Naturalist’s Miscellany

The Naturalist’s Miscellany
by George Shaw
Volume 12

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VIRO ORNATISSIMO

THOMÆ MARTYN,

sanctæ theologiæ baccalaureo,
regiæ societatis socio,
BOTANICES
in academia cantabrigiensi
professori dignissimo,
DUODECIMUM HUNC

NATURÆ VIVARII

FASCICULUM,
d. d. d.
GEORGIUS SHAW,
FREDERICUS P. NODDER.

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THE REVEREND

THOMAS MARTYN,

b.d. f.r.s.
PROFESSOR OF BOTANY
in the

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE,

THIS TWELFTH VOLUME
of the

ATURALIST’S MISCELLANY

is

RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED

by
GEORGE SHAW,
FREDERICK P. NODDER.

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445

Dun Merganser

London, Published Septr 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

A

MERGUS CASTOR.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum denticulatum, subulato-cylindricum, apice aduncum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 207.

Character Specificus, &c.

MERGUS cristatus cinereus, capite colloque supremo spadiceis, gula remigibus intermediis abdomi­neque albis.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 829.

MERGUS CASTOR. M. capite cristato cinereo, subtus ferrugineo, gula alba, rostro pedibusque nigri­cantibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 209.

MERGUS Gulo.

Scopoll. ann. 1. No. 88.

Anas rubricapilla.

Brun. No. 93.

Habita non raro est hæc avis Mergi Merganseris femina. Hodiernis tamen physicis visum est ab illo eam omnino sejungere, speciemque revera diversam v ducere. In Anglia mergo mergansere sæpius conspecta, præcipue in partibus septentrionalibus, lacus fluviosque frequentat, vesciturque pisciculis et reliquis ejusmodi. Longa est, ut plurimum, uncias circiter viginti septem.

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DUN MERGANSER.

Generic Character.

Bill narrow, sub-cylindric, toothed at the edges, hooked at the tip.

Nostrils small, ovate, towards the middle of the bill.

Feet tetradactyle, palmated, the exterior toe longer than the rest.

Specific Character, &c.

Ash-coloured crested MERGANSER, with the head and upper part of the neck ferruginous, the throat, abdomen and middle wing-feathers white.

The DUN-DIVER.

Lath. syn. 3. p. 420.

Brit. Zool. edit. fol. p. 147. pl. N.

Le Harle femelle.

Pl. enl. 953.

This species, which is now considered as perfectly distinct, has been often regarded as the female of the Mergus Merganser. It is observed to be more v frequently seen in England than that species, and is chiefly found in the northern parts of the kingdom, frequenting lakes and rivers, and feeding on fish, &c. Its general length is about twenty-seven inches.

446

Flying-Fish

London, Published Sept. 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

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EXOCOETUS EVOLANS.

Character Genericus.

Pinnæ pectorales longitudine trunci.

Character Specificus, &c.

EXOCOETUS pinnis ventralibus parvis prope pectus.

Bloch. ichth. 12. p. 9. t. 398.
Abdominales.

EXOCOETUS EVOLANS. E. abdomine tereti.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 521.

Piscium, quos perpaucos continet hoc genus, longæ adeo et magnæ sunt pinnæ quæ pectorales vocantur, ut harum ope subito interdum ex aquis exibant, et per aera quasi volitantes ferantur pedes ducenos vel tricenos; in fluctus se iterum committentes cum pinnæ exaruerint. Quæ in tabula depingitur species mare incolit mediter­raneum et atlanticum, in quibus, ut verbis utar celeber­rimi physici, “vitam ducit miserrimam, coryphænis et aliis piscibus voracibus perpetuo vexata; quos si eluserit per aera erumpendo, vel a Laris vel Diomedea corripitur; aut rursus se aquis credere coacta, in ipsas fauces hostium detruditur, volantem intentis oculis parique celeritate observantium.”

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Notandum est non proprium et peculiarem esse volatum Exocoetis solis; sed donari illo et alios aliquot pisces; species nempe nonnullas Scorpænæ, Triglæ, &c.

Æquat plerumque magnitudine Exocoetus evolans Clupeam quæ Harengus dicitur.

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FLYING-FISH.

Generic Character.

Pectoral fins as long as the body.

Specific Character, &c.

FLYING-FISH with small ventral fins, near the breast.

FLYING-FISH.

Penn. Brit. Zool. 3. p. 292. pl. 67.

Der Hochflieger.

Bloch. ichth. 12. p. 9. pl. 398.
Abdominales.

The fish of this genus, which are very few in number, are remarkable for the extreme length and size of their pectoral fins, by which they are enabled to spring occasionally from the water, and to support a kind of flight or continued motion thro’ the air, to the distance of two or three hundred feet, when, the fins becoming dry, they are again obliged to commit themselves to their own element. The species here repre­sented is a native of the Mediterranean and Atlantic seas, where, to use the words of v an eminent naturalist, “it leads a most miserable life. In its own element it is perpetually harrassed by the Dorados, and other fish of prey, and if it endeavors to avoid them by having recourse to the air, it either meets its fate from the Gulls or the Albatross, or is forced down again into the mouth of the inhabitants of the water, which keep pace below with its aerial excursion.”

It should be observed that this power of flight or temporary skimming thro’ the air to a considerable distance, is not confined to this genus only, but takes place in some species of Scorpæna, Trigla, &c.

The common Flying-Fish is generally about the size of a Herring.

447

Agate Bulla

London, Published Septr 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

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BULLA ACHATINA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, convoluta, inermis.

Apertura subcoarctata, oblonga, longi­tudinalis, basi integerrima.

Columella obliqua, lævis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1186.

Character Specificus, &c.

BULLA testa ovata, apertura obovata apiceque sanguineis, columella truncata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1186.

BULLA Gallica.

Seb. mus. 3. t. 71. f. 1. 2. 3. 7. 8.

Jampridem in opere hoc nostro Bullam achatinam ore purpureo depinximus. Rarior autem longe est eximia hæc varietas, et colorum insignem jactat elegantiam.

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AGATE BULLA.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax or Slug.

Shell univalve, convoluted.

Aperture somewhat straitened, oblong, longi­tudinal, entire at the base.

Column oblique and smooth.

Specific Character, &c.

Ovate, pointed, wide-mouthed BULLA, with broad fasciæ and truncated column.

Var.

With blue variegations and crimson mouth.

La Corne de pourpre.

Knorr. vergn. 4. p. 44. pl. 24. f. 1.

A purple-mouthed variety of the Bulla achatina has already been repre­sented in the present work; but the beautiful kind here figured is much less frequent, and is highly remarkable for the elegance and delicacy of its colors.

448

Amphimedon Butterfly

London, Published Septr 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

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PAPILIO AMPHIMEDON.
var.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis concoloribus fuscis: anterioribus albo radiatis; posterioribus macula quinquefida rubra lunulisque albis.

Fabr. spec. ins. 2. p. 8.
Eq. Tr.

Var?

Alis superionbus fuscis ochraceo radiatis, inferioribus flavis nigro maculatis.

Seb. mus. 4. p. 21. t. 16. f. 7. 8.

Inter maximos papiliones exoticos numeratur Papilio Amphimedon. In insula Amboina generatur, & magni­tudine vera in tabula exprimitur.

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AMPHIMEDON.
var.

Generic Character.

Antennæ commonly thickening towards the end into a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

Brown Butterfly, with the upper wings radiated with white; the lower with a five-cleft red spot and white marginal crescents.

Var?

Upper wings radiated with ochre-color; lower yellow with black variegations.

This insect is one of the largest of the exotic Butterflies, and is a native of Amboina. The plate represents it in its natural size.

449

Crimson Pigeon

London, Published Oct. 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

B

COLUMBA ROSEA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum rectum, versus apicem descendens.

Nares oblongæ, membrana molli tumida semitecte.

Lingua integra.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 279.

Character Specificus, &c.

COLUMBA roseo-sanguinea, cera aurantia, vertice orbitis apicibusque tectricum minorum albis, remigibus caudaque fuscis.

Cim. Phys. p. 105. t. 59.

Indiam? incolit formosissima hæc avis, magni­tudine columbæ vulgari domesticæ fere æqualis. In opere splen­didissimo Domini Miller cui titulus Cimelia Physica primum depicta fuit.

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CRIMSON PIGEON.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, descending towards the tip.

Nostrils oblong, half covered by a soft tumid membrane.

Tongue entire.

Specific Character, &c.

Sanguine rose-coloured PIGEON, with orange cere; crown, orbits, and tips of the smaller coverts white; wing-feathers and tail brown.

Miller’s Plates of Nat. Hist. pl. 59.

This most beautiful bird is a native of India? In size it is nearly equal to a common domestic pigeon. It seems to have been first figured in Mr. Miller’s splendid plates of Natural History.

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450

Great Tubularia

London, Published Octr 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

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TUBULARIA MAGNIFICA.

Character Genericus.

Stirps tubulosa, simplex vel ramosa, basi affixa.

Animal terminale, capite tentaculis cristato.

Character Specificus, &c.

TUBULARIA tubo simplici albido, tentaculis numerosissimis albo rubroque variatis.

TUBULARIA MAGNIFICA.

Act. Lin. Soc. 5. p. 228. t. 9.

Omnes quas norunt physici Tubularias superat longe hæc quæ in tabula depingitur tam magni­tudine quam venustate. In insulis Americanis rupium cava incolit, et ut solent reliquæ congeneres, sese ad libitum vel extendere vel contrahere potest, et, instante periculo intra latibulum recedere. Genera præterea Tubulariæ et Amphitrites videtur quodammodo connectere; corpus nempe habens annulatum, Tubulariæ autem præcipuos characteras genericos. Ostenditur in tabula dimidiata magni­tudine naturali. In quinto volumine actorum Societatis Linnæanæ exstat icon archetypa quam delineavit ingeniosus Dominus Davies, copiarum militarium præfectus.

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GREAT TUBULARIA.

Generic Character.

Stem tubular, simple or branched, fixed by the base.

Animal terminal; the head crested with tentacula.

Specific Character, &c.

TUBULARIA with a simple whitish tube, and very numerous tentacula variegated with red and white.

Trans. Lin. Soc. vol. 5. p. 228. pl. 9.

Of all the Tubulariæ yet known the present may be considered as by far the largest and most magnificent in its appearance. It is a native of the seas about the West Indian islands, inhabiting the cavities of rocks, and possessing, like the reſt of the genus, the power of withdrawing itself on any appearance of danger into the hole in which it resides. It may be added that it seems in some degree to connect the genera of Tubularia and Amphitrite, having the annulated body of the one, with the peculiar generic characters of the other. It is repre­sented v on the plate of half the natural size. It is to the ingenious pencil of General Davies that we are indebted for the original drawing of this animal, which has been engraved and published in the fifth volume of the tranſactions of the Linnæan Society.

451

Flying Gurnard

London, Published Octr 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

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TRIGLA VOLITANS.

Character Genericus.

Digiti liberi ante pinnas pectorales.

Character Specificus, &c.

TRIGLA digitis vicenis membrana connexis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 498.
Pisces Thoracici.

TRIGLA pinnis pectoralibus longitudine trunci.

Bloch. ichth. 10. p. 93. t. 351.

Nullorum congenerum magis singularis est confor­matio seu splendidior color quam piscis qui in tabula depingitur. Longe majores ſunt ei pinnæ pectorales quam Triglæ Hirundini nec non Triglæ punctatæ, de qua antea in hoc opere disseruimus. Maris Mediterranei et Atlantici incola est Trigla volitans, longa plerumque duodecim vel quindecim uncias.

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FLYING GURNARD.

Generic Character.

Finger-shaped processes before the pectoral fins.

Specific Character, &c.

Reddish GURNARD, with numerous fingers connected by a web, and olive-coloured blue-spotted pectoral fins of the length of the body.

The long-finned GURNARD.

Der fliegende Seehahn.

Bloch. ichth. t. 351.

Of all the Triglæ this may be considered as the most beautiful in point of color, as well as the most remarkable in form, the size of the pectoral fins far ſurpassing those of the Trigla Hirundo, as well as of the Trigla punctata before figured in the present work. It is a native of the Mediterranean and Atlantic seas, and is commonly about twelve or fifteen inches in length.

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452

Digitated Nais

London, Published Oct. 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

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NAIS DIGITATA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus repens, longum, lineare, pellucidum, depressum.

Pedunculi setis simplicibus.

Tentacula nulla.

Oculi duo aut nulli.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3120.

Character Specificus, &c.

NAIS setis lateralibus solitariis, cauda laciniata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3121.

Müll. von Würm. p. 90. t. 5. f. 1-4.

Hist. Verm. I. 2. p. 22. n. 155.

Zool. Dan. prodr. 2651.

Naidi digitatæ, quæ e rarioribus est sui generis, insignis est ad speciei distinctionem caudæ conformatio. Eadem fere est magni­tudine qua Nais proboscidea, et aquas incolit stagnantes exeunte æstate. Retrahi vel extendi ad libitum possunt caudæ tentacula; quæ cum ad summum expanduntur, parsque corporis anterior cauli plantæ alicujus aquaticæ adhæret, hydræ tenui et gracili simillima Nais digitata, primo visu spectantem falleret.

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DIGITATED NAIS.

Generic Character.

Body repent, long, linear, pellucid, depressed.

Feet consisting of simple bristles.

Tentacula none.

Eyes two or none.

Specific Character, &c.

NAIS with single lateral bristles and laciniated tail.

DIGITATED NAIS.

Finger-tailed Water-Worm.

This animal may be considered as one of the rarer species of its genus, and is readily distinguished by the remarkable form of the tail. It is nearly equal in size to the Nais proboscidea, and may be found in stagnant waters towards the decline of ſummer. The processes or tentacula at the end of the tail may be either retracted or extended at pleaſure, and when at their utmost extent, while the fore part of the body is attached to the stalk of some water plant or other object, the animal has so much the appearance of a slender Hydra or Polype, that it might easily, at first view, be mistaken for such.

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453

Sun Trichoda

Notes

C

TRICHODA SOL.

Character Genericus.

Vermis nudo oculo inconspicuus, crinitus.

Character Specificus, &c.

TRICHODA globularis undique radiata.

Müll. an. inf. p. 164. t. 23. f. 13. 15.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3889.

Joblot. microsc. 1. p. 2. p. 64. t. 7. f. 15.

Eichorn Zugabe f. 1-7.

Roes. hist. polyp. p. 500. t. 83. f. 2 ? ?

Digna omnino notatu est hujus animalculi indoles et conformatio; quæ diligentius inſpecta non minus mirabitur philosophus quam hydram e divisis sui ipsius partibus plene renatam. Constare videtur totum corpus e massa quasi medullari, homogenea, globosa, radiis seu spinis subpellucidis undique densissime obsita; oris officio fungente foramine parvulo in centro tuberculi seu papillæ. Torpido et socordi ingenio, dies totos continuos manet sine motu aliquo visibili, nisi quod subobscure contrahatur, si extrinsecus acciderit aliquod irritamentum. Non tamen obstare videtur summa hæc inertia quo v minus monoculos minores prædetur, præcipue parvulum illum cui nomen Monoculus Pediculus, qui nonnunquam in ventre repertus est. Verisimile autem est diu manere posse monocolum incolumem, & digestionis (ut loqui solent medici) vi illæsum; e corpore enim Trichodæ exemptus, licet multis horis fuerit inclusus, æque celeriter in aquis natare videtur atque solebat antequam in carcerem esset injectus.

Si dividatur, vel potius divellatur Trichoda Sol acu seu instrumento aliquo idoneo, fragmenta diversa, quamvis primo valde inæqualia, unius vel duarum horarum spatio, formam pristinam sphæricam integri animalculi recuperabunt, radiis juxta veram proportionem sitis, et totidem perfecta animalculæ frustulis istius quod divisum fuerit, monstrantibus. Nihil ad hoc experimentum valere videtur aeris temperies, quod æque probabitur hyberno ac æstivo tempore. Trichodæ Solis magni­tudo generalis est quasi apicis aciculæ vulgaris. Color subpellucidus alborem habet quasi margaritæ. Aquas plerumque puriores stagnantes incolit, et stipiti plantulæ alicujus aquaticæ affigitur.

Primo descriptum fuisse videtur hoc animalculum ab Eichorno in opere cui titulus “Zugabe,” &c. A Müllero quoque descriptum et depictum est in præcellenti libro de animalculis quæ Infusoria dicuntur. In rarioribus habetur, mensibus Februario & Martio præcipue visum. Mense Februario anni millesimi septingentesimi nonagesimi octavi, speciei de qua nunc agitur plura specimina ipse egomet in frustula divulsi, quæ omnia fragmenta citius unius horæ spatio totidem perfecta fiebant animalcula. Ex C2 Trichodis integris una monoculum pediculum absorp­serat, qui simul atque e carcere liberatus, aquas hilariter circumnatabat, illæsus, ut videbatur, et omnis incommodi expers.

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SUN TRICHODA.

Generic Character.

Animalcule inconspicuous to the naked eye, beset with hair.

Specific Character, &c.

Globular TRICHODA radiated on all sides.

Radiated TRICHODA.

Solar TRICHODA.

The animalcule which forms the subject of the present plate is not more remarkable for the singularity of its form than of its nature, and when accurately examined, will be found to exhibit phænomena equally surprising with the reproduction of the polype.

The whole body appears to consist of an uniform medullary substance, beset on all sides with very numerous transparent diverging rays or prickles, while a small hole in the centre of a papillary protuberance forms the mouth.

It is an animalcule of an extremely inactive nature, and occasionally remains for days together in the same situation, and without any visible motion, v except a very obscure contraction on being irritated by any external object.

Notwithstanding this habitual torpidity, it is, appar­ently, of a predacious nature, and sometimes seizes on and swallows the smaller Monoculi, and especially that very small species the Monoculus Pediculus of Linnæus, which is occasionally found in its body. It is probable however that this inſect remains a long time uninjured by the digestive powers of the animalcule; since, on opening a Trichoda which has thus confined a Monoculus for many hours, the insect appears unhurt, and, when liberated, swims about with the ſame celerity as before its imprisonment.

If the Trichoda Sol be divided, or rather torn into several fragments by the point of a needle or other instrument, the several pieces, tho’ at first of a very irregular form, will in the ſpace of an hour or two aſſume the complete spherical figure of the animal before its division; the rays or spines appearing in their true proportion and situation; thus constituting so many distinct animalcules. This experiment seems to be very little influenced by the weather, since in the coldest part of winter it will be found to ſucceed nearly as well as in the warmer months.

The general size of this curious animalcule is that of a pin’s head, and its usual residence is in the clearer kind of stagnant waters, where it commonly attaches itſelf to the stem or fibres of ſome of the smaller aquatic plants. Its color is a semitransparent pearly white. It appears to have been first described r by Eichorn in his work entitled “Zugabe&c. Mr. Müller has alſo described and figured it in his excellent work on the Animalcula Infusoria. It is numbered among the rarer animalcules, and is chiefly to be found in the months of February and March.

In February 1798 I divided several of these animalcules in the manner above described; the respective fragments of each of which, in less than an hour’s space, assumed their complete form. One specimen, before dilaceration, had enclosed a Monoculus, which was no sooner liberated than it swam about, apparently uninjured by its captor.

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454

Orange-Tailed Bee

London, Published Novr 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

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APIS LAPIDARIA.

Character Genericus.

Os maxillis atque proboscide inflexa vaginis duabus bivalvibus.

Alæ planæ.

Aculeus feminis et neutris punctorius reconditus.

Character Specificus, &c.

APIS hirsuta atra, ano fulvo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 960.

Bombylius maximus, totus niger, exceptis duobus extremis abdominis annulis rubris.

Raj. ins. p. 246.

Reaum. ins. 6. t. 1. f. 1-4.

Frisch. ins. 9. t. 25. f. 2.

Scop. carn. 813.

Apum Britannicarum e maximis est Apis lapidaria, cumque colores sortita sit sibi peculiares, a reliquis, primo visu, facillime possit discerni. Magnitudinis multa est diversitas; parvulaque nonnulla specimina (mascula fortasse) sæpe voluerunt auctores speciem ab hac revera separatam constituere. Nidus perelegans, constans e fibris muscorum majorum arcte inter se contextis, forma ovata, efficto v in latere rotundo foramine, in aggeribus sylvarum & viarum divergiis situs, larvas continet nec non cibum, mel nempe rude, in frustula fusca et inæqualia huc illuc sparsum; hæc enim species nullas cellulas seu favos ex composito ordinatos construit. Larvæ in chrysalidas conversæ, singulæ in theca sua quasi ovata includuntur.

Notandum est, apes has admodum hirsutas ab Anglis vulgari nomine Humble-Bees designari; nec defuere qui in gravem errorem lapsi, a defectu aculei inditum fuisse iis hoc nomen opinati sunt.

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ORANGE-TAILED BEE.

Generic Character.

Mouth furnished with jaws and inflected proboscis with two bivalve sheaths.

Wings flat.

Sting concealed and exertile in the females and neuters.

Specific Character, &c.

Hairy black BEE, with orange-coloured tail.

The red-tailed Humble-BEE.

Great ORANGE-TAILED Garden-BEE.

The Apis lapidaria is on e of the largest of the British bees, as well as the most remarkable in point of color, being at all times readily distinguishable from the rest of its congeners. It varies however very considerably in magni­tude, and some specimens, (perhaps males) are of ſo comparatively small a size as to have been often considered and described as a distinct species. The nest constructed by this insect is of a very elegant appearance, being of an oval form, and composed of sprigs of the larger mosses, v very closely and neatly compacted together, a small round hole or entrance being left on one side. These nests are generally situated on dry shady banks in woods, lanes, &c. and contain the larvæ or young animals, together with their food, which consists of a coarse kind of honey of a brownish color, and disposed in somewhat irregular masses or heaps, this species not forming any angular cells or combs. The larvæ at the time of their change to a chrysalis are each enveloped in an oval case.

It may not be improper to add, that the Bees of this diviſion in the genus, are popularly known by the title of Humble-Bees, and some authors, inconversant in natural history, have most erroneously imagined them, in consequence of the above name, to be destitute of a sting.

456

Great Peacock Moth

London, Published Novr 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

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PHALÆNA JUNONIA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ, (volatu nocturno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 808.

Character Specificus, &c.

Ph. (pavonia) pectinicornis elinguis, alis rotundatis griseo nebulosis subfasciatis, ocello nictitante subfenestrato.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 810.
Attaci.

Roes. ins. 4. t. 15. 17.

List. Goedart. t. 28.

Reaum. ins. 1. t. 47. 49.

Knorr. delic. t. C. 2. f. 2.

Seb. mus. 4. t. 60. f. 9. 14.

Lepidopterorum quæ in Europa generantur longe maxima Phalæna Junonia coloribus eleganter dispositis insignitur. Nullibi in Anglia reperitur; non raro autem in variis Galliæ, Germaniæ, & v Italiæ partibus. Suspicatur sane Linnæus phalænam pavoniam minorem esse hujus de qua jam loquimur varietatem; sed quamvis fateamur simillima inter se esse hæc duo insecta, non possumus tamen nobis persuadere ad unam eandemque speciem debere referri. Ostenditur in tabulis vera phalænæ nec non larvæ pupæque magni­tudo.

455

Great Peacock Moth

London, Published Novr 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

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GREAT PEACOCK MOTH.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually lessening from the base to the tip.

Wings (when sitting) generally deflected. (Flight nocturnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

GREAT PEACOCK-MOTH, with whitish-grey rounded wings, with dark and pale-brown transverse variegations, and large subfenestrated eye-shaped spot.

GREAT PEACOCK-MOTH.

Of all the European Lepidoptera this is by far the largest, as well as one of the most elegant in the dispo­sition of its colors. It is not very uncommon in many parts of France, Germany, Italy, &c. but has never yet been discovered in our own country. Linnæus indeed imagines that the Phalæna pavonia minor, or Emperor Moth, is in reality a variety of the same animal; but tho’ there exists the most v striking similarity in point of appearance, it is impossible to suppose a real identity of species. The great Phalæna pavonia, or Junonia, is repre­sented on the annexed plates in its natural size, accompanied by its larva and pupa.

457

Crowned Pigeon

London, Published Decr 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

D

COLUMBA CORONATA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum rectum, versus apicem descendens.

Nares oblongæ, membrana molli tumida semitectæ.

Lingua integra.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 279.

Character Specificus, &c.

COLUMBA orbitis nigris, crista erecta, corpore cærulescente, humeris ferrugineis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 282.

Phasianus cristatus Indicus.

Briss. av. 1. p. 279. t. 26.

Ob molem insolitam et quasi giganteam ad tribum gallinaceam potius quam columbinam referri debere hanc avem nonnullis physicis visum est. Characteres autem manifesti et dubio carentes fere primo visu verum genus evidenter denotant. In insulis Moluccis generatur Columba coronata, et in avibus elegantissimis procul­dubio meretur numerari. Vocem emittit quasi palumbis, adeo tamen raucam et sonoram, ut subtimuisse dicantur nautæ quibus v præfuit Dominus Bouganvillius, exaudito cantu gemibundo, in viis horridis et sylvestribus, ubi primo insederant; suspicati strepitum seu ululatum esse hostilem indigenarum ferorum, bellum ex insidiis meditantem. In Europam viva sæpius nuper invecta est hæc avis, et in magno pretio habetur ab iis quibus curæ est rariora animalium genera colligere.

D2

the
CROWNED PIGEON.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, descending towards the tip.

Nostrils oblong, half covered by a soft tumid membrane.

Tongue entire.

Specific Character, &c.

Blue-grey PIGEON, with large compressed upright crest, purple-brown shoulders with a white spot, and red eyes.

Great CROWNED PIGEON.

Edw. pl. 338.

Le Faisan couronné des Indes.

Buff. 2. p. 354. 542.

Pl. Enl. 118.

The gigantic size of this species, which is not far short of that of a Turkey, has caused some naturalists to place it rather among the gallinaceous tribe than in the genus Columba. Its characters are v however so clearly and decisively marked as to declare at once its real and proper genus. It is undoubtedly one of the most elegant of birds, and is a native of some of the Molucca islands. Its voice resembles that of the wood-pigeon, but in so loud and hoarse a tone, that it is recorded of some of Mons. Bougainville’s sailors, that they were greatly alarmed on hearing it for the first time, in the wild and unfrequented spots of some islands on which they landed; supposing it to have proceeded from the savage cries of hostile and concealed natives. This bird has frequently been brought alive into Europe, and is considered as one of the greatest ornaments of the Menagerie.

458

Yellow-Striped Sparus

London, Published Decr 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

SPARUS CHRYSURUS.

Character Genericus.

Opercula squamata, inermia.

Character Specificus, &c.

SPARUS ruber, linea laterali aurata.

Bloch. ichth. 8. p. 25. t. 262.
Thoracici.

Aquas Brasilienses incolit formosissimus piscis in tabula depictus, longi­tudine, ut plurimum pedali vel sesquipedali.

v

 

r

the
YELLOW-STRIPED SPARUS.

Generic Character.

Gill-covers scaly, unarmed.

Specific Character.

Red SPARUS, with yellow lateral stripe and tail.

Der Goldschwantz.

La Queue d’Or.

The Yellow-tailed SPARUS.

This highly beautiful fish inhabits the waters of Brasil. Its general length is from twelve to eighteen inches.

v

 

459

Phorcas Butterfly

Notes

r

PAPILIO PHORCAS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO niger, fascia supra viridi subtus pallidiore, alis posterioribus caudatis.

PAPILIO Doreus. P. alis fascia supra viridi, subtus alba.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2239.

Fab. sp. ins. 2. p. 18.

PAPILIO PHORCAS.

Cram. 1. t. 2. f. B. C.

In Sierra Leona præcipue conspicitur Papilio Phorcas, inter pulchriores merito numerandus. Magnitudinem naturalem ostendit tabula.

v

 

r

PHORCAS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ gradually thickening towards the end, terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings, when at rest, upright. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character.

Black Butterfly, with green band, paler beneath, the lower wings tailed.

This species, which may justly be numbered among the most elegant of its tribe, is chiefly found in Sierra Leona, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

460

Thorny Murex

London, Published Decr 1st 1800 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

MUREX TRIBULUS.
var.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, exasperata suturis membranaceis.

Apertura desinens in canalem integrum, rectum seu subascendentem.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1213.

Character Specificus, &c.

MUREX TRIBULUS. M. testa ovata spinis setaceis trifariis, cauda elongata subulata recta similiter spinosa.

Lin. Syst. Nat. 1214.

Var. spinis longissimis.

Quas genus Murex amplectitur numerosissimas sunt species. His, ut plurimum, insignis est scabritie super­ficies, nunc in longas spinas excurrens, nunc in processus quosdam crispatos seu quasi foliatos. Testam de qua jam agitur rarissimam alit mare Indicum et Atlanticum. Variant specimina quoad colorem, nec non rostri et spinarum longi­tudinem.

v

 

r

the
THORNY MUREX.
var.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Slug.

Shell univalve, spiral, roughened with membranaceous sutures.

Aperture ending in a strait or subascending channel.

Specific Character, &c.

Whitish MUREX, with a triple row of setaceous spines, and long beak with similar spines.

Var. With extremely long spines.

The Thorny Woodcock.

The genus Murex, of which the species are extremely numerous, is distinguished, in general, by a peculiar roughness of surface, which either runs out into long spines, or into processes more or less crisped or foliated. The very rare shell exhibited on the present plate is principally found in the Indian and American seas, and varies as to color and length of the beak and spines.

v

 

461

Mayna Barbet

London, Published Jany 1st 1801 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

E

BUCCO MAYNANENSIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum cultratum, lateraliter compressum, apice utrinque emarginato, incurvato; rictu infra oculos protenso.

Nares pennis recumbentibus obtectæ.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 168.

Character Specificus, &c.

BUCCO viridis, capite gulaque rubris, cæruleo marginatis, jugulo et pectore flavo, abdominis macula rubra.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 203.

BUCCO MAYNANENSIS.

Briss. 4. p. 102.

BUCCO elegans.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 406.

In Americæ australis partibus calidioribus generatur pulcherrima hæc avis. Nitore & varietate colorum plerisque antecellit congeneribus, quarum nonnullis obtigit non splendidus, sed paulo obscurior vestitus.

v

 

E2

the
MAYNA BARBET.

Generic Character.

Bill wedge-shaped, laterally compressed, incurvated at the tip and emarginated on each side: the rictus or gape extending beyond the eyes.

Nostrils covered with recumbent feathers.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Green BARBET, with the head and throat red, bounded by blue; the breast yellow, and a red spot on the abdomen.

Le beau Tamatia.

Buff. ois. 7. p. 98.

Barbu de Maynas.

Pl. enl. 330.

Beautiful BARBET.

Lath. syn. 2. p. 498.

This beautiful bird is a native of the hotter parts of South America, and in splendor and variety of colors excels most of its congeners, some of which are rather obscure in their plumage.

v

 

462

Rock Macrourus

London, Published Jany 1st 1801 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

MACROURUS RUPESTRIS.

Character Genericus.

Cauda attenuata.

Bloch. ichth. 5. p. 122.

Character Specificus, &c.

MACROURUS cauda sensim attenuata.

MACROURUS rupestris.

Bloch. ichth. 5. p. 123. t. 177.
Thoracici.

Coryphæna rupestris. C. dorso dipterygio, pinnæ dorsalis primæ radio primo retro-dentato.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 1195.

Coryphænoides rupestris.

Gunner. act. nidr. 3. p. 43. t. 3. f. 1.

Novum hoc genus, a celeberrimo Blochio institutum, unicam continet speciem maria arctica incolentem, crescentemque in longi­tudinem bipedalem seu tripe­dalem. A Linnæo Coryphænis annumeratum est.

v

 

r

the
ROCK MACROURUS.

Generic Character.

Tail gradually attenuated.

Specific Character, &c.

MACROURUS with very large eyes and gradually attenuated tail.

Der Berglachs.

Bloch. ichth. t. 177.

The genus Macrourus, first instituted by Dr. Bloch, contains only one species, which is a native of the Northern seas, and grows to the length of two, and sometimes three feet. In the arrangement of Linnæus it was considered as a species of Coryphæna.

v

 

463

Great Libellula

London, Published Jany 1st 1801 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

LIBELLULA GRANDIS.

Character Genericus.

Os maxillosum: maxillis pluribus.

Antennæ thorace breviores.

Alæ extensæ.

Cauda (maris) hamoso-forcipata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 901.

Character Specificus, &c.

LIBELLULA thorace lineis quatuor flavis, corpore variegato.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2675.

LIBELLULA GRANDIS. L. alis glaucescentibus, thorace lineis quatuor flavis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 903.

Reaum. ins. 6. t. 35. f. 3.

Roes. ins. 2. aquat. t. 2. 3.

Abunde probat pulcherrima et splendidissima hæc Libellula, quam longe inter se discrepant in eodem animalculo larvæ & insecti perfecti forma atque indoles. Ova, quæ dum aquas prætervolat, deponere solet parens, imum petunt, et certo temporis spatio excluduntur larvæ, quæ adultæ repræsentantur in tabula; pupa seu chrysa­lide nihil a larva differente, v nisi quod appareant alarum principia, brevibus thecis super tergum inclusa. Voracissima larvarum gula insectorum imbecilliorum plurimis mortem infert; ad hoc enim donantur instru­mento apprime idoneo, forcipis vice fungente, geniculato, quod quiescentibus super os retrahitur, ad prædam autem captandam subito in longinquum projicitur. Cum in aquis vixerit larva duos circiter annos, stipite plantæ alicujus aquaticæ inscenso, solis calore gradatim diffringitur cutis, et prorepit insectum plene formatum; relictis in caule exuviis quasi illæsis et vulneris expertibus.

Cum primum e carcere liberatur, alæ teneræ in parvum spatium contrahuntur; elapsa autem quasi semihora ad summum expansis, tentat Libellula aeris nisus; ex illo tempore si in aquis nuperrime relictis diutius fuerit immersa, non minus mortem subitura, quam antea esset larva per idem tempus aeri exposita.

Libellulæ insecta imbecilliora voraciter prædantur volatu rapidissimo. Mira quoque oculi conformatio, cujus cornea seu tunica exterior in lenticularum æque convex­arum millia multa dividitur, clarius cernitur in hoc insecto quam in aliis.

Species quam depinximus, e maximis est Libellularum Europæarum, et per Angliam vulgata. Iconem elegantem et fidelem ex Roeselii opere cui titulus Insecten Belustigung qua præstantiorem exprimere desperavimus, imitari et in nostram tabellam transferre non dubitavimus.

r

the
GREAT LIBELLULA.

Generic Character.

Mouth consisting of several mandibles.

Antennæ very slender, filiform, shorter than the thorax.

Wings spreading.

Abdomen lengthened.

Specific Character, &c.

Long-Bodied variegated LIBELLULA, with four yellow lines on the thorax.

The variegated LIBELLULA.

GREAT LIBELLULA or Dragon-Fly.

This most beautiful and brilliant insect affords a singular instance of the wonderful diversity of form and manners between the larva and the complete state of one and the same animal. The eggs deposited by the parent insect while it hovers over the waters it frequents, sink to the bottom, and after a certain space, hatch into larvæ, which, when arrived at full growth, are of the figure repre­sented on the annexed plate; the pupa or chrysalis itself differing in no other respect from the larva, than in shewing the rudiments of the future wings, which are enveloped in short cases or processes on the bask of the animal. The larvæ are remarkably voracious, and destroy great multitudes of the weaker water-insects, being furnished with a formidable apparatus for seizing their prey, so constructed as to fold over v the face when at rest, and to be suddenly thrown forwards to a considerable extent when in action. After having remained about two years in this state, the animal ascends the stem of some water-plant, and sitting some time in the sunshine, gives birth to the insect in its perfect or ultimate form, which gradually disengages itself from the skin of the chrysalis, leaving it in its former appearance on the stem. At the period of its first exclusion, the wings, which are then very weak and tender, are complicated into a very short compass; but in about the space of half an hour they become expanded to their full dimensions, and the animal at once commences an inhabitant of the air, and would be as effectually destroyed by a continued submersion under water, as the larva would before have been by exposure to the air.

The Libellulæ in their complete state prey on the smaller insects, and are remarkable for the vigour and celerity of their flight. They also exhibit with greater clearness, and on a larger scale than any other insects, the wonderful structure of the eye, the cornea or exterior coat of which is composed of many thousands of hexagonal, double-convex lenses or segments.

The species here represented is one of the largest of the European Libellulæ, and is very common in our own country. It has been so elegantly and accurately exhibited by Roesel in his Insecten Belustigung that it would be in vain to attempt a more expressive representation; for which reason the figures on the present plate are copied from that excellent publication.

464

Norway Lobster

London, Published Jany 1st 1801 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

CANCER NORVEGICUS.

Character Genericus.

Pedes octo, (rarius sex aut decem;) insuper manus duæ chelatæ.

Palpi sex inæquales.

Oculi duo distantes, plurimis pedunculati; elongati, mobiles.

Mandibula cornea, crassa.

Labium triplex.

Cauda articulata, inermis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2963.

Character Specificus, &c.

CANCER thorace antrorsum aculeato, manibus prismaticis, angulis spinosis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1053.

Astacus Norwegians.

Degeer. ins. 7. p. 398. t. 24. f. 1.

Seb. mus. 3. t. 21. f. 3.

Astacum vulgarem magnitudine fere æquat Cancer Norvegicus, in mari arctico præcipue repertus.

v

 

r

the
NORWAY LOBSTER.

Generic Character.

Legs generally eight, (in some species six or ten,) besides two claspers or chelated arms.

Feelers six, unequal.

Eyes two, commonly distant; footstalked, moveable.

Tail articulated, unarmed.

Specific Character, &c.

Long-bodied CANCER, with the thorax aculeated forwards, and prismatic arms with the angles spiny.

NORWAY LOBSTER.

Br. zool. 4. p. 12. f. 24.

This species is nearly equal in size to the common Lobster, and is principally found in the Northern ocean.

v

 

465

Black-Capped Kingfisher

London, Published Febry 1st 1801 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

F

ALCEDO ATRICAPILLA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum trigonum, crassum, rectum, longum.

Lingua carnosa, brevissima, plana, acuta.

Pedes gressorii plerisque.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 178.

Character Specificus, &c.

ALCEDO violaceo-cærulea, subtus alba, capite cervice humeris remigibusque apice nigris, collo inferiore et torque albo, abdomine rufo.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 251.

ALCEDO ATRICAPILLA.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 453.

Inter aves Sinenses pulcherrimas merito numeratur Alcedo atricapilla, magni­tudine dimidiata in tabula expressa.

v

 

F2

the
BLACK-CAPPED KINGFISHER.

Generic Character.

Bill trigonal, thick, strait, long.

Tongue fleshy, very short, flat, sharp-pointed.

Feet, in most species, gressorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Violet-blue KINGFISHER, with white breast and collar, rufous abdomen, and black head shoulders and wing-tips.

BLACK-CAPPED KINGFISHER.

Lath. syn. 1. p. 624.

Martin-pêcheur de la Chine.

Pl. enl. 673.

The black-capped Kingfisher may justly be considered as one of the most beautiful of the Chinese birds. It is repre­sented on the plate of half the natural size.

v

 

466

Nasal Notocanthus

London, Published Febry 1st 1801 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

NOTOCANTHUS NASUS.

Character Genericus.

Aculei dorsales curti.

Bloch. ichth. 12. p. 112.

Character Specificus, &c.

NOTOCANTHUS rostro nasiformi.

Bloch. 12. p. 113. t. 431.

E novis generibus est Notacanthus quibus plurimis scientiam ichthyologicam ditavit Blochius. Unicam continet speciem, maria? Indica incolentem, et magni­tudine dimidiata in tabula nostra depictam; quicquid autem ad peculiares illius mores attinet incognitum omne et incertum est.

v

 

r

the
NASAL NOTOCANTHUS.

Generic Character.

Short prickles along the back.

Specific Character, &c.

NOTOCANTHUS with nose-like snout.

Indian NOTOCANTHUS.

Der Stachelrucken.

Bloch. ichth. 12. p. 113. pl. 431.

The genus Acanthonotus or Notacanthus is one of the many new genera instituted by Dr. Bloch. It contains but one species, which is a native of the Indian seas? and is repre­sented of half its natural size on the annexed plate. The particular history and manners of this fish are entirely unknown.

v

 

467

Tuberous Buccinum

London, Published Febry 1st 1801 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

BUCCINUM TUBEROSUM.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, gibbosa.

Apertura ovata, desinens in canaliculum (s. retusam lacunam) dextrum, cauda retusum.

Labium interius explanatum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1196.

Character Specificus, &c.

BUCCINUM testa cingulis duobus tuberculosis, cauda recurva.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1198.

Gualt. test. t. 41. f. A.

Seb. mus. 3. t. 73. f. 5-15.

Knorr. Vergn. 3. t. 10. f. 1. 2.

In Oceano Americano præcipue innascitur Buccinum tuberosum, magni­tudine et coloribus varians, et interdum fere in pedalem crescens longi­tudinem.

v

 

r

TUBEROUS BUCCINUM.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Slug.

Shell univalve, spiral, gibbous.

Aperture ovate, ending in a channel pointing towards the right.

Interior Lip expanded.

Specific Character, &c.

Pale BUCCINUM with rufous and dusky varie­gations, two rows of tubercles, and recurved tip.

Knobbed BUCCINUM.

The shell here represented is a native of the American seas, and varies greatly both in size and colors, sometimes measuring almost twelve inches in length.

v

 

468

Lectrix Moth

Notes

r

PHALÆNA LECTRIX.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ a basi ad apicem sensim attenuates.

Lingua spiralis.

Maxillæ nullæ.

Clypeus (plurimis) corneus brevis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2400.

Character Specificus, &c.

PHALÆNA (Noctua) spirilinguis, alis nigris, maculis cæruleis flavis albisque, inferioribus rubro alboque maculatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 834.

PHALÆNA (Bombyx) LECTRIX.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2442.

Sinam incolit rarissimum insectum Phalæna Lectrix. In Museo Leveriano asservatur eximium specimen unde delineata est hæc nostra figura.

v

 

r

LECTRIX.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually lessening from the base to the tip.

Wings (when sitting) commonly deflected. (Flight nocturnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

Moth with black wings, the upper variegated with blue, yellow, and white spots, the lower with red and white.

Edw. pl. 318.

Donov. Chin. Ins.

That extremely rare insect the Phalæna Lectrix is a native of China. The beautiful specimen here repre­sented is preserved in the Leverian Museum.

v

 

469

American Jabiru

London, Published March 1st 1801 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

G

MYCTERIA AMERICANA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum subascendens, acutum, mandibula superiore triquetra.

Frons calva.

Nares lineares.

Pedes tetradactyli.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 670.

Character Specificus, &c.

MYCTERIA alba, remigibus rectricibusque nigro-purpurascentibus.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 670.

MYCTERIA AMERICANA.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 232.

Ciconia brasiliensis.

Briss. av. 5. p. 371.

Mycteria Americana, quam unicam speciem continere genus non ita pridem opinati sunt physici, Americæ australis loca incolit paludosa, et eodem fere vivendi modo utitur quo ardeæ. Magnitudine ciconiam longe exuperat: immo reperta sunt specimina v parum ab ipso struthione distantia. Auctum nuperrime est genus novis duabus speciebus, quarum altera ex Australasia in Angliam, altera ex India illata est.

G2

the
AMERICAN JABIRU.

Generic Character.

Bill subascendant, sharp, with the upper mandible triquetrous.

Front bare.

Nostrils linear.

Feet tetradactylous.

Specific Character, &c.

White JABIRU with black wing-feathers and tail.

Great AMERICAN JABIRU.

The American Jabiru, till lately the only species known, is a native of South America, frequenting marshy places, and feeding in the general manner of the Heron tribe. Its size considerably exceeds that of a Stork, and indeed in some specimens almost approaches to that of the Ostrich. This genus has been lately increased by a new species from Australasia, as well as by another from India.

v

 

470

Paradise Polynemus

Notes

r

POLYNEMUS PARADISEUS.

Character Genericus.

Radii filiformes liberi jugulares.

Bloch. ichth. 12. p. 15.
Pisces Abdominales.

Character Specificus, &c.

POLYNEMUS radiis liberis septem jugularibus, pinna caudæ bifurca.

Bloch. ichth. 12. p. 20.

POLYNEMUS digitis septem, cauda bifida.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 522.

Piscis Paradisæa.

Edw. t. 208.

Maria Americana incolit Polynemus paradiseus, magni­tudine dimidiata in tabula depictus.

v

 

r

the
PARADISE POLYNEMUS.

Generic Character.

Loose radii or filaments proceeding from each side of the throat.

Specific Character, &c.

POLYNEMUS with seven loose filaments on each side the throat, and forked tail.

The Paradise-Fish.

Der Paradies-fisch.

Bloch. pl. 402.

The Mango-Fish.

Edw. pl. 208.

Le Poisson de Paradis.

Bonaterre encycl. ichth. p. 182.

This fish is a native of the American seas, and is repre­sented on the plate of about half its natural size.

v

 

471

Depressed Libellula

Notes

r

LIBELLULA DEPRESSA.

Character Genericus.

Os maxillosum: maxillis pluribus.

Antennæ thorace breviores.

Alæ extensæ.

Cauda (maris) forcipata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 901.

Character Specificus, &c.

LIBELLULA abdomine depresso, maris cæruleo, feminæ flavo.

LIBELLULA alis omnibus basi nigricantibus, thorace lineis duabus flavis, abdomine lanceolato, lateribus flavescente.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 902.

Roes. 2. t. 6. 7.

Edw. av. t. 333.

Formosæ hujus Libellulæ, cui eadem fere est indoles et vivendi ratio ac reliquis congeneribus, discrepant adeo colores in mari et femina, ut ad speciei distinctionem forma præcipue valeat. Mari est corpus læte cæruleum, maculis in marginibus fuscis; feminæ splendide flavum, maculis iisdem quibus mas conspersum. Non aliter quam Libellula grandis, rivos locaque aquosa celerrime præter­volat, sub finem æstatis præcipue conspecta.

v

 

r

the
DEPRESSED LIBELLULA.

Generic Character.

Mouth consisting of several mandibles.

Antennæ very slender, filiform, shorter than the thorax.

Wings spreading.

Abdomen lengthened.

Specific Character, &c.

Flat-Bodied LIBELLULA; that of the male blue, of the female yellow.

The Flat-Bodied Dragon-Fly.

This beautiful insect, the general manners or habits of which resemble those of its congeners, is of so different a colour in the different sexes, that the shape is the chief criterion of the species. The body of the male is of a bright blue, with brown marginal variegations, while that of the female, on the contrary, is of a bright yellow, with similar marginal markings. Like the Libellula grandis, this species is principally seen towards the decline of summer, and flies with great rapidity about the neighbourhood of brooks and stagnant waters.

v

 

472

Perseus Butterfly

London, Published Marchst 1801 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

PAPILIO PERSEUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursum que conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 774.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis pallide cæruleis apice atris ferrugineo maculatis, subtus undatis: ocellis tribus quatuorque.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2245.

Fab. sp. ins. 2. p. 24.
Eq. Achiv.

Seb. mus. 4. t. 17. f. 13. 14. & t. 18. f. 15. 16.

Cram. pap. 6. t. 71. f. A. B.

Inter papiliones Americanos eminet P. Perseus, cujus veram magni­tudinem ostendit tabula. In Americæ Australis regionibus calidioribus præcipue conspicitur.

v

 

r

PERSEUS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the upper part, and generally terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when sitting) erect, and meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

BUTTERFLY with pale-blue glossy wings, blackish and spotted with ferruginous towards the edges: beneath undulated and marked with two or three ocellated spots.

Seb. 4. t. 17. 18.

Cram. 6. t. 71. f. A. B.

The Papilio Perseus may be considered as one of the most elegant of the American Butterflies. It is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size, and is principally found in the hotter regions of South America.

v

 

473

Black-Headed Oriole

London, Published April 1st 1801 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

H

ORIOLUS MELANOCEPHALUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum conicum, convexum, acutissimum, rectum: mandibula superiore paulo longiore, obsolete emarginata.

Lingua bifida, acuta.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 160.

Character Specificus, &c.

ORIOLUS luteus, capite remigibus apicibusque rectricum intermediarum nigris.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 160.

Sturnus luteolus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. p. 167.

ORIOLUS Bengalensis.

Briss. 2. p. 329.

In India, Sina, variisque partibus orientalibus, nec non in Africa innascitur Oriolus melanocephalus. In tabula ostenditur magni­tudine naturali saltem dimidiata.

v

 

H2

BLACK-HEADED ORIOLE.

Generic Character.

Bill conic, convex, very sharp-pointed, strait: the upper mandible rather longer than the lower, and slightly emarginated.

Tongue bifid, sharp-pointed.

Feet formed for walking.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellow ORIOLE, with the head, remiges, and tips of the middle tail-feathers black.

Le Loriot de la Chine.

Buff. 3. p. 202.

BLACK-HEADED Indian Icterus.

Edw. pl. 77.

The Oriolus melanocephalus is a native of India, China, and many other parts of the East Indies, as well as of some parts of Africa. The plate represents it about half the natural size or rather smaller.

v

 

474

Tricolor Chætodon

London, Published Aprilst 1801 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

CHÆTODON TRICOLOR.

Character Genericus.

Dentes setacei: corpus pictum.

Bloch. ichth. 6. p. 35.

Character Specificus, &c.

CHÆTODON antics flavus, postice niger, cauda marginibusque pinnarum rubris.

CHÆTODON TRICOLOR.

Bloch. ichth. 12. p. 97. t. 425.

Americana est mirabilis hæc species, primusque eam descripsisse videtur celeberrimus Blochius. Crescere solet in longi­tudinem plus pedalem.

v

 

r

TRICOLOR CHÆTODON.

Generic Character.

Teeth setaceous. Body varied or banded.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellow CHÆTODON, with the hind part black; the tail and fins bordered with red.

The TRICOLOR or triple-coloured CHÆTODON.

This highly singular species, which grows to the length of a foot or more, is a native of the American seas, and seems to have been first described in the work of Dr. Bloch.

v

 

475

Carved Asterias

Notes

r

ASTERIAS TOREUMA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus depressum, subtus sulcatum; crusta coriacea tentaculis muricata.

Os centrale quinquevalve.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3160.

Character Specificus, &c.

ASTERIAS granulata, radiis quinque obtusis margine articulato-tuberculatis.

Stella marina Artocreas.

Seb. 3. t. 6. f. 5-10.

Link. t. 23. f. 37. t. 24. f. 39. t. 37. f. 45.

Asteriarum omnium quas adhuc novimus nulla videtur magis esse coelata et quasi artificis manu e ligno elaborata, quam illa quæ in tabula ostenditur. In maribus Indicis generatur, diversa magni­tudine, diametro interdum unciali, interdum sexunciali. Color rubeo-pallet, subtus flavescens seu fere albicans.

v

 

r

CARVED ASTERIAS.

Generic Character.

Body depressed, coriaceous, roughened with small tentacula above.

Mouth beneath, central, quinquevalvular.

Specific Character.

Granulated ASTERIAS, with five obtuse rays articulated with tubercles on the margin.

Of all the Asteriæ yet known, the present is one which has most the aspect of an elaborate artificial composition; appearing as if curiously carved on wood. It is a native of the Indian seas, and is found of various sizes, from an inch to six inches in diameter. Its colour is pale red, yellowish or whitish beneath.

v

 

476

Black-Winged Libellula

London, Published April 1st 1801 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

LIBELLULA VIRGO.

Character Genericus.

Os maxillosum; maxillis pluribus.

Antennæ thorace breviores.

Alæ extensæ.

Cauda (maris) hamoso-forcipata.

Character Specificus, &c.

LIBELLULA viridi-cærulea, alis hyalinis fascia lata nigra.

LIBELLULA VIRGO. L. alis erectis coloratis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 904.

Roes. 2. t. 9.

Libellula Virgo, qua species nulla Anglicana vulgatior, matutino tempore, per æstatem prætervolat, ut plurimum, rivulos et loca aquosa. Corporis color generalis est cæruleo-viridis saturatior; alis magnam in medio habentibus maculam seu aream ovatam nigro-cærulescentem. Variant tamen hujus speciei colores magis quam aliarum; interdum enim alæ maculis omnino carent, interdum penitus nigræ sunt; corpore quoque vel viridi-aureo, vel lucido-cæruleo, vel etiam fusco.

v

 

r

BLACK-WINGED LIBELLULA.

Generic Character.

Mouth consisting of several mandibles.

Antennæ very slender, filiform, shorter than thorax.

Wings spreading.

Abdomen lengthened.

Specific Character, &c.

Blue-Green LIBELLULA, with a broad black band across the wings.

Black-winged Dragon-Fly.

Banded LIBELLULA.

The Libellula Virgo, one of the most common species in this country, is generally seen flying, during the morning hours, about the banks of rivulets, or stagnant waters. The general colour of the body is deep blue-green, while the wings are marked in the middle by a very large patch or area of blueish-black. The insect varies however in point of colour more than any other species, and is sometimes seen with the wings perfectly plain or unmarked, and sometimes, on the contrary, entirely blue-black: the tinge of the body also varies in a similar manner, being either bright golden-green, deep lucid blue, or even sometimes brown.

v

 

477

Cayenne Owl

London, Published May 1st 1801 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

I

STRIX CAYANA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum, absque cera.

Nares pennis setaceis recumbentibus obtectæ.

Caput grande: auribus oculisque magnis.

Lingua bifida.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 131.

Character Specificus, &c.

STRIX capite lævi, iridibus fulvis, corpore rufo lineis transversis fuscis.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 64.

STRIX CAYANENSIS.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 296.

Elegantissimam hanc avem primus descripsit Buffonus. In America australi innascitur, eadem fere magni­tudine atque Strix flammea Linnæi. Notandum est in tabula nostra de magni­tudine naturali multum detrahi.

v

 

I2

CAYENNE OWL.

Generic Character.

Bill crooked, without cere.

Nostrils covered with recumbent bristly feathers.

Head large; Ears and Eyes large.

Tongue bifid.

Specific Character, &c.

Rufous OWL, with numerous, brown, transverse, linear undulations, and yellow eyes.

Chat-huant de Cayenne.

Buff. ois. 1. p. 301.

Pl. Enl. 442.

CAYENNE OWL.

Lath. syn. 1. p. 140.

This elegant species appears to have been first described by the Count de Buffon. It is a native of Cayenne, and is about the size of the common white or barn owl. The plate, of course, represents it as consi­derably diminished from its natural magni­tude.

v

 

479

Tritonian Murex

London, Published May 1st 1801 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

MUREX TRITONIS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, exasperata suturis membranaceis.

Apertura desinens in canalem integrum, rectum seu subascendentem.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1213.

Character Specificus, &c.

MUREX testa ventricosa oblonga lævi, anfractibus rotundatis, apertura dentata, cauda brevi.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1222.

Buccinum TRITONIS.

Rumph. mus. t. 28. f. B.

Magnificam hanc Concham, magnitudine interdum fere sesquipedali, generant præcipue maria Indica. Corni­formis cum sit, convertere eam dicuntur pastores Asiatici et Africani in tubam pecuariam; barbaræque nonnullæ gentes in bellicam. Mihi sane persuasissimum est hanc ipsam testam in animo habuisse Ovidium, qui, simul atque audita sit grandisona Tritonis buccina, maris iram coercitam et immanes diluvii aquas recedentes cecinerit.

v

“Jupiter ut liquidis stagnare paludibus orbem,

Et superesse videt de tot modo millibus unum;

Et superesse videt de tot modo millibus unam,

Innocuos ambos, cultores numinis ambos;

Nubila disjecit: nimbisque Aquilone remotis,

Et coelo terras ostendit, et æthera terris.

Nec maris ira manet: positoque tricuspide telo

Mulcet aquas rector pelagi: supraque profundum

Extantem, atque humeros innato murice tectum

Cæruleum Tritona vocat; conchæque sonaci

Inspirare jubet; fluctusque et flumina signo

Jam revocare dato. Cava buccina sumitur illi

Tortilis, in latum quæ turbine crescit ab imo:

Buccina, quæ medio concepit ut aëra ponto,

Littora voce replet sub utroque jacentia Phoebo.

Tum quoque, ut ora Dei madida rorantia barba

Contigit, et cecinit jussos inflata receptus,

Omnibus audita est telluris et æquoris undis:

Et quibus est undis audita, coercuit omnes.

Jam mare littus habet: plenos capit alveus amnes:

Flumina subsidunt: colles exire videntur.

Surgit humus: crescunt loca decrescentibus undis.”

Color illi generalis est albidus seu albo-flavescens, zonis transversis plus minus fuscis, ferrugineis, seu nigrican­tibus undulatus. Variant enim hujus nec non plerarumque concharum colores ob ætatem, et aliis multis de causis.

r

the
TRITONIAN MUREX.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Slug.

Shell univalve, spiral, roughened with membranaceous sutures.

Aperture ending in a strait or subascending channel.

Specific Character, &c.

MUREX with large, oblong, smooth, whitish shell, with transverse ferruginous undulations, toothed aperture, and short top.

The Sea Trumpet, or great clouded MUREX.

Triton’s Trumpet.

This superb shell, which is sometimes seen of near a foot and a half in length, is principally found in the Indian seas. From its peculiar form it is well adapted for the purpose of a horn or trumpet, and is said to be often used as such by the African and Asiatic shepherds. It is said to be occasionally used as a military trumpet among barbarous nations. We may also conclude it to have been the shell intended v by Ovid in his description of the retiring of the waters of the deluge on the sound of the trumpet of Triton.

But when th’all-powerful ruler of the sky

Saw earth in one wide waste of waters lie,

While late of all its peopled realms contain’d

One only pair of human race remain’d,

Innocuous both, resign’d to Heav’n’s decree,

Celestial pity touch’d the Deity.

At his command, by winds resistless driv’n,

Dispersing clouds to earth unveil the heav’n:

And Neptune bids blue Triton sound amain

His powerful trump, and bind the waves again.

The sea-born herald at the call appears;

High o’er the surge his scaly shoulders rears;

And while the foaming billows round him swell

Grasps with his bearded lip the spiral shell.

With such a blast the sounding conch he blew

O’er all the globe at once the thrilling signal flew.

Back to their ancient bounds, from pole to pole

Th’alarmed seas in refluent circles roll:

The hills emerge; the woods their branches shew;

And earth restor’d peeps slowly from below.

This shell is generally of a whitish or yellowish colour, richly variegated with deep and pale ferruginous, brown, and blackish, transverse undulations; varying, like all other shells in the intensity and beauty of its colours, according to age or other circumstances.

478

Sanguine Perch

London, Published May 1st 1801 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

PERCA GUTTATA.

Character Genericus.

Squamæ duræ, asperæ.

Opercula spinosa.

Bloch. ichth. 2. p. 56
Thoracici.

Character Specificus, &c.

PERCA rubra guttis rubris.

Bloch. ichth. 9. p. 78. t. 312.

PERCA pinnis dorsalibus unitis, cauda integra, corpore punctis sanguineis adsperso.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 485

Gugupuguacu.

Catesb. p. 14. t. 14.

Perca guttata, quam satis abundanter alunt maria Americana, in cibis est laudatioribus; perca communi Europea seu fluviatili fere duplo major. Color communis pulcherrime rubet, maculis plurimis obscurioribus conspersus.

v

 

r

the
SANGUINE PERCH.

Generic Character.

Gill-Covers spiny.

Scales hard and rough.

Specific Character, &c.

Red PERCH, with numerous deep-red spots.

The Hind.

Catesb. Car. 2. p. 14. pl. 14.

La Sanguinolente.

Bonaterre Encycl. Ichth. p. 130.

The Hind, or red spotted Perch.

The Perca guttata, a very common inhabitant of the West Indian seas, and, in general, much esteemed as an article of food, grows sometimes to near double the size of the common European or river Perch. Its general colour is a most beautiful red, with numerous round spots of a deeper tinge.

v

 

480

Small Libellula

London, Published Mayst 1801 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

LIBELLULA PUELLA.

Character Genericus.

Os maxillosum: maxillis pluribus.

Antennæ thorace breviores.

Alæ extensæ.

Cauda maris hamoso-forcipata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 901.

Character Specificus, &c.

LIBELLULA alis erectis hyalinis, corpore cæruleo vel rubido.

LIBELLULA PUELLA. L. alis erectis hyalinis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 905.

Agrion PUELLA.

Fab. sp. ins. p. 527.

Roes. 2. t. 10. 11.

Reaum. ins. 6. t. 35. f. 6.

Merian Eur. 78. t. 156.

Loca aquosa sæpissime circumvolitare solet Libellula Puella æstivo tempore. Hanc specie nulla Britannica minor aut vulgatior. Variat color corporis non minus quam Libellulæ Virginis; vel læte cyaneus, vel rufo-fuscus, vel nigricans. Certus tamen et constans alarum color, scilicet hyalinus; macula fusca parvula prope marginum extremitates ducta.

v

 

r

SMALL LIBELLULA.

Generic Character.

Mouth consisting of several mandibles.

Antennæ very slender, filiform, shorter than the thorax.

Wings spreading.

Abdomen lengthened.

Specific Character, &c.

LIBELLULA with upright hyaline wings, and sky-blue or reddish body.

Small Dragon-Fly.

Little slender-bodied LIBELLULA.

This is the least of the British Libellulæ, and is a very frequent insect in the neighbourhood of watery places during the summer months. In the colour of its body it varies as much as the L. Virgo, and is either of a bright sky-blue, reddish-brown, or blackish: the wings however are constantly of a similar appearance, or transparent, with a small, dark marginal spot towards their extremities.

v

 

481

Southern Sheathbill

Notes

K

VAGINALIS AUSTRALIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum robustum, conico-convexum, compressum, mandibula superiore vagina mobili cornea tecta.

Facies nuda, papillosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

VAGINALIS alba, facie papillosa.

VAGINALIS Chionis.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 774.

VAGINALIS alba.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 705.

Genus Vaginalis ex iis est novis ob avium nuperrime detectarum abundantiam necessario institutis. Constat ex unica specie cui magni­tudo est quasi columbæ vulgaris. Australasiam insulasque maris pacifici præcipue incolit.

v

 

K2

the
SOUTHERN SHEATHBILL.

Generic Character.

Bill strong, conically-convex, compressed; the upper mandible covered at the base by a moveable horny sheath.

Face naked, covered with papillæ.

Specific Character, &c.

White SHEATHBILL, with scattered papillæ about the face.

The Southern or White SHEATHBILL.

White SHEATHBILL.

Lath. syn. 3. p. 268.

The genus Vaginalis or Sheathbill is one of the new genera which, in consequence of the late discoveries in ornithology, it has been found necessary to institute. The species here repre­sented is the only one at present known, and is about the size of a common Pigeon. It is a native of New Holland and of the scattered Southern islands.

v

 

482

Red Scarus

London, Published June 1st 1801 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

SCARUS CROICENSIS.

Character Genericus.

Caput: Dentium loco maxillæ ipsæ eminentes; margine dentato-crenatæ osseæ.

Membrana branchiostega radiis quinque; Operculum integerrimum.

Corpus: Linea lateralis plurimis ramosa.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 1280.

Character Specificus, &c.

SCARUS pinna caudæ rotundata.

Bloch. ichth. 7. p. 18. t. 221.
Pisc. Thoracici.

Maria Indica et Americana incolit Scarus Croicensis, a Blochio primum depictus. Coloribus variat; interdum totus ruber, interdum fasciis argenteo-albis insignitus. In pedalem crescit longi­tudinem.

v

 

r

the
RED SCARUS.

Generic Character.

Strong bony processes, crenated at the edges, instead of teeth.

Specific Character, &c.

RED SCARUS, with rounded tail, and the body sometimes marked by silvery-white stripes.

Der rothe Papagey-Fisch.

Bloch. ichth. pl. 221.

This elegant species, measuring about twelve inches in length, is a native of the Indian and American seas and was first figured in the work of Dr. Bloch. In color it varies; being sometimes entirely red, and sometimes marked with longi­tudinal silvery-white stripes.

v

 

483

Muricated Pinna

London, Published June 1st 1801 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

PINNA MURICATA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa subbivalvis fragilis, erecta hians, emittens barbam byssinam.

Cardo edentulus, coalitis in unam valvis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3363.

Character Specificus, &c.

PINNA testa striata, squamis concavis, ovatis, acutis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1160.

Concha Pinna.

Hasselq. itin. 447.

Varietates potius quam distinctæ species sunt plures hujus generis.

Genus Pinnæ, cujus nonnullæ species in peramplam crescunt magni­tudinem, præter cæteros characteras hoc quoque habet insigne, quod animal testam incolens ab apice linguæ tubulatæ sæpissime exertæ et retractæ guttulam glutinosam deponat, unde efficitur quasi sericus innumerarum fibrarum fasciculus, e quo suspensum rupibus aliisque id genus v tuto se possit affigere. Inter species minores est Pinna muricata, longa nempe sex vel octo uncias. Color et superficiei scabrities longe variant. Plerumque tamen color exterior est fusco-saturatior, interior subrubras cum nitore quodam margaritaceo. Pinnarum byssus seu sericum aureo-fuscum in chiro­thecas aliasque parvulas vestes interdum convertitur ab incolis orarum mediterranei maris, Italiæ nempe, Siciliæ, &c. &c. Notandum porro est posse se suspendere sericis filamentis, ab animali testam incolente contextis, Pinnæ generi non proprium omnino et peculiare esse, sed et a nonnullis Mytylorum speciebus, parcius tamen et contractius, eandem artem exerceri.

r

the
MURICATED PINNA.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Limax.

Shell subbivalve, fragile, gaping at the upper part, emitting a beard or tuft of silken filaments.

Hinge toothless, the valves coalescing together.

Specific Character, &c.

PINNA with striated shell, with acute, ovate, concave scales.

Gualt. test. t. 79. f. D.

Seb. 3. t. 92.

Obs. Several of the Pinnæ are considered by Linnæus as varieties rather than distinct species.

The genus Pinna, of which some species grow to a very large size, is distinguished, among other circumstances, by the remarkable power which the inhabiting animal possesses, of affixing itself at pleasure to rocks, or other substances, by a vast number of fine silky threads or filaments, which it forms by v extending its tubular trunk or tongue, and discharging from its tip a minute drop of gluten, which, by the retraction of the same organ, is of course formed into a silken filament; and this operation being several thousand times repeated, a thick and beautiful tuft of silky fibres is composed, by the help of which the animal is securely fastened or anchored in such places as it finds convenient. The Pinna muricata is among the smaller species of this genus; measuring about six or eight inches in length. In color, as well as in the degree of roughness of its external surface, it varies considerably. It is commonly of a deep brown externally, and of a reddish tinge, varied with a degree of pearly lustre internally. The silk or byssus of the Pinnæ is of a rich golden brown color, and is occasionally manufac­tured into gloves, &c. by the inhabitants of those parts of the Mediterranean coasts where it most abounds, viz. on some of the coasts of Italy and Sicily. It should be added, that the power of adhering by means of silken filaments thus drawn from the inhabiting animal, is not entirely confined to the genus Pinna, but takes place, in a smaller degree, in some species of Mytilus.

484

Xuthus Butterfly

Notes

r

PAPILIO XUTHUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, scepius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 774.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis nigris albo striato maculatis; posteri­oribus subtus ocellis cæruleis fulvisque subfasciatis.

Fab. sp. ins. 2. p. 19.

PAPILIO alis caudatis nigris albido striato-maculatis; posticis subtus cæruleo fulvoque subocellatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 751.

Inter Lepidoptera rariora numeratur Papilio Xuthus, Indiæ orientalis incola. Tabula magni­tudine vera pictum exhibet.

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r

XUTHUS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the upper part, and generally terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when sitting) erect, and meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

Black subcaudated Butterfly, with yellowish white striated spots; the lower wings marked beneath with a band of blue and orange ocellated spots.

The Papilio Xuthus is numbered among the rarer species of Lepidoptera, and is a native of the East Indies. The plate represents it in its natural size.

v

 

485

Purple-Throated Falcon

London, Published July 1st 1801 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

L

FALCO FORMOSUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum, cera instructum.

Caput pennis arcte tectum.

Lingua bifida.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 124.

Character Specificus, &c.

FALCO cera orbitis pedibusque luteis, jugulo purpureo, corpore supra cærulescente-rubro, abdomine purpureo.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 38.

FALCO aquilinus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 280.

Sive formæ sive colorum habeatur ratio, merito numerari debet hæc avis in pulcherrimis sui generis. Americani meridionalem incolit, magni­tudine Falconi cyaneo fere æqualis.

v

 

L2

the
PURPLE-THROATED FALCON.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked; with a cere or naked skin at the base.

Head thickly beset with feathers.

Tongue generally bifid.

Specific Character, &c.

Blue FALCON, with purple throat, and reddish abdomen.

Red-Throated FALCON.

Lath. syn. 1. p. 97.

Petit Aigle d’Amerique.

Buff. 1. p. 142.

Pl. Enl. 417.

This bird, whether we consider its shape or colors, must be numbered among the most beautiful of the genus. It is a native of South America, and is nearly equal in size to the Falco cyaneus or Hen-Harrier.

v

 

486

Orontes Butterfly

Notes

r

PAPILIO ORONTES.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ, sursumque conniventes, (Volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis nigris, fasciis duabus virescentibus, caudis albis distantibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2237.

PAPILIO alis caudatis nigris, albido-virescente fasciatus, caudis albis distantibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 750.

Inter rariores hujus generis est Papilio Orontes, magni­tudine vera in tabula depictus. Indiam incolit, coloribus interdum leviter varians.

v

 

r

ORONTES.

Generic Character.

Antennæ terminating generally in a clavated tip.

Wings (when sitting) meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character.

Black Butterfly, with two greenish bands, and two distant white tails or processes.

The Green-Banded tailed Butterfly.

The Papilio Orontes is one of the rarer species of Butter­flies, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size. It is a native of India, and sometimes varies a little in point of color.

v

 

487

Blue-Striped Anthias

London, Published July 1st 1801 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

ANTHIAS FORMOSUS.

Character Genericus.

Caput totum squamosum; operculo anteriore serrato.

Bloch. ichth. 9. p. 86.

Character Specificus, &c.

ANTHIAS flavus, lineis longitudinalibus cæruleis.

Perca formosa.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 1322.

Perca marina capite striato.

Catesby Car. 2. t. 6.

In maribus Americanis præcipue conspicitur Anthias formosus, longi­tudine, ut plurimum, pedali.

v

 

r

the
BLUE-STRIPED ANTHIAS.

Generic Character.

Head completely scaled: anterior gill-cover serrated.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellow ANTHIAS with longitudinal blue lines.

The Grunt.

Catesb. Carol. 2. p. 6.

L’Ecuriel.

Bonaterre Encycl. Ichth. p. 135.

Der Rothmund.

Bloch. ichth. pl. 323.

This beautiful fish is principally found in the American seas, and is generally about twelve inches in length.

v

 

488

Pipe Murex

London, Published July 1st 1801 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.

Notes

r

MUREX HAUSTELLUM.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, exasperata suturis membranaceis.

Apertura desinens in canalem integrum rectum s. subascendentem.

Character Specificus, &c.

MUREX testa ovata, tuberculata, cauda elongata subulata recta muricata.

HAUSTELLUM.

Rumph. mus. t. 26. f. F.

Argenv. conch. t. 19. f. B.

Muricem Haustellum magnitudine vera depictum ostendit tabula. In mari Asiatico præcipue innascitur.

v

 

r

the
PIPE MUREX.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Slug.

Shell univalve, spiral, roughened by membranaceous sutures.

Aperture ending in a strait or subascending channel.

Specific Character, &c.

MUREX with ovate tuberculated shell, with an elongated tapering muricated tip.

La Becasse.

Argenv. p. 257. pl. 16. f. B.

This shell is represented on the plate in its natural size. It is chiefly found in the Asiatic seas.

v

 

489

Least Humming-Bird

London, Published Augst 1st 1801 by Elizabeth Nodder, Sons & Co. Newman Street.

Notes

M

TROCHILUS MINIMUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum subulato-filiforme, apice tubulato, capite longius: Mandibula superior vaginans inferiorem.

Lingua filiformis, filis duobus coalitis tubulosa.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 189.

Character Specificus, &c.

TROCHILUS rectirostris fusco-virescens, subtus albidus, rectricibus lateralibus margine exteriore albis.

TROCHILUS MINIMUS. T. rectirostris, rectricibus lateralibus margine exteriore albis, corpore viridi nitente subtus albido.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 193.

Guainumbi minor corpore toto cinereo.

Raj. Syn. p. 83.

Perpusillum hoc Naturæ miraculum irradiat nullus colorum variorum splendor, quo plurimo gaudet fere reliquum genus. Color ei generalis virescit quasi sub-aureo fuscus, dorso humerisque paulo lucidioribus. v Alæ caudaque e purpureo fusca. Corpus inferius fere albet. Minus est saturati nitoris feminæ quam mari. Avium omnium minimus est Trochilus de quo jam loquimur, longus scilicet ab apice rostri ad extremum caudæ unciam cum quadrante. In plurimis Americæ australis regionibus, interdum etiam in insula Jamaica conspicitur.

M2

the
LEAST HUMMING-BIRD.

Generic Character.

Bill slender, tubular, the upper mandible sheathing the lower.

Tongue very long, extensile; formed of two conjoined cylindric tubes.

Toes three forward, one backward.

Specific Character, &c.

Brownish-green strait-billed HUMMING-BIRD, whitish beneath, with the exterior tail-feathers white on the outside.

LEAST HUMMING-BIRD.

Edw. pl. 105.

Le plus petit Oiseau-Mouche.

Pl. Enl. 276.

This little miracle of Nature is not distinguished by the peculiar splendor and variety of colour so conspicuous in many others of the genus, its general tinge being an obscurely gilded greenish brown above, and whitish beneath: the wings and tail have a cast of purplish brown: the colour of the v female is more obscure than that of the male: the usual length of this species is about an inch and quarter from the tip of the bill to the end of the tail, being by far the least of all birds. It is a native of many parts of South America, and is sometimes found in the island of Jamaica.

490

Clifden Moth

London, Published by Elizabeth Nodder, Sons & Co. Newman Street Augst 1st 1801.

Notes

r

PHALÆNA FRAXINI.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ. (Volatu nocturno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 808.

Character Specificus, &c.

PHALÆNA (Noctua) spirilinguis cristata, alis dentatis cinereo-nebulosis, inferioribus supra nigris, fascia cærulescente.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 843.

Roes. 4. t. 28. f. 1.

Mer. Eur. t. 46.

In Germania aliisque nonnullis Europæis regionibus frequentius nascitur Phalæna fraxini, quam in maximis et rarissimis, insectis quotquot lepidoptera vocantur, numerat Britannia. Larva ejus fusco-pallida fraxini et salicis folia præcipue depascitur, et in chrysalidem leviter lanugi­nosam et fuscam mense Junio convertitur, e qua mense qui proxime insequitur, erumpit Phalæna. A mari illico dignoscitur femina, quod longe major sit.

v

 

r

the
CLIFDEN MOTH.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, decreasing in size from the base to the tip.

Wings, when at rest, generally deflected.

Flight nocturnal.

Specific Character, &c.

MOTH with crested thorax and denticulated wings, the upper pair grey clouded with brown, the lower black with a broad transverse blueish band.

The CLIFDEN MOTH. Clifton Beauty. Nonpareil-Moth, &c. &c.

The Phalæna Fraxini, one of the rarest as well as largest of the British Lepidoptera, is much less uncommon in Germany and several other parts of Europe; its larva, which is of a pale brown colour, feeds principally on the ash and willow, and changes into a slightly hairy brown chrysalis in the month of June, the Moth making its appearance in the following month. The male is easily distinguished from the female by its smaller size.

v

 

491

Golden-Eyed Lutian

Notes

r

LUTIANUS CHRYSOPS.

Character Genericus.

Opercula squamata, serrata, inermia.

Bloch. ichth. 7. p. 84.

Character Specificus, &c.

LUTIANUS violaceus, oculis aureis.

LUTIANUS radiis tribus spinosis tredecimque mollibus in pinna ani.

Bloch. ichth. p. 91. t. 248.
Pisc. Thoracici.

Genus Lutianus, a Blochio primum institutum, varias continet species, quarum illa quæ in tabula depingitur maria incolit Americana? magni­tudine, ut plurimum Clupeæ vulgaris.

v

 

r

the
GOLDEN-EYED LUTIAN.

Generic Character.

Gill-Covers scaly, serrated, unarmed.

Specific Character, &c.

Violet-coloured LUTIAN with gold-coloured eyes.

Das Goldauge.

Bloch. ichth. t. 248.

The genus Lutianus, instituted by Dr. Bloch, contains several species, of which that repre­sented on the present plate is a native of the American? seas, and usually about the size of a common Herring.

v

 

492

Mantle Scallop

Notes

r

OSTREA PALLIUM.

Character Genericus.

Animal Tethys.

Testa bivalvis, (plurimis inæquivalvis,) subaurita.

Cardo edentulus, fossula cava ovata striisque lateralibus transversis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

OSTREA testa æquivalvi, radiis duodecim convexis, striata, scabra, squamis imbricata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1145.

Pecten secundus.

Rumph. mus. t. 44. B.

PALLIUM Ducale.

Argenv. t. 24. f. I.

Inter testas pulcherrimas hujus generis merito numeratur Ostrea Pallium, coloribus plurimum varians. In oris Indicis præcipue conspicitur, et magni­tudine vera in tabula exprimitur.

v

the
MANTLE SCALLOP.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Tethys.

Shell bivalve, (in most species unequally,) subauriculated.

Hinge toothless, with an ovate or subtrigonal fossule and lateral transverse streaks.

Specific Character, &c.

Variegated SCALLOP with equal valves, striped by twelve rough, imbricated, scaly rays.

The Ducal MANTLE SCALLOP.

Le Manteau Ducal.

Argenv. Knorr. &c. &c.

This shell is very justly considered as one of the most beautiful of its tribe: it varies much in colour, and is principally found about the coasts of the Indian seas: it is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

r

INDEX.

Pl.
465. Alcedo atricapilla.
487. Anthias formosus.
454. Apis lapidaria.
475. Asterias Toreuma.
447. Bulla achatina.
461. Bucco Maynanensis.
467. Buccinum tuberosum.
471. Chætodon tricolor.
464. Cancer Norvegicus.
449. Columba rosea.
457. —— coronata.
446. Exocoetus evolans.
485. Falco formosus.
463. Libellula grandis.
471. —— depressa.
476. —— Virgo.
480. —— Puella.
491. Lutianus Chrysops.
469. Mycteria Americana.
445. Mergus Castor.
462. Macrourus rupestris.
460. Murex Tribulus.
479. —— Tritonis.
488. —— Haustellum.
452. Nais digitata.
466. Notocanthus Nasus.
478. Oriolus melanocephalus.
492. Ostrea Pallium.
472. Papilio Perseus.
486. —— Orontes.
448. —— Amphimedon.
459. —— Phorcas.
484. —— Xuthus.
456.
455.
Phalæna Junonia.
468. —— Lectrix.
490. —— Fraxini.
478. Perca guttata.
483. Pinna muricata.
470. Polynemus paradiseus.
482. Scarus Croicensis.
458. Sparus chrysurus.
477. Strix cayana.
450. Tubularia magnifica.
453. Trichoda Sol.
451. Trigla volitans.
489. Trochilus minimus.
481. Vaginalis Australis.

INDEX.

Pl.
475. Anthias blue-striped.
487. Asterias carved.
461. Barbet Mayna.
454. Bee orange-tailed.
467. Buccinum tuberous.
447. Bulla agate.
472. Butterfly Perseus.
459. —— Phorcas.
484. —— Xuthus.
486. —— Orontes.
448. —— Amphimedon.
471. Chætodon tricolor.
446. Flying-Fish.
485. Falcon purple-throated.
451. Gurnard flying.
489. Humming-Bird least.
469. Jabiru American.
465. Kingfisher Black-capped.
463. Libellula great.
471. —— depressed.
476. —— black-winged.
480. —— small.
464. Lobster Norway.
491. Lutian golden-eyed.
462. Macrourus rock.
445. Merganser dun.
468. Moth Lectrix.
455.
456.
Moth Peacock.
490. Moth Clifton.
460. Murex thorny.
479. —— Tritonian.
488. —— pipe.
452. Nais digitated.
466. Notocanthus nasal.
477. Owl Cayenne.
478. Oriole black-headed.
478. Perch sanguine.
449. Pigeon crimson.
457. —— crowned.
483. Pinna muricated.
470. Polynemus Paradise.
481. Sheath-Bill Southern.
482. Scarus red.
492. Scallop Mantle.
458. Sparus yellow-striped.
450. Tubularia great.
453. Trichoda Sun.

Notes and Corrections: Volume 12

Volume 12 of the Naturalist’s Miscellany was published in twelve monthly installments, from September 1800 through August 1801. All installments except the first are exactly 16 pages.

A (12 pages); B; C; D; E (January 1801); F; G; H; I; K; L; M

It is not your imagination: there are a lot of dragonflies in this volume. Four of the Miscellany’s six Libellula species are in Volume 12.

After the first installment of this volume, Shaw’s printer bid farewell to the long ſ and to the ct ligature. From here on, there will be no doubt about whether the text says “insect”, “infect” or “infest”. The occasional exceptions have been retained for flavor, since there aren’t enough of them to interfere with readability. All are in the prose descriptions, printed in a smaller font than the Character text. Long esses are most common in the third (not second) installment. This probably tells us something about how the printer worked.

Plate 447—i.e. the plate that comes after 446 and before 448—is inexplicably numbered 438, both in the engraved plate itself and in the Index. Since 438 has already been used in its proper place, between 437 and 439 in Volume 11, I have corrected it to 447 everywhere.

Plate 463 is similarly misnumbered 459 throughout, and has similarly been corrected. The correct 459 was Papilio phorcas, a month earlier.

Finally, Plate 456 (moth) comes before 455 (caterpillar), and Plate 479 (murex) comes before 478 (perch). In the Miscellany, this kind of thing is almost too common to rate a mention.

Mergus Castor, the Dun Merganser

If it is, after all, simply the female of M. merganser, it is the goosander or common merganser. It lives all over North America, Europe and—to a lesser extent—Asia.

Exocoetus Evolans, the Flying-Fish

is now Exocoetus volitans, the blue flying fish. It lives in most tropical-to-temperate oceans.

Naturalists spent many years arguing about why, exactly, the flying fish returns to the water . . . before remembering the existence of the law of gravity.

which keep pace below with its aerial excursion.”
close quote supplied from Latin side

Bulla Achatina, the Agate Bulla

is now Achatina achatina, the common African snail. It lives in west Africa.

Apertura subcoarctata, oblonga
text has Apertum
[This type of error is much more characteristic of OCR; in fact I almost corrected it without even looking at the page. The likeliest explanation is that the printer misread George Shaw’s handwriting.]

A purple-mouthed variety . . . has already been repre­sented
[Plate 248 of Volume 7. That time, he said it lived in the West Indies. Seba’s name Bulla gallica implies that it is also to be found in France—or at least in some French colony.]

[Plate 447]
[The plate between 446 and 448 is both engraved and indexed as . . . 438. The “real” Plate 438 came at its expected place in the previous volume.]

Papilio Amphimedon, the Amphimedon (butterfly)

may be Troides oblongomaculatus. It lives in Indonesia, especially Ambon.

Columba Rosea, the Crimson Pigeon

probably never existed. Hume says “Never identified, and considered a doubtful species”.

And now the good news: With this second installment of Volume 12, we bid farewell to the long s (ſ), and concurrently to the ct ligature. The latter will show up again a few volumes later; the former is gone for good.

It seems to have been first figured in Mr. Miller’s splendid plates of Natural History.
[With text by a certain George Shaw. Only you can decide whether Shaw is being modest or disingenuous in withholding this detail. Apart from the present work, Mr. Miller’s splendid plates are not just the first but the only description of this bird.]

Tubularia Magnifica, the Great Tubularia

is now Sabellastarte magnifica, the giant feather-duster worm, with naming credit to Shaw. It is most common around the Caribbean.

possessing, like the reſt of the genus . . . . fifth volume of the tranſ­actions
[I did say there would be some long esses sneaking into the round-s bin. But where did the printer find the ligature? There shouldn’t even be a compartment for it at this point.]

Trigla Volitans, the Flying Gurnard

is now Dactylopterus volitans, the batfish. It lives all around the Atlantic and Mediterranean, but especially by West Africa.

the Trigla punctata before figured in the present work
[Plate 438 of Volume 11. That is, ahem, the “real” Plate 438, not the misnumbered plate 447 from the present volume.]

Nais Digitata, the Digitated Nais

is now Dero digitata, the aquatic oligochaete worm. It has been seen almost everywhere, but is most common in Europe.

Müll. von Würm. . . . . Hist. Verm. . . . . Zool. Dan. prodr.
[Rather than let a single line spill over to the next page, the printer packed these three references into two lines of type.]

Trichoda Sol, the Sun Trichoda

Uncertain. GBIF lists the binomial as “accepted” but, well, I don’t believe them. Members of Müller’s genus Trichoda have generally ended up in phylum Ciliophora of kingdom Chromista—the same kingdom as quite a few other hopelessly unidentifiable “animalcules” in the Miscellany.

Did the buyers feel cheated when this new installment did not open with a bird, or even an unusual mammal? Though there are the usual four plates, only three animals are described. That includes the elusive Trichoda Sol, this volume’s only three-page description (both Latin and English).

[Plate 453]
[Anomalously for the first plate in an installment (the “bird plate”), there is no visible date. But then, there is no bird either. And, like the preceding plate—the last one in its installment—it is unusually small.]

Eichorn Zugabe f. 1-7.
text has , for final .

Si dividatur, vel potius divellatur
[Paragraph break added to agree with the English side.]

the Monoculus Pediculus of Linnæus
[Now Polyphemus pediculus, the predatory giant-eyed water flea. As its name suggests, it is an arthropod.]

Apis Lapidaria, the Orange-Tailed Bee

is now Bombus lapidarius, the large red-tailed bumblebee. It lives in Europe.

in aggeribus sylvarum & viarum divergiis situs
text has diverbiis

Phalæna Junonia, the Great Peacock Moth

Shaw admits elsewhere that this is his own name, intended to distinguish the bigger variety from the smaller variety named Phalaena pavonia by Linnaeus. The latter is now Saturnia pavonia, the emperor. There is also a Saturnia pyri, the great peacock moth, which may be what Shaw had in mind. Both live in Europe, with considerable overlap in ranges.

Columba Coronata, the Crowned Pigeon

may be Goura cristata, the Western crowned pigeon (by way of Pallas’s Columba cristata). It lives in western New Guinea, hence the name.

[Plate 457]
[The unevenness along the right is because I had to splice together two different images.]

some of Mons. Bougainville’s sailors
[Admiral Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, Comte de Bougainville, if you want to be fancy about it. The flowering plant was named after him.]

Sparus Chrysurus, the Yellow-Striped Sparus

is now Ocyurus chrysurus, the cola. It lives mainly around South America, the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico.

Opercula . . . . Gill-covers
words italicized for consistency

Der Goldschwantz.
spelling unchanged
[Since he doesn’t name a source, I don’t know whether it was really spelled that way.]

Papilio Phorcas, the Phorcas (butterfly)

is also known as the apple-green swallowtail. It lives in central Africa.

Murex Tribulus, the Thorny Murex

is also known—understandably—as the caltrop murex. It lives mainly along the coasts of South and Southeast Asia and northern Australia.

Bucco Maynanensis, the Mayna Barbet

may be Eubucco versicolor, the versicolored barbet. It lives in eastern South America.

Macrourus Rupestris, the Rock Macrourus

If it is the same as Linnaeus’s Coryphæna rupestris, it is now Coryphae­noides rupestris (using Gunnerus’s name), the black grenadier. It lives in the north Atlantic, especially around northern Canada.

Tail gradually attenuated.
word italicized for consistency

Libellula Grandis, the Great Libellula

is now Aeshna grandis, the brown hawker. It lives in northern Europe.

[Plate 463]
[Erroneously numbered 459—a number that has already been used—both on the plate itself and in the Index.]

Cancer Norvegicus, the Norway Lobster

is now Nephrops norvegicus. It lives all around western Europe, but doesn’t seem to like the Baltic; that may be why Linnaeus thought of it as Norwegian.

Alcedo Atricapilla, the Black-Capped Kingfisher

may be Halcyon pileata (by way of Boddaert’s Alcedo pileata), the black-capped kingfisher. It ranges from south to east Asia.

Notocanthus Nasus, the Nasal Notocanthus

is now Notacanthus chemnitzii, the cosmopolitan spineback. The text indicates that Bloch himself hadn’t decided how to spell the genus. It lives in most oceans, but is most common around eastern Canada . . . and eastern Australia.

maria? Indica . . . . Indian seas?
[In both cases, it seems as if the question mark should be attached to “Indian”.]

Der Stachelrucken.
spelling unchanged: expected Stachelrücken

Buccinum Tuberosum, the Tuberous Buccinum

is now Cassis tuberosa, the Caribbean helmet. In addition to the Caribbean, it lives along the easternmost part of South America.

Phalæna Lectrix, the Lectrix (moth)

is probably Episteme lectrix. It lives in Taiwan.

Mycteria Americana, the American Jabiru

is also known as the American wood ibis or wood stork. It lives almost everywhere in the Americas.

Polynemus Paradiseus, the Paradise Polynemus

is also known as the bamin. It is scattered along the coast of Southeast Asia. For reasons best known to itself, GBIF lists no less than ten Mala­yalam names for this fish—beginning with bahmin—while failing to show even a single reported sighting in Kerala, and almost none anywhere else in India.

Radii filiformes liberi jugulares.
word italicized for consistency

Libellula Depressa, the Depressed Libellula

is also known as the broad-bodied chaser. It lives in Europe.

Papilio Perseus, the Perseus (butterfly)

is probably Morpho perseus. It lives in South America.

[Plate 472] London, Published Marchst 1801 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.
[Yes, the engraver really did say “Marchst”.]

Cram. 6. t. 71. f. A. B.
missing “f.” (fig.) supplied from Latin side

Oriolus Melanocephalus, the Black-Headed Oriole

may be Oriolus xanthornus, the Asian black-headed oriole. It lives in South and Southeast Asia.

Chætodon Tricolor, the Tricolor Chætodon

is now Holacanthus tricolor, yet another marine angelfish. So far in the Miscellany there have been three; the earlier two were in Volumes 2 and 8. It lives along the Atlantic and Caribbean coast of the Americas.

[Plate 474] London, Published Aprilst 1801 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.
[Again, the engraver really did say “Aprilst”.]

Asterias Toreuma, the Carved Asterias

may be Oreaster reticulatus (by way of Asterias reticulata), the cushioned star. If so, it lives in the Caribbean and along the east coast of South America.

Libellula Virgo, the Black-Winged Libellula

is now Calopteryx virgo, the beautiful demoiselle. It lives in Europe.

Strix Cayana, the Cayenne Owl

Unknown, whether you spell it cayana or cayanensis.

Murex Tritonis, the Tritonia Murex

is now Charonia tritonis, the Atlantic trumpet triton. In spite of the name, it is actually more common in the Pacific.

“Jupiter ut liquidis stagnare paludibus orbem
open quote missing
[I would have been content to show it without quotation marks, as on the English side. But he saw fit to include a close quote, so it had to balance. The passage is from Ovid’s Metamorphoses, I.324ff.]

Et superesse videt de tot modo millibus unum; / Et superesse videt de tot modo millibus unam,
[Newer editions of the Metamorphoses tend to read “virum” in place of the first “videt”. (The “unum” and “unam”, masculine and feminine, are Deucalion and Pyrrha in the obligatory flood story.)]

But when th’all-powerful ruler of the sky
[I couldn’t identify the translation. This annoys me.]

O’er all the globe at once the thrilling signal flew.
[Ouch. Got an extra foot there, translator; you’ll have to ditch the “thrilling”. (Or the preceding “at once”, but that doesn’t scan as nicely.)]

Perca Guttata, the Sanguine Perch

is now Epinephelus guttatus, the deady. It is most common around the Caribbean.

Libellula Puella, the Small Libellula

is now Coenagrion puella, the azure bluet. Like the volume’s previous three dragonflies, it lives in Europe.

[Plate 480] London, Published Mayst 1801 by F. P. Nodder, Newman Street.
[“Mayst” joins the earlier installments’ “Marchst” and “Aprilst”. Someone please give the engraver a vacation.]

Vaginalis Australis, the Southern Sheathbill

may be Chionis minor, the black-faced sheathbill. It lives on several islands in the Indian ocean, midway between Africa and Antarctica.

[Plate 481]
[Does it say “Jun 1801” or is it just a squiggle? You decide. Fortunately, the next two plates in this installment are clearly signed and dated.]

engraver’s signature

The genus Vaginalis or Sheathbill is one of the new genera which . . . it has been found necessary to institute.
[The genus was proposed by Gmelin, but didn’t catch on. Genus Chionis, meanwhile, was defined by Forster already in 1788.]

Scarus Croicensis, the Red Scarus

is now Scarus iseri, the striped parrotfish. Both names are from Bloch; apparently he was mistaken about how many species there are. By any name, it is most common in the Caribbean.

Der rothe Papagey-Fisch.
[The red Parrot-Fish.]

Pinna Muricata, the Muricated Pinna

is also known as the prickly pen shell. It is most common in the Pacific and Indian oceans.

Papilio Xuthus, the Xuthus (butterly)

is also known as the Asian swallowtail. It lives in east Asia.

Falco Formosus, the Purple-Throated Falcon

may be Ibycter americanus, the red-throated caracara (by way of Falco americanus). It lives in South and Central America.

Papilio Orontes, the Orontes (butterfly)

is probably Alcides orontes, not a butterfly but a moth. The genus as a whole lives in New Guinea and northern Australia.

Anthias Formosus, the Blue-Striped Anthias

is now Haemulon sciurus (by way of Sparus sciurus), the blue striped grunt. It lives mainly in the Caribbean. Mysteriously, Shaw gets naming credit—not from the present text but from 1803, two years in the future—although Bloch’s binomial was obviously earlier. In any case I confess I do not see any particular resemblance to a squirrel (sciurus). Is it the stripes?

Linnaeus’s Perca formosa is an entirely different fish, now Diplectrum formosum. It has a wider range than Haemulon sciurus, extending along the Atlantic coast of the Americas. I don’t know why Shaw equated them; the stripes don’t even run in the same direction.

Murex Haustellum, the Pipe Murex

is now Haustellum haustellum, the snipe’s bill murex. It is most common in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Argenv. p. 257. pl. 16. f. B.
[The Latin side said it was Plate 19. Neither of the two has anything that looks remotely like our murex.]

Trochilus Minimus, the Least Humming-Bird

is now Mellisuga minima, the vervain hummingbird. It lives on two adjoining islands, Jamaica and Hispaniola. At the time the Miscellany was published, it really was the smallest known hummingbird. The still-tinier bee humming­bird, M. helenae, would not be decribed until late in the 19th century.

[Plate 489] London, Published Augst 1st 1801 by Elizabeth Nodder, Sons & Co. Newman Street.
[Note the change in publisher’s name, from “F. P. Nodder” to “Elizabeth Nodder, Sons & Co.” This is the closest we will get to a date of death for Frederick Polydore Nodder.]

Phalæna Fraxini, the Clifden Moth

is now Catocala fraxini, the Clifden nonpareil. It lives mostly in Europe.

The male is easily distinguished from the female by its smaller size.
[Fascinatingly, the Latin side conveys the same meaning with opposite wording: The female is easily distinguished from the male by its much larger size.]

Lutianus Chrysops, the Golden-Eyed Lutian

Unknown. Inexplicably, WoRMS lists Lutjanus chrysops (Bloch’s alter­native spelling of his genus) as a nomen nudum, even though Shaw’s picture and description had to come from somewhere.

Ostrea Pallium, the Mantle Scallop

is now Gloripallium pallium, also known as the royal cloak scallop. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Character Genericus.
[Heading added for consistency. The printer is still doing better than in Volume 11, where no less than fourCharacter Genericus” were missing, always on the Latin side.]

striisque lateralibus transversis.
text has striisque-/lateralibus at line break

Index

As noted above, Plates 447 and 463 are consistently misnumbered 438 and 459, both in the Index and on the Plates themselves. In addition, Plate 474 is indexed as 471, and Plate 473 as 478. (Both of the latter are easy misreadings. Was George Shaw’s handwriting getting worse over the years?)

In the printed book, it looks as if the Latin index contains one more entry than the English index—an error that really does occur a few times in the Miscellany. But it’s only because the printer inserted a blank line between “Asterias” and “Bulla”.

Latin

447.   Bulla achatina.
text has 438

474.   Chætodon tricolor.
text has 471

463.   Libellula grandis.
text has 459

473.   Oriolus melanocephalus.
text has 478

456. 455.   Phalæna Junonia.
[Printed as shown, with 456 before 455. This happens to be the order of the bound plates, though the English index has the expected “455. 456.” in that order.]

English

447.   Bulla agate.
text has 438

474.   Chætodon tricolor.
text has 471

463.   Libellula great.
text has 459

490.   Moth Clifton.
[Spelled “Clifden” in body text. The word “Moth” is written out all three times on the English side.]

473.   Oriole black-headed.
text has 478

The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.