, Published Decr 1st 1799 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

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LACERTA APUS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus tetrapodum, caudatum, nudum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 359.

Character Specificus, &c.

LACERTA anguiformis fusco-flavescens, pedibus anterioribus nullis, posterioribus brevissimis monodactylis.

LACERTA APUS. L. capite et corpore continuis una cum cauda longa teretibus imbricatis pallidis, pedibus anterioribus nullis, posteriorum subdidactylorum vestigio.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 1079.

Pall. nov. comm. Petrop. 19. p. 435. t. 9.

Lacertam Apum in illis speciebus habendam quæ vinculo quodam lacertas et serpentes inter se connectunt, primus descripsisse videtur Dominus Pallas in opere cui titulus “Nov. Comm. Petrop. &c.” icone etiam addita, quæ magni­tudinem naturalem monstrat. Specimen quod depinximus e Græcia attulit Dominus Joannes Sibthorpius, non ita pridem Botanices Professor Oxoniensis. In maximis censetur hæc species suæ tribus, longi­tudine fere tripedali. v Innocuo est ingenio, loca, ut plurimum, quærens umbrosa, uvida, secreta; et aliarum more lacertarum, insecta præcipue depascens.

Notandum est cæteras lacertas ad hanc tribum referendas, quæ hactenus physicis innotuerunt, esse lacertam Chalciden, lacertam serpentem, lacertam anguinam, et lacertam bipedem; quarum ad similitudinem adeo appropinquat Anguis qui ventralis dicitur, ut ab iis vix ac ne vix separari posset, nisi deessent ei aurium foramina externa, seu meatus auditorii, quibus serpentes semper carent.

r

the
APODAL LIZARD.

Generic Character.

Body four-footed, tailed, naked.

Specific Character.

Yellowish-brown snake-shaped LIZARD, without fore-feet, and with very short monodactylous hind-feet.

The Lacerta Apus, one of those singular species which form, as it were, a connecting link between Lizards and Snakes, seems to have been first described by Dr. Pallas in the work entitled “Nov. Comm. Petrop. &c.” where a figure of it is also given in its natural size. The specimen here exhibited was brought from Greece by the late Dr. Sibthorp, Professor of Botany in the University of Oxford. It may be considered as one of the largest of its tribe, measuring near three feet in length. It is a harmless animal, and is principally found in shady and damp situations in the most retired places, where, like other Lizards, it feeds chiefly on insects.

It may not be improper to observe that the other snake-shaped Lizards hitherto discovered by naturalists, v are the Lacerta Chalcides, L. serpens, L. anguina, and L. bipes. It may also be added that the animal called Anguis ventralis, or the glass snake of America, seems to make so near an approach to the tribe of Lizards just mentioned, as scarce to be separated from them, except from the circumstance of its wanting the appearance of the meatus auditorius or external foramen of the ear, of which the snakes are always destitute.

412

Water-Newt

London, Published Decr 1st 1799 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

LACERTA AQUATICA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus tetrapodum, caudatum, nudum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 359.

Character Specificus, &c.

LACERTA AQUATICA olivaceo-fusca nigro maculata, subtus crocea, cauda ancipiti lateribus finuata.

LACERTA cauda teretiuscula mediocri, pedibus muticis, palmis tetradactylis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 370.

Lacertam aquaticam pariunt fere omnes aquæ stagnantes, eadem, ut plurimum, magni­tudine, quam cernere est in tabula. Color illi est olivario-fuscus, plus minus saturatus in diversis speciminibus, corpore superiori caudaque nigro maculatis. Abdomen aurantio-pallidum, nigro similiter conspersum. Latior est mari cauda, compressaque ad latera, supra infraque inæqualiter sinuata; quas partes sinuatæ, si accuratius inspiciantur, admodum pellucidas, vasa per quæ sanguis defertur pulcherrime distributa monstrant: adeo ut vix aliud animal microscopicis observationibus de sanguinis circulatione melius inserviat. v Lacertæ aquaticæ cuticulas frequenter exuunt, in aquis sæpius visas, pellucidas, tenuissimas. Ova pariunt conglomerata, globulis singulis fusco-flavo-pallentibus, et glutine circumfuso inclusis. Larvæ pinnulis ramosis branchialibus instruuntur, quæ lacertis adultis et perfectis de pectore utrinque decidunt.

r

the
WATER-NEWT.

Generic Character.

Body four-footed, tailed, naked.

Specific Character, &c.

Olive-brown Water-Lizard spotted with black, with orange-colored abdomen, and sharp-edged sinuated tail.

The smaller or common WATER-NEWT.

The Lacerta Aquatica of Linnæus, or common Water-Newt, is an inhabitant of almost all stagnant waters, and is generally of the size repre­sented in the present plate. Its color is an olive-brown, more or less deep in different individuals, the upper part of the body, and the tail, being spotted with black: the abdomen is of a pale orange-color, and is spotted, in a similar manner with black: the tail of the male is broader, more compressed on the sides, and more sinuated at the edges than that of the female: these sinuated parts are extremely transparent, and if accurately examined, will be found to exhibit in a beautiful manner, the distribution of the blood-vessels; for which reason this animal is, perhaps, v better calculated than any other, for a microscopical survey of the circu­lation. The Water-Newt frequently casts its skin, which is extremely thin and pellucid, and may often be seen floating in the water. This species deposits its ova or spawn in small clusters, consisting of several palish yellow-brown globules, included in the surrounding gluten. The young or Larvæ are furnished with ramified branchial fins on each side the breast, which fall off when the animal arrives at its complete or perfect state.

413

Red-Winged Woodpecker

London, Published Jan. 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

F

PICUS MINIATUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum polyedrum, rectum: apice cuneato.

Nares pennis setaceis recumbentibus obtectæ.

Lingua teres, lumbriciformis, longissima, mucronata, apice retrorsum aculeata setis.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 173.

Character Specificus, &c.

PICUS olivaceus, subtus fusco transversim undulatus, crista tectricibusque rubris.

PICUS obscure ruber, capite cristato, jugulo roseo, abdomine albo, remigibus nigris albo maculatis, rectricibus cyaneis.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 241.

PICUS cristatus ruber, subtus albus, jugulo roseo, rostro caudaque cæruleis, tectricibus caudæ viridibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 432.

Picum miniatum, in insula Java generatum, primus descripsisse videtur celeberrimus Pennantus in libro de Indicis animalibus. Verisimile est avis colores v interdum variare: cum in nonnullis discrepet specimen quod depinximus ab illo de quo Pennantus disseruit. In tabula monstratur effigies tertia parte minor vera et naturali magni­tudine.

F2

the
RED-WINGED WOODPECKER.

Generic Character.

Bill angular, strait, cuneated at the tip.

Nostrils covered with reflected bristly leathers.

Tongue cylindric, worm-shaped, very long, sharp-pointed, and (generally) aculeated at the tip with reflex bristles.

Feet formed for climbing.

Specific Character, &c.

Olive WOODPECKER, transversely undulated beneath with brown, with red crest and wing-coverts.

RED-WINGED WOODPECKER.

Pennant Ind. Zool. p. 39. pl. 6.

Lath. Synops. 1. p. 595.

The Picus miniatus or Red-Winged Woodpecker is a native of the island of Java, and seems to have been first described by Mr. Pennant in his Indian Zoology. It is a species which appears to vary occasionally in color; the present specimen differing in some particulars from that described by Mr. Pennant. It is repre­sented about a third less than the natural size.

v

 

414

Organ Madrepore

London, Published Janry 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

MADREPORA MUSICALIS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Medusa.

Corallium cavitatibus lamelloso-stellatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1272.

Character Specificus, &c.

MADREPORA aggregata, cylindris suberectis striatis, dissepimentis transversis distantibus.

MADREPORA aggregata, cylindris stellarum striatis distantibus combinatis membranis transversis.

Soland et Ell. zooph. p. 165.

M. coralliis cylindricis striatis distantibus, combinatis, membranis confertissimis transversis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3769.

Insignis corallii veram magnitudinem depinximus, adeo conformati ut genera Tubiporæ et Madreporæ connec­tere quodammodo videatur; cum columnæ seu cylindri certo intervallo dissepimentis transversis inter se conjun­gantur. Licet in oceano Indico innascatur, interdum tamen reperta sunt specimina in v oris Britannicis. Recens rarissimum; in lapideam duritiem conversum sæpius e terra effoditur quam reliqua pleraque corallia.

r

ORGAN MADREPORE.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Medusa.

Coral marked with lamellar striated cavities.

Specific Character, &c.

Aggregated MADREPORE, with suberect striated distant cylinders, with transverse dissepiments.

White Organ Coral.

Fasciated Coral.

Borl. Cornw. p. 241. pl. 27. f. 7.

The curious Coral here represented in its natural size, seems to connect the genera of Tubipore and Madrepore, having the columns, of which it is composed, united at intervals by transverse dissepiments. It is a native of the Indian ocean, and is considered as a rare species recent, tho’ more common in a fossil or petrified state than most others.

v

 

415

Turret Puff-Ball

London, Published Janry 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

LYCOPERDON FORNICATUM.

Character Genericus.

Fungus subrotundus, seminibus farinaceis impalpabilibus repletus, ab apice dehiscens.

Lin. gen. plant. p. 569.

Character Specificus, &c.

LYCOPERDON volva quadrifida fornicata, capitulo glabro; ore obtuso ciliato.

Huds. Flor. Angl. 2. p. 644.

LYCOPERDON coronatum.

Schoeff. fung. t. 183.

Geaster volvæ radiis et operculo elevatis.

Wats. act. angl. No. 474. p. 234.

Fungus pulverulentus turriculam fornicatam referens.

Blackst. spec. bot. 24. t. 2.

Ordo ille classis cryptogamicæ nomine Fungorum distinctus in tot species spargitur, ut eas plene et perfecte cognoscere solertissimis et diligentissimis botanicis vix concedatur; tantaque præterea est ipsarum specierum varietas, ut in iis investigandis delassentur plane tyrones et incerti laborent, ni plurimos qui de iis conscripserint auctores cum figuris præstantissimis in solatium sibi et auxilium invocent. Nonnullis tamen fungis certa adeo est crescendi norma, v formaque tam constans et fere perpetua, ut semel cogniti cum aliis vix confundi possint. Inter tales merito numeratur ille qui Lycoperdon fornicatum nominatur, in aridis ripis præcipue visus ubi humus laxior et friabilis. E plantis est rarioribus quæ in Britannia gignuntur. Simul atque ab humo attollitur donec amplius augeri desinat, subrotunda est seu leviter ovata, magni­tudine mali parvuli, constatque e globo centrali valva tenui obducto tunicisque duabus concentricis involuto, quarum exterior superficiem habet nonnihil scabrosam. Continetur inter hasce tunicas viscidum et mucosum quoddam fluidum. Cum vero ad plenam magni­tudinem adoleverit, quasi arte magica subito commutatur plantæ facies, assurgitque quasi templum parvulum, columnis quatuor innixum ex æquo distan­tibus et in summo conjunctis, globumque ipsum susti­nentibus quo ædes terminantur. Utcunque mira videatur subita transformatio, causa tamen nullo negotio possit exponi. Cum enim planta ad plenum aucta sit, tunicæ statim rumpuntur, quarum interior vi resiliendi penitus inversa in quatuor segmenta dividitur, quorum apices apicibus segmentorum tunicæ exterioris adhærent; quo fit ut globus centralis elevetur, ut in tabula. Eodem fere tempore semina e globi ore, pulveris tenuissimi more, exploduntur; jamque planta vicibus perfuncta remanet et quiescit. Juniori color albido-cinereus, adultæ fuscus, in diversis speciminibus plus minusve saturatus. Si anteactis temporibus, cum adhuc in animis hominum dominaretur superstitio, compertum fuisset Lycoperdon fornicatum, credidisset proculdubio vulgus, non sine lepido dæmonum et empusarum dolo e planta templum assurrexisse.

r

TURRET PUFF-BALL.

Generic Character.

Roundish Fungus, opening at the top, filled with extremely minute seeds in form of a fine powder.

Specific Character, &c.

LYCOPERDON (Puff-Ball) with quadrifid cap, smooth head, and obtuse ciliated opening.

TURRET PUFF-BALL.

Withering Bot. Arr. 2. p. 783.

Temple PUFF-BALL.

The particular division of the class Cryptogamia known by the title of Fungi, consists of such a prodigious number of species as almost to defy the investigation of the most zealous botanist; while the varieties to which many of them are occasionally subject, are such as to involve in the most perplexing uncertainty the enquiries of botanical students, who, unless assisted by almost every author who has either figured or described them, are too often obliged to relinquish all hope of determining the parti­cular species they may happen to have discovered. Some however are so regular in their growth, so striking v in their appearance, and so little liable to vary, that, when disco­vered, the species can scarce be mistaken. Among the Fungi which are thus remarkable may well be ranked the Lycoperdon fornicatum, or Turret Puff-Ball. This most curious plant grows principally on dry banks, where the soil is somewhat loose and fine. It is much less common than the other species of Lycoperdon, and may be considered as one of the plantæ rariores of this kingdom. At its first appearance above ground, and so long as it continues in a growing state, it is of a globular or slightly oval form, and of the size of a small apple; and consists of a central ball, covered with a slight volva, and enveloped by two concentric coats, of which the exterior is somewhat roughish on the surface; and between the two coats is contained a sort of mucilage or jelly. It is no sooner however arrived at its full growth, than, as if by an effect of magic, the whole appearance of the plant is entirely changed, and there springs up, as it were a little temple, composed of four equidistant pillars, uniting at the top, and supporting a globular head, or ball which terminates the cupola. The cause of this singular alteration is easily understood. When arrived at its full growth, the coats burst suddenly open; the interior one protruding itself upwards by its natural elasticity, becomes entirely inverted, and splits into four segments, which cohere by their tips to the corresponding ones of the outward coat: by this means the central ball is exposed, in the elevated state repre­sented in the figure; the seeds at the same time exploding from the orifice in the form of a fine r dust, and the plant, having passed thro’ all the periods of vegetation, continues in the form it has thus assumed. Its color during its young or globular state is a whitish ash; but when in its ultimate form, it is generally of a brown color, more or less deep in different individuals. Had this curious vegetable been observed in the times of popular superstition, there is little doubt but it would have been considered as a Temple raised by the power of Fairies.

v

 

416

Lichen Millepore

London, Published Janry 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

MILLEPORA LICHENOIDES.

Character Genericus.

Animal Hydra.

Corallium poris turbinatis teretibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1282.

Character Specificus.

MILLEPORA caulescens decumbens bifarie dichotoma, ramis denticulatis binis porosis scabris.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1283.

MILLEPORA tubipora.

Soland. et Ell. zooph. p. 139. pl. 26. f. 1.

Formosi corallii in mari mediterraneo generati naturalem magni­tudinem depingi curavimus. Color communis flavescit pallidissimo-fuscus.

v

LICHEN MILLEPORE.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Hydra or Polype.

Coral furnished with cylindric turbinated pores.

Specific Character, &c.

Caulescent bifariously-dichotomous MILLEPORE, with denticulated porous branches.

Tubulous MILLEPORE.

Soland and Ellis zooph. p. 139. pl. 26. f. 1.

This beautiful Coral is a native of the Mediterranean sea, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size. Its general color is an extremely pale whitish or yellowish brown.

417

Great Awk

London, Published Feb. 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

G

ALCA IMPENNIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum edentulum, breve, compressum, convexum, transverse sæpius sulcatum.

Nares lineares.

Lingua fere longitudine rostri.

Pedes tridactyli palmati, digito postico nullo.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 791.

Character Specificus, &c.

ALCA rostro compresso-ancipiti sulcato, macula ovata utrinque ante oculos.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 210.

ALCA major.

Briss. av. 6. p. 85.

Mergus Americanus.

Clus. exot. p. 103.

Qui in antarcticis partibus Pinguinariis datur ordo, in arcticis idem Alcis videtur recte tribuendus. Ob alas brevissimas ad pinguinariarum similitudinem præcipue accedit species quam depinximus, nec volandi capax, nec recti et firmi incessus. Europæ et Americæ regiones maxime septentrionales incolit, v raro e mari in littus progediens, nisi ovum deponendi causa, quod unicum parere dicitur in nudo aliquo loco prope marginem. Magnitudo avi est quasi anseris communis.

G2

the
GREAT AWK.

Generic Character.

Beak toothless, short, compressed, convex, often transversly sulcated.

Nostrils linear.

Tongue almost the length of the bill.

Feet tridactyle, webbed, without hind toe.

Specific Character, &c.

AWK with compressed furrowed beak, with an oval white spot on each side the head before the eyes.

GREAT AWK.

Lath. syn. 3. p. 311.

Northern Penguin.

Edw. 147.

The Alcæ or Awks seem to hold the same rank in the northern hemisphere with the Penguins in the southern: the present species, in particular, from the remarkable smallness of its wings, is extremely allied to the Penguins, being equally incapacitated both for flight and for steady walking. It is a native of the most northern parts of Europe and Asia, and is not often seen on shore, except in the breeding season, when it comes to deposit and hatch its egg, (for it is said to lay but one,) on some bare spot on the edge of the coast. It is about the size of a goose.

v

 

418

Twelve-Rayed Asterias

London, Published Feb. 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

ASTERIAS PAPPOSA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus depressum: crusta subcoriacea, tentaculis muricata.

Os centrale.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1092.

Character Specificus, &c.

ASTERIAS stellata, radiis tredecim, undique muricata falciculis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1098.

Stella marina Americana dodecactis crispula.

Seb. mus. 1. p. 15. t. 8. fig. 5.

Dodecactis reticulata in dorso.

Link. t. 28. f. 17. t. 32. f. 52. t. 34. f. 54.

In genere Asteriadum plurimæ continentur species. Ex illis quæ in oris Britannicis innascuntur præcipuam selegimus, cui interdum duplo vel etiam triplo latior est diametros quam in tabula ostenditur. Color generalis e flavo rubet, subtus pallidior. Diversa tamen specimina colorem habent rubrum plus minus saturatum, interdum fere subfuscum. Radios numerat hæc species plerumque tredecim, interdum tantum duodecim. Non desunt tamen exempla vel quindecim radiorum.

v

 

r

the
TWELVE-RAYED ASTERIAS.

Generic Character.

Body depressed; covered with a coriaceous crust muricated with tentacula.

Mouth central, five-valved.

Specific Character, &c.

ASTERIAS with twelve or thirteen rays, and the surface entirely muricated with short fascicular processes.

TWELVE-RAYED SEA-STAR.

Pennant Brit. Zool. 4. p. 56. No. 72.

The species of Star-Fish are extremely numerous. Of those which are natives of the coasts of Britain the present is the most conspicuous, and is sometimes found of twice or thrice the diameter of the figure repre­sented on the plate. Its color is a yellowish red above, and paler beneath; but different specimens vary as to intensity of color, some being of a deep or dusky red. The number of rays is commonly thirteen; sometimes twelve, as in the present specimen, and sometimes as far as fifteen.

v

 

419

Elk’s-Horn Millepore

London, Published Feb. 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

MILLEPORA ALCICORNIS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Hydra.

Corallium poris teretibus turbinatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1282.

Character Specificus, &c.

MILLEPORA ramosa compressa recta, poris sparsis obsoletis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1282.

Alcis cornu figura corallium.

Worm. mus. 232.

Corallium asperum candicans.

Sloan Jam. 1. t. 17. fig. 1.

Marium Indicorum et Americanorum incola Millepora alcicornis diversa est magni­tudine; ab aliis tamen digno­scitur quod plerumque crescat erecta, summis ramulis quasi complanatis et dilatatis. Color sordide est albidus seu cretaceus, interdum levissime subflavus.

v

 

r

ELK’S-HORN MILLEPORE.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Hydra or Polype.

Coral furnished with cylindric turbinated pores.

Specific Character, &c.

Strait compressed MILLEPORE, with scarce perceptible scattered pores.

ELK’S-HORN MILLEPORE.

Ellis zooph. p. 141.

The Millepora alcicornis is a native of the Indian and American seas, and varies greatly in size, but is generally distinguished by its upright growth, and the flattened and dilated form of its terminal ramifications. Its color is a dull chalky white, sometimes very slightly tinged with yellowish.

v

 

420

Panthous Butterfly

London, Published Feb. 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

PAPILIO PANTHOUS?
var.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis dentatis nigris concoloribus; primoribus albo maculatis; pollicis maculis albis nigra scetis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 748.
Eq. Tr.

Var. alis superioribus immaculatis, inferioribus flavo tinctis.

Papilionem Panthoum in maximis papilionacei generis numerandum primo opinor fuisse a Seba depictum. Colores videntur non esse omnino certi, sed paululum mutabiles. Fit enim interdum ut nonnullorum speci­minum alæ inferiores subflavo tingantur, qui aliis nullus est; et ut alarum superiorum subfuscus color saturatior longe sit quam contigit papilioni quem depinximus.

v

 

r

PANTHOUS?
var.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the point into a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

BUTTERFLY with dentated black wings, of similar colors on both surfaces; the upper wings spotted with white, the lower marked with white spots including black ones.

Var. with the upper wings not spotted, and the lower ones tinged with yellow.

The Papilio Panthous, one of the largest of the Butterfly tribe, seems to have been first figured by Seba. In its colors it appears to vary considerably; some specimens exhibiting a tinge of yellow in the lower wings which is not to be seen in others; and the brown on the upper wings is in some far deeper than in the specimen here repre­sented.

v

 

421

Black-Backed Goose

London, Published March 1. 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

H

ANAS MELANOTOS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum lamelloso-dentatum, convexum, obtusum.

Lingua ciliata, obtusa.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 194.

Character Specificus, &c.

ANAS rostro basi gibbo compresso, corpore albo, capite colloque nigro maculatis, dorso alis caudaque nigris.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 839.

ANSER MELANOTOS.

Zool. ind. p, 21. t. 11.

ANAS MELANOTOS.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 503.

Indiæ et insularum Indicarum incola est hæc species, magni­tudine fere anserina. A Pennanto in Zoologia Indica primum videtur fuisse descripta.

v

 

H2

the
BLACK-BACKED GOOSE.

Generic Character.

Bill convex, obtuse; the edges toothed with numerous lamellæ.

Tongue ciliated, obtuse.

Specific Character, &c.

White GOOSE, with black back, the head and neck spotted with black, and the bill furnished with a gibbose compressed callus at the base.

BLACK-BACKED GOOSE.

Lath. syn. 3. p. 449.

L’Oie bronzé.

Buff. ois. 9. p. 77.

Oie de la cote de Coromandel.

Pl. Enl. 937.

This species is a native of India and the Indian islands, and is nearly of the size of a common goose. It seems to have been first described by Mr. Pennant in his Indian Zoology.

v

 

422

European Frogfish

London, Published March 1. 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

LOPHIUS PISCATORIUS.

Character Genericus.

Pinnæ pectorales articulationem cubitalem effor­mantes.

Bloch. ichth. 3. p. 73.

Character Specificus, &c.

LOPHIUS capite corpore latiore.

Bloch ichth. 3. p. 74. t. 87.

LOPHIUS depressus, capite rotundato.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 402.

Rana piscatrix.

Charl. onom. 199.

Piscem describere pergimus non immerito in Naturæ miraculis habitum, captum nonnunquam in oris Britannicis, longum interdum sex vel etiam septem pedes. Margines capitis corporisque serie cuticularum fimbria­tarum, æquis intervallis a se invicem dispositarum, instruuntur. In capitis antica parte supra oculos sita sunt longa quasi tentacula, seu fila, quorum motu, dum prædæ insidians animal sub arena latitat, creditur pisces minores ad se allicere, qui vermium similitudine decepti ad Lophium appropinquantes facile capiuntur.

v

 

r

the
EUROPEAN FROGFISH.

Generic Character.

Pectoral Fins forming an elbow-like joint.

Specific Character, &c.

Depressed LOPHIUS, with the head wider than the body.

Common Angler.

Pennant Brit. Zool. 4. p. 105. pl. 18.

The Frogfish, Fishing Frog, or Sea-Devil.

This most singular fish is occasionally taken about the British coasts, and has been sometimes seen of the length of six or seven feet. Its general color is a dusky brown above, and pale or whitish beneath: the edges of the head and body are surrounded by a multitude of short, fringed skins or processes, placed at equal distances from each other: on the fore part of the head, above the eyes, are situated certain long tentacula or filaments; and it is imagined that by the assistance of these, while it is lying imbedded in the sand, waiting for its prey, it induces the smaller fish to approach, which, being deceived by the similitude, mistake the tentacula for worms, and are thus readily seized by the Frogfish.

v

 

423

Rose-Tipped Actinia

London, Published March 1. 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

ACTINIA CEREUS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus se affigens basi, carnosum, oblongum, teres, contractile, viviparum.

Os terminale, dilatabile, tentaculis cinctum.

Apertura præter os nulla.

Character Specificus, &c.

ACTINIA corpore longitudinaliter striato, tentaculis numerosissimis, denudatis, thalassinis, apice roseis.

Hydra CEREUS. H. tentaculis denudatis numerosissimis, corpore longi­tudinaliter sulcato.

Gaertn. act. angl. 52. p. 78. t. 1. f. 1.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3867.

Actiniarum Britannicarum formosissima merito habetur species, cujus magni­tudinem naturalem in tabula depin­ximus. Crescit tamen interdum in majorem molem. In oris Cornubiis reperta esse dicitur sæpius quam alibi. In editione Gmeliniana Systematis Linnæani annumeratur hæc species cum certis aliis Hydræ generi. Variant interdum colores; plumbei enim coloris sunt nonnulla specimina, carentque apicibus roseis tentaculorum.

v

 

r

the
ROSE-TIPPED ACTINIA.

Generic Character.

Body fixing itself by the base, fleshy, oblong, cylindric, contractile, viviparous.

Mouth terminal, dilatable, surrounded with tentacula.

No other aperture.

Specific Character, &c.

ACTINIA with longitudinally-furrowed body, and unretractile, slender, very numerous sea-green tentacula with rose-colored tips.

Sea Torchthistle.

Soland. & Ellis zooph. p. 2.

The rose-tipped Sea-Anemone.

Of all the British Actiniæ this may be considered as the most beautiful. It is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size, but is sometimes larger. It is said to be more frequently seen about the coasts of Cornwall than elsewhere. In the Gmelinian edition of the Systema Naturæ this species, with some others, is placed in the genus Hydra. In color it occasionally varies, specimens sometimes occurring of a deep lead-color, and without the appearance of the rose-colored tips of the tentacula.

v

 

424

White Planaria

London, Published March 1. 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

PLANARIA LACTEA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus gelatinosum, planiusculum; poro ventrali duplici; ore terminali?

Character Specificus, &c.

PLANARIA depressa oblonga alba anterius truncata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3090.

Hirudo depressa alba, lateribus acutis.

Lin. it. goth. p. 250.

Planariæ genus a sagacissimo Müllero institutum, generi Hirudinis adeo est affine, ut illud et marinum Doridis genus quasi vinculo quodam videatur connectere. Aquas dulces incolunt Planariæ; quarum mensibus æstivis plures cernuntur species in rivulis et stagnis. Motu plerumque feruntur lento et æquabili; hirudinum tamen ad instar se interdum quaquaversum flectentes, et diversimodo se vel contrahendi vel extendendi facultate pollentes. Radunt, ut plurimum, iter super plantas aquaticas; si vero, ut interdum fit, paululum spatii processerint sub ipsa aqua, inversæ natant, supino ventre. Abundant per æstatem rivuli et stagna specie quam depinximus magni­tudine tum vera tum auctiore. Cum semipellucida v sit cutis, viscera pulchre pinnata videantur. Magna est Planariis se regenerandi vis, et si perita incisura fuerint divisæ, certo tempore totidem perfecta repullulabunt animalia.

r

the
WHITE PLANARIA.

Generic Character.

Body gelatinous, flattish, with two ventral pores.

Mouth terminal?

Specific Character.

Oblong, white, depressed PLANARIA, truncated in front.

Milk-white PLANARIA, Purple-veined PLANARIA, &c.

The genus Planaria, first instituted by the accurate Müller, is nearly allied to that of Hirudo, and, in reality, seems to form a link between that and the marine genus Doris. The Planariæ are natives of fresh waters, and many species may be found in rivers and stagnant waters: their general motion is smooth, slowish, and even; accom­panied with various occasional flexures, and with all the degrees of contraction and extension which are exhibited in the genus Hirudo. They are generally seen moving over the surface of aquatic plants, and sometimes immediately below the surface of the water itself, swimming in an inverted position. The species here v represented, both in its natural size, as well as magnified, is a frequent inhabitant of ponds and rivulets in the summer season: The viscera form an elegantly pinnated appearance thro’ the semitransparent skin of the animal. The Planariæ possess the power of reproduction, and when divided by a clean incision, will within a certain space, be multiplied into so many complete animals.

425

Grey-Headed Parrakeet

London, Published April 1. 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

I

PSITTACUS CANUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum: mandibula superiore mobili; cera instructa.

Nares in rostri basi.

Lingua carnosa, obtusa, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 139.

Character Specificus, &c.

PSITTACUS brachyurus viridis, capite colloque subtus canis, cauda fascia nigra.

PSITTACUS CANUS.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 350.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 132.

PSITTACULA Madagascariensis.

Briss. av. 4. p. 394. t. 30. f. 2.

Inter minimas sui generis est hæc avicula. Perelegans specimen, quod continet Museum Leverianum, juxta veram magni­tudinem in tabula ostenditur.

v

the
GREY-HEADED PARRAKEET.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked: upper mandible moveable.

Nostrils round, placed in the base of the bill.

Tongue fleshy, broad, blunt at the end.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Short-tailed green PARRAKEET, with the head and lower part of the neck grey, and a black bar across the tail.

GREY-HEADED PARRAKEET.

Lath. syn. p. 315.

Perruche à tête grise.

Buff. ois. 6. p. 171.

Petite Perruche de Madagascar.

Pl. Enl. 791. f. 2.

This little bird is one of the smallest of its tribe: the elegant specimen repre­sented on the annexed plate is preserved in the Leverian Museum.

426

Variegated Wrasse

London, Published April 1. 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

I2

LABRUS TINCA?
var?

Character Genericus.

Os labiis crassis, replicatis; maxillis externis tectis.

Character Specificus.

LABRUS rostro sursum reflexo, cauda in extremo circulari?

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 477.

Arted. gen. 33. syn. 56.

Turdorum septimum genus?

Rondel. pisc. p. 177.

Spari et Labri genera a Linnæo non satis accurate a se invicem videntur sejungi. Ne quid enim dicamus de nimia horum generum affinitate, colorum quibus multæ species ornantur magna est diversitas. Ipsos quoque characteres confudisse et obscurasse videtur Linnæus, qui pinnas Spari pectorales vult esse rotundatas, pinnas autem Labri pectorales acuminatas. Quod cum prorsus contrarium sit in plerisque speciebus, non possumus non suspicari Linnæum, lapsu calami, verborum ordinum invertisse; et hoc modo in Systema Naturæ vitium irrepsisse. v Characteres quos instituit Blochius, utpote simpliciores, in errorem minus ducturos opinamur.

Labri Tincæ, in maribus Europæis sæpius conspecti, colores multum variant. Hujus depinximus, magni­tudine quasi dimidiata, varietatem? non quotidianam, sed fere omnium splendidissimam; quam non continet eximium Blochii opus; quæque satis fideliter depicta haud possit reperiri in alio aliquo opere ichthyologico.

r

the
VARIEGATED WRASSE.

Generic Character.

Mouth retractile: lips thick and revolute.

Specific Character, &c.

Dusky-red Labrus, whitish beneath, with blue varie­gations and rounded tail.

Var. Whitish Labrus, variegated with red, orange, and blue, the variegations on the body flexuous, on the fins spotted.

Ancient WRASSE?

Pennant Brit. Zool. p. 214. pl. 47. No. 115.

The species in the two genera of Sparus and Labrus are, according to Linnæus, not so easily distinguished as might be wished; since exclusive of the strong affinity between the genera, many of the species vary much in color. It must likewise be added that even the Linnæan characters of these genera seem to be involved in great obscurity; a part of the generic character of Sparus consisting in the rounded shape of the pectoral fins, (pinnæ pectorales rotundatæ) while those of the genus Labrus are expressly said to be acuminatæ. Now the very reverse of this being really the case in most of the species, I am therefore r inclined to suppose that Linnæus, thro’ a lapsus calami, committed this mistake in writing the generic characters, and that it has been erroneously thus printed in the Systema Naturæ. Dr. Bloch’s characters are more simple, and of course, less liable to mislead.

The Labrus Tinca, frequently found in the European seas, varies much in color: the specimen repre­sented on the present plate, of about half the natural size, exhibits one of the richest varieties, and is far superior to those which are generally seen. It does not occur in the splendid publication of Dr. Bloch, nor does it indeed seem to have been any where repre­sented with a sufficient degree of exactness.

427

Common Globe-Animal

London, Published April 1. 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

VOLVOX GLOBATOR.

Character Genericus.

Vermis inconspicuus, simplicissimus, pellucidus, sphæricus.

Müll. anim. infus. p. 12.

Character Specificus, &c.

VOLVOX sphæricus membranaceus globulis sparsis.

Müll. anim. infus. p. 18. t. 3. f. 12. 13.

VOLVOX sphæricus membranaceus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3906.

VOLVOX globosus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. ed. 12.

VOLVOX globosus immutabilis foetubus sparsis.

Pall. el. zooph. p. 417.

E maximis est animalculis Volvox Globator quæ microscopii ope solent examinari, non raro etiam ipso oculo evidenter videndus; globulo simillimus flavo admodum seu aurantio, interdum viridi. Aquas stagnantes, in quibus ut plurimum copiose generatur, æstivo tempore suis manifeste tingit coloribus. Movet se inæqualiter et quaquaversum, volutus veluti circa suum axim. Si microscopice examinetur, v patebit miro naturæ consilio continere fere semper hoc animalculum pullos matri similes, qui et ipsi penitius inspecti suos habent minores; adeo ut in Volvoce Globatore revera includi dicantur “nati natorum et qui nascentur ab illis.”

r

the
COMMON GLOBE-ANIMAL.

Generic Character.

Animalcule simple, spherical, pellucid.

Specific Character, &c.

Spherical VOLVOX, either green or yellow, with variously-sized scattered globulets.

The GLOBATOR.

The GLOBE-ANIMAL.

Baker Empl. for Micr. p. 322. pl. 12. f. 27.

Kugel-Thier.

Roes. ins. 3. p. 617. pl. 101. f. 1. 2. 3.

The Volvox Globator or Globe-Animal is among the largest of the microscopic animalcules, and frequently arrives at such a size as to be distinctly visible to the naked eye; appearing under the form of a small globule, sometimes of a deep yellow, or orange-color, and sometimes green. During the summer months, so numerous is this species as to cause a very visible discoloration of the fluid in which it is found. Its general residence is in stagnant waters. Its motions are irregular, moving in all directions, v and at the same time rolling or spinning as if on an axis. When microscopically examined, it exhibits one of the most curious phenomena in natural history; being almost always found pregnant with several smaller and perfectly similar animalcules; and these if more closely examined, will be found provided with a still smaller progeny; so that the Globe-Animal contains within itself a tribe of already impregnated descendants.

428

Crocodile

London, Published April 1. 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

LACERTA CROCODILUS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus tetrapodum, caudatum, nudum.

Character Specificus, &c.

LACERTA capite cataphracto, nucha carinata, cauda superne cristis binis lateralibus horrida.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 1057.

LACERTA cauda compressa serrata, pedibus triunguiculatis, palmis pentadactylis, plantis tetradactylis palmatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. p. 359.

CROCODILUS.

Bellon. aquat. 41.

Gesn. quadr. 9. aquat. 304.

Aldr. aquat. 677.

LACERTUS maximus.

Raj. quadr. 761.

Cum Crocodilorum non desint specimina quorum pleraque viginti pedes, nonnulla etiam triginta superant, non est cur miremur calidiorum regionum incolas pro monstris infestissimis illos semper habuisse. Inhabitat Crocodilus Asiam et Africam. Lorica qua tegitur, quæque adulto dura adeo et densa est ut vel glandem plumbeam e scloppeto missam facile v repellat, nihil curiosius a natura est elaboratum. In partibus tamen corporis inferioribus multo tenuior et mollior est lorica. Videtur totum animal quasi elegantissime et perfectissime cælatum. Color adulti superior fusco-nigricat, inferior albo-flavescit: crura autem summa, cæteræque nonnullæ partes luteo non sine viriditate quadam variantur. In speciminibus junioribus color corporis superioris fusco-nigricans flavoque pulcherrime commistus inferius fere cum albedine commutatur. Oculi, ut et avibus, membrana nictitante instruuntur. Crocodili juniores nequaquam formidandi sunt, parvi quippe et imbecilli animalia majora non possunt lacessere; minora tantum piscesque depascere soliti: quique in Europam afferuntur ætate minores non modo non feroces sunt, sed etiam nudis manibus impune plerumque tractantur; et vel ob debilitatem seu frigidius cælum, ad socordiam proni sunt, et fere torpidi. In fervidis autem Africæ regionibus cum ad plenam magni­tudinem et vires adoleverit Crocodilus, monstrum vix pejus parere putantur aquæ. Moli enim et robori magna accedit astutia. Juxta fluminum ripas delitescit, canesque et cætera quadrupedia correpta illico ingurgitat: dein in aquas se immergit, locumque imperturbatum nactus quiescit, donec iterum esuriens prædæ cupidine exire impellatur. Hunc prædandi morem exacte imitatur species parvula Britannica, lacerta palustris Linnæi, seu lacerta palustris nigro flavoque variata, quæ quatuor aut quinque uncias longa, insectum unam unciam longum facillime deglutiet; idque unico impetu qui vix oculis percipi possit; primum nempe sese in aquis r paulisper librando, cumque intervallum accurate dimensa sit, in insectum insiliendo, dictoque citius devorando. Si igitur parva hæc lacerta, uncias quatuor seu quinque longa, animal quartam vel quintam partem longi­tudinis suæ æquans illico in stomachum ingurgitare possit, cur Crocodilum miremur octodecim seu viginti pedes longum, canem, vel aliud quodcunque animal eodem modo corripere et deglutire?

Crocodili, ut et aliæ lacertæ, sunt ovipari. Ova in arena deponunt, pullique exclusi illico aquas petunt. Major tamen numerus ab aliis animalibus, ichneumonibus præsertim avibusque comeduntur. Ovum vix anserino majus et in omnibus ovo avis simillimum; crusta calcaria obtectum, cui interius adhæret membrana. Pullis recenter exclusis multo majus est caput pro corpore quam adultis. Ova hæc inter lautissimas delicias ab Afris numerantur, epulisque præcipuis adhibentur. Ab origine hac minima oritur fatale monstrum!

v

the
CROCODILE.

Generic Character.

Body four-footed, tailed, naked.

Specific Character, &c.

LIZARD with mailed head, carinated neck, and tail furnished on the upper part with two lateral crested processes.

The common, or Nilotic CROCODILE.

The Crocodile, so remarkable for its size and powers of destruction, has in all ages been regarded as one of the most noxious animals of the warmer regions. It is a native of Asia and Africa. The size to which it sometimes arrives is prodigious; specimens being frequently seen measuring upwards of twenty feet in length; and there are instances of their exceeding the length of thirty feet. The armour with which the Crocodile is covered may be numbered among the most curious and elaborate pieces of Nature’s mechanism. In the full-grown animal this armour, on the upper part of the body, is so strong and thick as easily to repel a musket-ball. On the lower parts it is much thinner, and of a more r pliable nature: the whole animal appears as if ornamented with the most regular and curious carved-work: the color of the full-grown Crocodile is blackish-brown above, and yellowish-white beneath; while the upper parts of the legs and some other parts are varied with deep yellow, and, in some places not without a tinge of green; but in the younger animals the color on the upper parts is a beautiful mixture of brown and pale yellow, which on the under parts becomes nearly white. The eyes are provided with a nictitating membrane, as in birds.

Crocodiles in a young state are by no means to be dreaded, since their small size and weakness prevent them from being able to injure any of the larger animals: they therefore content themselves with fish and other small prey; and the young Crocodiles which are from time to time brought to Europe are so far from being formidable or ferocious that they may generally be handled with impunity, and, either from weakness, or the effect of a cold climate, seem much inclined to torpidity; but in the glowing regions of Africa, where it arrives at its full strength and power, this animal is justly regarded as the most formidable inhabitant of the rivers. To the great strength and size of the Crocodile is superadded a great degree of subtilty. It lies in wait near the banks of rivers, and snatches dogs and other animals, and swallows them instantly; then plunges into the flood, and seeks some retired part, where it may lie concealed, till hunger again invites it to its prey. In its manner of attack it is exactly imitated by a v small species of water lizard not uncommon in our own country; viz. the Lacerta palustris of Linnæus. This animal, which is commonly about four or five inches long, will, with the greatest ease, swallow an insect of more than an inch in length; and that at one single effort, and with a motion so quick, that the eye can scarce pursue it. It poises itself in the water for some moments before, and having gained a convenient distance, springs with the utmost celerity on the insect: and swallows it as before mentioned. If therefore a small lizard of four or five inches long can thus instantaneously swallow an animal a fourth part of its own length, we need not wonder that a Crocodile of eighteen or twenty feet, or even much less, should attack and suddenly ingorge a dog or other quadruped.

Crocodiles, like the rest of the Lacertæ, are oviparous: they deposit their eggs in the sand, near, or on the banks; and the young when hatched immediately proceed to the water; but the major part of the eggs are commonly devoured by other animals, as Ichneumons, Birds, &c. The egg of the Crocodile is not much larger than that of a goose; and in external appearance bears the most perfect resemblance to the egg of a bird; being covered with a calcarious shell, under which is a membrane. When the young are first excluded the head bears a much larger proportion to the body than when full-grown. The eggs are numbered among the principal delicacies of Africa, and form one of the most favorite repasts. From so small an origin arises this formidable monster!

429

Variegated Emberiza

London, Published May 1. 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

K

EMBERIZA QUADRICOLOR.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum conicum.

Mandibulæ basi deorsum a se invicem discedentes: inferiore lateribus inflexo-coarctata, superiore angustiore.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 308.

Character Specificus, &c.

EMBERIZA viridis, capite colloque cæruleis, cauda cum tectricibus abdomineque superiore rubris, pectore abdomineque infimo fuscescentibus.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 417.

EMBERIZA QUADRICOLOR.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 886.

Formosissimam aviculam depinximus quæ in insula Java præcipue conspicitur, et Americanæ speciei Ciris dictæ admodum affinis est. In tabula magni­tudine vera exprimitur.

v

 

K2

the
VARIEGATED EMBERIZA.

Generic Character.

Bill conical: Mandibles separating a little from the base downwards: the sides of the lower mandible bending rather inwards.

Specific Character, &c.

Green EMBERIZA with blue head and neck; the tail, coverts, and upper part of the abdomen red; the breast and lower part of the abdomen brownish.

Red-Rumped Bunting.

Lath. syn. 2. p. 208.

Le QUADRICOLOR.

Buff. ois. 3. p. 467.

Gros-bec de Java.

Pl. enl. 101. f. 2.

This beautiful bird is principally found in the island of Java, and is extremely nearly allied to the American species called Emberiza Ciris. The plate represents it in its natural size.

v

 

430

Thistle Butterfly

London, Published May 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

PAPILIO CARDUI.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis dentatis fulvis albo nigroque variegatis: posterioribus subtus ocellis quatuor.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2305.
Nymph. gemm.

PAPILIO alis dentatis fulvis albo nigroque variegatis; pollicis utrinque ocellis quatuor sæpius cæcis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 774.

Faun. suec. 1054.

PAPILIO major pulchra, nigro, rufo, albo coloribus varia.

Raj. ins. p. 122. n. 13.

PAPILIO eleganter variegata, agilis, Bella Donna dicta.

Mus. Pet. 226.

Urticas carduosque præcipue depascitur larva papilionis v hujus pulcherrimi, indeque extrema cauda dependens, ut cernere est in tabula, in chrysalidem convertitur mense Julio, e qua erumpit papilio incipiente Augusto.

r

the
THISTLE BUTTERFLY.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when sitting,) upright. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

BUTTERFLY with orange-red dentated wings varied with black and white: the lower wings marked with four eye-shaped spots beneath.

The Painted Lady.

Albin. Engl. Ins. pl. 56.

Harris Aurel. pl. 11.

The larva or caterpillar of the elegant Butterfly here repre­sented feeds principally on thistles and nettles. It changes into a chrysalis in July, and the Fly appears in the beginning of August.

v

 

431

Eel Vibrio

London, Published May 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

VIBRIO ANGUILLULA.

Character Genericus.

Vermis nudo oculo inconspicuus, simplicissimus, teres, elongatus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3898.

Character Specificus, &c.

VIBRIO filiformis subpellucidus, utrinque attenuatus.

VIBRIO ANGUILLULA. V. æqualis subrigidus.

Müll. an. inf. p. 63. t. 9.

Naturæ miracula microscopio examinantibus innotuit jamdiu quod describere pergimus animalculum, repertum sæpissime in glutine triticeo acescente. Ob summam quæ huic est cum anguilla vulgari similitudinem, convenit inter omnes fere scriptores eodem nomine designare. Motu utitur rapido validoque. Corpus pellucidum, nisi qua parte visuntur intestina. Viviparum est animalculum, editque certis intervallis prolem numerosam. Ab decimam unciæ partem longi­tudine pertingunt nonnulla specimina; pleraque tamen longe minora. Congeriem animalculorum microscopio modice auctorum ostendit tabula, ut de forma varioque situ clarius v possit judicari. His similia animalcula cernere interdum est in aceto, quæ plerique habuerunt physici varietatem speciei de qua jam agitur, potius quam speciem revera diversam.

r

the
EEL VIBRIO.

Generic Character.

Animalcule inconspicuous to the naked eye, simple, round, elongated.

Specific Character, &c.

Subpellucid filiform VIBRIO, attenuated at each extremity.

EELS in Paste.

Baker. micr. p. 81.

Empl. for micr. p. 244. pl. 10. n. 9.

EELS in Vinegar.

Hook micr. pl. 25. fig. 2.

The animalcule which forms the subject of the present plate has long been known to microscopical observers. It is found in great plenty in paste composed of flour and water, and which has been suffered to become acescent. The general resemblance which this species bears to an Eel has almost universally led microscopical writers to distinguish it by that title. Its motions are rapid and strong: the body is transparent, except where the intestines appear. It is viviparous, and produces at intervals a numerous v progeny. In some instances it is found of the length of the tenth of an inch: but its general size is far less. The plate represents a group of these animalcules moderately magnified, and in such a manner as to exhibit the various particulars of shape, posture, transparency, comparative size, &c. Animalcules of a similar appearance are sometimes found in vinegar, and have been generally considered as constituting a variety rather than a distinct species.

432

Acetabulated Platystacus

London, Published May 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

PLATYSTACUS COTYLEPHORUS.

Character Genericus.

Truncus brevis, depressus. Cauda longa, compressa.

Bloch. ichth. 11. p. 42.
Abdominales.

Character Specificus, &c.

PLATYSTACUS cirris sex, cotyledonibus in ventre.

Bloch. ichth. 11. p. 44. t. 372.

Aspredo corpore oblonga, lævi, pinna ani ossiculorum 40 et ultra.

Gronov. Mus. Ichth. 2. p. 8. n. 26.

Batrachus, radio primo pinnarum pectoralium utrinque dentato.

Lin. mus. Adolph. Frid. p. 73.?

A celeberrimo Blochio institutum Platystaci genus affine admodum est Siluri generi. Paucas continet species, e quibus illam in tabula depingendam selegimus, cujus corpus parvulis plurimis acetabulis subtus instruitur, quæ, si parum adulta fuerint specimina, vix ac ne vix aperte postunt conspici. In India generatur Platystacus cotylephorus, dulcium aquarum incola, in longi­tudinem crescens minimum pedalem.

Fig. a. Acetabulum magnitudine auctum exprimit.

v

 

r

the
ACETABULATED PLATYSTACUS.

Generic Character.

Body short, depressed. Tail long, compressed.

Specific Character, &c.

PLATYSTACUS with six beards, and ventral acetabula.

Der Tellerträger. Le Cotylephor.

Bloch. ichth. pl. 372.

The genus Cotylephorus, first instituted by the celebrated Dr. Bloch, is extremely allied to the genus Silurus. The species are but few in number. That which is here repre­sented is remarkable for the numerous small acetabular processes or suckers with which the under surface of the body is beset; and which, in young specimens, are scarce distinctly visible. This species is a native of India, where it inhabits fresh waters, and grows to the length of a foot or more.

Fig. a. shews one of the acetabula or suckers magnified.

v

 

433

Crested Dominican Cardinal

London, Published June 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

L

LOXIA CUCULLATA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum conico-gibbum, frontis basi rotundatum versus caput: Mandibula inferior margine laterali inflexa.

Nares in basi rostri.

Lingua integra.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 299.

Character Specificus, &c.

LOXIA cinerea subtus alba, capite cristato gulaque coccineis.

LOXIA CUCULLATA.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 378.

LOXIA Dominicana. β.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 848.

Cum Loxiæ Dominicanæ varietas olim habita sit perelegans hæc avis, consensum est inter physicos ut ab illa separari et species omnino diversa haberi debeat. Loxiam Dominicanam paululum magni­tudine superans Brasiliam incolit. Iconem pulchre expressam continent Milleri et Buffoni opera, quorum alteri titulus Cimelia Physica, alteri Planches enluminees. Depingitur in tabula nostra magni­tudo avis tertia fere parte diminuta.

v

 

L2

the
CRESTED DOMINICAN CARDINAL.

Generic Character.

Bill strong, convex above and below, very thick at the base.

Nostrils small and round.

Tongue generally truncated at the tip.

Specific Character, &c.

Ash-coloured crested Grosbeak, white beneath, with crimson head and throat.

CRESTED CARDINAL.

Brown’s illust. of zool. pl. 23.

Miller’s plates, 22.

Le CARDINAL DOMINIQUAIN.

Planches Enluminees, 103.

CRESTED DOMINICAN Grosbeak.

Lath. syn. 3. p. 123. A.

This elegant bird is now allowed to constitute a distinct species from the Loxia Dominicana, of which it was once considered as a variety. It has been beautifully figured in Mr. Miller’s work entitled Cimelia Physica as well as in the Planches Enluminees. v In size it somewhat exceeds the Loxia Dominicana, and is a native of Brasil. The plate represents it about a third part less than the natural size.

434

Zebra Shark

London, Published June 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

SQUALUS FASCIATUS.

Character Genericus.

Spiracula quinque ad latera colli.

Corpus oblongum teretiusculum.

Os in anteriore capitis parte.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 397.

Character Specificus, &c.

SQUALUS fuscus, fasciis transversis albis.

SQUALUS capite truncato, cirris duobus.

Bloch. ichth. 4. p. 17. t. 113.

SQUALUS varius, &c.

Seb. mus. 1. p. 105. t. 34. f. 1.

SQUALUS tigrinus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 1493.

Maria incolit Indica Squalus fasciatus, inter minores hujus generis numerandus. A cæteris pictura notabili facillime distinguitur.

v

 

r

the
ZEBRA SHARK.

Generic Character.

Spiracles five, on each side the neck.

Body oblong, of a roundish or subcylindric form.

Mouth at the anterior part of the head.

Specific Character, &c.

Brown SHARK with transverse white bands.

The banded Indian SHARK.

Tiger SHARK.

Pennant Ind. Zool. p. 55. pl. 16.

The Zebra Shark is a native of the Indian seas: it is one of the smaller species of this genus, and is readily distin­guished from all others by the remarkable distribution of its colors.

v

 

435

Patroclus (Butterfly)

London, Published June 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

PAPILIO PATROCLUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes. (volatu diurno.)

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis caudatis concoloribus fulcis, fascia lineari alba apicibufque albis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 749.

Clerk. ic. t. 25. f. 2.

Drury ins. 1. t. 7. f. 1.

Cram. ins. 10. t. 109. A. B.

Aub. miscell. 17. f. 1. 2.

Antennæ in hac specie setaceæ, ut in phalænis: genus igitur dubium.

Indiam, Sinam, &c. incolit Papilio Patroclus, magni­tudine vera in tabula depictus.

v

 

r

PATROCLUS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the extremity and generally terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when sitting) upright. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Brown Butterfly with an oblique white stripe across the wings, and the tails of the wings tipped with white.

Phalene Chauve-Souris de la Chine.

Pl. Enl. 17.

The Antennæ in this species are setaceous, as in the Phalænæ, and its genus is in reality dubious.

This Insect is a native of India, China, &c. and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

436

Festucine Vibrio

London, Published June 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

VIBRIO PAXILLIFER.

Character Genericus.

Vermis nudo oculo inconspicuus, simplicissimus, teres, elongatus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3898.

Character Specificus, &c.

VIBRIO flavescens, paleis gregariis multifariam ordinatis.

Müll. an. inf. p. 54. t. 7. f. 3-7.

Baccillaria paradoxa.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3903.

Cum de hac specie accurate disseruit Dominus Müller, descriptionem ab illo contextam in opus meum transferre non dubitavi.

“Animalculum, vel congeries animalculorum mirabilis. Pluries in guttulis aquæ marinæ vidi corpuscula linearia flavescentia (solitaria paleas, in quadrangula disposita scobes referebant) granulaque seminalia qualiscunque vegetabilis diu credidi; demum node inter 6 & 7 Octo­brem 1781 aspectu fili flavescentis, sese in longum producentis et in breve contrahentis, ac ex his paxillis compositi, obstupefactus, novoque phænomeno gavisus, ejusdem variis evolutionibus incubui.

v

“Paxilli nudo oculo inconspicui cute pellucida membranaque intestinali flavescente, punctisque binis aut tribus sparsis constare videntur. Hi numero senario ad quadragenarium situm quidem variant, at parallelum semper servant, vel quadratum, vel filum strictum, effor­mantes, aut in ziczac ducti fulminis directionem imitantur, vel filum utraque extremitate quadratum proferens, vel adhuc aliam figuram, oculo fissunt. Bini paxilli (unus in minori numero) a reliquis interdum in angulum rectum, vel acutum, divergunt; omnes membrana dilatabili mutuo coalitos suspicor.

“Congeries hæc quadrangulari forma quiescere solet, mortuaque persistit, reliquas vero jam ab hac, jam ab illa, extremitate incipiendo lente efformat.

“In ulva latissma copiose, hinc marinus. Totum Octobrem 1781 plures reperi, posthac Septembre 1783 rursus apparuere.”

r

the
FESTUCINE VIBRIO.

Generic Character.

Animalcule inconspicuous to the naked eye, simple, cylindric, elongated.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish VIBRIO, consisting of gregarious filaments variously disposed.

Straw-shaped VIBRIO.

Pipe VIBRIO.

The celebrated Müller, its first discoverer, informs us that this wonderful animalcule, or rather congeries of animalcules was found in sea water, appearing to consist of certain linear yellowish bodies, which singly repre­sented a kind of filaments, but when disposed into a square, exhibited rather the appearance of small pieces of sawdust, and Mr. Müller for a long time supposed them to be of a vegetable nature. At length, on the 8th of October 1781 he was surprised with the sight of a long yellowish thread of these bodies evidently extending and contracting itself; and pleased at this novel phenomenon, diligently attended to its various evolutions. The v straws or filaments, which are scarce observable to the naked eye, seem, when microscopically surveyed, to consist of a pellucid skin, and a membranaceous yellowish intestine, with two or three scattered points or granules. These bodies, to the number of from six to forty, vary their position, but always preserve their parallelism; forming themselves either into a square, an extended thread or line, a zigzag or interrupted line, or other different figures. Sometimes one of the filaments diverges from the rest, either at a right or an acute angle, and where the group consists of but few filaments, two will sometimes diverge in the same manner, and Mr. Müller supposes that all the filaments are connected by means of an extensile membrane. The congeries or general heap rests in a square form, and remains thus when dead, but forms others, which proceed slowly sometimes from one, and sometimes from the other extremity. Mr. Müller observed this animalcule in plenty on some specimens of the Ulva latissima, in October, 1781, and again in 1783.

437

Crested Penguin

London, Published July 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

M

PINGUINARIA CRISTATA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum rectum, apice subincurvato.

Nares lineares.

Lingua retrorsum aculeata.

Alæ ad volandum ineptæ.

Pennæ minutissimæ.

Pedes compedes.

Character Specificus, &c.

PINGUINARIA rostro rubro, pedibus flavis, crista frontali erecta nigra, auriculari deflexa flava.

Aptenodytes chrysocome.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 878.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 555.

Aptenodytes cristata.

Miller tab. miscell.

In Insulis Antarcticis innascitur Pinguinaria cristata, cæteras hujus generis elegantia superans. Magnitudo ejus est quasi anatis vulgaris.

v

 

M2

the
CRESTED PENGUIN.

Generic Character.

Bill straight, slightly bent at the tip.

Nostrils linear.

Tongue aculeated backwards.

Wings useless for flight.

Feathers extremely small.

Legs placed extremely backwards.

Specific Character, &c.

Blueish-black reddish-billed PENGUIN, white beneath, with upright black frontal and deflexed yellow auricular crest.

Manchot fauteur.

Buff. 9. p. 409.

Manchot huppé de Sibirie.

Pl. enl. 984.

This species, which surpasses most of its genus in the elegance of its appearance, is a native of the Southern islands. Its general size is that of a common Duck.

v

 

438

Spotted Gurnard

London, Published July 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

TRIGLA PUNCTATA.

Character Genericus.

Digiti liberi ad pinnas pectorales.

Character Specificus, &c.

TRIGLA rosea, coccineo punctata, pinnis pectoralibus cæruleis.

TRIGLA rubro punctata.

Bloch. 10. p. 100. t. 353.
Pisc. Thoracici.

Lyra altera.

Plumier Mss.

Maria Americana incolit Trigla punctata, in pedalem vel sesquipedalem crescens longi­tudinem. Viro celeberrimo Carolo Plumier figuram archetypam hujus piscis debemus, a Blochio primum evulgatam.

v

 

r

the
SPOTTED GURNARD.

Generic Character.

Finger-shaped processes before the pectoral fins.

Specific Character, &c.

Rose-coloured GURNARD, spotted with deep red, with blue pectoral fins.

The spotted American GURNARD.

Der punctirte Seehahn.

La Trigle ponctuée.

Bloch. t. 353.

The spotted Gurnard is a native of the American seas, and grows to the length of a foot or eighteen inches. It is to the celebrated Father Plumier that we are indebted for the original figure of this fish, which was first published by Dr. Bloch.

v

 

439

Long Oyster

London, Published July 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

OSTREA ISOGONUM.

Character Genericus.

Animal Tethys.

Testa bivalvis, (plurimis) inæquivalvis, subaurita.

Cardo edentulus, fossula cava ovata striisque lateralibus transversis.

Character Specificus, &c.

OSTREA, testa æquivalvi, lobo laterali majore, cardine multoties sulcata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1149.

Ostrearum genus, quo nomine eas solummodo intelligimus quas titulo ostrearum rudium distinxit Linnæus, (exclusis iis quæ pectines vocantur,) varias continet species facie inter se valde dissimiles. Ex iis quæ ob formam notatu dignissimæ sunt, speciem naturali colore et magni­tudine repræsentat tabula oceani Indici incolam.

v

 

r

the
LONG OYSTER.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Tethys.

Shell bivalve (in most species unequally), subauriculated.

Hinge toothless, with an ovate fossule and lateral transverse streaks.

Specific Character, &c.

Equal-valved OYSTER, with the right lobe largest, and the hinge marked by numerous furrows.

The genus Ostrea, by which is here meant the assortment called by Linnæus Ostreæ rudes, (excluding the Pectines or Escallops,) contains several species which differ considerably in point of habit from each other. Among the most striking as well as curious is that repre­sented on the plate, which is a native of the Indian ocean. Its general size and color are as expressed in the figure.

v

 

440

Wandering Mite

London, Published July 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

ACARUS COLEOPTRATUS.

Character Genericus.

Os proboscide carens, haustello vagina bivalvi, cylindrica, palpis duobus compressis, æqualibus, haustelli longi­tudine.

Oculi duo ad latera capitis.

Pedes octo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2924.

Character Specificus, &c.

ACARUS niger subglobosus, lateribus subcoleoptratis.

ACARUS ater, lateribus subcoleoptratis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1023.

ACARUS ater lateribus angulato-acutis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2927.

Super muros et arborum truncos ineunte vere non raro conspicitur Acarus coleoptratus, vix acarum vulgarem magni­tudine superans. Colore nigerrimo lucido a congeneribus facillime distinguitur.

v

 

r

the
WANDERING MITE.

Generic Character.

Mouth consisting of a cylindric sucker with a bivalve sheath.

Eyes two; on each side the head.

Legs eight.

Specific Character, &c.

Black subglobose MITE, with subcoleoptrated sides.

The WANDERING MITE.

Hook’s Micrographia. p. 205.

This insect is by no means uncommon in the beginning of spring on walls, trunks of trees, &c. In size it scarce exceeds the common or cheese mite, but is readily distinguished from others of its genus by its black and somewhat glossy color.

v

 

441

Thibetian Peacock

London, Published August 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

N

PAVO TIBETANUS.

Character Genericus.

Pennæ uropygii elongatæ, latæ, expansiles, ocellatæ.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAVO dorso superiore tectricibusque caudæ maculis splendide cæruleis, calcaribus binis.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 617.

PAVO cinereus nigricante striatus, capite subcristato, calcaribus binis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 731.

PAVO TIBETANUS.

Briss. 1. p. 294. t. 28. f. 2.

Cum hanc speciem plene & accurate descripsit Dominus Brisson, verba ejus immutata in opus meum transferre non dubitavi.

“Hanc Pavonis speciem videre nondum mihi contigit. Ipsius descriptionem desumpsi ex icone ad vivum depicta a D. Poivre; & sic eam æri insculptam esse curavi.

“Crassitie Meleagridem circiter æquat. Ipsius longi­tudo ab apice rostri ad caudam extremam duos pedes unum pollicem & sex lineas explet, & ad extremos v ungues duos pedes & unum pollicem. Rostrum ab ipsius apice ad oris angulos usque unum pollicem & septem lineas longum est; cauda octo pollices; pes tres pollices cum sex lineis; & trium digitorum anticorum medius cum ungue tres pollices: laterales paulo sunt breviores; & posticus unum pollicem longi­tudine non superat. Mas in parte utriusque pedis posteriore duobus donatur calcaribus, superiore breviore. Alæ complicatæ ultra caudæ exortum non extenduntur. Caput, guttur, collum, pectus, venter, latera, crura et caudæ tectrices inferiores cinereæ, lineolis nigricantibus variæ. Dorsum, uropygium, alarum tectrices & scapulares pennæ etiam cinereæ, lineolis nigricantibus variæ, maculisque minutissimis albican­tibus aspersæ; cum insuper majusculis maculis rotundis, splendide cæruleis, violaceo & aureo colore variantibus, in parte dorsi superiore, scapularibus pennis & tectricibus alarum disseminatis. Remiges, tectricesque caudæ superiores pennæ eodem imbuuntur colore cinereo, lineolis nigricantibus vario: & quæque remix penna in medio versus apicem duabus donatur maculis majusculis, rotundis, splendide cæruleis, violaceo quoque et aureo colore variantibus, una supra alteram polita: & una­quæque caudæ tectrix quatuor prædita est maculis concoloribus, binis scilicet utrinque, una etiam supra alteram polita. Tectrices illæ intermediæ longiores; laterales vero gradatim longi­tudine minuuntur ad extimam usque breviorem. Oculorum irides flavæ. Rostrum cinereum. Pedes grisei: unguesque nigricantes. Habitat in Tibeti Regno.”

N2

the
THIBETIAN PEACOCK.

Generic Character.

Uropygial feathers elongated, broad, expansile, ocellated.

Specific Character, &c.

Pale-brown double-spurred crestless PEACOCK, with oval amethystine spots.

Le Paon du Tibet.

Briss. orn. 1. p. 294. pl. 28. f. 2.

Le Chinquis.

Buff. ois. 2. p. 365.

Tibet PEACOCK.

Lath. syn. 2. p. 675.

For an accurate account of this species we are obliged to the celebrated ornithologist, Mons. Brisson, who describes it in the following manner.

“I have never seen this species of Peacock, but have taken its description from a figure drawn from the life by Mons. Poivre, and have caused it to be engraved.

“It is about the size of a turkey, and measures from the tip of the bill to the end of the tail two feet one v inch and six lines, and to the ends of the toes two feet one inch. The bill measures one inch and seven lines from the tip to the corners of the mouth: the tail measures eight inches: the foot three inches six lines; and the middle toe with the claw three inches: the lateral ones are a little shorter; and the hind toe does not exceed an inch in length. The male at the hind part of each foot is furnished with two spurs, of which the superior is the shortest. The wings, when closed, do not extend beyond the beginning of the tail. The head, throat, neck, breast, belly, sides, legs, and lower tail-coverts are ash-coloured, and variegated with small blackish lines: The back, rump, wing-coverts and scapularies are also ash-coloured, with blackish lines, and are sprinkled over with very small whitish spots, and marked with two large round spots of bright blue, varying into violet and gold-coloured reflexions: these spots are scattered over the upper part of the back, the scapularies, and the wing-coverts. The wing-feathers and upper tail-coverts are ash-coloured with blackish lines; and each wing-feather is marked on the middle towards the tip with two large bright-blue spots with the same violaceous and gilded tinges as before, and seated one above the other: each tail-feather also is marked by four such spots, two on each side, one above the other. The middle of these tail-feathers are the longest; the side-feathers gradually shortening to the exterior. The irides of the eyes are yellow: the beak cinereous, and the claws blackish. This bird is a native of the kingdom of Tibet.”

442

Great Chama

London, Published August 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

CHAMA GIGAS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Tethys.

Testa bivalvis, grossior.

Cardo callo gibbo, oblique inserto fossulæ obliquæ.

Character Specificus, &c.

CHAMA testa oblonga, plicata fornicato-squamosa.

CHAMA squamata.

Rumph. mus. t. 42. A. B.

CHAMA GIGAS.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1137.

Species, quam depinximus, non modo maxima est sui generis, sed et omnium testaceorum; interdum nempe plusquam tripedalis; ostreaque, sive animal inclusum (idque non hyperbolice loquimur) centum convivis possit sufficere. Carent tamen permagna hæc specimina nitore & elegantia minorum. Color tum internus tum externus plerumque albet. In junioribus autem conspici interdum possit ruboris rosacei levissima quædam mistura. In maribus Indicis generatur Chama Gigas: reperitur etiam circa littora insularum fere omnium quas alluit oceanus pacificus.

v

 

r

the
GREAT CHAMA.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Tethys.

Shell bivalve, thick.

Hinge furnished with a gibbose callus obliquely inserted into an oblique fossule.

Specific Character, &c.

Great whitish oblong plaited CHAMA, with arched scales.

The GREAT CHAMA, or Giant Clamp.

The shell represented on the plate is not only the largest of the genus to which it belongs, but of the whole testa­ceous tribe, having been sometimes seen of the length of more than three feet, with the included animal sufficient to afford a meal for upwards of an hundred persons. These large specimens however are by far less regular and beautiful than the smaller ones. The color is commonly white, both internally and externally; but, when young, a slight tinge of rose-color is sometimes visible. It is a native of the Indian seas, and is met with on the shores of most of the islands in the great southern or pacific ocean.

v

 

443

Privet Sphinx

London, Published August 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

SPHINX LIGUSTRI.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ subprismaticæ, utroque fine attenuatæ.

Lingua exserta (plerisque.)

Palpi duo reflexi.

Alæ deflexæ.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2371.

Character Specificus, &c.

SPHINX alis integris: posticis incarnatis fasciis nigris, abdomine rubro cingulis nigris.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 799.

S. spirilinguis, alis superioribus fuscis, inferioribus abdomineque fasciis transversis rubris.

Geoffr. ins. 2. p. 84. 7.

Raj. ins. 144. n. 1.

Goed. ins. 1. p. 93. t. 24.

List. Goed. 75. f. 25.

Reaum. ins. 2. t. 20. f. 1-4.

Folia ligustri præcipue amat larva insecti hujus pulcherrimi. Ineunte Augusto sub humo in chrysalidem convertitur, e qua mense Junio vel Julio insequentis anni erumpit Sphinx perfecta.

v

 

r

the
PRIVET SPHINX.

Generic Character.

Antennæ subprismatic, attenuated at each end.

Tongue (generally) exserted.

Feelers two.

Wings deflected.

Specific Character, &c.

Brown SPHINX, with the lower wings and body rose-colored, striped with black bands.

The PRIVET Hawk-Moth.

Alb. ins. p. 7.

Roes. 3.

Merian Europ. 124.

The caterpillar of this beautiful insect feeds chiefly on the leaves of the Privet. In the beginning of August it retires under ground to undergo its change into a chrysalis, from which in June or July in the following year emerges the insect in its complete or ultimate form.

v

 

444

Demoleus and Nireus (butterflies)

London, Published August 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

PAPILIO DEMOLEUS.

PAPILIO NIREUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO DEMOLEUS. P. alis nigris flavo maculatis; posterioribus ocello cæruleo rufoque.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2246.
Eq. Achiv.

P. alis dentatis fuscis, maculis fasciaque maculosa flavis, posticis ocellis binis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 753.

PAPILIO NIREUS. P. alis nigris; fascia inaurato viridi, subtus nigricantibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 753.

Inter lautissimos Papiliones exoticos numerantur Nireus & Demoleus, quos ambos nutriunt India insulæque marium Indicarum.

v

 

r

DEMOLEUS & NIREUS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ commonly thickening towards the end into a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

DEMOLEUS. Black Butterfly spotted with yellow, with the lower wings marked by a red-and-blue ocellated spot.

Seb. mus. 4. t. 37. f. 17. 18. & 44. f. 6. 9.

Kleemann ins. 1. t. 1. f. 2. 3.

Cram. pap. 20. t. 231. f. A. B.

NIREUS. Black Butterfly, with a lucid blue-green band across the wings.

Clerk. ic. t. 30. f. 1.

Seb. mus. 4. t. 6. & 9. f. 21. 22.

Drury ins. 2. t. 4. f. 1. 2.

The two species figured on the present plate may justly be numbered among the most beautiful of the exotic Butterflies. Both are natives of India and the Indian islands.

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r

INDEX.

Pl.
440. Acarus coleoptratus.
423. Actinia Cereus.
417. Alca impennis.
421. Anas melanotus.
402. Anthias Diagramma.
418. Asterias papposa.
408. Cancer longimanus.
442. Chama Gigas.
401. Coracias Africana.
429. Emberiza quadricolor.
400. Hydrachna coccinea.
426. Labrus Tinca?
403. Lacerta Amboinensis.
411. —— Apus.
412. —— aquatica.
428. —— Crocodilus.
407. Libellula Lucretia.
422. Lophius piscatorius.
433. Loxia cucullata.
410. Loricaria Plecostomus.
415. Lycoperdon fornicatum.
414. Madrepora musicalis.
416. Millepora lichenoides.
419. —— alcicornis.
399. Ophicephalus punctatus.
439. Ostrea isogonum.
398. Papilio Machaon.
404. —— Paris.
430. —— Cardui.
420. —— Panthous.
435. —— Patroclus.
444. —— Demoleus.
—— Nireus.
441. Pavo Tibetanus.
424. Planaria lactea.
432. Platystacus cotylephorus.
413. Picus miniatus.
409. Pinguinaria Patachonica.
437. —— cristata.
425. Psittacus canus.
406. Silurus militaris.
434. Squalus fasciatus.
443. Sphinx Ligustri.
405. Todus cristatus.
438. Trigla punctata.
397. Trochilus furcatus.
431. Vibrio Anguillula.
436. —— paxillifer.
427. Volvox Globator.

INDEX.

Pl.
423. Actinia rose-tipped.
402. Anthias banded.
418. Asterias twelve-rayed.
417. Awk great.
430. Butterfly thistle.
398. —— Machaon.
404. —— Paris.
435. —— Patroclus.
420. —— Panthous.
444. —— Nireus.
—— Demoleus.
442. Chama great.
433. Cardinal crested Dominican.
408. Crab long-armed.
428. Crocodile.
429. Emberiza variegated.
422. Frogfish European.
427. Globe-Animal common.
421. Goose black-backed.
438. Gurnard spotted.
397. Humming-Bird fork-tailed.
400. Hydrachna scarlet.
403. Lizard Amboina.
411. —— apodal.
407. Libellula linear.
410. Loricaria yellow.
412. Newt water.
414. Madrepore organ.
416. Millepore lichen.
419. —— Elk’s-horn.
440. Mite wandering.
399. Ophicephalus punctated.
439. Oyster long.
425. Parrakeet grey-headed.
437. Penguin crested.
409. —— Patagonian.
441. Peacock Thibetian.
432. Platystacus acetabulated.
424. Planaria white.
415. Puff-Ball turret.
401. Roller African.
406. Silurus military.
434. Shark Zebra.
443. Sphinx Privet.
405. Tody crested.
431. Vibrio Eel.
436. —— festucine.
413. Woodpecker red.
426. Wrasse variegated.

Notes and Corrections: Volume 11

Volume 11 of the Naturalist’s Miscellany was published in twelve monthly installments, from September 1799 through August 1800. Each installment is exactly 16 pages.

B; C; D; E; F (January 1800); G; H; I; K; L; M; N

Anomalously, the dedication is printed on consecutive recto (right-hand) pages, instead of on facing verso and recto pages.

In the course of the volume, four separate articles left out the “Character Genericus” header on the Latin side. In each case, I have added the line for consistency, since it is present on the English side.

Trochilus Furcatus, the Furcated Humming-Bird

is now Thalurania furcata, the fork-tailed woodnymph, with at least a dozen subspecies. It lives in South America.

[Plate 397] London, Published Septr 1st 1799 by F P Nodder.
[This is the first time since Plate 301 of Volume 9—exactly two years ago—that a plate has borne a full signature in handsome copperplate script. The format was used routinely through the middle of Volume 8 (March 1797).]

Papilio Machaon, the Machaon (butterfly)

is also known as the Artemisia swallowtail. It lives almost everywhere in the northern hemisphere, but is most common in Europe.

Ophicephalus Punctatus, the Punctated Ophicephalus

is now Channa punctata, the spotted snakehead. It lives in South Asia.

[Plate 399]
[The Plate really is oriented as shown, with the fish facing upward. Whether coincidentally or otherwise, the engraver with the nice hand­writing has taken a few days off, leaving the job to the cruder hand we saw in the previous few volumes. But the pretty copperplate will be back next month.]

The genus Ophicephalus was first instituted by the celebrated Dr. Bloch.
[Unfortunately for Dr. Bloch, the genus Channa—Asian snakeheads—was instituted by Scopoli some 16 years earlier.]

Hydrachna Coccinea, the Scarlet Hydrachna

Who knows. It may well be something in genus Hydrachna (water mites or water spiders); they all look much like the picture.

Coracias Africana, the African Roller

is probably Eurystomus glaucurus afer, a subspecies of the African broad-billed roller. The species as a whole lives in subsaharan Africa, including Madagascar.

Anthias Diagramma, the Banded Anthias

If it is the same as Linnaeus’s Perca diagramma, it is now Plectorhinchus diagrammus, the silver-banded sweetlip. (Do not ask why they chose to spell it -rhinchus instead of the conventional -rhynchus.) It lives along the coast of east Asia and Australia.

Lacerta Amboinensis, the Amboina Lizard

is probably Hydrosaurus amboinensis, the sailfin lizard. It lives in Indonesia and the Philippines.

Body four-footed, tailed, naked.
word italicized for consistency

Papilio Paris, the Paris (butterfly)

is also known as the Paris peacock. It lives in South and Southeast Asia, extending into China and Indonesia.

Character Genericus.
[Heading added for consistency.]

Todus Cristatus, the Crested Tody

Who knows. Some early sources equate it with Muscicapa coronata or Muscivora coronata, while Shaw’s own General Zoology equates it with Todus regius; none of these gets us any further. Since it doesn’t particularly look like a tody, and the genus is found mainly in the Caribbean islands, it seems safe to say it is not a Todus.

Lath. ind. orn. p.
page reference missing

Silurus Militaris, the Military Silurus

is now Osteogeneiosus militaris, a catfish from South and Southeast Asia.

Libellula Lucretia, the Linear Libellula

is probably Mecistogaster lucretia. It lives in South America.

Character Genericus.
[Heading added for consistency.]

LIBELLULA alis immaculatis . . . . LIBELLULA alis reticulatis
[It would make more sense if one description were attributed to Linnaeus and the other to Fabricius, but that’s how it was printed.]

Cancer Longimanus, the Long-Armed Crab

is now Parthenope longimanus. It is most common around northern Australia.

(in some species six or ten,)
text has . for ,

It is a native of the European and Indian seas
[It is unusual for Shaw to say that something is found in Europe when it isn’t. But it is not at all unusual for him to conflate several species.]

Pinguinaria Patachonica, the Patagonian Penguin

is now Aptenodytes patagonicus, the king penguin. (Shaw wanted to call the genus Pinguinaria, but he lost to Miller. The spelling of Patagonia would have been a minor squabble by comparison.) It lives all around the Antarctic, including the southern tips of South America, Australia and New Zealand.

præcipue prope Terram del Fuego conspicitur . . . . is principally found about Falkland islands
[Latin-speaking penguins prefer Tierra del Fuego, while English-speaking ones opt for the Falklands.]

Loricaria Plecostomus, the Yellow Loricaria

is probably Hypostomus plecostomus, the janitor fish. It lives mainly in South America.

Lacerta Apus, the Apodal Lizard

is now Pseudopus apodus, the European glass lizard or legless lizard. It ranges from southeastern Europe through western Asia, though the genus as a whole is more common in eastern North America.

Pall. nov. comm. Petrop. 19. p. 435. t. 9.
text has comm, for comm.

the work entitled “Nov. Comm. Petrop. &c.
[This is not the first time Shaw has referred to a serial as if it were a single free-standing work. Here it’s the Novi Commentarii Academiae Scien­tiarum Imperialis Petropolitanae—loosely, the Proceedings (or Trans­actions) of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. This name was used from 1750 to 1776. Before that it was simply Commentarii; later it became Acta, Nova Acta, Memoires—in French—and so on. The organization is now the Russian Academy of Sciences.]

the animal called Anguis ventralis, or the glass snake of America
[Now Ophisaurus (“snake-lizard”) ventralis, in the same family as genus Pseudopus.]

Lacerta Aquatica, the Water-Newt

is now Lissotriton vulgaris, the smooth newt. We previously met it at Plate 279 of Volume 8 under the name Lacerta Palustris or Warted Newt, and again at Plate 318 of Volume 9 as Lacerta Vulgaris or Common Newt. Its range extends from Europe—excluding Iberia—through central Asia.

Picus Miniatus, the Red-Winged Woodpecker

Does he mean Picus miniaceus? If so, it is now Chrysophlegma miniaceum, the banded woodpecker. It lives in Indonesia.

Madrepora Musicalis, the Organ Madrepore

If he meant Madrepora musicale—using Linnaeus’s grammar—it is now Galaxea astreata, the octopus coral or scalpel coral. There must be an untold backstory, since the astreata name dates back only to Lamarck in 1816. By any name, it lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Lycoperdon Fornicatum, the Turret Puff-Ball

is now Geastrum fornicatum. It lives in most temperate regions.

In Shaw’s time fungi were considered plants; today they are a kingdom of their own. (In fact, fungi have more in common with animals than with plants. Suck it up, Linnaeus.) I think this is the only mushroom in the Miscellany.

the class Cryptogamia
[Linnean for “Dammit, I can’t find the sex organs”.]

the seeds at the same time exploding from the orifice
[This is a very early use of “explode” in its literal rather than figurative (original) sense. At this date the main people who used the word literally were chemists talking about explosions in the lab.]

Millepora Lichenoides, the Lichen Millepore

is now Hornera lichenoides. It lives around the north Atlantic. (Ellis and Solander, incidentally, had to call it by a different name because they had already used the name M. lichenoides for what is now Mesophyllum lichenoides . . . a plant.)

Color communis flavescit pallidissimo-fuscus.
. missing

Its general color is an extremely pale whitish or yellowish brown.
“e” in “pale” invisible at line-end

Alca Impennis, the Great Awk

is now Pinguinus impennis, the great auk. Or, at least, that was its name in the mid-19th century when it went extinct. The last known breeding pair was killed in 1844, with a final confirmed sighting in 1852. It lived around the north Atlantic.

Asterias Papposa, the Twelve-Rayed Asterias

is now Crossaster papposus, the common sun star. (Linnaeus called it Asterias papposus; this time the grammatical goof is Shaw’s.) It lives along all coasts north of about 30°N.

Millepora Alcicornis, the Elk’s-Horn Millepore

is also known as the branching fire coral. It lives in most tropical-to-temperate oceans and has even been seen off the northernmost parts of Ellsworth Land (Antarctica).

Papilio Panthous?, the Panthous? (butterfly)

P. panthous is now Ornithoptera priamus, with many subspecies. This may be another case of Linnaeus assigning the male and female to different species. (If so, he wasn’t the only one; I count seven names in Papilio alone.) Its range extends from Indonesia to eastern Australia, but it is most common in New Guinea.

Anas Melanotos, the Black-Backed Goose

is probably Sarkidiornis melanotos, the comb duck. It lives in South America, Africa, and South and Southeast Asia.

Lophius Piscatorius, the European Frogfish

is also known as the angler. It lives along the Atlantic coasts of North America, Europe and Africa, and in the Mediterranean.

Rana piscatrix.
[Linnaeus also tried calling it Batrachus piscatorius.]

Actinia Cereus, the Rose-Tipped Actinia

If he means Ellis and Solander’s—and Gaertner’s—A. cereus, it is now Anemonia sulcata (by way of Pennant’s Actinia sulcata). It lives along the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts of Europe.

Planaria Lactea, the White Planaria

is now Bothrioplana semperi. (The accepted name is more than a century younger than Müller’s, coinciding with the creation of the genus. What’s the backstory this time?) It lives mainly in northern Europe and North America near the coast.

Planariæ genus a sagacissimo Müllero institutum
text has Mullero

specie quam depinximus magni­tudine tum vera tum auctiore
text has depiximus

first instituted by the accurate Müller
text has Muller
[Everywhere else in the Miscellany, Müller gets an umlaut in both Latin and English.]

Psittacus Canus, the Grey-Headed Parrakeet

is probably Agapornis canus, the grey-headed lovebird. It lives in Madagascar.

Labrus Tinca, the Variegated Wrasse

is now Symphodus tinca, the east Atlantic peacock wrasse. In spite of the name, it lives mainly in the Mediterranean.

Volvox Globator, the Common Globe-Animal

Unchanged.. . . except that it is not an animal but a plant, a kind of green algae found all over the world. What Shaw and his sources interpreted as a single animal is in fact a hollow spherical colony of up to 50,000 individual cells.

nati natorum et qui nascentur ab illis
[Aeneid III.98, a prophecy involving Aeneas’s “children’s children and their children”.]

Lacerta Crocodilus, the Crocodile

Linnaeus’s binomial now belongs to Caiman crocodilus, the caiman, which lives in South and Central America. But Shaw’s description has also been associated with Crocodylus niloticus, the mamba or Nile crocodile, which lives all over Africa.

After the Crocodile, there will not be another three-page description (either Latin or English) until the next volume.

sed etiam nudis manibus impune plerumque tractantur
text has nudis mabus

it may lie concealed, till hunger again invites it
text has cnocealed

the Lacerta palustris of Linnæus
[By now we have met this animal under three different names: as L. palustris at Plate 279 of Volume 8; as L. vulgaris at Plate 318 of Volume 9; and finally as L. aquatica at Plate 412 in the present volume. All three are now Lissotriton vulgaris, the smooth newt.]

Emberiza Quadricolor, the Variegated Emberiza

may be Erythrura prasina, the pin-tailed parrot-finch. It lives in Southeast Asia, including Indonesia west of Wallace’s Line.

the American species called Emberiza Ciris
[Now Passerina ciris, the painted bunting. The only thing the two have in common—aside from strikingly garish males—is that both are members of the vast Passeriformes order.]

Papilio Cardui, the Thistle Butterfly

is now Vanessa cardui, the painted lady. It lives almost everywhere—except, for some reason, South America—but is most common in Europe and North America.

Vibrio Anguillula, the Eel Vibrio

is listed as “doubtful”—which is probably as close as anyone will ever get. Even the genus is now labeled nomen dubium. Like many “animalcules”, it is tentatively assigned to kingdom Chromista.

Vermis nudo oculo inconspicuus
text has insconspicuus

EELS in Paste . . . . EELS in Vinegar
[Well, no wonder I couldn’t find an identification. I’ve been searching the Global Biodiversity Information Facility and the World Register of Marine Species when I should have been poring over Beeton’s Book of House­hold Management.]

Platystacus Cotylephorus, the Acetabulated Platystacus

is otherwise known as the banded banjo. As its name indicates, it’s a fish. It lives along the northeastern coast of South America.

affine admodum est Siluri generi
word “generi” printed in italics

Loxia Cucullata, the Crested Dominican Cardinal

may be Paroaria coronata, the red-crested cardinal. It lives in southern South America (loosely, Argentina).

Linnaeus’s Loxia dominicana is now Paroaria dominicana, the red-cowled cardinal. It lives just north of P. coronata, in the easternmost part of South America (loosely, Brazil). The two have very similar coloring.

Character Genericus.
[Heading added for consistency.]

Squalus Fasciatus, the Zebra Shark

Bloch’s S. fasciatus from 1785 is listed as “doubtful”. But Herrmann’s S. fasciatus from 1783—along with Seba’s S. varius and Forster’s S. tigrinus—is now Stegostoma fasciatum, the cat shark, leopard shark or zebra shark. It lives mainly in the Indian ocean and around Australia.

Papilio Patroclus, the Patroclus (butterfly)

is probably Lyssa patroclus, not a butterfly but a moth. It lives in Southeast Asia.

its genus is in reality dubious
[We will meet other diurnal moths classified as Papilio in Volumes 12 and 21.]

Vibrio Paxillifer, the Festucine Vibrio

is listed at WoRMS as “uncertain (unassessed)” which I think means “it’s simply not worth the bother of trying to figure out what critter they were talking about”. Like the previous installment’s Vibrio Anguillula, it is definitely not an animal. If it’s anything, it’s a chromist—and if it lives anywhere, it’s in Europe.

novoque phænomeno gavisus
text has phoenomeno
[It could be Müller’s mistake, but far more likely it’s the typesetter not being able to read Shaw’s writing.]

ejusdem variis evolutionibus incubui.
text has superfluous close quote

“Congeries hæc quadrangulari forma quiescere solet
open quote missing

extremitate incipiendo lente efformat.
text has superfluous close quote

The celebrated Müller, its first discoverer, informs us
[On the Latin side Shaw quotes Müller verbatim, introduced with “descriptionem . . . in opus meum transferre non dubitavi” (“I didn’t hesitate to swipe his description, since he’s dead and can’t do anything about it”).]

observed this animalcule in plenty on some specimens of the Ulva latissima
[Now Saccharina latissima, another chromist.]

Pinguinaria Cristata, the Crested Penguin

If it really is the same as Aptenodytes chrysocome, it is now Eudyptes chrysocome, the rockhopper penguin. It lives all around the Antarctic, including New Zealand, the southern tip of South America and even Australia.

Manchot huppé de Sibirie.
[I. Don’t. Think. So. —Transcriber.]

Trigla Punctata, the Spotted Gurnard

is now Prionotus punctatus, the Atlantic, spotted or bluewing searobin. As advertised, it lives along the Atlantic coast of the Americas. It is not quite as gaudy as Shaw’s picture, but surprisingly close.

Digiti liberi ad pinnas pectorales.
text has adpinnas

Ostrea Isogonum, the Long Oyster

is now Isognomon isognomum (by way of Ostrea isognomum, because Linnaeus couldn’t make up his mind whether the angle -γον- or the linear measure -γνωμ- was more important). It lives around Australia and Southeast Asia.

Acarus Coleoptratus, the Wandering Mite

is now Achipteria coleoptrata. It is most common in Europe.

Character Genericus.
[Heading added for consistency.]

haustello vagina bivalvi, cylindrica
text has . for ,

Pavo Tibetanus, the Thibetian Peacock

may be Polyplectron bicalcaratum (by way of Pavo bicalcaratus), the Burmese or grey peacock-pheasant. It lives in Southeast Asia, including what is now Myanmar.

This tentative identification puts it ahead of the two previous times Shaw has quoted an extremely detailed description—complete with exact measurements in lines (1/12 inch, about 2mm)—from Brisson, based solely on a picture by Poivre. The others were Cuculus Sinensis, Plate 277 of Volume 8 (unidentified, probably nonexistent), and Merops Erythro­cephalus, Plate 357 of Volume 10 (unidentified and probably unidentifiable).

“Crassitie Meleagridem circiter æquat.
open quote missing

the celebrated ornithologist, Mons. Brisson
text has ornithogist

“It is about the size of a turkey
open quote missing

Chama Gigas, the Great Chama

is now Tridacna gigas, the giant clam. It lives in the oceans around Southeast Asia, Indonesia and northern Australia.

The GREAT CHAMA, or Giant Clamp.
spelling unchanged
[Swim in peace. Giant clams live on algae, and they take a l-o-n-g time to close.]

Sphinx Ligustri, the Privet Sphinx

is also known as the privet hawkmoth. It lives all over Europe.

Papilio Demoleus, the Demoleus (butterfly)

is also known as the lime butterfly. Its range extends from South Asia to Australia, and it has been introduced to the Caribbean islands.

Papilio Nireus, the Nireus (butterfly)

is also known as the green-banded swallowtail. It lives in subsaharan Africa.

Index

435.   [Papilio] Patroclus.
text has 436

The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.