Naturalist’s Miscellany

The Naturalist’s Miscellany
by George Shaw
Volume 13

r

COLLEGII REGALIS,

MEDICORUM LONDINENSIUM,

præsidi
SOCIISQUE ORNATISSIMIS,

DECIMUM TERTIUM

hunc

NATURÆ VIVARII

FASCICULUM,

d. d. d.
GEORGIUS SHAW,
E. R. NODDER.

v

 

r

to
THE ROYAL COLLEGE
of

PHYSICIANS OF LONDON,

AS A TRIBUTE OF RESPECT
to
that learned body,
THIS THIRTEENTH VOLUME
of the

NATURALIST’S MISCELLANY

IS INSCRIBED

by
GEORGE SHAW,
E. R. NODDER.

v

 

493

Pileated Woodpecker

London, Published Septr 1st 1801 by Elizabeth Nodder, Sons & Co. Newman Street.

Notes

r

PICUS PILEATUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum polyedrum, rectum, apice cuneato.

Nares pennis setaceis recumbentibus obtectæ.

Lingua teres, lumbriciformis, longissima, mucronata, apice retrorsum aculeata setis.

Pedes scansorii.

Character Specificus, &c.

PICUS niger, crista rubra, temporibus alisque albis maculis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 173.

PICUS Virginianus PILEATUS.

Briss. av. 4. p. 29.

Pico qui principalis appellatur seu albirostris, affinis admodum est picus pileatus; paulo tamen minor, alium quoque habet colorem rostri. In America septentrionali generatus amat præcipue Carolinam et Virginiam. Arbores grandiores terebrando excavare, triticoque Indico, quod Maiz dicitur, non leve damnum solet inferre. Magnitudine fere corvum vulgarem æquat.

v

PILEATED WOODPECKER.

Generic Character.

Bill polyedral, strait, wedge-shaped towards the tip.

Nostrils covered by recumbent setaceous feathers.

Tongue worm-shaped, very long, sharp-pointed and edged towards the tip with reversed bristles.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Black WOODPECKER, with red crest, and the temples and wings marked by white spots.

Larger crested WOODPECKER.

Catesb. Carol. 1. pl. 17.

PILEATED WOODPECKER.

Penn. Arct. Zool. p. 269.

This species is very nearly allied to the Picus principalis or White-billed Woodpecker, but is of rather smaller size, and has a bill of a different colour. It is a native of North America, and is particularly r found in Carolina and Virginia, where it forms excavations in the larger trees, and is also said to make considerable havock among the plantations of maize or Indian corn. In size it is not much inferior to a Crow.

494

Red Mackrel

Notes

v

SCOMBER RUBER.

Character Genericus.

Caput compressum, læve.

Membrana branchiostega radiis septem.

Corpus læve, linea laterali postice carinatum.

Pinnæ spuriæ sæpius versus caudam.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 492.

Character Specificus, &c.

SCOMBER corpore rubro.

Bloch. ichth. 10. p. 63. t. 342.

Die Rothe Mackrele.

Bloch. ichth. 10. p. 63.

Colore solo ab omnibus hujus generis facillime distin­guitur Scomber ruber. In mari Americano præcipue conspicitur, magni­tudine, ut plurimum, sesquipedali.

r

the
RED MACKREL.

Generic Character.

Head compressed, smooth.

Gill-Membrane furnished with seven rays.

Body smooth, carinated at the hind part by the lateral line.

Spurious pinnules (in many species) towards the tail.

Specific Character.

MACKREL with red body.

This species is readily distinguished by its colour alone from all its congeners. It is chiefly found in the American seas, and grows to the length of about a foot and half.

495

Admiral Cone and Cedo Nulli

Notes

v

CONUS AMMIRALIS.
var.
AMM: SUMMUS.
et
CEDO NULLI.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, convoluta, turbinata.

Apertura effusa, longitudinalis, linearis, edentula, basi integra.

Columella lævis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1163.

Character Specificus, &c.

CONUS testa albo ferrugineoque varia, basi punctato-scabra.

CONUS AMMIRALIS. C. testa basi punctato-scabra.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1167.

Var. AMMIRALIS summus. C. testa ferruginea maculis albis sparsis, fasciisque quatuor flavis tenuissime reticulatis, tertia cingulo albo maculato.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1167.

r

Var. Cedo nulli. C. testa testacea albo maculata, cingulisque tribus, supremo composito, omnibus punctatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1167.

In tot varietates sparguntur testæ quas complectitur Coni genus, ut uniuscujusque speciem pro certo definire difficillimum sit: præsertim cum ob sceleratas merca­torum fraudes interdum fere impossibile sit falsas et adulterinas a veris et naturalibus secernere.

Ex elegantissimis conorum est ille qui Ammiralis dicitur, cujus multæ sunt varietates, quarum princeps est Ammi­ralis summus, in tabulæ nostræ parte superiori depictus. Ex omni autem concharum familia, nulla est ab iis magis deamata, qui in colligendis rarioribus immodicas profun­dunt pecunias, quam quæ nomine Cedo nulli insignita significanter a Linnæo vocatur “pretiosissimus artis perditæ luxus.” Huic proprium et peculiare est quod zonæ ferrugineæ seu aurantiæ ordinibus multis macularum parvularum et albarum cingantur margaritis non longe absimilium. Nullum extitisse dicitur specimen pulchrius et perfectius quam quod Hagæ continuere scrinia Domini Lyonetti.

v

the
ADMIRAL CONE.
var.
HIGH ADMIRAL.
and
CEDO NULLI.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax or Slug.

Shell more or less conic or pyramidal.

Aperture longitudinal, linear, without teeth, entire at the base.

Pillar smooth.

Specific Character, &c.

CONE with ferruginous and white variegations, and the base roughened with small points.

Var. High Admiral. Ferruginous Cone with scattered white spots, and four yellow bands finely reticulated, the third marked by a spotted white line.

Var. Cedo nulli. Yellowish-brown Cone spotted with white, with three bands, all marked by rows of round white specks.

r

The varieties which take place in the genus Conus are so numerous as to render the precise determination of the species a matter of no easy investigation: it may also be added that in no genus have the arts of dealers been more exerted, nor is it possible to determine whether many of the shells seen in collections are truly natural or not. Among the most elegant of the Cones is the C. ammiralis or Admiral-Shell, which admits of many varieties, and of which the chief is the C. Ammiralis summus or High Admiral, repre­sented on the upper part of the present plate. But of all the tribe that which has most excited the ambition of collectors is the variety termed Cedo nulli, which Linnæus emphatically calls “pretiosissimus artis perditæ luxus.” This curious shell is distinguished by having the brown or orange-coloured zones ornamented with several rows of small, round, white, pearl-like specks; a particularity not to be found in any of the rest. The most perfect specimen of the Cedo nulli is said to have been that in the collection of Mr. Lyonet of the Hague.

496

Slender-Legged Crab

Notes

v

CANCER PHALANGIUM.

Character Genericus.

Pedes octo (rarius sex aut decem); insuper manus duæ chelatæ.

Palpi sex inæquales.

Oculi duo distantes, plurimis pedunculati; elongati, mobiles.

Mandibula crassa, cornea.

Labium triplex.

Cauda articulata, inermis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2963.

Character Specificus, &c.

CANCER corpore cordato tuberculato, rostro bifido, pedibus longissimis gracillimis pilosis.

CANCER PHALANGIUM.

Penn. Brit. Zool. 4. p. 7. t. 9. f. 17.

Mira omnino et insolita est huic cancro membrorum longi­tudo et gracilitas; unde et nomen adeptus est; primo enim visu phalangii seu araneæ speciem potius quam cancrum putares. In oris Europæis generatur, eadem, ut plurimum, magni­tudine quam ostendit tabula.

r

the
SLENDER-LEGGED CRAB.

Generic Character.

Legs generally eight (in some species six or ten,) besides two claspers or chelated arms.

Feelers six, unequal.

Eyes two, generally distant, footstalked, moveable.

Tail articulated.

Specific Character, &c.

Small CRAB with heart-shaped tuberculated body, bifid snout, and very long slender hairy legs.

SLENDER-LEGGED CRAB.

Penn. Brit. Zool.

This curious species is distinguished from all others by the peculiar length and slenderness of its limbs, which give it at first view more the appearance of a Spider or a Phalangium than of a Crab. It is a native of the European coasts, and is generally of the size repre­sented on the plate.

v

 

497

White-Billed Woodpecker

London, Published Octr 1st 1801 by Elizabeth Nodder, Sons & Co. Newman Street.

Notes

B

PICUS PRINCIPALIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum polyedrum, rectum, apice cuneato.

Nares pennis setaceis recumbentibus obtectæ.

Lingua teres, lumbriciformis, longissima, mucronata, apice retrorsum aculeata setis.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 173.

Character Specificus, &c.

PICUS niger, crista coccinea, linea utrinque collari remigibusque secundariis albis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 173.

PICUS niger Carolinensis.

Briss. av. 4. p. 26.

PICUS imbrifoetus.

Raii syn. p. 162.

Inter Picum principalem seu albirostrem et illum qui pileatus dicitur summa videtur esse affinitas. Generantur ambo in iisdem Americæ septentrionalis partibus, et eadem fere sunt indole. Plurimis harum avium rostris orbiculatim dispositis feruntur v principes Americani corollarum seu diadematum margines ornare. Superat pileatum magni­tudine Picus principalis. Depingitur in tabula quasi tertia pars veræ mensuræ.

B2

the
WHITE-BILLED WOODPECKER.

Generic Character.

Bill polyedral, strait, wedge-shaped towards the tip.

Nostrils covered by recumbent setaceous feathers.

Tongue worm-shaped, very long, sharp-pointed, and edged towards the tip with reversed bristles.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Black WOODPECKER with scarlet crest and white neck-stripe and secondaries.

WHITE-BILLED WOODPECKER.

Catesb. Carol. 1. pl. 16.

Pic à bec blanc.

Buff. 7. p. 46.

Pl. Enl. 690.

The Picus principalis or White-billed Woodpecker, extremely nearly allied to the Picus pileatus, is a native of the same parts of North America, and is of similar habits. It is said that the Indian chiefs v hold the bill of this bird in high estimation, ornamenting their crowns or diadems with several of the beaks set in a circular manner round the margin. In size it is considerably larger than the pileatus: the figure represents it reduced about two thirds from its natural dimensions.

498

Pilot Mackrel

London, Published Octr 1st 1801 by Elizabeth Nodder, Sons & Co. Newman Street.

Notes

r

SCOMBER DUCTOR.

Character Genericus.

Caput compressum, læve.

Membrana branchiostega radiis septem.

Corpus læve, linea laterali postice carinatum.

Pinnæ spuriæ sæpius versus caudam.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 492.

Character Specificus, &c.

SCOMBER glaucus, fasciis transversis cyaneis, cauda fasciis duabus obliquis nigris.

Gasterosteus DUCTOR. G. spinis dorsalibus quatuor.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 489.

SCOMBER DUCTOR.

Bloch. ichth. 10. p. 51. t. 338.

Quod squalo iter facienti comitem se sæpissime adjungere et præire solitus sit, non inepte inditum est huic pisci nomen Scombri Ductoris. Incolit præcipue mare Mediterraneum et Atlanticum, Scombro communi paulo major, et in cibis habetur delicatioribus.

v

 

r

the
PILOT MACKREL.

Generic Character.

Head compressed, smooth.

Gill-Membrane furnished with seven rays.

Body smooth, carinated at the hind part by the lateral line.

Spurious Pinnules (in many species) towards the tail.

Specific Character, &c.

Glaucous MACKREL, with deep-blue transverse bands, and two oblique black bands across the tail.

The PILOT-FISH.

The PILOT MACKREL.

The Scomber Ductor or Pilot Mackrel, so named from its often preceding or accompanying the Shark in its excursions, is principally seen in the Mediterranean and Atlantic seas. In size it is somewhat superior to a common Mackrel, and is considered as an excellent article of food.

v

 

499

Spindle Strombus

London, Published Sepr 1st 1801 by Elizabeth Nodder, Sons & Co. Newman Street.

Notes

r

STROMBUS FUSUS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, latere ampliata.

Apertura, Labro sæpius dilatato, desinens in canalem sinistrum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1207.

Character Specificus, &c.

STROMBUS testa turrita lævi, cauda subulata, labro dentato.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1207.

Murex FUSUS.

Lin. Mus. Lud. Ulr. 638. No. 316.

Seb. mus. 3. t. 56. f. 1. 2. 3.

In littoribus Americanis præcipue conspicitur Strombus Fusus, inter conchylia rariora numerandus: magni­tudinem generalem ostendit tabula.

v

 

r

the
SPINDLE STROMBUS.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Limax.

Shell univalve, spiral, ampliated on one side.

Aperture with the lip generally dilated, ending in a channel towards the left.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish-Brown STROMBUS, with smooth turrited shell, subulated tail, and toothed lip.

Fuseau etoilé epais.

Knorr. vergn. 5. pl. 6. 7.

Le Grand Fuseau blanc.

Argenv. pl. 13. D.

The Spindle Strombus is principally found about the American shores, and is numbered among the rarer shells: its general size is shewn on the annexed plate.

v

 

500

Agenor Butterfly

London, Published Sepr 1st 1801 by Elizabeth Nodder, Sons & Co. Newman Street.

Notes

r

PAPILIO AGENOR.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis dentatis nigris basi sanguineis, primoribus striatis, posticis disco albo maculis nigris.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 747.

Clerk. ic. ins. rar. t. 15.

Cram. pap. 3. t. 32. f. A. B.

Jablonsky pap. 1. t. 8. f. 3.

In variis Asiæ regionibus generatur Papilio Agenor, magni­tudine vera in tabula depictus.

v

 

r

AGENOR.

Generic Character.

Antennæ commonly thickening towards the end into a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character.

Black Butterfly with dentated wings red at the base; the lower pair white on the disk, with black spots.

This elegant insect is found in several of the Asiatic regions, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

501

Calago Lemur

London, Published Novr 1st 1801 by Elizabeth Nodder, Sons & Co. Newman Street.

Notes

C

LEMUR CALAGO.

Character Genericus.

Dentes Primores superiores quatuor: intermediis remotis. Inferiores sex: longiores, porrecti, compressi, paralleli, approximati.

Laniarii solitarii, approximati.

Molares plures, sublobati: antici longiores, acutiores.

Character Specificus, &c.

LEMUR CALAGO. L. caudatus albidus, subtus griseus, cauda ferruginea.

CALAGO.

Geoffroy Magaz. Encycl. 1. p. 41. pl. 1.

Senegaliam incolit rarum hoc animal quod primum detexisse censeo Adansonum. In arboribus versatur, quarum in cavis prolem alere dicitur, nido foliis et gramine intus stipato. Insectis præcipue vescitur quos manibus perite arrepta celerrime devorat. Magnitudo ei est quasi sciuri vulgaris. Color ex albo flavet, tinctura quadam cinerea subtus adumbratus. Cauda ferruginea, caput canum. Aures prægrandes, tenues, erectæ, apicibus rotundatis, intus v roseæ. Ingenio esse dicitur miti et innocuo, et in cibis esse Galam et alias regiones Africanas incolentibus. Inter hunc et illum quadrupedem quem nomine Fennec descripsit Dominus Brucius, evidens omnino et manifesta est similitudo.

C2

the
CALAGO LEMUR.

Generic Character.

Front-Teeth in the upper jaw four: the intermediate ones remote.
In the lower jaw six: longer, stretched forwards, compressed, parallel, approximated.

Canine-Teeth solitary, approximated.

Grinders several, sublobated: the foremost somewhat longer and sharper.

Specific Character, &c.

Long-tailed whitish LEMUR, grey beneath, with ferruginous tail.

Gen. Zool. 1. p. 108.

CALAGO.

Audeb. Singes, &c.

This rare animal is a native of Senegal, and seems to have been first discovered by Adanson. It inhabits trees, in the hollows of which it is said to prepare its nest, lining it with leaves and grass. It feeds principally on insects, which it catches with wonderful dexterity. Its size is nearly that of a v common squirrel, and its colour yellowish white, with a slight cast of ash-colour on the under parts: the head is grey, and the tail ferruginous: the ears very large, thin, upright, rounded at their extremities, and internally of a bright rose-colour. It is said to be of a mild and gentle disposition, and is used as an article of food by the natives of Galam and some other parts of Africa. There is a remarkable similarity in point of general appearance between this animal and the Fennec, described by Mr. Bruce.

502

Orange-Flag Cone and Cobweb Cone

London, Published Novr 1st 1801 by Elizabeth Nodder, Sons & Co. Newman Street.

Notes

r

CONUS ARAUSIACUS
et
CONUS ARACHNOIDEUS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, convoluta, turbinata.

Apertura effusa, longitudinalis, linearis, edentula, basi integra.

Columella lævis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1160.

CONUS ARAUSIACUS.

Character Specificus, &c.

CONUS testa incarnata lævi, fasciis albidis, anfractuum summis canaliculatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3392.

Rumpf. mus. t. 34. f. A.

Pet. Amb. t. 7. f. 7.

Argenv. zoom. t. 10. f. 1?

Seb. mus. 3. t. 48. f. 7.

Knorr. Vergn. 1. t. 8. f. 3. & 5. t. 24. f. 1.

v

CONUS ARACHNOIDEUS.

Character Specificus, &c.

CONUS testa spadiceo reticulata, fasciis duabus tribusve obscurioribus, spira coronata acuta.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3388.

Knorr. Vergn. 6. t. 4. f. 4.

Spengl. selt. conch. t. 1. f. D.

Martini conch. 2. t. 61. f. 676.

In oceano Indico generantur conchylia pulcherrima magni­tudine naturali in tabula depicta.

r

the
ORANGE-FLAG CONE
and
COBWEB CONE.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax or Slug.

Shell more or less conic or pyramidal.

Aperture longitudinal, linear, without teeth, entire at the base.

Pillar smooth.

ORANGE-FLAG CONE.

Specific Character, &c.

CONE with smooth flesh-coloured shell, with whitish bands, and the upper spires channelled.

The speckled ORANGE-FLAG CONE.

v

COBWEB CONE.

Specific Character, &c.

White CONE with chesnut-coloured reticulations, two or three dusky bands, and sharp, coronated spire.

The SPIDER CONE, or COBWEB CONE.

The beautiful shells represented in their natural size on the present plate are natives of the Indian seas.

503

Four-Eyed Anableps

London, Published Novr 1st 1801 by Elizabeth Nodder, Sons & Co. Newman Street.

Notes

r

ANABLEPS TETROPTHALMUS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus cylindricum.

Os dentatum.

Bloch. ichth. 11. p. 3.
Abdominales.

Character Specificus, &c.

ANABLEPS oculis prominentibus, pupillis duplicatis.

ANABLEPS oculis prominentibus, cirris duobus.

Bloch. ichth. 11. p. 5.

Cobitis ANABLEPS. C. cirris duobus, capite depresso, oculis prominulis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 499.

ANABLEPS.

Artedi gen. pisc. 25.

Mirum aliquid et insolitum contigit huic pisci, quod nempe in una eademque orbita oculi sint quasi geminati. Ab accurata tamen dissectione satis probatum est oriri hoc e cornea tunica in duas partes v divisa, adeo ut pupilla utri usque oculi videatur veluti duplicata. Rem insignem dilucide explicat celeberrimus Blochius. Generatur Anableps tetropthalmus in maribus Americanis, et crescere solet in longi­tudinem pedalem.

r

the
FOUR-EYED ANABLEPS.

Generic Character.

Body cylindric.

Mouth dentated.

Eyes prominent.

Specific Character, &c.

ANABLEPS with prominent eyes and double pupils.

Das Vierauge.

Bloch. ichth. t. 361.

The fish represented on the present plate is distin­guished by a highly remarkable particularity in its conformation; the eyes appearing as if double. This however, on accurate dissection, is found to be owing to an internal division of the cornea, in such a manner as to present the appearance of two pupils in each eye; a circum­stance well explained in the work of Dr. Bloch. The A. tetropthalmus is a native of the American seas, and measures about twelve inches in length.

v

 

504

Protesilaus Butterfly

London, Published Novr 1st 1801 by Elizabeth Nodder, Sons & Co. Newman Street.

Notes

r

PAPILIO PROTESILAUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis caudatis subconcoloribus albidis, fasciis fuscis, unica subtus sanguinea, angulo ani rubro.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 752.

Merian Surin. t. 43.

Seb. 4. t. 36. f. 11. 12.

Aubent. miscell. t. 44. f. 1. 2.

Cram. pap. 17. t. 202. f. A. B.

Varias Americæ meridionalis regiones incolit Papilio Protesilaus, cujus magni­tudinem veram ostendit tabula.

v

 

r

PROTESILAUS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ commonly thickening towards the end into a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

White Butterfly with tailed wings banded with brown, and with a crimson stripe beneath.

Page de la Reine.

Merian Surin. 43.

Le Flambé du Perou.

Pl. Enl. 44. f. 1. 2.

This most elegant insect is a native of several parts of South America, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

505

Variegated Finch

Notes

D

FRINGILLA ELEGANS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum conicum, rectum, acuminatum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 317.

Character Specificus, &c.

FRINGILLA olivacea, fronte gula caudaque rubris, abdomine albo nigroque undulato.

FRINGILLA supra viridis, collo cinereo, pectore flavo, capistro gula uropygio caudaque rubris, abdomine maculis lunatis albis.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 441.

FRINGILLA ELEGANS.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 912.

Le beau Marquet.

Buff. ois. 3. p. 497.

Pl. Enl. 203. f. 1.

Africam incolit pulcherrima hæc avis, cujus magni­tudinem veram ostendit tabula.

v

 

D2

the
VARIEGATED FINCH.

Generic Character.

Bill conic, strait, sharp-pointed.

Specific Character, &c.

Olive-green FINCH, with red front, throat and tail, and abdomen variegated with black and white.

Elegant FINCH.

Lath. syn. 3. p. 266.

This highly beautiful species is a native of Africa, and is repre­sented on the annexed plate in its natural size.

v

 

506

Blue Coryphæna

Notes

r

CORYPHÆNA CÆRULEA.

Character Genericus.

Caput maxime truncato-declive.

Membrana branchiostega radiis quinque.

Pinna dorsalis longitudine dorsi.

Character Specificus, &c.

CORYPHÆNA CÆRULEA, iridibus aureis.

CORYPHÆNA tota CÆRULEA.

Bloch. ichth. 6. p. 120. t. 176.

CORYPHÆNA CÆRULEA.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 1191.

Maria incolit Americana Coryphæna cærulea, cujus iconem archetypam a celeberrimo Plumiero centum circiter abhinc annos delineatam publicavit Blochius, qui eam in splendidissimum opus ichthyologicum imitando transtulit. In bipedalem crescere solet longi­tudinem.

v

 

r

the
BLUE CORYPHÆNA.

Generic Character.

Head sloping suddenly downwards.

Gill-membranes five-rayed.

Dorsal Fin the length of the back.

Specific Character, &c.

BLUE CORYPHÆNA with gold-coloured irides.

Novacula cærulea. The Blue-Fish.

Catesb. Car. 2. t. 18.

Le Rasoir bleu.

Bloch. ichth. 6. t. 176.

The Coryphæna cærulea is a native of the American seas, and grows to about the length of two feet. An elegant figure of this fish occurs amongst the drawings of the celebrated Father Plumier, by whom it was described in the preceding century: of this figure Dr. Bloch has availed himself in his splendid ichthyological publication.

v

 

507

Mediterranean Aplysia

Notes

r

APLYSIA DEPILANS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus repens, obvelatum membranis reflexis, clypeo dorsali pulmones obtegente.

Foramen laterale dextrum.

Anus supra extremitatem dorsi.

Tentacula quatuor, anterius sita.

Character Specificus, &c.

APLYSIA fusco-flavescens, clypeo dorsali subpurpurascente.

APLYSIA DEPILANS.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1082.

Lernæa.

Bohadsch de anim. marin. p. 1. t. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Monstrum marinum singulare.

Seb. 3. t. 1. f. 8. 9.

Ob summam affinitatem possint fere cum limacibus conjungi quas in hoc genere continentur animalia, et quasi limaces marini reputari. Species præcipua quam depinximus, cui color communis pallet livide fuscus, magni­tudine multum variat, longa interdum sex vel octo uncias, plerumque autem multo minor. v Male olet, diciturque contrectata fluidum quiddam acre emittere, quod si in cutem inciderit, ruborem excitat: quod tamen non Aplysiæ solius est, commune enim est huic cum multis in Molluscorum genere. Circa littora maris Mediterranei plerumque invenitur Aplysia depilans.

r

the
MEDITERRANEAN APLYSIA.

Generic Character.

Body repent, covered by reflected membranes and a dorsal shield.

A Foramen on the right side.

Vent situated at the extremity of the back.

Four Tentacula situated in front.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish-Brown APLYSIA, with a purplish cast on the dorsal shield.

Depilatory APLYSIA.

Brit. Zool. 4. p. 35. pl. 6.

The Sea Hare.

The genus Aplysia is so nearly allied to that of Limax, that it might almost be conjoined with it, and may be considered as a kind of marine Slug. The principal species, which is here repre­sented, varies much in size, and is sometimes found of the length of six or eight inches; it is however more commonly found of a smaller size. Its general colour is a pale v livid brown. It is an animal of a disagreeable smell, and, when handled, is said to discharge a fluid of an acrimonious nature, which causes a degree of redness and inflammation on the skin: this however is a particular which is by no means confined to the genus Aplysia, but takes place in a still greater degree in several other animals belonging to the tribe Mollusca. The Aplysia depilans is chiefly found about the coasts of the Mediterranean.

508

Æthiopian Volute

Notes

r

VOLUTA ÆTHIOPICA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa unilocularis, spiralis.

Apertura ecaudata, subeffusa.

Columella plicata.

Character Specificus, &c.

VOLUTA testa emarginata ventricosa, spira coronata spinis fornicatis, apice papillari, columella quadriplicata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1195.

Cymbium mamillare coronatum.

Seb. 3. t. 65. f. 12.

Corona ÆTHIOPICA.

Argenv. t. 20. f. F.

Cochlea hæc magna et venusta, quas interdum grandior longe est quam in tabula ostenditur, e maribus Indicis extrahitur, colore, ut plurimum, fusco-flavescente; interdum, (quod et specimini huic nostro contigit) non sine fascia seu fasciis macularum magnarum albarum a forma cordis non magnopere distantium, aut angula­tarum. Interdum quoque spinarum basin cingentium variat longi­tudo.

v r

the
ÆTHIOPIAN VOLUTE.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax or Slug.

Shell unilocular, spiral.

Pillar twisted or plaited.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellow-Brown, emarginated, ventricose VOLUTE, with four wreaths on the pillar, and the spire crowned with spines.

La Couronne d’Ethiopie.

Argenv. 17. f. F.

The ETHIOPIAN Crown.

This large and elegant shell, which sometimes far exceeds the size of the annexed engraving, is a native of the Indian seas. Its general colour is a yellowish brown, which is sometimes varied, as in the present specimen, with one or more transverse fasciæ of large and somewhat heart-shaped or angular spots: it also occasionally varies in having either longer or shorter spines or processes round the base.

v

 

509

Chinese Roller

Notes

E

CORACIAS SINENSIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum cultratum apice incurvato, basi pennis denudatum.

Lingua cartilaginea, bifida.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 159.

Character Specificus, &c.

CORACIAS viridis, subtus albo-flavescens, fascia oculari alisque nigricantibus, cauda cuneiformi apice alba.

CORACIAS viridis, subtus viridi-flavicans, fascia per oculos alisque nigricantibus, remigibus secundariis caudaque cuneiformi apice albis.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 171.

CORACIAS viridis, subtus ex flavicante alba, cauda cuneiformi apice alba.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 381.

Galgulus SINENSIS.

Briss. av. 2. p. 77. t. 6. f. 2.

Sinam incolit elegantissima hæc avis, a celeberrimo Brissono primum descripta: magni­tudo ejus est quasi Corvi glandarii.

v

 

E2

the
CHINESE ROLLER.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, bending a little towards the tip; cultrated at the edges.

Nostrils narrow, naked.

Legs generally short: toes divided to their origin; three forwards and one backwards.

Specific Character, &c.

Green ROLLER, yellowish white beneath, with blackish wings and eye-stripe, and cuneated tail with white tip.

CHINESE ROLLER.

Lath. syn. 1. p. 414.

Rolle de la Chine.

Buff. ois. 3. p. 132.

Rollier de la Chine.

Pl. Enl. 620.

This highly elegant bird is a native of China, and seems to have been first described by the celebrated Brisson: its size is that of a common Jay.

v

 

510

Crenulated Tethys

Notes

r

TETHYS FIMBRIA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus liberum, oblongiusculum, carnosum, apodum.

Os proboscide terminali cylindrica sub labio explicato.

Foramina duo ad latus colli sinistrum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1089.

Character Specificus, &c.

TETHYS labro crenulato.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1089.

FIMBRIA.

Bohadsch de an. marin. p. 54. t. 5.

Cum luculente adeo descripserit hoc animal celeber­rimus Bohadsch in opere cui titulus De Animalibus marinis ut nulla opus sit emendatione, liceat mihi ipsius auctoris verba subjungere.

“Candore, excepto labii margine, undique nitet, et longi­tudine sex pollices assequitur. Labium in anteriore capitis parte membranæ fimbriatæ adinstar expansum non exiguo animalis ornamento est, quod latitudine quatuor pollices cum dimidio adæquat, longi­tudine v vero tres pollices non excedit. Margo ejus utrinque crenatus est, et crassior reliqua labii portione, supra quam utrinque eminet, non secus ac fimbria aurea vel argentea pileo circumdata. Unde etiam aliud quid quam continuatio membranas reliquam labii portionem constituentis esse videtur. Color marginis fimbriati ex nigro et luteo variegatus est, ita ut crenata ejus interior portio nigra sit, punctis nonnullis luteis notata, huic vero opposita et quoque crenata portio ex integro nigricans; pars intermedia aureo veluti colore splendet. Elegans hæc colorum varietas in eo duntaxat marginis latere observatur, quod prono animalis situi correspondet, in opposito enim latere totus margo nigro depictus est colore. Membrana reliquum labii corpus constituens ex fibris crassis candidis fere tendineis compacta est. Ad initium capitis ubi nimirum labium mox descriptum suam ducit originem, duo tentacula auriformia plana, lata, nullo sinu aut cavitate prædita, quatuor lineas larga et sex lineas longa exurgunt, quæ figura sua aures canis investigatorii non inepte referunt. Oculi nulli ad radicem horum tentaculorum, neque etiam in ulla alia capitis parte visibiles occurrunt; qui si adessent eos in corpore candidissimo saltem lente detegere impossibile non fuisset. Retro tentacula auriformia dorsum initium suum sumit; quod sensim gracilescens pyramidem seu conum præ se fert; longi­tudo ejus tres pollices, et sex lineas comprehendit, et basis unum pollicem duasque lineas in diametro adæquat. Latera dorsi duplici ordine appen­dicum carnearum candidarumque quæ partim conicam partim cylindricam r formam habent, exornata sunt. Maximæ ex his appendicibus quinque, minimæ duas lineas longæ sunt. Præter has variæ protuberantiæ in dorso observantur, ex quibus communiter una alterave appendix propullulat. Ad utrumque dorsi latus alia tubera majora collocantur, quas abdominis, dorso multum amplioris, portiones sunt.”

Circa oras maris Mediterranei præcipue conspicitur Tethys Fimbria.

v

the
CRENULATED TETHYS.

Generic Character.

Body repent, oblong, fleshy, without feet.

Mouth a cylindrical proboscis beneath an expanded lip.

Foramina two, on the left side of the neck.

Specific Character, &c.

White TETHYS with blackish crenulated lip. Fimbriated Tethys.

Black-edged TETHYS.

This animal has been so accurately described by the celebrated Bohadsch in his work de animalibus marinis that it is unnecessary to add any thing to what that author has written on the subject. Its colour, he informs us, is white on all parts except on the verge of the lip, and its length about six inches: the lip or expanded part in front of the head is about four inches and a half wide and about three inches long: the margin of this part is crenated on both sides, and is thicker than the other part of the lip, rising up on each side so as to resemble a kind of lace or edging round a hat, and appearing of a different r nature from the rest of the lip: the colour of this fimbriated part or edge is variegated with black and yellow, which variegations are most conspicuous on the concave or under part: the membrane constituting the expanded part of the lip is composed of strong white and almost tendinous fibres: at the beginning of the head, where the lip commences, are two ear-shaped tentacula, broad, flat, without any cavity, about six lines in length and four in breadth; and bearing some resemblance to the ears of a hound: no appearance of eyes can be distinguished, even by the assistance of a glass: the back, which commences immediately beyond the tentacula, is of a pyramidal figure or gradually lessening to a point: its length is about three inches and a half, and its breadth at the base something more than one inch: on each side the back down its whole length runs a series of white, fleshy, conical protuberances, the largest of which measure about five and the smallest two lines in length: besides these are also some scattered tubercles or appendices on the middle of the back; while on each side are certain swelling’s larger than the rest, and which are caused by the projecting parts of the abdomen which is of much greater diameter than the back.

This animal is principally found about the coasts of the Mediterranean.

511

Fork-Tailed Remora

Notes

v

ECHENEIS REMORA.

Character Genericus.

Caput supra planum, marginatum, transverse sulcato-serratum.

Character Specificus, &c.

ECHENEIS cauda bifurca, striis capitis octodecim.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 447.
Thoracici.

ECHENEIS cauda bifurca.

Gronov. zooph. p. 75.

REMORA.

Rondel. Willughb. &c.

Insignit hoc genus capitis area quasi plana et ovata, dissepimentis plurimis transversim divisa, qua a parte adjungere se solet Echeneis imo aut lateribus navium, nec non ipsis etiam piscibus majoribus. Auxit hoc in miraculum veterum superstitio, creditumque olim est posse illam navim pleno cursu volantem de subito impedire. Huic absurdissimæ opinioni ansam dedisse facile crediderim parvulam quandam primævarum gentium scapham plurimis hisce r piscibus simul adhærentibus paulisper remoratam et in latus deflexam; et rumorem in vulgus sparsum a veris initiis crevisse tandem, ut fieri plerumque solet, in ridiculas fabulas; quasi ingenita esset ipsi pisci naturalis quasdam vis quas navigiis ad libitum moræ posset esse et impedimento.

Innascitur Echeneis Remora in mari Mediterraneo et Atlantico, longa, ut plurimum, quindecim uncias.

v

the
FORK-TAILED REMORA.

Generic Character.

Head flattened at the top into an oval shield marked by numerous transverse divisions.

Specific Character, &c.

REMORA with forked tail and about eighteen divisions on the shield.

The REMORA or Pilot-Fish.

The Sucking-Fish.

This highly singular genus is at once distinguished by the uncommon appearance of the head, which is formed on the upper part into a flat, oval space, divided by numerous transverse dissepiments: by this part the animal adheres at pleasure either to the bottom or sides of vessels, or even to several of the larger fishes themselves. The popular superstition of the ancients magnified this into a kind of miraculous power in the animal, which was supposed to be able to stop a ship in full sail by adhering to it. This idea, absurd as it is, might yet have originated in truth; nor can it be thought improbable that r some small canoe, in the earlier ages of mankind, might in some degree have been impeded in its progress, or made to incline unequally by several of these fishes adhering to one side; and the tale, once related, might have gradually grown into the exaggerated power afterwards ascribed to the animal. The usual length of this fish is about fifteen inches: it is a native of the Mediterranean and Atlantic seas.

512

Æneas and Peranthus (butterflies)

Notes

v

PAPILIO ÆNEAS
et
PAPILIO PERANTHUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

P. ÆNEAS. P. alis nigris; primoribus supra macula viridi, posterioribus macula palmata sanguinea.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2233.

P. alis dentatis atris: primoribus supra macula viridi, posticis macula palmata sanguinea.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 747.
Eq. Tr.

P. PERANTHUS. P. alis dentato-caudatis nigris, supra basi viridibus, subtus apice pallidis, posterioribus lunulis septem fulvis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2232.
Eq. Tr.

r

PAP. PERANTHUS.

Fabr. mant. ins. 2. p. 4?

Ostenditur in tabula papilionum duorum perele­gantium et exoticorum vera magni­tudo, quorum qui altius depingitur Indiam, qui inferius, Cochinchinam incolit.

v

ÆNEAS & PERANTHUS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ commonly thickening towards the end into a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

ÆNEAS. Black Butterfly with denticulated wings, the upper pair marked above by a green spot, the lower by a blood-red palmated spot.

PERANTHUS. Black Butterfly with denticulated tailed wings green at the base.

Green-shouldered Cochinchina Butterfly.

Of the two beautiful exotic Butterflies exhibited on the present plate the superior is a native of India, and the inferior of Cochinchina: both are repre­sented in their natural size.

513

Topaz-Throated Humming-Bird

Notes

F

TROCHILUS PELLA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum subulato-filiforme apice tubulato, capite longius: Mandibula superior vaginans inferiorem.

Lingua filiformis, filis duobus coalitis tubulosa.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 189.

Character Specificus, &c.

TROCHILUS curvirostris, rectricibus intermediis longissimis, corpore rubro, capite fusco, gula aurata, uropygio viridi.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 189.

Polytmus surinamensis longicaudus ruber.

Briss. av. 3. p. 690.

Falcinellus gutture viridi.

Klein. av. p. 108.

In maximis est sui generis splendida hæc avis, Americæ australis, præcipue Surinamias incola. Minor longe est feminæ nitor, nec eminentes habet sed æquales caudæ pennas duas intermedias, quæ mari reliquis multo longiores decus afferunt. Specimen eximium unde figura hæc nostra depicta est suppeditavit Museum Leverianum.

v

 

F2

the
TOPAZ-THROATED HUMMING-BIRD.

Generic Character.

Bill filiform, tubular towards the tip, the upper mandible sheathing the lower.

Tongue filiform, consisting of two conjoined tubes.

Feet formed for walking.

Specific Character, &c.

Curve-billed rufous HUMMING-BIRD, with dusky head, topazine throat, and two very long intermediate tail-feathers.

Long-tailed red HUMMING-BIRD.

Edw. pl. 32.

TOPAZ HUMMING-BIRD.

Lath. syn. 1. p. 740.

This species, which is one of the largest of the Humming-Birds, is a native of the Southern parts of America, and, in particular, of Surinam. The female is much less brilliant than the male, and is distinguished by the want of the two long intermediate tail-feathers so conspicuous in the male. The beautiful specimen here figured is preserved in the Leverian Museum.

v

 

514

Variegated Holocentrus

Notes

r

HOLOCENTRUS TIGRINUS.

Character Genericus.

Opercula squamata, serrata, aculeata.

Bloch. ichth. 7. p. 45.
Thoracici.

Character Specificus, &c.

HOLOCENTRUS maculatus, pinna caudæ lunata.

Bloch. ichth. 7. p. 59. t. 237.

Perca maxilla inferiore longiore, toto maculis et lineis transversis varia.

Seb. mus. 3. t. 27. f. 15.

Prochilus capite producto, &c.

Klein. misc. pisc. 5. t. 12.

A Percæ genere, cui certe admodum affine est, præcipue dignoscitur Holocentri genus, quod opercu­lorum spinosa sit facies. Speciem elegantem descrip­simus, maria Indica incolentem, eadem ut plurimum magni­tudine qua Clupea vulgaris sive Harengus Linnæi.

v

 

r

the
VARIEGATED HOLOCENTRUS.

Generic Character.

Gill-Covers scaly, serrated, and spiny.

Specific Character, &c.

White HOLOCENTRUS with brown variegations.

Tiger HOLOCENTRUS.

La Marquille.

Renard Hist. Poiss. 1. t. 6. f. 45.

The genus Holocentrus is extremely allied to that of Perca, differing only in the spiny appearance of the opercula or gill-covers. The elegant species repre­sented on the plate is a native of the Indian seas, and is generally of the size of a common Herring.

v

 

515

Great Nautilus

Notes

r

NAUTILUS POMPILIUS.

Character Genericus.

Animal (Rumph. mus. t. 17. f. B.)

Testa univalvis isthmis perforatis concamerata, polythalamia.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1161.

Character Specificus, &c.

NAUTILUS testæ apertura cordata, anfractibus obtusis lævibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3369.

Cochlea margaritifera.

Rondel. aq. p. 97.

NAUTILUS major crassus.

Rumph. mus. t. 17. f. A. C.

Non possit non contemplantis animum percellere, quæ leviter interdum variata per universum genus pervadit Nautili Pompilii interna conformatio; cujus singula camera seu divisio cum illa quæ proxime adjacet, tubulo brevi et aperto connectitur, cellula prima et præcipua, cæteris multo ampliore, habitaculum, ut videtur, corpori animalis incolentis præbente; v cujus animalis vera natura usque in hunc diem non satis accurate explorata est. Licet inditum sit huic testæ nomen Nautili genericum, non tamen in aquis navigare potest Pompilius, more istius quæ Argonauta Argo, seu Nautilus papyraceus communiter nominatur; cum qua tamen a nonnullis scriptoribus confundi videtur: Crescere non raro solet in magnam molem Nautilus Pompilius, in maribus Indicis præcipue repertus.

r

the
GREAT NAUTILUS.

Generic Character.

Animal not perfectly known.

Shell univalve, divided internally into a great many concentric cells, communicating by short tubes.

Specific Character, &c.

Whitish NAUTILUS with yellow-brown transverse bands, smooth spires, and cordated aperture.

The great pearly NAUTILUS.

The Chambered NAUTILUS.

The curious structure of this shell, (and which also runs, with some variation, thro’ the whole genus,) cannot be contemplated without admiration; each cell or camera communicating with the next by a small and short open tube, the first or principal cell being far larger than the rest, and appearing destined to contain the chief part or body of the inhabiting animal, the nature of which is not yet properly understood. The Nautilus Pompilius is a v native of the Indian seas, and frequently arrives at a very considerable size. Notwithstanding its title, the Nautilus does not possess the power of sailing on the surface in the manner of the Argonauta Argo, or Paper-Nautilus, with which it sometimes appears to be confounded in the works of authors.

516

Panthous Butterfly

Notes

r

PAPILIO PANTHOUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis dentatis nigris concoloribus, primoribus albo maculatis; posticis maculis albis nigra foetis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 748.

PAPILIO Amboinensis, &c.

Seb. mus. 4. t. 44. f. 22.

Papilionem Panthoum in vivario hoc nostro antea descripsimus. Ostenditur in tabula magni­tudine naturali quæ hujus habetur esse femina, ex splendidissimo Sebæ opere desumpta, quæque fortasse omnes papiliones quos adhuc novimus magni­tudine superat.

v

 

r

PANTHOUS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ commonly thickening towards the end into a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

Dusky Butterfly, with dentated wings spotted with white, the spots on the lower wings marked by a black patch.

The Great dusky Amboina Butterfly.

In this plate is exhibited, (from the work of Seba,) the supposed female of the Papilio Panthous, before repre­sented in the present publication. The insect is shewn in its natural size, and may perhaps be considered as the largest of all the papilionaceous tribe.

v

 

517

Stripe-Cheeked Humming-Bird

Notes

G

TROCHILUS SUPERBUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum subulato-filiforme, apice tubulato, capite longius: Mandibula superior vaginans inferiorem.

Lingua filiformis, filis duobus coalitis tubulosa.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 189.

Character Specificus.

TROCHILUS rectirostris viridi-aureus, vertice cæruleo, fascia per genas duplici nigro-alba, gula pectoreque phoeniceis.

De pulcherrima hac specie nihil pro certo cognitum est, nisi quod, ut fere solet reliquum genus, Americæ partes australes incolat. Ostendit tabula veram avis magni­tudinem, a nemine, ut opinor, antea descriptæ aut depictæ.

v

 

G2

the
STRIPE-CHEEKED HUMMING-BIRD.

Generic Character.

Bill filiform, tubular towards the tip, the upper mandible sheathing the lower.

Tongue filiform, consisting of two conjoined tubes.

Feet formed for walking.

Specific Character.

Strait-Billed gold-green HUMMING-BIRD, with blue-crown, double black-and-white check-stripe, and crimson throat and breast.

Of this most beautiful species, which appears to have been hitherto undescribed, nothing more is known than that, like most others of this genus, it is a native of the Southern parts of America. It is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

518

Fibre-Tailed Fistularia

Notes

r

FISTULARIA TABACARIA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum cylindricum, apice maxillosum.

Membrana branchiostega radiis septem.

Corpus elongatum.

Character Specificus, &c.

FISTULARIA fusca cæruleo maculata, abdomine albido, pinnis rubris, cauda bifida setifera.

Abdominales.

FISTULARIA TABACARIA. F. cauda bifida setifera.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 515.

Solenostomus, &c.

Klein M. Pisc. 4. p. 25. n. 4.

Insignit Fistulariæ genus forma rostri et longi­tudo corporis. In eo duæ tantum continentur species, quarum quæ depingitur fortasse vulgatior est, in mari Indico reperta, longi­tudine fere tripedali. Adjicitur tabulæ varietas hujus piscis, cui rostrum serratum, a celeberrimo Blochio descripta.

v

 

r

the
FIBRE-TAILED FISTULARIA.

Generic Character.

Snout cylindric, with the mouth at the tip.

Gill-Membrane furnished with seven rays.

Body elongated.

Specific Character, &c.

Brown FISTULARIA spotted with blue, with whitish abdomen, red fins, and bifid tail terminated by a long fibre.

The Tobacco-Pipe Fish.

The blue-spotted FISTULARIA.

The singular genus Fistularia is readily distinguished by the form of its snout and the length of its body: it contains only two species, of which the present is perhaps the most common: it is found in the Indian seas, and arrives at the length of nearly three feet. A variety with a serrated snout is described by Dr. Bloch, and is also sketched in the present plate.

v

 

519

Wing Strombus

Notes

r

STROMBUS LATISSIMUS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, latere ampliata.

Apertura labro sæpius dilatato, desinens in canalem sinistrum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1207.

Character Specificus, &c.

STROMBUS labro rotundato maximo, ventre inermi, spira subnodosa.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1211.

Alata lata.

Rumph. t. 36. f. 1.

List. conch. t. 856.

Martini conch. t. 82. f. 832.

Alata lata.

Seb. 3. p. 163. t. 63. f. 1. 2.

Labio seu latere oris exteriore latius expanso distinguitur Strombi genus, et spargitur in plurimas species. E rarioribus est illa quam selegimus, in maribus Indicis, ut plurimum, reperta, sæpius major longe specimine depicto.

v

 

r

the
WING STROMBUS.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax.

Shell univalve, spiral, enlarged on the side.

Aperture generally with a dilated lip, ending in a channel towards the left.

Specific Character, &c.

STROMBUS with very large rounded lip, smooth body, and subnodose spire.

Wide-lipped Indian STROMBUS.

WING STROMBUS.

The genus Strombus is distinguished by the remarkable width or dilatation of the exterior lip or edge of the shell: the species are numerous, among which that repre­sented on the present plate may be considered as one of the rarest: it is a native of the Indian seas, and is occasionally found of a much greater size than the specimen figured.

v

 

520

Long-Tailed Phalæna

Notes

r

PHALÆNA MACROURA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ (volatu nocturno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 808.

Character Specificus, &c.

PHALÆNA ferruginea, alis inferioribus caudatis longissimis.

Drury ins. 3. p. 39. t. 29.

Ex omnibus lepidopteris quæ hactenus physicis innotuerunt, nescio an non Phalæna macroura præcipue notatu digna sit ob enormem longi­tudinem appendicum, quasi in caudæ similitudinem excrescentium, quibus alæ inferiores terminantur. Africæ incola in phalænis rarioribus exoticis numeratur. In eleganti Domini Drurii opere censeo eam primo descriptam fuisse et depictam.

v

 

r

the
LONG-TAILED PHALÆNA.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually lessening from the base to the tip.

Wings (when at rest) commonly deflected, (flight nocturnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

Ferruginous PHALÆNA, with the lower wings extended into extremely long tail-like processes.

Drury ins. p. 39. pl. 29.

Of all the lepidoptera yet known, the present species is perhaps the most remarkable for the excessive length of the tail-like processes or appendices with which the lower wings are terminated: it is a native of Africa, and is numbered among the rarest of the exotic Phalænæ. It seems to have been first described and figured in the elegant work of Mr. Drury.

v

 

521

Blue Shrike

RPN 1802

Notes

H

LANIUS BICOLOR.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum rectiusculum, dente utrinque versus apicem, basi nudum.

Lingua lacera.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 134.

Character Specificus, &c.

LANIUS cæruleus, subtus albus, cauda subæquali.

LANIUS cauda subæquali, supra cæruleus subtus albus, capistro nigro.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 75.

Loxia Madagascarina.

Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. p. 306.

Species perpulchra hic depicta insulas Africanas præcipue autem Madagascariam incolit: femina a mare coloribus multo minus vividis distinguitur.

v

 

H2

the
BLUE SHRIKE.

Generic Character.

Bill straitish, with a tooth or process on each side near the tip.

Tongue jagged.

Specific Character, &c.

BLUE SHRIKE, white beneath, with rounded tail.

BLUE SHRIKE.

Lath. Syn. 1. p. 178.

La Pie-griesche blue de Madagascar.

Pl. Enl. 32. f. 2.

The beautiful species here represented is a native of the African islands, and is principally found in Madagascar: the female is distinguished from the male by its far less brilliant colour.

v

 

522

Red Holocentrus

Notes

r

HOLOCENTRUS SOGO.

Character Genericus.

Opercula squamata, serrata, aculeata.

Bloch. ichth. 7. p. 47.
Thoracici.

Character Specificus, &c.

HOLOCENTRUS ruber, lineis longitudinalibus flavis, cauda furcata.

HOLOCENTRUS SOGO. H. pinna ventrali radiis octo.

Bloch. ichth. 7. p. 40. t. 232.

HOLOCENTRUS.

Seb. mus. 3. p. 73. t. 27. f. 1.

Perca marina rubra.

Catesb. Carol. 2. t. 3. f. 2.

In maribus Indicis innascitur Holocentrus Sogo, magni­tudine Percam vulgarem sive fluviatilem referens. Viro celeberrimo Carolo Plumier figuram archetypam hujus piscis debemus, a Blochio primum evulgatam.

v

 

r

the
RED HOLOCENTRUS.

Generic Character.

Gill-Covers scaly, serrated, spiny.

Specific Character, &c.

RED HOLOCENTRUS with longitudinal yellow stripes and forked tail.

The Sogo or RED HOLOCENTRUS.

The Squirrel.

Catesb. Carol. 2. pl. 3. f. 2.

Der Sogo.

Bloch. ichth. 7. pl. 232.

The Holocentrus Sogo is a native of the Indian seas, and is of the size of a common perch. It is to the celebrated Plumier that we owe the archetypal figure of this fish, which has been engraved in the work of Dr. Bloch.

v

 

523

Tulip Cone

Notes

r

CONUS TULIPA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, convoluta, turbinata.

Apertura effusa, longitudinalis, linearis, edentula, basi integra.

Columella lævis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1165.

Character Specificus, &c.

CONUS testa ventricosa alba, nebulis longi­tudinalibus aurantiis, punctis transversis fuscis, apertura dehiscente.

CONUS TULIPA. C. testa oblonga gibba lævi, apertura dehiscente.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1172.

Rumph. mus. t. 34 f. K.

Knorr. vergn. 5. t. 20. f. 1. 2.

Inter testas pulcherrimas merito numeratur Conus Tulipa cujus magni­tudinem veram ostendit tabula. Circa littora Indica præcipue conspicitur.

v

 

r

the
TULIP CONE.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax or Slug.

Shell more or less conic or pyramidal.

Aperture longitudinal, linear, without teeth, entire at the base.

Pillar smooth.

Specific Character, &c.

Smooth white ventricose CONE, with longi­tudinal orange-coloured clouds, and dusky transverse specks.

The Tulip-Shell or TULIP CONE.

The Tulip Cone is justly considered as one of the most beautiful shells of its tribe: it is a native of the Indian seas, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

524

Crested Crab

Notes

r

CANCER CRISTATUS?

Character Genericus.

Pedes octo (rarius sex aut decem;) insuper manus duæ chelatæ.

Oculi duo, distantes, plurimis pedunculati; elongati, mobiles.

Cauda articulata, inermis.

Character Specificus, &c.

Cancer thorace pedibusque aculeatis, rostro porrecto bifido cristato.

Fabr. ins. 1. p. 503.

Lin. Gmel. p. 2980.

Rumph. mus. t. 8. f. 1.

Seb. 3. t. 22. f. 2. 3.

Hujus speciei descriptionem a Seba in opus nostrum transferre non dubitavimus.

“Miratu dignissimus iste cancer, Rumphio cancer spinosissimus dictus, non tantum in tegmine superiore, quod mire gibbosum, et quasi in montes et valles distinctum est, sed in aliis quoque partibus pilosa quasi tela, et pungentes aculeos, manipulatim compositos, ostentat. Caput, veluti turritum, acuminatum, spinosis processibus undique asperum est. v Brachia itidem crassa, longa, ramos, in omni ambitu, ramorumque propagines emittunt. Quin vel ipsi forcipes similibus undique horrent. Octo postici pedes, pari modo constituti, aculeis crassis, pungentibus, simplicibus, ubique pleni sunt. Sic et cauda sese habet plurimis brevibusque articulis geniculata. Pedes posteriores in minutum et brevem terminantur unguiculum. Color dilute griseus per omnia regnat.” Maria incolit Asiatica.

r

the
CRESTED CRAB.

Generic Character.

Legs generally eight, (in some species six or ten,) besides two claspers or chelated arms.

Eyes two, commonly distant; footstalked, moveable.

Tail articulated.

Specific Character, &c.

Short-tailed tuberculated CRAB with numerous ramified and fasciculated spines, and bifid crested snout.

This highly singular species, says Seba, is the cancer horridus of Rumphius, and is covered not only on the upper part of the body, which is very convex and marked into various elevations and depressions, but also on every other part with groupes of sharp spines and hair-like prickles: the head is elevated, acuminated, and every where beset with spiny processes: the long and thick arms are covered along their whole outline with branching subdivisions which are visible even on the forcipes themselves: the eight hind legs are formed on a similar v plan, but are covered with thick, sharp, simple spines: the tail, which is spiny also, consists of several small and short joints: the hind feet terminate in minute and short claws: the general colour of the whole animal is pale grey. It is a native of the Asiatic seas.

525

Green-Headed Kingfisher

Notes

I

ALCEDO CHLOROCEPHALA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum trigonum, crassum, rectum, longum.

Lingua carnosa, brevissima, plana, acuta.

Pedes gressorii plerisque.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 178.

Character Specificus, &c.

ALCEDO viridi-cærulea, subtus alba, vertice viridi nigro marginato.

ALCEDO CHLOROCEPHALA.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 250.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 454

Insulas Indicas inhabitat elegantissima hæc avis, magni­tudine Alcedinem Europæam sive Ispidam paulum superans.

v

 

I2

the
GREEN-HEADED KINGFISHER.

Generic Character.

Bill trigonal, thick, strait, long.

Tongue fleshy, very short, flat, sharp-pointed.

Feet gressorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Blue-Green KINGFISHER, white beneath, with green crown margined with black.

Le Martin-Pecheur a tete verte.

Buff. ois. 7. p. 190.

Pl. Enl. 783. f. 2.

GREEN-HEADED KINGFISHER.

Lath. syn. 1. p. 620.

This highly elegant species is a native of the Indian islands. Its size somewhat exceeds that of the common European Kingfisher.

v

 

526

Knight-Fish

Notes

r

EQUES AMERICANUS.

Character Genericus.

Dentium ordines plurimi.

Corpus fasciatum.

Character Specificus, &c.

EQUES pinna dorsi altissima.

Bloch. ichth. 10. p. 76. t. 347.
Thoracici.

Chætodon lanceolatus. C. cauda integra, corpore fasciis tribus; oculari, pectorali, longi­tudinalique.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 406.

Piscem hunc in Chætodontibus a Linnæo habitum ad novum et sibi proprium genus retulit Blochius, quod dentium non sit, ut Chætodontum, unicus ordo, sed plures concentrici. Maria incolit Americana, et in tabula magni­tudine quasi dimidiata depingitur.

v

 

r

the
KNIGHT-FISH.

Generic Character.

Teeth in several rows.

Body banded.

Specific Character, &c.

KNIGHT-FISH with very high dorsal fin.

The Guaperva.

The Ribband-Fish.

Edw. pl. 210.

Le Chevalier.

Bloch. ichth. t. 347.

This fish, which by Linnæus was associated with the Chætodons, has been formed into a distinct genus by Dr. Bloch on account of its teeth, which, instead of being arranged in a single row, as in those animals, are disposed into several concentric ranges. It is a native of the American seas, and is repre­sented on the plate of about half its natural size.

v

 

527

Branched Murex

Notes

r

MUREX RAMOSUS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, exasperata suturis membra­naceis.

Apertura desinens in canalem integrum, rectum seu subadscendentem.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1213.

Character Specificus, &c.

MUREX testa trifariam frondosa, spira contigua, cauda truncata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1215.

MUREX RAMOSUS.

Rumph. mus. t. 26.

Purpura ramosa.

Argenv. t. 16. f. C. E.

List. conch. t. 946. f. 41.

Contigit ferme omni Muricis generi ut obducatur testa exterior inæquali quadam et rugata scabritie: at insignis omnino est species quam describimus, quod spiræ seu volumina testæ processus efficiant v plurimos elongatos et dilatatos, apicibus magis minusve ramosis seu divaricatis.

Maria incolit Indica et Americana murex ramosus major interdum speciminibus quas in tabula monstrantur.

r

the
BRANCHED MUREX.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Slug.

Shell univalve, spiral, roughened by membranaceous sutures.

Aperture ending in a strait or subascending channel.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish-brown transversely striated MUREX, with three longi­tudinal rows of foliaceous processes.

The BRANCHED MUREX.

Branched Purple-Shell.

The genus Murex, distinguished in general by a peculiar irregularity of surface, affords few species more remarkable than the present, in which the spires of the shell are beset with numerous lengthened and expanded processes more or less divided or branched at their extremities. It is a native of the Indian and American seas, and sometimes exceeds the size of the specimens repre­sented on the annexed plate.

v

 

528

Jasmine Sphinx

Notes

r

SPHINX ATROPOS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ subprismaticæ, utroque fine attenuatæ.

Lingua exserta (plerisque.)

Palpi duo reflexi.

Alæ deflexæ.

Character Specificus, &c.

SPHINX alis primoribus griseis, posterioribus abdomineque luteis nigro-fasciatis, thorace macula craniolari flava.

SPHINX alis integris: posticis luteis fasciis fuscis, abdomine luteo cingulis nigris.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 799.

Varias Europæ regiones incolit formosissimum hoc insectum, et e rarissimis est lepidopteris quæ in Britannia aluntur. Hujus larva solani tuberosi nec non jasmini folia præ cæteris amat, et cum noctu præcipue vescatur, interdiu deliteat, eo fit ut difficilior sit detectu quam aliæ pleræque larvæ lepidopterorum. Mense Augusto, chrysa­lidis vices subitura sub humo se condit, unde mense Septembri insequentis anni prodit ipsa Sphinx, thoracem habens v macula insignitum cujus possit esse quædam imaginaria similitudo cum cranio arido mortui hominis ut vulgo depingitur; quam ob causam, emissamque vocem stridulam, si quis tangendo irritaverit, indoctæ plebi magnum non raro timorem incutit quasi male ominata, et mortis prænuncia: immo narrat celeberrimus Reaumurius ipsas monachas Gallici cujusdam coenobii subitanea trepidatione fuisse perculsas visa Sphinge quæ vespertina per fenestras involaverat.

Quod commune est aliis plerisque insectis, coloribus vel saturatioribus vel pallidioribus variat Sphinx Atropos.

r

the
JASMINE SPHINX.

Generic Character.

Antennæ subprismatic, attenuated at each extremity.

Tongue generally exserted.

Feelers two, reflex.

Wings deflected.

Specific Character, &c.

SPHINX with the upper wings grey, the lower wings and abdomen deep yellow barred with black, and the thorax marked by a scull-shaped yellow patch.

The Tiger Hawk-Moth.

The Jasmine Hawk-Moth, or Death-Head Sphinx.

This highly beautiful insect is a native of many parts of Europe, and is numbered among the rarer species of British lepidoptera. The larva or caterpillar is observed to prefer the leaves of the Jasmine and the Potatoe to those of most other plants; and as it feeds principally by night, concealing itself during the day, is much less frequently seen than v most other insects of its tribe. It retires under ground in the month of August, in order to undergo its change into a chrysalis, from which, in the month of September in the following year proceeds the complete insect, which is distinguished by a remarkable spot or patch on the thorax, bearing an imaginary resemblance to the figure of a scull or death’s-head, as vulgarly repre­sented. From this circumstance, joined to the stridulous tone which it utters when handled or irritated, it has been considered by the vulgar as an animal of ill omen, and as a messenger of fate. The celebrated Reaumur informs us that the members of a female convent in France were seized with general consternation on discovering one of these insects, which had accidentally flown in at one of the open windows during the evening.

Like most other insects, it occasionally varies somewhat in colour, being darker or lighter in different individuals.

529

Chinese Pelican

Notes

K

PELECANUS SINENSIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum rectum: apice adunco, unguiculato.

Nares rima obliterata.

Facies nudiuscula.

Pedes æquilibres: digitis omnibus quatuor simul palmatis.

Character Specificus.

PELECANUS supra fuscus, subtus albidus fusco maculatus, gula alba, iridibus cæruleis, cauda rotundata.

In genere Pelecano nonnullæ sunt aves quæ ad exercendam artem piscatoriam dominis quæstuosam ali possint et institui. A Sinensibus deductus est mos, indeque reversi non ita pridem legati Britannici certiores fecere Europæos de specie qua utuntur ii ad hoc opus educata: illa nempe, quæ anserina quasi magni­tudine, corpore tamen tenuior, si colores excipias, graculo et carboni pelecanis non longe est absimilis.

Quando piscari volunt Sinenses, aves multas levibus in scaphis imponunt, quæ ad nutum domini cum in aquas se projecerint, parvo temporis spatio pisces v rostris arreptos in cymbam deferunt; nec annulo collari opus est ne forte prædam deglutiant (sine quo apud Europæos nunquam committitur carboni res piscatoria) adeo enim disciplinæ et imperiis assueverunt dociles Sinensium pelecani, ut si prædæ aliquod iis dispertitum fuerit, saris id putent ad laboris renumerationem.

Auctor est Dominus Stantonus, qui librum nuperrime edidit de moribus Sinensium, conspici posse in nonnullis lacubus millia multa scapharum, unde mirum hoc piscaturæ genus ab avibus peragitur.

K2

the
CHINESE PELICAN.

Generic Character.

Bill long, strait, hooked at the end.

Nostrils small, in an obscure furrow.

Face naked.

Toes all four united by a web.

Specific Character.

Brown PELICAN, with white throat, the body whitish beneath and spotted with brown; the tail rounded; the irides blue.

Staunton’s Chinese Embassy, 2. p. 388.

The art of training some particular species of this genus to the practice of fishing for the profit of their owners appears to have originated among that industrious people the Chinese, who are in the habit of turning every object to as much advantage as possible. It was not however till the period of the late embassy to China that the real species used for this purpose became known to Europeans. The bird is about the size of a common goose, but is of a thinner form, and resembles, except in colour, the European Shag and Corvorant. When used for fishing, v these birds are carried in small boats, and, at a signal given, plunge into the water, and soon return with the prey in their mouth, requiring no ring round the neck, to prevent their swallowing it, as is the practice in Europe when the Cormorant is sometimes used for a similar purpose; the Chinese fowl being so well trained as to require only the encouragement of part of their prey. We are informed by Sir George Staunton, in his account of the late Embassy, that on some of the Chinese lakes may be seen thousands of small boats destined entirely to this curious species of fishery.

531

Agrippina Moth

Notes

r

PHALÆNA AGRIPPINA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 808.

Character Specificus, &c.

PHALÆNA (noctua) alis subconcoloribus albidis fusco nebulosis, subtus subviolaceis.

Mer. ins. Sur. t. 20.

PHALÆNA AGRIPPINA.

Cram. ins. 8. t. 87. 88. A. A.

Phalænam hanc grandem et elegantem, Surinamiæ incolam, prima omnium descripsisse et depinxisse videtur celeberrima Merian in historia insectorum Surinamensium. Folia Gambogiæ depascitur larva, colore læte viridi, fasciis latis, transversis, nigris variata: color autem viridis, anteaquam in chrysalidem convertatur phalæna, transire solet in splendido-rubrum. Errant frequenter auctores, quorum eadem est hæc species atque phalæna strix Linnæi, v quæ tamen ad aliam tribum referri debet, generali quadam colorum dispositione huic affinis.

Jactat Museum Leverianum pulcherrima duo phalænæ Agrippinæ specimina.

530

Agrippina Moth

v

AGRIPPINA.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually diminishing from the base to the tip.

Wings (when at rest) commonly deflected. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character.

Whitish Moth, clouded with brown variegations; the pattern nearly similar on both surfaces; the inferior tinged with violet-colour.

The large and elegant moth represented on the present plate is a native of Surinam, and appears to have been first described and figured by the celebrated Madam Merian, in her history of the insects of that country. The caterpillar or larva feeds on the leaves of the Gamboge-tree, and is of a fine green, variegated with large, trans­verse, black bands; but some time before its assuming the form of a chrysalis it is observed to exhibit a remarkable alteration of colour, the green changing to a beautiful red. This species is commonly, but mistakenly, v quoted as the Phalæna Strix of Linnæus; that insect belonging to a different division of the genus, and being allied to the present species only in the general distribution of its colours. In the Leverian Museum may be seen two very fine specimens of the Phalæna Agrippina.

532

Orange Ascidia

Notes

L

ASCIDIA AURANTIUM.

Character Genericus.

Corpus fixum, teretiusculum, vaginans.

Aperturæ binæ ad summitatem: altera humiliore.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1087.

Character Specificus, &c.

ASCIDIA subglobosa coccinea, papillis terminalibus cylindraceis.

ASCIDIA subglobosa, sacculo coccineo punctis duriusculis scabro, papillis terminalibus cylindraceis rugosis.

Pall. nov. act. Petrop. 2. p. 246. t. 7.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3128.

Ab erudito domino Pallas mutuatus sum hanc descrip­tionem, qua nulla possit esse aptior et accuratior:

Magnitudo sæpe pomi aurantii majoris. Forma, præter basin truncatam testis lapillisque insidentem et papillas osculiferas, subglobosa. Corium externum in siccatis passim in magnas rugas crispatum, naturaliter æquabile, tenacissimum, rigidiusculum, v vix ungue crassius, extus totum punctis duriusculis, distantibus scabratum. Papillæ in vertice sphæræ binæ cylindraceæ, rugosæ, altera major, utraque orificio cruciatim diffisso pervia. Intra cavum corii continetur follis ductibus duobus carnosis orificiis papillarum insertus, constans strato fibrarum extus circularium interioreque grossiorum longi­tudinalium, in discum baseos tendinosum, circularem convergentibus. Hic follis seu ventriculus facile integer a corio secedit et enucleatur, intus vacuus, aquam marinam recepturus, stipatus adnato viscere parenchymatoso, in anfractus intestiniformes efficto, flavescente, a basi per latus arcuato-adscendente. Color extus coccineus.”

r

the
ORANGE ASCIDIA.

Generic Character.

Body fixed, generally subcylindric.

Apertures two at the upper part; one lower than the other.

Specific Character.

Subglobose orange-red ASCIDIA, with cylindric terminal papillæ.

This species of Ascidia is described by Dr. Pallas, who informs us that it is a native of the Asiatic seas, and is often found of the size of a large orange. Its shape is nearly globular, but truncated at the base, where it is affixed to stones, shells, &c. The external skin or rind, which in the dried specimens is usually marked here and there by several large wrinkles, is, in its recent state, of an even surface, very tough, of scarcely more than a nail’s thickness, and roughened all over with distant, callous specks: on the upper part are two cylindric, wrinkled papillæ, one larger than the other, and both furnished with a crucial aperture: within the cavity of the rind is a sacculus or bladder, inserted by two fleshy ducts into the orifices of the papillæ, and consisting of circular v exterior and longitudinal interior fibres, converging at the circular and tendinous base: this sacculus, which is for the reception of the sea-water, is easily separable from the rind: it is furnished internally with a yellowish visceral parenchyma, formed into intestinal windings ascending from the base up the sides of the cavity: the colour of this species is orange-red.

533

Red-Billed Hoopoe

Notes

M

UPUPA ERYTHRORYNCHOS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum arcuatum, convexum, subcompressum, obtusiusculum.

Lingua obtusa, integerrima, triquetra, brevissima.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 183.

Character Specificus.

UPUPA nigro-violacea, viridi nitens, rectricibus versus apices macula utrinque alba, rostro rubro.

Cimelia Physica. p. 96. t. 52.

UPUPA viridi-atra, purpureo splendens, &c.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 280.

Africæ incola esse creditur magnifica hæc avis, quam primum descripsisse opinor Lathamum. Putatur etiam interdum in India generari. Iconem pulcherrimam mutuati sumus a tabulis miscellaneis quas pereleganter edidit Dominus Millerus.

v

 

M2

the
RED-BILLED HOOPOE.

Generic Character.

Bill bowed, convex, somewhat compressed, rather obtuse.

Tongue obtuse, perfectly entire, triquetrous, very short.

Feet formed for walking.

Specific Character, &c.

Violet-black HOOPOE, with a gloss of green; the tail-feathers marked on each side towards the tips with a spot of white; the bill red.

Red-billed Promerops.

Lath. Synops. Suppl. 1. p. 124.

Millar. Illustr. nat. hist. pl. 52.

This magnificent bird, which seems to have been first described by Mr. Latham, is supposed to be a native of Africa; but it is also said to be found in India. The figure here given is copied from the beautiful representation published by Mr. Millar in his splendid plates of natural history.

v

 

534

Rostrated Sphagebranchus

Notes

r

SPHAGEBRANCHUS ROSTRATUS.

Character Genericus.

Spiracula duo sub collo.

Bloch. ichth. 12. p. 78.

Character Specificus.

SPHAGEBRANCHUS capite rostrato.

Bloch. ichth. 12. p. 79.
Apodes.

Genus Sphagebranchus, a Blochio primum institutum, hanc unicam continet speciem, in mari Indico præcipue repertam, et in longi­tudinem forte Anguillæ vulgaris crescentem.

v

 

r

the
ROSTRATED SPHAGEBRANCHUS.

Generic Character.

Spiracula two, situated beneath the neck.

Specific Character.

SPHAGEBRANCHUS with the head terminating in a sharp-pointed snout.

The genus Sphagebranchus, instituted by Dr. Bloch, contains only the species repre­sented on the present plate. It is chiefly seen in the Indian seas, and is supposed to arrive at the size of a common eel.

v

 

535

Antarctic Boa

Notes

r

BOA ANTARCTICA.

Character Genericus.

Scuta abdominalia et subcaudalia.

Character Specificus, &c.

BOA gilva, fasciis creberrimis transversis rufis, subtus flavescens, nigro maculata.

Scut: abdom. 113.

subcaud. 27.

Squam: terminales 22.

Venenata admodum est hæc species; rara insuper, nec antea descripta. Longitudo ut plurimum pedalis pertingit interdum ad quindecim uncias. Insignis est crassitudo corporis. Ob colores notabiles maculasque ex æquo sitas vix poteris permiscere hanc speciem cum ulla alia Boa quam adhuc novimus. In Australasia generatur Boa Antarctica.

v

 

r

the
ANTARCTIC BOA.

Generic Character.

Scuta or undivided plates both on the abdomen and beneath the tail.

Specific Character, &c.

Gilvous BOA, with numerous transverse rufous fasciæ; beneath yellowish, spotted with black.

Abdominal plates 113.

Subcaudal 27.

Terminal scales 22 pair.

This beautiful, and hitherto undescribed serpent, is a native of Australasia, and is considered as a highly poisonous species. Its general length is about twelve or fifteen inches: its form remarkably thick in proportion. From the singularity of its colours and the regularity of its markings it is not easily confounded with any other species.

v

 

536

Long-Armed Beetle

Notes

r

SCARABÆUS LONGIMANUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ clavatæ capitulo fissili.

Tibiæ anticæ sæpius dentatæ.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 541.

Character Specificus, &c.

SCARABÆUS muticus, pedibus anticis arcuatis longissimis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 549.

Fabr. spec. ins. p. 18.

Voet. Scarab. t. 11. f. 97.

In India innascitur rarissima hæc species, cujus veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula.

v

 

r

the
LONG-ARMED BEETLE.

Generic Character.

Antennæ divided at the tip or head into several lamellæ.

Tibiæ or second joints of the fore-legs generally toothed.

Specific Character, &c.

Smooth chesnut-brown BEETLE, with very long, crooked fore-legs.

The crook-legged Indian BEETLE.

La Girafette.

Pl. Enl. 41. f. 1.

This highly rare insect is a native of India, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

537

Collared Tanager

Notes

N

TANAGRA FESTIVA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum conicum, acuminatum, emarginatum, basi subtrigonum, apice declive.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 313.

Character Specificus, &c.

TANAGRA viridis, capite cœruleo, collari (maris) rubro, humeris nigris, flavo marginatis.

TANAGRA Tricolor. Var. β.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 428.

TANAGRA Cayanensis varia cyanocephalos.

Briss. Suppl. p. 62. t. 4. f. 2.

Formosior est Tanagra festiva seu rubricollis vel ipsa Tanagra Tatao, quam in hoc opere jam descripsimus. Cayennam inhabitat; et cernere est in tabula naturalem avis magni­tudinem. Collari isto splendide sanguineo quo mas ornatur caret femina.

v

 

N2

the
COLLARED TANAGER.

Generic Character.

Bill conical, acuminated, a little inclining towards the point; upper mandible slightly ridged, and notched near the end.

Specific Character, &c.

Green TANAGER, with blue head, red collar (in the male) and black shoulders edged with yellow.

The Red-collared TANAGER.

Le Tricolor.

Buff. 4. p. 276.

Green-headed TANAGER. Var. A.

Lath. Syn. 2. p. 235.

This bird, which perhaps exhibits a more brilliant plumage than even the Tanagra Tatao described in a former number of the present work, is a native of Cayenne, and is repre­sented in its natural size on the annexed plate. The female is destitute of the red collar which forms so conspicuous an ornament in the male.

v

 

538

Ribbed Soldier-Fish

Notes

r

CATAPHRACTUS COSTATUS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus Cataphractum.

Os terminale.

Bloch. ichth. 11. p. 65.
Abdominales.

Character Specificus, &c.

CATAPHRACTUS ordine scutorum simplici, pinna caudæ lunata.

Bloch. ichth. 11. p. 66.

Mystus cirris sex longissimis, &c.

Gronov. Mus. 2. p. 24.

Silurus CATAPHRACTUS. S. pinna dorsali postica adiposa squamis serie simplici, cirris sex, cauda bifida.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 506.

A Blochio institutum genus Cataphractus perpaucas continet species, quæ ut in Siluris disponerentur auctor erat Linnæus. Cataphractum costatum, qui exemplum præbeat generis, selegimus, maria incolentem Americana, et corpus habentem præduris laminis armatum. Magni­tudo ei ut plurimum est quasi Cyprini Carpionis.

v

 

r

the
RIBBED SOLDIER-FISH.

Generic Character.

Body mailed.

Mouth terminal.

Specific Character, &c.

SOLDIER-FISH with a simple row of shields, and lunated tail.

The American SOLDIER-FISH.

The RIBBED SILURE.

The genus Cataphractus, instituted by Dr. Bloch, contains but a very small number of species, which by Linnæus were arranged under the genus Silurus. The Cataphractus costatus, selected as an example of the genus, is a native of the American seas, and is remarkable for the very strong or bony armature of the body. It is about the size of a common Carp.

v

 

539

Carnation Actinia

Notes

r

ACTINIA DIANTHUS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus se affigens basi, carnosum, oblongum, teres, contractile, viviparum.

Os terminale, dilatabile, tentaculis cinctum.

Apertura præter os nulla.

Character Specificus, &c.

ACTINIA lævis subcylindrica, disco quinquepartito foliaceo, tentaculis exiguis albis ornato, osculo elevato striato.

Ellis. Zooph. p. 7.

Act. Angl. vol. 57. p. 436. t. 19. f. 6. 7.

Hydra DIANTHUS.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3869.

Formosam hanc Actiniam in Britannia innasci docet qui primus eam descripsisse videtur celeberrimus Ellisius, rupesque oræ Sussexiensi adjacentes sæpius incolere, eas præcipue quæ Hastingarum ex adverso sitæ sunt. Eadem est magni­tudine quam ostendit tabula, et eodem fere utitur vivendi modo quo reliquum genus.

v

 

r

the
CARNATION ACTINIA.

Generic Character.

Body fixing itself by the base, fleshy, oblong, cylindric, contractile, viviparous.

Mouth terminal, expansile, surrounded with tentacula.

No other opening but the mouth.

Specific Character, &c.

Smooth subcylindric Actinia, with foliaceous five-parted disk beset with minute tentacula, and elevated, striated mouth.

Sea CARNATION.

Ellis. Zooph. p. 7.

Phil. Trans. vol. 57. p. 436. pl. 19. f. 8.

The beautiful species of Actinia repre­sented on the present plate seems to have been first described by Mr. Ellis, who informs us that it is a native of our own island, and is principally found on the rocks of the Sussex coast, and more especially on those which are opposite the town of Hastings. In its general properties and manners it resembles the rest of its tribe, and is expressed on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

540

Deïphobus Butterfly

Notes

r

PAPILIO DEÏPHOBUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ sedentis erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis caudatis fuscis, superioribus macula humerali rubra, posticis apice fulvis nigro maculatis.

PAPILIO DEÏPHOBUS? P. alis caudatis nigris, subtus basi rubro maculatis, posticis maculis septem rubris subannularibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 746.
Eq. Tr.

PAPILIO Alcander?

Cram. 1. p. 64. t. XL.

Indiam incolit formosum hoc insectam, cujus veram magni­tudinem ostendit tabula. Coloribus interdum variat.

v

DEÏPHOBUS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the upper part, and generally terminating in a knob.

Wings (when sitting) erect, and meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

Caudated brown Butterfly, with the upper wings marked by a red shoulder-spot; the lower with fulvous tips spotted with black.

Great dusky Swallow-tailed Butterfly.

Edw. av. pl. 347.

This beautiful Insect is a native of India, and is repre­sented in the plate in its natural size. The different specimens are observed to vary occasionally in their colours.

r

INDEX.

Pl.
503. Anableps tetropthalmus.
507. Aplysia depilans.
525. Alcedo chlorocephala.
532. Ascidia Aurantium.
539. Actinia Dianthus.
535. Boa antarctica.
524. Cancer cristatus.
496. —— Phalangium.
538. Cataphractus costatus.
495. Conus Ammiralis et var.
502. —— arausiacus et arachn.
523. —— Tulipa.
509. Coracias Sinensis.
506. Coryphæna cærulea.
511. Echeneis Remora.
526. Eques Americanus.
505. Fringilla elegans.
518. Fistularia Tabacaria.
514. Holocentrus tigrinus.
522. —— Sogo.
501. Lemur Calago.
521. Lanius bicolor.
527. Murex ramoſus.
515. Nautilus Pompilius.
500. Papilio Agenor.
504. —— Protesilaus.
512. —— Æneas & Peranthus.
516. —— Panthous.
540. —— Deiphobus.
529. Pelecanus Sinensis.
520. Phalæna macroura.
530.
531.
—— Agrippina.
493. Picus pileatus.
497. —— principalis.
498. Scomber Ductor.
494. —— ruber.
536. Scarabæus longimanus.
499. Strombus Fusus.
519. —— latissimus.
534. Sphagebranchus rostratus.
528. Sphinx Atropos.
510. Tethys Fimbria.
537. Tanagra festiva.
513. Trochilus Pella.
517. —— superbus.
508. Voluta Æthiopica.
533. Upupa erythrorynchus.

INDEX.

Pl.
503. Anableps four-eyed.
539. Actinia carnation.
532. Ascidia orange.
507. Aplysia Mediterranean.
536. Beetle long-armed.
535. Boa antarctic.
500. Butterfly Agenor.
512. —— Æneas and Peranthus.
516. —— Panthous.
504. —— Protesilaus.
540. —— Deïphobus.
495. Cone Admiral and var.
502. —— Orange-flag and Cobweb.
523. —— Tulip.
506. Coryphæna blue.
496. Crab slender-legged.
524. —— crested.
505. Finch variegated.
518. Fistularia fibre-tailed.
522. Holocentrus red.
514. —— variegated.
533. Hoopoe red-billed.
513. Humming-Bird topaz-throated.
517. —— stripe-cheeked.
525. Kingfisher green-headed.
526. Knight-fish American.
501. Lemur Calago.
494. Mackrel red.
498. Mackrel Pilot.
527. Murex branched.
515. Nautilus great.
529. Pelican Chinese.
520. Phalæna long-tailed.
530.
531.
—— Agrippina.
509. Roller Chinese.
511. Remora fork-tailed.
521. Shrike blue.
538. Soldier-fish ribbed.
534. Sphagebranchus rostrated.
528. Sphinx Jasmine.
499. Strombus Spindle.
519. —— Wing.
510. Tethys crenulated.
537. Tanager collared.
508. Volute Ethiopian.
493. Woodpecker pileated.
497. —— White-billed.

Notes and Corrections: Volume 13

Volume 13 of the Naturalist’s Miscellany was published in twelve monthly installments, from September 1801 through—conjecturally—August 1802. It is “conjecturally’ because no plate after the third installment (November 1801) has a date, barring a single grudging “1802” a few months further along.

Installments vary between one signature of 16 pages and two of 8+4 pages.

[A]; B; C; D; E (January 1802); F; G; H; I; K L; M; N

The third installment of this volume offers our first mammal since the Platypus near the end of Volume 10, more than two years ago.

Beginning with the present volume and continuing through the rest of the Miscellany, the dedication is signed by Elizabeth, widow of Frederick Polydore Nodder. But it will take a few more years to decide on the exact form of her name. This volume says “E. R. Nodder”, as if R. is a middle initial. The next volume will say “E. and R. Nodder”, sharing billing with her son Richard. All subsequent volumes will simply say “E. Nodder”.

Plate 516 is engraved “416”, but is correct in the Index.

Picus Pileatus, the Pileated Woodpecker

is now Dryocopus pileatus. It lives in North America east of the Mississippi and west of the Rockies.

Briss. av. 4. p. 29.
title italicized for consistency

Scomber Ruber, the Red Mackrel

is now Caranx ruber, the jack. (GBIF offers a host of other names: bar jack, blackjack, blue runner, blue striped cavalla, crevalle jack, crevalli, green­back, neverbite and passing jack.) It lives in and around the Caribbean, extending up the Atlantic coast of North America.

Conus Ammiralis, the Admiral Cone

is also known as the ammiralis cone. It lives mainly in the western Pacific.

which Linnæus emphatically calls “pretiosissimus artis perditæ luxus.”
[At this point the typesetter forgets what century he is in, and adds a supplementary quotation mark when the quote spills onto a new line—even though that line consists solely of the syllable “us”. (He did not do so on the Latin side, where the second word of the quotation also spills over to a new line.)]

page image

Cancer Phalangium, the Slender-Legged Crab

is now Inachus phalangium. It lives along the coast of western Europe.

Picus Principalis, the White-Billed Woodpecker

is now Campephilus principalis, the ivory-billed woodpecker. For, again, a given definition of “now”: its IUCN status is “Critically Endangered”, while Hume says “probably extinct by the 1960s”. Its original range extended from Texas to North Carolina, gradually narrowing to Florida.

Generic Character.
[Heading added for consistency. For variety’s sake, it is the English rather than the Latin that is missing.]

Pl. Enl. 690.
title italicized for consistency

Scomber Ductor, the Pilot Mackrel

is now Naucrates ductor. It lives in all oceans.

Strombus Fusus, the Spindle Strombus

is probably Tibia fusus, the shinbone tibia. Its range extends from Japan south into Indonesia.

[Plate 499] London, Published Sepr 1st 1801 by Elizabeth Nodder, Sons & Co. Newman Street.
[The engraved date says “Sepr”, while the first two plates in the installment had the expected “Octr”. This will not be the last time that a Plate is dated one or more months earlier than its apparent publication date.]

Papilio Agenor, the Agenor (butterfly)

is now Papilio memnon, the great Mormon. (Is this another case of Linnaeus mistaking male and female for different species?) It lives in east and Southeast Asia, extending into Indonesia.

[Plate 500]
[This plate, too, is engraved “Sepr” instead of “Octr”. Plates 493-96 (the last three plates of the previous installment) had no visible date; was there a last-minute change?]

Lemur Calago, the Calago lemur

If he meant “Galago” with a G, it is now a subspecies, Galago senegal­ensis senegalensis, the Senegal lesser galago. It lives in central Africa.

The species as a whole is the Northern lesser galago; the genus is galagos, sometimes called “lesser galagos” to distinguish them from greater galagos, who have a genus of their own. But I would not be surprised to learn that Shaw’s sources thought family Galagidae was all the same animal.

[Plate 501] London, Published Novr 1st 1801 by Elizabeth Nodder, Sons & Co. Newman Street.
[Make the most of it: this is the last time a Miscellany engraving will give the full month-and-year date. Not the last time in calendar year 1801 or the last time in Volume 13; the last time ever.]

There is a remarkable similarity in point of general appearance between this animal and the Fennec
[If he means the fennec fox, I cannot say I see any particular resem­blance.]

Conus Arausiacus, the Orange-Flag Cone

is probably Harpulina arausiaca, the gold-banded volute. It lives in South Asia, including Sri Lanka.

Conus Arachnoideus, the Cobweb Cone

is now Conus araneosus. It lives in South and Southeast Asia. Both cones were first described by the one authority Shaw doesn’t list, Lightfoot.

Anableps Tetropthalmus, the Four-Eyed Anableps

is now Anableps anableps, the foureye or, if you want to be more elegant, the star gazer. It lives in South America.

The spelling of Bloch’s species name—which means “four-eyes”, as does his German name Vierauge—is correctly Tetrophthalmus.

Papilio Protesilaus, the Protesilaus (butterfly)

is probably Protesilaus protesilaus. It lives in South and Central America. But Shaw may well be conflating several members of the genus; it’s a large one.

Fringilla Elegans, the Variegated Finch

may be Pytilia melba (by way of Fringilla melba), the green-winged pytilia. It lives in subsaharan Africa.

[Plate 505]
[If this plate has a date-and-signature line—perhaps hidden in a tree branch—I couldn’t find it.]

Coryphæna Cærulea, the Blue Coryphæna

is now Scarus coeruleus, because disagreement over how to spell this adjective goes back a long way. It lives in and around the Caribbean.

Dorsal Fin the length of the back.
word “Fin” italicized for consistency

Aplysia Depilans, the Mediterranean Aplysia

is also known as the spotted sea hare. In addition to the Mediterranean, it lives along the coast of western Europe.

The genus Aplysia is so nearly allied to that of Limax, that it might almost be conjoined with it, and may be considered as a kind of marine Slug.
[Well, it is a gastropod.]

other animals belonging to the tribe Mollusca
[Most of the time “tribe” means genus, but here it means a Linnaean order (now a whole phylum).]

Voluta Æthiopica, the Æthiopian Volute

is now Melo aethiopicus, the crowned baler. It ranges from the Philippines to northern Australia. We will meet it again in seven years’ time at Plate 836 of Volume 20.

Apertura ecaudata, subeffusa.
text has ecandata

Coracias Sinensis, the Chinese Roller

may be Cissa chinensis, the green magpie. It lives in Southeast Asia.

Tethys Fimbria, the Crenulated Tethys

Unchanged. It has been seen in both the Mediterranean and Caribbean. If the picture and description don’t make it clear, it’s a gastropod.

Just to show how much shorter Shaw’s articles are getting: this will be the last three-page Latin description until Volume 15. (The English side fits into two pages.)

Labium in anteriore capitis parte membranæ fimbriatæ adinstar expansum
text unchanged
[Lewis & Short grudgingly concede that “adinstar” can exist as a single word.]

Echeneis Remora, the Fork-Tailed Remora

is now Remora remora, the brown remora. It is common in all oceans.

The REMORA or Pilot-Fish.
text has , for final .

Papilio Æneas, the Æneas (butterfly)

is now Parides aeneas. It lives in South America.

Papilio Peranthus, the Peranthus (butterfly)

Unchanged. It lives in Indonesia, especially Java.

Trochilus Pella, the Topaz-Throated Humming-Bird

is now Topaza pella, the crimson topaz. It lives in South America.

one of the largest of the Humming-Birds
[Patagona gigas (originally Trochilus gigas), the giant hummingbird, would not be described until 1824. It weighs a hefty 24g (4/5 ounce), with a wingspan of over 20 cm (8 inches).]

Holocentrus Tigrinus, the Variegated Holocentrus

is now Serranus tigrinus, the harlequin bass. It lives in and around the Caribbean.

Opercula squamata, serrata, aculeata. / Gill-Covers scaly, serrated, and spiny.
both words italicized for consistency

Nautilus Pompilius, the Great Nautilus

is also known as the emperor nautilus. It ranges mainly from Japan to Australia. We will meet its inhabitant—that is, the animal inside the shell—at Plates 579 and 580 of Volume 14.

Non possit non contemplantis animum percellere
[The second “non” seems to be in the wrong place, but I couldn’t figure out exactly where to put it.]

the inhabiting animal, the nature of which is not yet properly under­stood
[His uncertainty is forgivable. The nautilus—not a genus, not a family, but an entire order—is a cephalopod that superficially looks like a gastropod.]

Papilio Panthous, the Panthous (butterfly)

is now Ornithoptera priamus, the green birdwing. It lives in and around New Guinea.

[Plate 516]
[Plate number engraved “416”, but indexed correctly.]

the Papilio Panthous, before repre­sented in the present publication
[Twice, in fact. We met Papilio Priamus by that name at Plate 15 of Volume 1, and a possible variety of Papilio panthous—Shaw himself doesn’t seem to have been sure—at Plate 420 of Volume 11.]

may perhaps be considered as the largest of all the papilionaceous tribe
[The very largest butterfly, Ornithoptera alexandrae, Queen Alexandra’s birdwing, was not described until 1907. Its wingspan of up to 12 inches (30 cm) makes it considerably larger than the biggest hummingbird (above).]

Trochilus Superbus, the Stripe-Cheeked Humming-Bird

may be Heliomaster longirostris, the long-billed starthroat. If so, it lives in South and Central America. In fact, since it’s a hummingbird, it probably lives in South and Central America no matter what its correct identification is.

Fistularia Tabacaria, the Fibre-Tailed Fistularia

is also known as the blue-spotted cornetfish. It lives along the Atlantic coast of Africa and the Americas.

Membrana branchiostega radiis septem.
word “branchiostega” italicized for consistency

Strombus Latissimus, the Wing Strombus

is now Sinustrombus latissimus, the broad Pacific conch. It ranges mainly from Japan to northern Australia and adjoining islands.

Phalæna Macroura, the Long-Tailed Phalæna

Unknown, though it may be something in genus Actias. If so, it might live in Europe, east Asia or North America—but not in Africa.

Lanius Bicolor, the Blue Shrike

may be Cyanolanius madagascarinus, the blue vanga. As advertised, it lives in Madagascar.

[Plate 521] RPN 1802
[The meager “RPN 1802” is as close to a date as we have seen since last November. There will not be another until December, partway through the following volume.]

Holocentrus Sogo, the Red Holocentrus

is now Holocentrus adscensionis, the common squirrelfish. (But evidently not that common, since Bloch didn’t notice that someone else had already named it, a full quarter-century earlier.) It lives along the Atlantic coast of Africa and the Americas.

Conus Tulipa, the Tulip Cone

Unchanged. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Cancer Cristatus, the Crested Crab

is now Daldorfia horrida (by way of Cancer horrida), the horrid elbow crab. Apparently Shaw thought his crab was a different animal from Linnaeus’s, but he was mistaken. It is scattered around the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Legs generally eight, (in some species six or ten,)
close-parenthesis missing

Alcedo Chlorocephala, the Green-Headed Kingfisher

may be Todiramphus chloris, the collared kingfisher. It ranges from Southeast Asia to Australia.

Eques Americanus, the Knight-Fish

is now Equetus lanceolatus (by way of Chaetodon lanceolatus), the donkey fish. It is most common in the Caribbean.

Murex Ramosus, the Branched Murex

is now Chicoreus ramosus. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Sphinx Atropos, the Jasmine Sphinx

is now Acherontia atropos, the death’s-head hawkmoth. It lives in Europe and southern Africa.

Like most other insects
[Paragraph break added to agree with Latin.]

Pelecanus Sinensis, the Chinese Pelican

may be a subspecies of Phalacrocorax carbo (by way of Pelecanus carbo), the great cormorant. In spite of the name, the sinensis subspecies is most common in Europe.

Phalæna Agrippina, the Agrippina (moth)

is probably Thysania agrippina. It lives in South and Central America.

[Plate 530, Plate 531]
[I have reversed these two plates so the adult moth, Plate 531, comes first.]

volatu diurno . . . . Flight diurnal
[Text unchanged: error for “nocturno” and “nocturnal”.]

fasciis latis, transversis, nigris variata
text has faciis

Ascidia Aurantium, the Orange Ascidia

is now Halocynthia aurantium. It lives along the coast of Alaska and northern Canada (both Atlantic and Pacific).

The external skin or rind
text has the external

Upupa Erythrorynchos, the Red-Billed Hoopoe

may be Phoeniculus purpureus, the green wood hoopoe. It lives in subsaharan Africa.

Millar. Illustr. nat. hist. . . . . the beautiful representation published by Mr. Millar
[It’s a bit embarrassing when you misspell the name of your own coauthor. All other volumes that mention this work have “Miller”—or “Millerus”, because even the Latin side of the present article gets it right.]

Sphagebranchus Rostratus, the Rostrated Sphagebranchus

is now Caecula pterygera (because Vahl beat Bloch by a year), the finny snake eel. It lives in the Indian ocean.

Spiracula duo sub collo.
word italicized for consistency

Boa Antarctica, the Antarctic Boa

is now Acanthophis antarcticus, the common death adder, with naming credit to Shaw. It lives in New Guinea and Australia.

native of Australasia . . . highly poisonous
[Surely that’s redundant?]

Scarabæus Longimanus, the Long-Armed Beetle

is probably Euchirus longimanus. It lives in Indonesia. This, incidentally, is our first beetle since Volume 10. How ever did Shaw restrain himself?

Tanagra Festiva, the Collared Tanager

may be Tangara cyanocephala, the red-necked tanager. It lives along the west coast of South America. (Tangara is Brisson’s spelling; Tanagra was Linnaeus’s. Brisson got there first, so he won.)

the Tanagra Tatao described in a former number of the present work
[Plate 4 of Volume 1.]

Cataphractus Costatus, the Ribbed Soldier-Fish

If it is the same as Linnaeus’s Silurus cataphractus, it is now Acantho­doras cataphractus, the spiny catfish. It lives in the rivers of South America.

The RIBBED SILURE.
text has TheRIBBED without space

Actinia Dianthus, the Carnation Actinia

is now Metridium dianthus. It is most common around Europe.

Ellis. Zooph.
[In both Latin and English, the first reference was run-in with the second (Act. Angl. or Phil. Trans.). They are unambiguously different works.]

it is a native of our own island
text has an native

Papilio Deïphobus, the Deïphobus (butterfly)

Unchanged. It lives in a narrow north-south band extending from the Philippines to Ambon (the middle of Indonesia).

Index

The English index mistakenly has “Phalæna” (the Latin word) instead of “Moth”. This mistake will be repeated in the General Index.

Latin

502.   [Conus] arausiacus et arachn.
text has arachr.

527.   Murex ramoſus.
[Whoops! There will always be one more long ſ sneaking into the bin. More interestingly, the Index entry for Plate 538, Cataphractus costatus, uses the “ct” ligature; this cannot be an accident.]

540.   [Papilio] Deiphobus.
[Dash —— missing (but the entry is alphabetized as if it were present).]

English

517.   [Humming-Bird] stripe-cheeked.
text has stripe-checked

530. 531.   [Phalæna] Agrippina.
text has 529 only

The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.