Naturalist’s Miscellany

The Naturalist’s Miscellany
by George Shaw
Volume 14

v

VIRIS ORNATISSIMIS

MUSEI BRITANNICI

CURATORIBUS

DECIMUM QUARTUM

hunc

NATURÆ VIVARII

FASCICULUM,

SUMMA CUM OBSERVANTIA,
d. d. d.
GEORGIUS SHAW,
E. et R. NODDER.

r

to
THE TRUSTEES
of the

BRITISH MUSEUM

THIS FOURTEENTH VOLUME

of the

NATURALIST’S MISCELLANY

is,
WITH THE HIGHEST RESPECT,

INSCRIBED

by
GEORGE SHAW,
E. and R. NODDER.

v

541

African Buphaga

Notes

r

BUPHAGA AFRICANA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum rectum, subquadrangulare; mandibulis gibbis integris, extrorsum gibbosioribus.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 154.

Character Specificus, &c.

BUPHAGA subfusca, subtus subflavescens, cauda cuneata.

BUPHAGA AFRICANA.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 154.

BUPHAGA.

Briss. 2. p. 437. t. 42. f. 2.

Constat ex unica specie genus Buphaga, cujus rostrum subquadrangulum ad modum quo victum sibi quærens utitur apprime est accommodatum; pecudibus enim solet insidere, et oestrorum larvas e cute excerpere. Depingitur in tabula Buphaga Africana magni­tudine fere dimidiata. Senegaliam incolit, primusque eam descripsit Adansonus.

v

the
AFRICAN BUPHAGA.

Generic Character.

Bill strait; subquadrangular: Mandibles gibbous, entire, more gibbous on the outside.

Feet formed for walking.

Specific Character, &c.

Brownish BUPHAGA, yellowish beneath, with wedge-shaped tail.

Le Pic-Boeuf.

Buf. ois. 3. p. 175. pl. 14.

Pl. Enl. 293.

AFRICAN Beef-Eater.

Lath. Syn. 1. p. 359.

The genus Buphaga, consisting at present of a single species only, is distinguished by the subquadrangular form of the beak, which is peculiarly calculated for the general manner of feeding in this bird: viz. that of picking out the larvæ of oestri from the backs of cattle. It is a native of Senegal, and was first discovered by Adanson. The plate represents it of somewhat more than half the natural size.

543

Linear Nepa

Notes

r

NEPA LINEARIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum inflexum.

Antennæ breves.

Alæ quatuor cruciato-complicatæ, anterius coriaceæ.

Pedes anteriores cheliformes, reliqui quatuor ambulatorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2120.

Character Specificus, &c.

NEPA linearis, manibus spina laterali pollicatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 714.

NEPA corpore lineari.

Geoffr. ins. Par. 1. p. 480. t. 10.

Locusta aquatica Mouffeti.

Raj. ins. 59.

In aquis majoribus stagnantibus innata Nepa linearis corpus quidem non bellum sortita est, sed certe inusi­tatius conformatum. Noctu præcipue volans iisdem fere insectis minoribus vescitur quibus Nepa vulgaris seu cinerea. Eadem, ut plurimum, est magni­tudine quam ostendit tabula.

v

 

r

the
LINEAR NEPA.

Generic Character.

Beak inflected.

Antennæ short.

Wings four; closing in a crossed direction; coriaceous on their upper part.

Feet anterior cheliform; the remaining four formed for walking.

Specific Character, &c.

Brown linear NEPA, with the fore legs marked by a lateral spine.

Geoffr. ins. Par. 1. p. 480. pl. 10. f. 1.

Degeer. ins. 3. p. 369. pl. 19. f. 1, 2.

Swammerd. bibl. nat. p. 233. t. 3. f. 9.

Roes. ins. 3. p. 141. t. 23.

The Nepa linearis, an insect of a singular rather than agreeable appearance, is a native of the larger kind of stagnant waters, and is generally of the size repre­sented on the plate. Like the Nepa cinerea or common water-scorpion, it preys on the smaller aquatic insects, and, like that species, flies principally by night.

v

 

544

Harp Buccinum

Notes

r

BUCCINUM HARPA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, gibbosa.

Apertura ovata, desinens in canaliculum (s. retusam lacunam) dextrum, cauda retusum.

Labium interius explanatum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1196.

Character Specificus, &c.

BUCCINUM testa varicibus æqualibus longi­tudinalibus distinctis mucronatis, columella lævigata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1201.

HARPA nobilis.

Argenv. conch. t. 17. f. D.

List. conch. t. 992. 993. 994. f. 55. 57.

Gualt. test. t. 29. f. C. D. E. G.

Seb. mus. 3. t. 70.

Inter pulcherrimas hujus generis merito numeratur species hic depicta, quæ maria Indica, ut plurimum incolit, et magni­tudine vera in tabula exprimitur.

v

the
HARP BUCCINUM.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a slug.

Shell univalve, spiral, gibbous.

Aperture ovate, ending in a channel pointing towards the right.

Interior Lip expanded.

Specific Character, &c.

Variegated BUCCINUM, with distinct, longi­tudinal, sharp-pointed ribs, and smooth pillar.

The HARP Shell.

HARPE de David.

Knorr. vergn. 1. t. 9. & 2. t. 19.

The present species of Buccinum may justly be consi­dered as one of the most beautiful of the whole tribe: it is principally found in the Indian seas, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

542

Five-Spined Bodian

Notes

r

BODIANUS PENTACANTHUS.

Character Genericus.

Opercula squamata armataque, margine lævi.

Bloch. ichth. 7. p. 22.

Thoracici.

Character Specificus, &c.

BODIANUS ruber, operculis quinque-spinosis.

BODIANUS PENTACANTHUS. B. aculeis quinque ad opercula.

Bloch. ichth. 7. p. 29. t. 225.

Jaguaraca.

Jonst. Ruysch. Marcgr. &c.

Aucta est hisce temporibus scientia naturalis miro incremento, visumque est physicis nova multa genera instituere; cumque piscium qui thoracici vocantur ingens sit numerus, inde fit ut quo major diversitas, eo latiori distributione opus sit. E novis igitur est generibus Bodianus, qui multas amplectitur species, nonnullas pulcherrimis coloribus obductas. Maria incolit Brasili­ensia species quam depinximus magni­tudine quasi dimidiata, ab indigenis vulgariter Budiano dicta.

v

 

r

the
FIVE-SPINED BODIAN.

Generic Character.

Gill-Covers scaly and armed; but smooth at the margin.

Specific Character, &c.

Red BODIAN, with five spines on the gill-covers.

Jaguaraca.

Piso. Ray. Willughb. &c.

This is one of the new genera into which the vast number of thoracic fishes are, in consequence of the late accessions to natural history, at present distinguished. It contains several species, some of which are remarkable for the beauty of their colours: that repre­sented on the present plate is a native of the Brasilian seas, and is repre­sented of about half the natural size. Its native name among the Brasilians is Budiano.

v

 

545

Blue Grossbeak

Notes

B

LOXIA CÆRULEA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum conico-gibbum, frontis basi rotundatum versus caput: Mandibula inferior margine laterali inflexa.

Nares in basi rostri.

Lingua integra.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 299.

Character Specificus, &c.

LOXIA CÆRULEA, alis caudaque nigricantibus, tectricibus fascia rufa.

LOXIA CÆRULEA. L. alis fuscis, fascia baseos purpurea.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 306.

Pyrrhula Carolinensis cærulea.

Briss. av. 3. p. 323.

Avem venustam depinximus in regionibus multis Americanis generatam, quæ magni­tudine saltem æquat, si non paulo exsuperet Loxiam Dominicanam Linnæi. Specimen ipsissimum quod iconi nostræ inserviit, e solo natali in Angliam intulit Dominus Frazerus, plantarum Americanarum, quas commendaverit aut raritas aut pulchritudo, cultor laudabilis, et assiduus.

v

 

B2

the
BLUE GROSSBEAK.

Generic Character.

Bill strong, thick, convex.

Nostrils small.

Tongue truncated.

Specific Character, &c.

Deep blue GROSSBEAK, with dusky wings and tail, and a rufous bar across the coverts.

BLUE GROSSBEAK.

Catesb. Car. 1. pl. 39.

This elegant species is a native of many parts of America, and in size is at least equal, if not rather superior to the Loxia Dominicana of Linnæus, or Dominican Grosbeak. The specimen here repre­sented was brought from its native regions by the ingenious Mr. Frazer, so well known for his assiduous cultivation of various rare and beautiful species of American plants.

v

 

546

Balloon Cuttle-Fish

Notes

r

SEPIA TUNICATA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus carnosum; vagina excipiente pectus, ad cujus basin tubus.

Brachia (præter bina tentacula pedunculata in plerisque) octo, interius adspersa cirris verrucosis.

Os inter brachia, terminale, corneum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3149.

Character Specificus, &c.

SEPIA corpore toto tunicæ nigræ pellucidæ incluso, posterius alis duabus semicircularibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3151.

SEPIA TUNICATA.

Molina. Hist. Chil. p. 174.

Copiam dedimus lectoribus miram admodum Sepiæ speciem examinandi, a Molina, ut videtur, primo recte descriptam, in historia Chilensi. In maribus enutritur tum Indicis tum Americanis, et in magnam molem crescere dicitur; quingentas nempe libras pondere æquare, si 11011 excedere. Longe tamen minora sunt quæ vulgo spectantur specimina. Hoc ei commune est cum reliquo genere, ut pisces prædetur v et alia marina animalia; ab aliis omnibus quas adhuc novimus sepiis in illo insigniter discrepanti, quod corpus contegat membrana ampla, inflata, pellu­cida, a parte superiore usque ad caudæ initium reflexa, fibris plurimis subnigris, certo intervallo hinc inde se mutuo decussantibus reticulata, extrinsecus iricolor, veluti est pellis Sipunculi saccati. Iconem mutuati sumus ab opere Montfortii, qui suspicatur, nec immerito, ab hac sepia quasi archetypa exortum esse imaginarium piscem reticulatum Aldrovandi; cujus corpus squamis, pinnis, et dentibus instruitur veri piscis. Huic conjecturæ liceat mihi et meam adjicere, non impossibile esse quin Sepia hæc indocte descripta, et minus affabre depicta, origo fuerit piscis reversi Aldrovandi, qui depingitur corpore anguillas non absimili, saccoque vasto et inflato supra caput imposito, quo pisces propius natantes arripere, et ab Americanis in cymbis portari dicitur, ut ad certum spatium in mare demissus una cum præda recipiatur.

Depingitur ab Aldrovando phocam e mari attollens.

r

the
BALLOON CUTTLE-FISH.

Generic Character.

Body fleshy, sheathing the breast, which is furnished at its base with a tubular opening.

Arms eight, and, in most species, two pedunculated tentacula, beset with numerous suckers or acetabula.

Head short: Eyes large: Mouth resembling a parrot’s beak.

Specific Character.

Black CUTTLE-FISH, with the body coated by a transparent reticulated membrane, and two semicircular appendages at the tail.

Le Calmar réticulé.

Denys-Montfort Mollusq. 2. p. 96. pl. 21.

The highly singular species of Cuttle-Fish repre­sented on the present plate is a native of the Indian and American seas, and seems to have been first distinctly described by Molina in his natural history of Chili. It is said to grow to an enormous size, and to the weight of five hundred pounds, or even more, though the speci­mens usually seen are of far v inferior magnitude. Like the rest of its tribe, it is of a predacious nature, feeding on fishes and various other marine animals, and differs from every other species of Sepia yet discovered in the extra­ordinary envelopement of its body, which is covered by an ample, inflated, and transparent skin or membrane, reflected from the upper parts, and continued to the commencement of the tail or terminal part of the body. This membrane is reticulated or decussated by numerous dark-coloured fibres, crossing each other at certain distances, and is tinged externally with iridescent hues, like that of the Sipunculus saccatus.

The figure here given is taken from the work of the ingenious Mons. Denys-Montfort, who imagines this species to be the archetype of the imaginary piscis reticulatus of Aldrovandus, in which the body of the animal is repre­sented like that of a real fish, with scales, fins, teeth, &c. I may venture to add, that it is not impossible but that some hasty and inaccurate drawing and description of this same species of Sepia may have also given rise to the piscis reversus of Aldrovandus, which is described as having a body not unlike that of an eel, with a vast inflated bag or pouch on the head, with which it is said to seize on such fishes as happen to swim near it, and to be employed by the South-American Indians for that purpose; being carried in a canoe, and lowered to a certain depth into the sea, till it has taken its prize. Aldro­vandus represents it in the act of drawing up a large seal.

547

Broad-Finned Acanthurus

Notes

r

ACANTHURUS VELIFER.

Character Genericus.

Dentes breves, plerisque sublobati.

Spina mobilis utrinque ad basin caudæ.

Corpus compressum, latum.

Character Specificus, &c.

ACANTHURUS albidus, fasciis plurimis transversis fuscis.

ACANTHURUS VELIFER.

Bloch. ichth. 12. p. 106. pl. 427. f. 1.

Ex iis Linnæani Chætodontis speciebus constat novum genus Acanthurus dictum, quarum dentes modice lati validique præcipuo characteri repugnant quo signatur genus Chætodon, et quarum prope caudam utrinque situs est mobilis aculeus. Acanthurorum speciem selegimus notatu dignissimam, veramque magni­tudinem depin­ximus, cui adjicitur auctus ope speculi ordo dentium. In maribus Americanis alitur Acanthurus velifer.

v

 

r

the
BROAD-FINNED ACANTHURUS.

Generic Character.

Teeth rather short, generally sublobated.

Moveable Spine on each side the base of the tail.

Body broad, compressed.

Specific Character, &c.

Whitish ACANTHURUS, with numerous transverse brown bands.

The variegated ACANTHURUS.

The new genus Acanthurus consists of such species of the Linnæan genus Chætodon as, in contradiction to the principal character of that genus, have moderately broad and strong teeth, and are also furnished on each side the tail with a moveable spine. Among the species of Acan­thurus one of the most remarkable is that repre­sented on the present plate, which is a native of the American seas. It is figured in its natural size, and is also accompanied by a magnified outline of some of the teeth.

v

 

548

Hebe Moth

Notes

r

PHALÆNA HEBE.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexe. (Volatu nocturno.)

Character Specificus, &c.

PHALÆNA (Bombyx) elinguis, alis deflexis atris, fasciis albis, inferioribus rubris, rioulis nigris.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 820.

Bombyx alis deflexis albis nigro fasciatis, posticis sanguineis nigro maculatis.

Fab. spec. ins. 2. p. 197.

Germaniæ et aliarum Europearum regionum incola pulcherrima hæc species in insula Britannica nondum videtur fuisse conspecta. Larva est modice magna, valde hirsuta, fusca vel nigricans, subtus rufa; pupa quoque seu chrysalis nigricat.

v

 

r

HEBE.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, decreasing in size from the base to the tip.

Wings, when at rest, generally deflected.

Flight generally nocturnal.

Specific Character.

Phalæna with deflex wings, the upper ones white with black bars, the lower red with black spots.

Mouff. ins. p. 93. f. 4, 5.

Roes. ins. 4. t. 27.

Schaeff. elem. t. 98. f. 1.

This highly beautiful species is a native of Germany and some other parts of Europe, but seems not to have been hitherto observed in our own country. The larva or caterpillar is moderately large, very hairy, and of a blackish or dusky colour, rufous beneath. The chrysalis is also of a blackish cast.

v

 

549

Common Jay

Notes

C

CORVUS GLANDARIUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum convexum, cultratum.

Nares pennis setaceis recumbentibus obtectæ.

Lingua cartilaginea, bifida.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 155.

Character Specificus, &c.

CORVUS subferrugineus, cauda nigra, tectricibus alarum cæruleo nigroque transversim fasciatis.

CORVUS GLANDARIUS. C. tectricibus alarum cæruleis: lineis transversis albis nigrisque, corpore ferrugineo variegato.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 156.

Corvo glandario conceditur locus in pulcherrimis avibus Europæis. Amat præcipue sylvas et colles arboribus obsitos; vesciturque glande faginea et quema, nec non baccis et frugibus. Interdum etiam aviculas prædatur. Vocem emittit raucam, argutam, stridulam, injucundam; docetur tamen varios sonos, et ipsam etiam vocem humanam imitari. Dicitur, perturbatis nuper et confusis rebus Gallicis, postquam restricta diu eruperat apud omnes v ordines feras venandi licentia, ingentem corvorum glandariorum multitudinem, strepitu insolito et tormentis displosis perterritam, non in interiora se surri­puisse, sed litora petiisse proxime opposita; et in oris nonnullis Britannicis conspectas fuisse magnas catervas longo volatu fessas et debilitatas, antequam umbrosos sylvarum recessus contingere potuissent.

C2

the
COMMON JAY.

Generic Character.

Bill convex, cultrated.

Nostrils covered with recumbent bristly feathers.

Tongue cartilaginous, bifid.

Feet formed for walking.

Specific Character, &c.

Subferruginous Crow, with black tail, and wing-coverts transversly barred with black and blue.

The JAY.

Willughb. ornith. p. 130.

Penn. Brit. Zool. 1. No. 19.

The Jay, one of the most beautiful of the European birds, is principally an inhabitant of woody and hilly regions; living on mast, berries, acorns, and fruit: it is also observed sometimes to prey on smaller birds. Its natural note is loud, sharp, and unpleasant; but it maybe taught to imitate various sounds, and even that of the human voice itself. v It is said that, during the early period of the French Revolution, when persons of all ranks had suddenly obtained the unlimited power of ranging the woods and forests in quest of game, vast flocks of Jays, terrified by the unusual noise of the guns, flew over to the nearest opposite coasts of England, instead of endea­vouring to escape by retreating into other parts of the country; and that on some of our own coasts these birds were observed in vast numbers, seemingly exhausted with fatigue, yet endeavouring to gain the nearest wooded retreats.

552

Helenus and Steneles (butterflies)

Notes

r

PAPILIO HELENUS,
et
PAPILIO STENELES.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

P. Helenus. P. alis caudatis nigris: posticis macula alba: subtus tribus albidis lunulisque septem ferrugineis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 745.
Eq. Tr.

P. alis dentatis nigris, posticis macula alba lunulaque duplici purpurea.

Fab. sp. ins. 2. p. 3.

P. Steneles. P. alis subcaudatis supra fuscis, fascia virescente obtusa interrupta.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 750.
Eq. Ach.

P. alis dentatis fuscis, fasciis duabus viridibus, altera posticarum integra.

Fab. sp. ins. 2. p. 23.

Ostenditur in tabula papilionum duorum exoticorum vera magni­tudo, quorum qui altius depingitur Indiam, qui inferius Americani meridionalem incolit.

v

 

r

HELENUS and STENELES.

Generic Character.

Antennæ commonly thickening towards the end into a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

HELENUS. Butterfly with tailed black wings, the lower pair marked by a white spot.

Clerk. ic. t. 13. f. 2.

Cram. pap. 13. t. 153. f. A. B.

STENELES. Butterfly with denticulated brown wings, marked by an obtuse, interrupted, green band.

Clerk. ic. t. 35. f. 2.

Aubent. miscell. Pl. Enl. t. 95. f. 12.

Cram. pap. 7. t. 79. f. A. B.

Of the two exotic Butterflies exhibited on the present plate the superior is a native of India, and the inferior of South America. Both are repre­sented in their natural size.

v

 

551

Red-Striped Chætodon

Notes

r

CHÆTODON SETIFER.

Character Genericus.

Dentes setacei.

Corpus pictum.

Bloch. ichth. 6. p. 35.

Character Specificus, &c.

CHÆTODON flavescens, rubro striatus, ocello setaque ad pinnam dorsi.

CHÆTODON setifer. C. seta ocelloque ad pinnam dorsi.

Bloch. 12. p. 99. t. 440. f. 1.

Maria incolit Indica Chætodon setifer, cujus veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula.

v

 

r

the
RED-STRIPED CHÆTODON.

Generic Character.

Teeth setaceous.

Body varied or banded.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish CHÆTODON, with numerous red stripes on the body, and an eye-shaped spot and bristle on the dorsal fin.

The RED-STRIPED CHÆTODON.

The red-striped Chætodon is an inhabitant of the Indian seas, and is repre­sented on the annexed plate in its natural size.

v

 

550

Veined Volute

Notes

r

VOLUTA HEBRÆA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa unilocularis, spiralis.

Apertura ecaudata, subeffusa.

Columella plicata: Labio Umbilicove nullo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1180.

Character Specificus, &c.

VOLUTA sub ferruginea, fusco reticulata, anfractibus spinis subacutis, columella plicis quinque validioribus tribusque obsoletis.

VOLUTA EBRÆA. V. testa emarginata fusiformi, anfractibus spinis subacutis, columella plicis quinque validioribus tribusque obsoletis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1194.

Lignum venosum.

Argevo. 17. f. D.

E maribus extrahitur Indicis et Americanis rara hæc testa, in pulcherrimis sui generis merito habenda. Major interdum est quam in tabula ostenditur.

v

 

r

the
VEINED VOLUTE.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax or Slug.

Shell unilocular, spiral.

Pillar twisted or plaited.

Specific Character, &c.

Subferruginous VOLUTE, with brown reticulated veins, subacute spines on the spires, five large plaits on the pillar, with three indistinct ones.

GREAT VEINED VOLUTE.

HEBREW VOLUTE.

The rare shell on the present plate is a native of the Indian and American seas, and is justly numbered among the most beautiful of its tribe. It is occasionally found of larger size than here repre­sented.

v

 

553

Short-Tailed Crow

RPN 1802

Notes

D

CORVUS BRACHYURUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum convexum, cultratum.

Nares pennis setaceis recumbentibus obtectæ.

Lingua cartilaginea, bifida.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 155.

Character Specificus, &c.

CORVUS viridis, subtus lineisque capitis fulvescentibus, alis macula alba.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 152.

Pica cauda brevi.

Edw. av. t. 324.

Pica indica vulgaris.

Raj. av. p. 195.

Indiam insulasque indicas incolit Corvus brachyurus, magni­tudine, ut plurimum, merulam vulgarem æquans; coloribus non raro variat.

v

 

D2

the
SHORT-TAILED CROW.

Generic Character.

Bill convex, cultrated.

Nostrils covered with recumbent bristly feathers.

Tongue cartilaginous, bifid.

Feet formed for walking.

Specific Character, &c.

Green crow, with fulvous abdomen, fulvous stripe on each side the head, blue shoulders, and white spot on the wings.

Breve de Bengale.

Buff. ois. 3. p. 414.

Merle de Bengale.

Pl. Enl. 258.

Short-tailed Pye.

Edw. pl. 324.

The Short-Tailed Crow is an inhabitant of India and the Indian islands, and is generally about the size of a black­bird: in colours it often varies considerably.

v

 

554

Anserine Barnacle

Notes

r

LEPAS ANSERIFERA?

Character Genericus.

Animal Triton.

Testa multivalvis, inæquivalvis, basi affixa.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1107.

Character Specificus, &c.

LEPAS testa compressa quinquevalvi striata, intestino insidente.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1109.

Concha anatifera, &c.

Ellis act. angl. 1758, t. 34. f. 5. 6.

Maria Americana incolit hæc species, lepadi anatiferæ in hoc opere antea depictæ admodum affinis. Magni­tudine vera in tabula exprimitur.

v

 

r

the
ANSERINE BARNACLE.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Triton.

Shell multivalve, with unequal valves, and fixed by its base.

Specific Character, &c.

BARNACLE with compressed, quinquevalvular, striated shell, seated on a moderately short tubular process.

Larger White BARNACLE.

Short-stalked BARNACLE.

The present species of Lepas, very nearly allied to the Lepas anatifera, before figured in the present work, is an inhabitant of the American seas, and is repre­sented in its natural size.

v

 

555

Apollo Butterfly

Notes

r

PAPILIO APOLLO.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis albis nigro-maculatis; posteribus supra ocellis quatuor, subtus sex basique rubris.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2256.
Eq. Parn.

PAPILIO Rhea.

Poda ins. p. 66.

In Italia, Germania, Gallia, aliisque Europæ regionibus invenitur Papilio Apollo, in insulis Britannicis nunquam conspectus: larva atra, rubro-punctata, telephii folia præcipue depascitur, et in chrysalidem fuscam pulvere quasi glauco seu potius violaceo conspersam convertitur.

v

 

r

APOLLO.

Generic Character.

Antennæ commonly thickening towards the end into a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with white rounded wings, spotted with black; the lower pair marked with annular red spots.

L’Alpicola.

Pl. Enl. 68.

The Red-ring BUTTERFLY.

This elegant insect is a native of Italy, Germany, France, and some other parts of Europe, but is not found in the British dominions: the caterpillar is of a black colour, spotted with red, and changes into a brown chrysalis covered with a kind of glaucous or rather violet-coloured powder.

v

 

556

Rondeletian Carp

Notes

r

CYPRINUS RONDELETII.

Hunc piscem primus, ut opinor, descripsit celeberrimus Rondeletius: liceat mihi igitur ipsius auctoris verba subjungere.

“Nec potui nec debui studiose lector silentio præterire miram Cyprini speciem quæ Lugduni in foro piscatorio viva empta est, dum hæc commentaria mea prelo jamjam committenda essent. Nullus fuit qui non, demptis capite et rostro, Cyprinum esse judicarit hunc piscem; nam squamarum figura et colore, pinnis, earundem situ, cauda idem plane est cum Cyprino. Pinna dorsi initio aculeum incisum habet, ut in Cyprino. Eundem aculeum habet alia pinna quæ excrementorum meatum sequitur, quæ rubescit, item caudæ pars ei respondens. Tota cauda lata est ut in Cyprino. Duas alias pinnas habet ad branchias, similiter duas in ventre. Caput habet non protensum ut Cyprinus sed Delphini capiti simile, rostrum satis longum sed obtusum quale revera pictura repreesentat. Ex superiore rostri parts juxta oris scissuram appendix carnosa utrinque una dependet, ut in Cyprino, hac superior est alia brevis et vix apparens nisi propius inspicias utrinque etiam unica.”

Rond. aquat. hist. 2. p. 155.

v

 

r

the
RONDELETIAN CARP.

Spur-fish.

Edw. pl. 282.

This singular fish seems to have been first described by the celebrated Rondeletius, from a living specimen, brought into the fish-market at Lyons at the time his work was printing.

No one, says he, who saw the fish, (supposing the head taken away,) would imagine it to be any thing but a Carp, which it exactly resembles in the shape and colour of its scales, and situation of the fins and tail. The dorsal fin at its commencement has a strong serrated spine, as in the Carp, and a similar one at the commencement of the vent-fin, which latter, as well as the tail, is of a reddish colour, and shaped like that of a Carp: at the gills are two fins, and likewise two at the abdomen: the head is not stretched forwards as in the Carp, but resembles that of a Dolphin; having a longish but obtuse snout, as repre­sented in the figure: from the upper part of the snout, on each side the opening of the mouth, hangs a fleshy appendix or beard, as in the Carp, and above this, on each side, is a much smaller one, scarce perceptible without close inspection.

v

 

557

Cochinchina Thrush

Notes

E

TURDUS COCHINCHINENSIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum tereti-cultratum; mandibula superiore apice deflexo, emarginato.

Nares nudæ superne membranula semitectæ.

Faux ciliata.

Lingua lacero-emarginata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 291.

Character Specificus, &c.

TURDUS viridis, gula nigra arcu flavo cincta.

TURDUS COCHINCHINENSIS. T. viridis, maculis ad basin rostri utrinque cœruleis, facie mento et gula nigris, hac arcu flavo cincta.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 825.

T. viridis loris gulaque nigris, sub gula lunula lata flava, ad basin rostri utrinque macula cœrulea.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 357.

Cochinchinam incolit pulchra hæc species, et magni­tudine vera in tabula exprimitur.

v

 

E2

the
COCHINCHINA THRUSH.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, obtusely carinated at the top, bending a little at the point, and slightly notched near the end of the upper mandible.

Nostrils oval.

Tongue slightly jagged at the end.

Specific Character, &c.

Green THRUSH, with black throat, bounded by a yellow crescent.

Black-chinned THRUSH.

Lath. syn. 2. p. 79.

Le Verdin de la Cochinchine.

Buff. ois. 3. p. 409.

Pl. Enl. 643.

This beautiful species is a native of Cochinchina, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

558

Bat’s-Wing Volute

Notes

r

VOLUTA VESPERTILIO.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa unilocularis, spiralis.

Apertura ecaudata, subeffusa.

Columella plicata; labio umbilicove nullo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1186.

Character Specificus, &c.

VOLUTA subfulva, fusco variata, basi spinis cincta, columella quadriplicata.

VOLUTA VESPERTILIO. V. testa emarginata anfractibus spinis acutis, columella quadriplicata, labio lævi.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 3461.

Volutæ Hebrææ, quam antea descripsimus, affinis admodum Voluta Vespertilio maria incolit Indica, a seipsa non raro discrepans quo ad formam et proportionem testæ. Alia scilicet specimina ventriosa sunt, prominentiis circa basin conspicuis et mucronatis; alia tenuiora sunt, prominentiis minoribus, vix et ne vix mucronatis. Color testæ generalis flavo-ferrugineo-pallet, subnigro vel rufo-fusco variatus.

v

 

r

the
BAT’S-WING VOLUTE.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax or Slug.

Shell unilocular, spiral.

Pillar twisted or plaited.

Specific Character, &c.

Subfulvous VOLUTE, with brown variegations, base surrounded by spines, and four-plaited pillar.

Seb. mus. 3. t. 67.

Rumph. mus. t. 32. f. H.

The present species, considerably allied to the Voluta Hebræa, figured in a former number of the present work, is a native of the Indian seas, and is subject to consi­derable variety as to the form and proportions of the shell, some specimens being very ventricose, and furnished with greatly prominent and pointed processes round the base, while others are of a more slender form, with very slightly projecting processes. Its general colour is pale or yellow-ferruginous, with dusky or rufous-brown variegations.

v

 

559

Eel-Shaped Platystacus

Notes

r

PLATYSTACUS ANGUILLARIS.

Character Genericus.

Truncus brevis, depressus. Cauda longa, compressa.

Bloch. ichth. 11. p. 42.
Abdominales.

Character Specificus, &c.

PLATISTACUS fuscus, striis longitudinalibus albis, pinna ani, caudæ dorsique secundo connatis.

PLATYSTACUS ANGUILLARIS. P. pinna ani, caudæ dorsique secundo connatis.

Bloch. ichth. 11. p. 49. t. 373.

Platystacum cotylephorum in opere nostro non ita pridem descripsimus. Ab hoc differt species de qua jam agitur capite magis elongato, spinis thoracicis minoribus, præcipue vero acetabulis nullis sub abdomine sitis. Eadem incolit maria quæ Platystacus cotylephorus.

v

 

r

the
EEL-SHAPED PLATYSTACUS.

Generic Character.

Body short, depressed. Tail long, compressed.

Specific Character, &c.

Brown PLATYSTACUS, with longitudinal white stripes, and the second dorsal, anal, and caudal fin united.

The striped PLATYSTACUS.

The Platystacus cotylephorus has before been repre­sented in the present publication: the species now figured is a native of the same seas, and differs in the more lengthened form of the head, the smaller size of the thoracic aculei, and particularly in the want of those numerous acetabular processes situated beneath the abdomen.

v

 

560

Fork-Horned Beetle

Notes

r

SCARABÆUS DICHOTOMUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ clavatæ capitulo fissili.

Tibiæ anticæ sæpius dentatæ.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 541.

Character Specificus, &c.

SCARABÆUS thoracis cornu bidentato, capitis dichotomo, elytris rufis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 1528.

Voet. coleopt. t. 14. f. 107.

Aubent. Pl. Enl. t. 40. f. 5.

Sultz. hist. ins. t. 1. f. 1.

In America meridionali invenitur Scarabæus dicho­tomus, cujus veram magni­tudinem ostendit tabula.

v

 

r

the
FORK-HORNED BEETLE.

Generic Character.

Antennæ divided at the tip into lamellæ.

Tibiæ, or second joints of the fore-legs generally toothed.

Specific Character, &c.

BEETLE with the horn of the thorax bidentated, that of the head dichotomous, and rufous wing-sheaths.

The Dichotomous BEETLE.

The FORK-HORNED BEETLE.

This remarkable insect is a native of South America. The plate represents it in its natural size.

v

 

561

Long-Tailed Crow

R. Nodder.

Notes

F

CORVUS CAUDATUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum convexum, cultratum.

Nares pennis setaceis recumbentibus obtectæ.

Lingua cartilaginea, bifida.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 155.

Character Specificus.

CORVUS nigro-virescens, capistro plumoso nigro, cauda longa cuneata.

Avis elegantis nondum forsitan descriptæ, in Africa, ut vulgo creditur, generatæ dimidiatam magni­tudinem depinximus. Si plumas erectas et quasi sericeas quibus rostri basis circumdatur respicimus, cognatio quædam videtur esse illi cum genere quod Paradisea dicitur: cætera autem corvo simillima est; cui generi fas sit ut annume­retur veluti species quædam anomala.

De modo vivendi nihil pro certo compertum est.

v

 

F2

the
LONG-TAILED CROW.

Generic Character.

Bill convex, cultrated.

Nostrils covered by setaceous recumbent feathers.

Tongue cartilaginous, bifid.

Feet formed for walking.

Specific Character.

Greenish-black CROW, with downy, black frontlet, and long, cuneated tail.

This elegant bird, hitherto perhaps undescribed, is supposed to be a native of Africa, and is repre­sented on the plate of half the natural size. In the erect downy or velvet-like feathers surrounding the base of the beak it is in some degree allied to the genus Paradisea, but in other respects is closely approximated to that of Corvus, under which genus it may be allowed to stand as a kind of anomalous species. Nothing particular is known of its history or manners.

v

 

562

Magpie Turbo

Notes

r

TURBO PICA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, solida.

Apertura coarctata, orbiculata, integra.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1232.

Character Specificus, &c.

TURBO testa conico-rotundata, lævi, alba, nigro variata, denticulo umbilicali.

TURBO PICA. T. testa umbilicata, conico-rotundata, lævi, denticulo umbilicali.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1235.

PICA.

Argenv. conch. t. 8. f. G.

Elegantia saltem si non raritate commendata non cedit congeneribus species quam depinximus. Maria incolit Indica et Americana, sæpius major specimine quod in tabula monstratur.

v

 

r

the
MAGPIE TURBO.

Generic Character.

Animal snail-shaped.

Shell univalve, spiral, solid.

Aperture orbicular.

Specific Character, &c.

Conic-rounded, smooth, white TURBO, with black streaks and umbilical tooth.

The MAGPIE TURBO, or Magpie-Shell.

In elegance, tho’ not in rarity, the present species may perhaps be allowed to equal most of its congeners. It is a native of the Indian and American seas, and is frequently larger than the specimen here exhibited.

v

 

563

Marbled Synbranchus

Notes

r

SYNBRANCHUS MARMORATUS.

Character Genericus.

Spiraculum sub collo.

Bloch. 12. p. 74.
Apodes.

Character Specificus.

SYNBRANCHUS olivaceo-flavescens, maculis violaceis variatus.

SYNBRANCHUS corpore Marmorato.

Bloch. 12. p. 75. t. 418.

A Blochio institutum genus Synbranchus piscium species continet qui juxta Linnæanam dispositionem apte satis ordinarentur in genere Murænæ; a quo præcipue differunt, quod spiraculum habeant solitarium sub collo situm.

Maria incolit Indica? species quam depinximus, crescitque in magni­tudinem veluti anguillæ vulgaris.

v

 

r

the
MARBLED SYNBRANCHUS.

Generic Character.

A Spiracle situated beneath the neck.

Specific Character.

Olivaceous-yellow SYNBRANCHUS, with violet variegations.

The genus Synbranchus, instituted by Dr. Bloch, consists of species which, in the Linnæan arrangement, might be not improperly placed in the genus Muræna; differing chiefly in the circumstance of having a single spiracle beneath the neck. The species here repre­sented grows to the size of the common eel, and is a native of the Indian? seas.

v

 

564

Laertes Butterfly

Notes

r

PAPILIO LAERTES.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius elavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.
Eq. Achiv.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis subdentatis concoloribus glaucis, primoribus macula marginali nigra.

PAPILIO LAERTES.

Drur. ins. 3. t. 15. f. 1.

Americam australem incolit rarissimus hic papilio, in elegantissimo opere Domini Drury primum fortasse depictus. Magnitudine vera in tabula annexa exprimitur.

v

 

r

LAERTES.

Generic Character.

Antennæ commonly thickening towards the end into a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character.

Butterfly with slightly denticulated glaucous wings, of similar colour on both surfaces; the upper pair marked on the edge by a black spot.

This extremely rare Butterfly is a native of South America, and seems to have been first figured in the elegant work of Mr. Drury. The plate represents it in its natural size.

v

 

565

Horned Screamer

Notes

G

PALAMEDEA CORNUTA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum conicum, mandibula superiore adunca.

Nares ovatæ.

Pedes tetradactyli, fissi.

Character Specificus, &c.

PALAMEDEA nigra, subtus alba, alulis bispinosis, fronte cornuta.

PALAMEDEA cornuta. P. alulis bispinosis fronteque cornuta.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 232.
Grallæ.

Avem grandem et magnificam depinximus in America Australi calidiori generatam, locorum, ut plurimum, paludosorum incolam, variorum reptilium prædatricem. Præcipue eam insignit cornu quasi callosum et acumi­natum, e fronte assurgens in altitudinem trium seu quatuor unciarum. Alta est ipsa avis circiter quatuor pedes. E rarioribus est quæ Grallæ nominantur, nec sæpe in Europam invehitur. Vocem emittere dicitur raucam et clamosam.

v

 

G2

the
HORNED SCREAMER.

Generic Character.

Bill conic, bending down at the point.

Nostrils ovate.

Feet tetradactyle, divided.

Specific Character, &c.

Black SCREAMER, white beneath, with two spines at each shoulder, and slender frontal horn.

Anhima.

Will. orn. p. 270. pl. 47.

Le Kamichy.

Buff. ois. 7. p. 335. pl. 18.

Pl. Enl. 451.

The large and stately bird here represented is a native of the hotter parts of South America, residing in marshy places, and feeding principally on various kinds of reptiles: its most striking external character is the upright callous process or pointed horn on the top of the head, which rises to the v height of three or four inches. The general height of the bird is about four feet. It is one of the rarest of the Grallæ, and is but seldom imported into the European continent. Its voice is said to resemble a harsh scream.

566

Annona Sphinx

Notes

r

SPHINX ANNONÆ.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ subprismaticæ, utroque fine attenuatæ.

Lingua (plerisque) exserta.

Palpi duo reflexi.

Alæ deflexæ.

Character Specificus, &c.

SPHINX griseo fuscoque varia, dorso albido.

Mer. Sur. t. 3.

Americam Australem, præcipue Surinamiam incolit Sphinx Annonæ. Memoravit et depinxit hanc speciem celeberrima Domina Merian: larva Annonæ squamosæ folia depascitur.

v

 

567

Annona Sphinx caterpillar

r

the
ANNONA SPHINX.

Generic Character.

Antennæ subprismatic, attenuated at each extremity.

Tongue generally exserted.

Feelers two, reflex.

Wings deflected.

Specific Character.

Grey SPHINX with dark variegations and whitish back.

The present species is a native of South America, and particularly of Surinam. It is described and figured by the celebrated Madam Merian. The Caterpillar feeds on the leaves of the Annona Squamosa.

v

 

568

Helicine Cornucopia

Notes

H

CORNUCOPIA HELICINA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax?

Testa spiralis, fragilis, anfractibus a se invicem remotis.

Apertura orbiculata, integra.

Character Specificus, &c.

CORNUCOPIA fusco-flavescens, fasciis longi­tudi­nalibus fuscis.

CORNUCOPIÆ. C. testa conica, turrita, anfractibus duobus liberis, apertura orbiculata.

Born. Test. M. Vind. p. 362.

Serpula Cornu copiæ.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3745.

Seb. 3. t. 40. f. 27?

Argenv. zoomorph. t. 9. f. 8. 2.

Cochleam hanc rarissimam, cujus vera magni­tudo in tabula exprimitur, descripsit celeberrimus Born, in opere quod conscripsit de Testaceis Musei Vindobonensis. Habitu generali quam proxime affinis v videtur generibus Helicis et Turbinis; illi nempe facie similis; huic forma et apertura oris. Ab utrisque tamen in hoc differt, quod spiræ minime connectantur. De patria ambigitur.

r

the
HELICINE CORNUCOPIA.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Limax?

Shell spiral, brittle, with the spires remote from each other.

Aperture round, entire.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish-brown CORNUCOPIA, with longi­tudinal brown bands.

Snail CORNUCOPIA.

The very rare shell exhibited in its natural size on the present plate is described and figured by Baron Born in his work on the Testacea of the Imperial Museum at Vienna. In its general appearance it makes an extremely near approach to the genera of Helix and Turbo; agreeing most in habit with the former, and in the shape of its mouth or opening with the latter; but differs from both in the produced and unconnected disposition of its spires. Its native country is unknown.

v

 

569

Round-Crested Flycatcher

Notes

H

MUSCICAPA CORONATA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum subtrigonum, utrinque emarginatum, apice incurvo; vibrissæ patentes versus fauces.

Nares subrotundæ.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 324.

Character Specificus, &c.

MUSCICAPA fusca, crista capitis rotundata tempo­ribus corporeque subtus rubris.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 932.

MUSCICAPA CORONATA.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 487.

Avis pulcherrimæ in America australi generatæ veram magni­tudinem ostendit tabula. A mari differt femina coloribus longe obscurioribus, et capite nulla crista insignito.

v

 

H2

the
ROUND-CRESTED FLYCATCHER.

Generic Character.

Bill somewhat triangular, flattened at the base, notched at the end of the upper mandible, and beset with bristles.

Toes generally divided as far as their origin.

Specific Character, &c.

Brown FLYCATCHER, with rounded red crest, red temples, and body red beneath.

Rubin ou Gobe-mouche huppé.

Buff. ois. 4. p. 547.

Pl. Enl. 675. f. 1.

ROUND-CRESTED FLYCATCHER.

Lath. Syn. 2. p. 362.

This beautiful bird is a native of South America, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size: the female differs in being far less brilliant in colour, as well as in wanting the crest on the head.

v

 

570

Minute Lemur

R. P. Nodder. Del.

Notes

r

LEMUR MINUTUS.
Var. Lem. Murin.?

Character Genericus.

Dentes Primores superiores quatuor: intermediis remotis.

Inferiores sex: longiores, porrecti, compressi, paralleli, approximati.

Laniarii solitarii, approximati.

Molares plures, sublobati: antici longiores, acutiores.

Perpusilli hujus Lemuris imago, juxta veram magni­tudinem depingitur. Quod ut fieret, pulchrum specimen, communicavit nobiscum Dominus Lathamus, ob amplam rerum naturalium supellectilem merito insignis. De historia et modo vivendi nihil compertum est.

v

 

r

the
MINUTE LEMUR.
Var. Lem. Murin.?

Generic Character.

Front-Teeth in the upper jaw four: the intermediate ones remote.

In the lower jaw six, longer, stretched forwards, compressed, parallel, approximated.

Canine-Teeth solitary, approximated.

Grinders several, sublobated: the foremost somewhat longer and sharper.

The very small Lemur here represented in its natural size is accurately copied from an elegant specimen in the possession of Mr. Latham, well known for his ample assortment of the curiosities of Nature. Mr. Latham received the specimen unaccompanied by any particulars relative to its history or manners.

v

 

571

Anguine Serpula

Notes

r

SERPULA ANGUINA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Terebella.

Testa univalvis, tubulosa, adhærens, (sæpe isthmis integris passim intercepta.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1204.

Character Specificus, &c.

SERPULA testa teretiuscula subspirali, fissura longi­tudinali subarticulata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1267.

List. conch. t. 548. f. 2.

Gualt. test. t. 10. f. Z.

Genus quod Serpula dicitur incolunt animalia a reliquis testaceis longe diversa, et quibus nonnulla esse videtur affinitas cum Aphroditis et Nereidibus apud Mollusca; et Scolopendris apud Insecta. Plurimorum tamen manca et incerta est notitia; nec adhuc descripsit aliquis incolam speciei de qua jam loquimur. Ipsius testæ mira omnino est conformatio. Tubus nempe e quo constat, quique in diversis speciminibus varias subit coloris et inflexionis vices, insignitur per totam longi­tudinem rima seu fissura, quas continuam exhibet parvorum et oblongorum fora­minum. E maribus extrahitur Indicis Serpula anguina.

v

 

r

the
ANGUINE SERPULA.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Terebella.

Shell univalve, tubular, adhering commonly to other substances, (in many species intercepted internally by dissepiments at uncertain distances.)

Specific Character, &c.

SERPULA with subcylindric subspiral shell, with an articulated longi­tudinal fissure.

Chain-Sided SERPULA.

The genus Serpula is inhabited by a very different race of animals from the rest of the testaceous tribe, and which seem to bear some analogy to the Amphitritæ and Nereides among the Mollusca, and to the Scolopendræ among Insects. Few however of the inhabitants of the Serpulæ are very distinctly known, and among others that of the present species still remains undescribed. The structure of the shell itself is highly singular; the tube of which it consists, and which in different specimens v exhibits considerable diversities of flexure and colour, being marked throughout its whole length by a fissure formed of a continued series of oblong perforations. It is a native of the Indian seas.

572

Antimachus Butterfly

Notes

r

PAPILIO ANTIMACHUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis subconcoloribus nigricantibus fulvo-maculatis, superioribus elongatis.

PAPILIO ANTIMACHUS.

Drury. 3. t. 1.
Eq. Tr.

Magnitudine vera in tabula exprimitur Papilio Antimachus, in Sierra Leona præcipue conspectus, & in elegantissimo opere Domini Drury primum fortasse depictus.

v

 

r

ANTIMACHUS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ commonly thickening towards the end into a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with blackish wings marked by fulvous spots, both surfaces nearly similar, and the upper wings elongated.

Long-winged Leona Butterfly.

The Papilio Antimachus is chiefly observed in Sierra Leona, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size. It seems to have been first figured in the elegant work of Mr. Drury.

v

 

573

Little Bustard

R Nodder

Notes

I

OTIS TETRAX.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum subconvexum.

Nares ovatæ, perviæ.

Lingua bifida.

Pedes cursorii, tridactyli, alti, supra femora nudi.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 722.

Character Specificus, &c.

OTIS rufescens, fusco variata, collo (maris) nigro torque albo.

OTIS capite juguloque lævi.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 264.

E rarissimis est avium Britannicarum Otis Tetrax. Pulchrum tamen specimen non ita pridem scloppeto in Anglia confectum communicavit Dominus Thompsonus, avium, quas jactat Museum Britannicum et Leverianum, exsiccator ingeniosus. Magnitudo est quasi Fulicæ Porphy­rionis Linnæi.

v

 

I2

the
LITTLE BUSTARD.

Generic Character.

Bill subconvex.

Nostrils ovate, pervious.

Tongue bifid.

Feet tridactyle, cursorial.

Specific Character, &c.

RUFESCENT BUSTARD, with the neck (of the male) black with a white collar.

LITTLE BUSTARD.

Edw. pl. 251.

Petite Outarde, ou Canne-petiere.

Buff. ois. 2. p. 40.

Pl. Enl. 10. 25.

The Otis Tetrax, or Little Bustard, may be numbered among the rarest of the British birds. The elegant specimen repre­sented on the present plate, and which was lately shot in our own country, was communicated by Mr. Thompson, preparer of birds, &c. to the British and Leverian Museums.

v

 

574

Cyparissias Butterfly

R. Nodder Del.

Notes

r

PAPILIO CYPARISSIAS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis integerrimis nigris, fasciis duabus albis, anteriorum obliquis, posteriorum punctatis.

Lin. Gmel. p. 2273.
Danai festivi.

PAPILIO Dædalus.

Cram. pap. 1. t. 1. f. A. B.

Americam Australem incolit Papilio Cyparissias, cujus veram magni­tudinem ostendit tabula.

v

 

r

CYPARISSIAS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the upper part and generally terminating in a knob.

Wings (when sitting) erect, and meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character.

BUTTERFLY with entire, black wings, with two white bands; those of the upper wings oblique; of the lower spotted.

The Papilio Cyparissias is a native of South America, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

575

Muricated Serpula

R Nodder Del.

Notes

r

SERPULA MURICATA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Terebella.

Testa univalvis, tubulosa, adhærens, (sæpe isthmis integris passim intercepta.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1264.

Character Specificus, &c.

SERPULA testa angulato-muricata, rima longi­tudinali subarticulata.

Born test. mus. cæs. Vindob. p. 440. t. 18. f. 16.

SERPULA anguina γ.

Lin. Gmel. p. 3743.

A Serpula anguina, quam nuperrime depinximus, in eo differt Serpula muricata, quod tota superficies tuberculis brevibus acuminatis sit exasperata. Ad cætera, eadem fere est generalis similitudo, quæque in longi­tudinem ducitur fissura, e foraminibus ovatis conflata. In iisdem generatur maribus quibus Serpula anguina. Veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula.

v

 

r

MURICATED SERPULA.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Terebella.

Shell univalve, tubular, adhering commonly to other substances, (in many species intercepted inter­nally by dissepiments at uncertain distances.)

Specific Character, &c.

SERPULA with angular-muricated shell, with subarticulated longi­tudinal fissure.

Rough Snake-Serpula.

This shell, in its general shape, as well as in the longi­tudinal figure, composed of oval perforations, agrees with the Serpula anguina, repre­sented in the preceding number of the present work; but differs in being strongly roughened or muricated with short, pointed protuber­ances. It is a native of the same seas with the Serpula anguina, and is repre­sented in its natural size.

v

 

576

Dilated Snail

Notes

r

HELIX AMPULLACEA?

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, subdiaphana, fragilis.

Apertura coarctata, intus lunata s. subrotunda: segmento circulo dempto.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1241.

Character Specificus.

HELIX testa subumbilicata subglobosa glabra, anfractibus supra ventricosioribus umbilico subobtecto, apertura ovato-oblonga.

Lin. Mus. Lud. Ulr. 666.

Nerita effusa?

Mull. Hist. Verm. 2. No. 361.

Seb. mus. 3. t. 4. f. 3. 4. 5.

In India præcipue conspicitur Helix ampullacea, loca, ut plurimum, paludosa amans. Magnitudine vera in tabula exprimitur.

v

 

r

the
DILATED SNAIL.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Slug.

Shell spiral, sub-pellucid.

Aperture semilunar.

Specific Character.

SUBGLOBOSE smooth subumbilicated Snail, with the spires enlarging at the upper part, and with ovate-oblong aperture.

The Helix ampullacea is a native of India, and is said principally to be found in marshy situations: it is repre­sented in its natural size on the annexed plate.

v

 

577

Parkinsonian Paradise Bird

Notes

K

PARADISEA PARKINSONIANA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum capistri plumis tomentosis tectum.

Pennæ (plerisque) hypochondriorum longiores.

Rectrices duæ superiores singulares denudatæ.

Character Specificus, &c.

PARADISEA fusca, rectricibus decompositis, pennis duabus lunato-dilatatis.

Menura superba.

Lin. Trans. vol. 6. p. 207. pl. 22.

Le Parkinson.

Viellot & Dezray. Oiseaux Dorées.

Paradiseam Parkinsonianam novæ Hollandiæ incolam insignit peculiaris quidam habitus et aspectus; nullus autem colorum splendor. Sordide infuscatur, interspersa hinc inde leviore albedinis mistura. Crura pedesque maxima et validissima. Insolitum et rarissimum est, a pennarum caudæ longissimarum latere latiori abscissa videri quasi multa fragmenta; quod si penitius inspi­ciatur, monstrabitur oriri a fibris hac in parte tenuissimis, et adeo delicatulis, ut falsam vacui spatii imaginem præ se ferant. Cedit paululum magni­tudine hæc species phasiano communi, v longa ab apice rostri ad extremitates pennarum, quas supra memoravimus, quatuor fere pedes.

De hac avi notandum est quod primo mane canere incipit, (vocem enim emittere dicitur suaviter canoram,) ascensoque gradatim rupestri quodam et eminenti loco, phasianorum nonnullorum more terram scalpit, caudam simul erigens, et certis intervallis aves omnes quas circum undique cantantes audiverit, imitatur; hoc modo se exercens per spatium quasi horarum duarum; quando in valles agrosque iterum descendit.

Elegantissimam hujus avis iconem nuperrime publi­cavit Dominus Viellot, in splendido suo opere de Paradiseis, &c. Avem nominavit ille Paradiseam Parkinson. A filio nempe Domini Parkinsoni, quem penes est Museum Leverianum, figuram archetypam manu ingeniosi Domini Sydenhami Edwardi effictam receperat. Juxta illam effigiem fideliter delineata est hæc nostra similitudo.

K2

the
PARKINSONIAN PARADISE BIRD.

Generic Character.

Bill covered at the base by downy feathers.

Hypochondrial Feathers (in most species) elongated.

Middle tail feathers nearly naked or unwebbed.

Specific Character, &c.

Brown PARADISE-BIRD, with loose-webbed tail-feathers, the two exterior ones broad and lunated.

Superb Menura.

Lath. syn. append. 2. p. 271.

Le Parkinson.

Desray and Viellot. Oiseaux Dorées.

This highly singular bird is a native of Australasia or New Holland, and is more remarkable for the peculiarity of its aspect than for any beauty of colour, the general cast being a dusky brown, with v a few paler variegations. The legs and feet in this species are uncommonly large and strong, and the two principal or longest tail-feathers exhibit a very unusual appearance, seeming as if notched into several segments or divisions on the wider part of the web; which appearance, when accurately surveyed, is found to be merely owing to the extreme delicacy of the fibres, which is so great as to cause a deceptive trans­parency in that part of the feather. The size of this species is nearly equal to that of a common pheasant, and the length, from the tip of the beak to the ends of the long tail-feathers above-mentioned is nearly four feet.

The manners of this bird are singular. At the early part of the morning it begins singing, having (as is reported,) a very fine natural note; and, gradually ascending some rocky eminence, scratches up the ground in the manner of some of the Pheasant tribe, elevating its tail, and at intervals imitating the notes of every other bird within hearing; and after having continued this exercise for about two hours, again descends into the vallies or lower grounds.

A very beautiful figure of this bird has been lately published by Mons. Viellot, in his splendid work on the Paradiseæ, &c. under the name of Le Parkinson, in honour of John Parkinson, esq. of the Leverian Museum, through whose means Mons. Viellot received a most elegant drawing of the bird, by the r accurate hand of that ingenious artist Mr. Sydenham Edwards. From the above figure the present representation is faithfully copied.

v

 

578

Australasian Caterpillar

Notes

r

LARVA AUSTRALASIÆ.

Si quid ab externa facie colligendum sit, e Sphingum familia esse dicamus larvam quam depinximus, notabilem admodum cauda seu extremo corporis articulo, capiti feroci simillimo, cui os latum, oculi nigri, magni, et minaces, benigne forsan a natura dato ad absterrendos hostes. Cum hujusce nec non aliorum plurimorum animalium Australiacorum manca adhuc nec satis explorata sit historia, nihil pro certo affirmare ausim nisi quod habitu seu forma generali larvæ Sphingis populi affinis esse videatur larva Australasiæ. Ostendit tabula naturalem magni­tudinem.

v

 

r

an
AUSTRALASIAN CATERPILLAR.

The caterpillar here represented, which, so far as can be judged from its general appearance, is the larva of some species of Sphinx, is remarkable for the singular appear­ance of the tail or terminal joint of the body, which is so formed as to bear a striking resemblance to a formidable head, with wide mouth, and black prominent eyes. This particularity is perhaps a provision of Nature for the security of the insect against some of its enemies, which may thus be deterred from attacking it during its larva state. Its particular history, however, like that of many other Australasian animals, is as yet unknown, and it can only be added, that in its general habit it is allied to the larva of the Sphinx Populi. It is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

580

Animal of the Nautilus Pompilius

Notes

r

ANIMAL INCOLA
NAUTILI POMPILII.

De animali Nautilum Pompilium incolente, ad hoc usque tempus magna ex parte parum cognito et explorato, scripsit tandem ingeniosus Dionysius Montfortus, addita icone satis accurata: unde constat affinitatem quandam esse ei cum genere Sepiæ. Carens brachiis longis, eorum loco serie multiplici tentaculorum latorum apicibus palmatis os radiorum more circum­euntium instruitur; nec non cucullo, seu velo, quo expanso creditur ad libitum posse navigare.

In prima nostra figura ostenditur animal in testa sedens; in secunda, e testa exemptum, ut probe pateat plena et perfecta corporis conformatio.

v

 

579

Animal of the Nautilus Pompilius

r

ANIMAL
of the
NAUTILUS POMPILIUS.

The inhabiting animal of the Nautilus Pompilius or Great Pearly Nautilus, hitherto but very obscurely known to naturalists, has at length been described and figured with sufficient accuracy by the ingenious Mons. Denys Montfort. It appears that the animal is in some degree allied to the genus Sepia, but is destitute of long arms or claspers, instead of which it is furnished with several rows of short, broad, subdivided or palmated tentacula, spreading in a radiated direction round the mouth or beak: it is also provided with a concave expansile hood or process, which it is supposed occasionally to extend by way of a sail.

Of the present plates the first represents it seated in its shell; the second as taken out of the shell, in order to exhibit the complete form of the body.

v

 

581

Malimbic Tanager

Notes

L

TANAGRA MALIMBICA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum conicum, acuminatum, emarginatum, basi subtrigonum, apice declive.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 313.

Character Specificus, &c.

TANAGRA nigra; crista, genis, gutture, collo antice, et pectore coccineis. (Mari.)

TANAGRA nigra; capite non cristato, vertice, nucha et collo supra coccineis. (Feminæ.)

Daudin Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. No. 2. p. 148. t. X.

Africæ partes inferiores incolit rarissima hæc Tanagræ species, cujus magni­tudinem veram cernere est in tabula. Primus illam descripsit Dominus Daudin in opere Gallico cui titulus “Annales du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle.”

v

 

L2

the
MALIMBIC TANAGER.

Generic Character.

Bill conic, acuminated, a little inclining towards the point: the upper mandible slightly ridged, and notched near the end.

Specific Character, &c.

Black TANAGER, with the crest, cheeks, throat, fore-part of the neck, and breast scarlet. Male.

Black TANAGER without crest, with the crown, and back part of the neck scarlet. Female.

Le TANGARA de MALIMBE.

Daud. Mus. Hist. Nat. 2. p. 148.

The very rare species here exhibited is an inhabitant of the lower parts of Africa, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size. It was first described by Mons. Daudin in the French publication entitled Annales du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle.

v

 

582

Boreas Moth

Notes

r

PHALÆNA BOREAS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ. (Volatu nocturno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 808.

Character Specificus, &c.

PHALÆNA alis caudatis cinereis fusco variis, primoribus punctis duobus, posterioribus unico fenestratis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2404.

PHALÆNA BOREAS.

Cram. t. 70. f. B.

PHALÆNA BOREAS.

Fabr. spec. ins. 2. p. 170.

In America Australi reperta sedem sibi jure vindicat hæc Phalæna inter rarissimas sui generis. Magnitudinem naturalem ostendit tabula.

v

 

r

BOREAS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, decreasing in size from the base to the point.

Wings (when at rest) generally deflected.

Flight mostly nocturnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Grey PHALÆNA, with tailed wings variegated with brown, the upper pair marked by two trans­parent spots, the lower with one.

BOREAS.

Lin. Gmel.

Cram. ins. pl. 70. f. B.

This species, which may be justly considered as one of the rarest of its tribe, is a native of South America, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

583

Zebra Cowry

Notes

r

CYPRÆA ZEBRA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, involuta, subovata, obtusa, lævis.

Apertura utrinque effusa, linearis, utrinque dentata, longi­tudinalis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3397.

Character Specificus, &c.

CYPRÆA turbinata cinerea, fasciis latis violaceo-fuscis.

CYPRÆA ZEBRA. C. testa turbinata cinerea, fasciis fuscis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1174.

CYPRÆA testa turbinata cinerea, fasciis latis griseis, aperturæ denticulis fuscis.

Born. Test. Mus. Cæs. Vind. p. 176. t. 8. f. 3.

In maribus Indicis præcipue conspicitur elegantissima hæc cochlea, coloribus interdum varians: in opere Bornii exhibetur pulchrum specimen in tabula depictum.

v

 

r

the
ZEBRA COWRY.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax.

Shell univalve, involute, obtuse, ovate.

Aperture linear, longitudinal, toothed on both sides.

Specific Character, &c.

Cinereous turbinated Cypræa, with broad violaceo-fuscous bands.

The larger ZEBRA COWRY.

This highly elegant shell is principally found in the Indian seas: the beautiful specimen here repre­sented is figured in Baron Born’s work, entitled Testacea Musei Cæsarei Vindobonensis.

v

 

584

Scaly Centriscus

Notes

r

CENTRISCUS SCOLOPAX.

Character Genericus.

Caput productum in rostrum angustissimum: Os edentulum, maxilla inferiore longiore.

Branchiarum apertura repanda.

Corpus compressum, abdomine carinato.

Pinnæ ventrales unitæ.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 1460.

Character Specificus, &c.

CENTRISCUS rubescens, corpore squamoso scabro, cauda recta extensa.

CENTRISCUS SCOLOPAX. C. corpore squamoso scabro, cauda recta extensa.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 415.

Solenostomus rostro trientem totius piscis æquante.

Klein Misc. Pisc. 4. p. 24.

In mari Mediterraneo generatur Centriscus Scolopax. Crescere solet in longi­tudinem quinque vel sex unciarum, vermesque et insecta minora marina prædari.

v

 

r

the
SCALY CENTRISCUS.

Generic Character.

Head produced into a very narrow snout. Mouth toothless, with the lower jaw longest.

Gill-Openings wide.

Body compressed, with carinated abdomen.

Ventral fins united.

Specific Character, &c.

Reddish CENTRISCUS, with rough, scaly body, and strait tail.

Der Schneppenfisch.

Bloch. ichth. t. 123. f. 1.

The Trumpet or Bellows-Fish.

Will. ichth. p. 160.

The scaly Centriscus or Bellows-Fish is a native of the Mediterranean sea, and grows to the length of five or six inches: it feeds on worms, and the smaller kind of marine insects.

v

 

585

Lunulated Thrush

Notes

M

TURDUS LUNULATUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum tereti-cultratum: mandibula superiore apice deflexo, emarginato.

Nares nudæ, superne membranula semitectæ.

Faux ciliata.

Lingua lacero-emarginata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 291.

Character Specificus, &c.

TURDUS totus niger, pennis margine flavis, genis gulaque holosericeis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 821.

Merula Madagascariensis aurea.

Briss. av. 2. p. 247.

TURDUS Saui-jala.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 356.

Inter aves quas plurimas alit insula Cerne haud facile elegantiorem reperies Turdo lunulato, cui pennæ fere omnes nigerrimæ margine luteo seu velut aureo decoratæ: magni­tudinem veram ostendit tabula.

v

 

M2

the
LUNULATED THRUSH.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, obtusely carinated at top, bending a little at the point, and slightly notched near the end of the upper mandible.

Nostrils oval, naked.

Tongue slightly jagged at the end.

Specific Character, &c.

Black THRUSH with the feathers edged with yellow; the cheeks and throat velvet black.

Black-Cheeked THRUSH.

Lath. syn. 1. p. 75.

Merle doré de Madagascar.

Buff. ois. 3. p. 398.

Pl. Enl. 359. f. 2.

Among the most elegant of the Madagascar birds may be numbered the species of Thrush exhibited on the present plate: the general colour is a deep velvet black, almost all the feathers being edged with bright yellow or gold-colour. The figure represents it in its natural size.

v

 

586

Rostrated Gymnotus

Notes

r

GYMNOTUS ROSTRATUS.

Character Genericus.

Caput operculis lateralibus.

Tentacula duo ad labium superius.

Oculi cute communi tecti.

Membrana branchiostega radiis quinque.

Corpus compressum, subtus pinna carinatum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 144.

Character Specificus, &c.

GYMNOTUS rostro subulato, pinna ani cauda breviore.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 428.

GYMNOTUS varius rostro productiore.

Seb. mus. t. 32. f. 5.

GYMNOTUS maxillis elongatis, &c.

Gronov. zooph. 167. mus. 73.

Maria Indica et Americana incolit Gymnotus rostratus, longi­tudine duos fere pedes æquans: color ejus rufo-flavet, maculis parvis fuscis variatus.

v

 

r

the
ROSTRATED GYMNOTUS.

Generic Character.

Head furnished with lateral opercula.

Two Tentacula at the upper lip.

Eyes covered by the common skin.

Branchiostegous membrane five-rayed.

Body compressed, and carinated by a fin beneath.

Specific Character, &c.

GYMNOTUS with subulate snout, and anal fin shorter than the caudal.

Long-snouted GYMNOTUS.

The Gymnotus rostratus is an inhabitant of the Indian and American seas, and is nearly two feet in length: its usual colour is a pale rufous yellow, variegated with small brown spots.

v

 

587

Aurelius Butterfly

Notes

r

PAPILIO AURELIUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ, sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis fuscis apice atris albo maculatis; posteri­oribus ocellis duobus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2243.
Eq. Achiv.

PAPILIO AURELIUS.

Fabr. sp. ins. 2. p. 21.

PAPILIO AURELIUS.

Cram. t. 168. f. A. B.

Indiam incolit rarissimus hic Papilio, et magni­tudine vera in tabula depingitur.

v

 

r

AURELIUS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the upper part, and generally terminating in a knob.

Wings (when sitting) erect, and meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

Brown Butterfly, with the tips of the wings black, spotted with white, and the lower wings marked beneath by two eye-shaped spots.

Eq. Achiv.

This very rare Butterfly is a native of India, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

588

Uka Crab

Notes

r

CANCER UKA.

Character Genericus.

Pedes octo (rarius sex aut decem;) insuper manus dum chelatm.

Oculi duo, distantes, plurimis pedunculati; elongati, mobiles.

Cauda articulata, inermis.

Character Specificus, &c.

CANCER subquadratus luteus chela dextra maxima.

CANCER UKA una.

Seb. mus. 3. t. 18. f. 8.

CANCER UKA?

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Hujus speciei descriptionem a celeberrimo Sebæ thesauro in opus nostrum transferre non dubitavimus. “Cancer Uka una Brasiliæ incolis sic vocatur, quia in paludibus et rivis vivit. Corpus ejus breve est, oblongo-latum, scutiforme, saturate flavescens. Pes anticus dextri lateris forcipes gerit quam vastissimos; perpusillos contra sinister: ut nimirum horum ope in os queat ingeri, quod majoribus illis arreptum est; siquidem hi adeo intorqueri nequeant. Pateat ergo rursus supremi conditoris sapientia creatis singulis quam benignissime prospiciens. Supra os binas cernuntur vaginulas longiusculæ, in quibus globuli, tanquam capitula acicularum, hærent, oculorum munere fungentes, qui hinc ad utrumque latus longum emitti possunt et undequaque dispicere, rursumque subito sub testa recondi, si quid occurrat periculi, ne ab allisu lædantur. Octo reliqui pedes e tribus singuli constant articulis, computatis simul unguibus; primoresque articuli tantum pilosi sunt. Cauda perparva est et angusta. Subtus dilute cinerea regnat flavedo.”

v

the
UKA CRAB.

Generic Character.

Legs generally eight; (in some species six or ten, besides two claspers or chelated arms.)

Eyes two, commonly distant; footstalked, moveable.

Tail articulated.

Specific Character, &c.

Squarish yellow CRAB with the claw on the right side extremely large.

UKA CRAB.

UKA UNA.

Seba. 3. t. 18. f. 8.

This species is taken from the work of Seba, who informs us that it is called by the Brasilians by the name of Uka una, from its frequenting marshes and rivulets. Its general colour is deep yellow on the upper parts, and pale greyish yellow beneath: it is chiefly remarkable for the very large size of its right claw which is calculated for seizing its prey, while the left, which is small and slender, is formed for conveying the food to its mouth: the eyes are small, and situated on long, moveable footstalks, and are capable of being occasionally retracted under the shell, the tail is very small and slender.

r

INDEX.

Pl.
547. Acanthurus velifer.
544. Buccinum Harpa.
542. Bodianus pentacanthus.
541. Buphaga Africana.
549. Corvus glandarius.
553. —— brachyurus.
561. —— caudatus.
551. Chætodon setifer.
588. Cancer Uca.
584. Centriscus Scolopax.
568. Cornucopia helicina.
583. Cypræa Zebra.
556. Cyprinus Rondeletii.
586. Gymnotus rostratus.
576. Helix ampullacea.
545. Loxia cærulea.
554. Lepas anserina.
570. Lemur minutus var.
578. Larva Australasiæ.
569. Muscicapa coronata.
543. Nepa linearis.
579.
580.
Naut. Pompil. animal.
573. Otis Tetrax.
552. Papilio Helenus & Steneles.
555. —— Apollo.
564. —— Laertes.
572. —— Antimachus.
574. —— Cyparissias.
587. —— Aurelius.
582. Phalæna Boreas.
548. —— Hebe.
565. Palamedea cornuta.
577. Paradisea Parkinsoniana.
559. Platystacus anguillaris.
546. Sepia tunicata.
560. Scarabæus dichotomus.
563. Synbranchus marmoratus.
571. Serpula anguina.
575. —— muricata.
566.
567.
Sphinx Annonæ.
557. Turdus Cochinchinensis.
562. Turbo Pica.
581. Tanagra Malimbica.
585. Turdus lunulatus.
550. Voluta Hebræa.
558. —— Vespertilio.

INDEX.

Pl.
547. Acanthurus broad-finned.
544. Buccinum harp.
554. Barnacle anserine.
560. Beetle fork-horned.
542. Bodian five-spined.
573. Bustard little.
541. Buphaga African.
587. Butterfly Aurelius.
574. —— Cyparissias.
555. —— Apollo.
552. —— Helenus et Steneles.
572. —— Antimachus.
564. —— Laertes.
546. Cuttle-Fish Balloon.
551. Chætodon red-striped.
556. Carp Rondeletian.
578. Caterpillar Australasian.
584. Centriscus scaly.
588. Crab Uca.
553. Crow short-tailed.
561. —— long-tailed.
568. Cornucopia helicine.
583. Cowry Zebra.
569. Flycatcher round-crested.
545. Grossbeak blue.
586. Gymnotus rostrated.
549. Jay common.
570. Lemur minute var.
548. Moth Hebe.
582. —— Boreas.
543. Nepa linear.
579.
580.
Nautilus Pompil. animal.
559. Platystacus eel-shaped.
557. Paradise-bird Parkinsonian.
563. Synbranchus marbled.
565. Screamer horned.
566.
567.
Sphinx Annona.
571. Serpula anguine.
575. —— muricated.
576. Snail dilated.
557. Thrush Cochinchina.
585. —— lunulated.
581. Tanager Malimbic.
562. Turbo Magpie.
550. Volute veined.
558. —— Bat’s-wing.

Notes and Corrections: Volume 14

Volume 14 of the Naturalist’s Miscellany was published in twelve monthly installments, conjecturally from September 1802 through August 1803. It is “conjecturally” because there has not been a full month-and-year date since the third installment of the previous volume (November 1801), and no date at all since the eighth installment of that volume (“1802”, probably April). In the present volume, the first suggestion of a date is in the fourth installment, fortunately “1802”. (The expected date is December 1802, so if it had said “1803” we would have to postulate one or more skipped months.)

Installments vary between one signature of 16 pages, or two of 8 + 4 pages. The printer goofed when applying signature numbers, resulting in two consecutive signatures H: the last part of installment 7 (probably March 1803), and all of installment 8 (probably April).

[A]; B; C; D; E (January? 1803); F; G H; H; I; K; L; M

The previous volume’s dedication—the first after Frederick Nodder’s death—was signed “E. R. Nodder”. This one says “E. and R. Nodder”. All subsequent volumes will say “E. Nodder”.

Marking another step forward into the new century, articles in the third installment (signature C) have no catchword when overflowing to a second page. But this must have been too daring for the printer. The next time an article runs to a second page, in the seventh installment (signature G), catchwords are back.

Plate 542 appears after Plates 543 and 544, and similarly Plate 550 after Plates 552 and 551 (in that order). Plates 579 and 580 illustrate the same animal; I have put 580 before 579—matching some bound copies of the book—to agree with the wording of the text.

Buphaga Africana, the African Buphaga

If you postulate that Shaw meant to say “Buphagus Africanus”, using Brisson’s form of the genus name, it is also known as the yellow-billed oxpecker. It lives in subsaharan Africa.

Nepa Linearis, the Linear Nepa

is now Ranatra linearis. It lives in northwestern Europe.

Buccinum Harpa, the Harp Buccinum

is now Harpa harpa, the common—wait for it—harp. It is most often seen along the Pacific coast of Asia and Australia.

Bodianus Pentacanthus, the Five-Spined Bodian

is now Holocentrus adscensionis, the common squirrelfish. If the name sounds familiar, it is because we met the same fish just seven months ago, at Plate 514 of Volume 13, under the name Holocentrus Sogo. It lives along the Atlantic coast of Africa and the Americas.

It is not that unusual to have one person assigning a single animal to multiple species. But how did Bloch manage to assign the same fish to two different genera? Both citations are from the same volume of Bloch’s Ichthyology, so it is not a case of Shaw failing to notice that his authority had changed his mind.

Loxia Cærulea, the Blue Grossbeak

is now Passerina caerulea. It lives in Central and North America. Today the English name is usually spelled “Grosbeak” with one s.

Sepia Tunicata, the Balloon Cuttle-Fish

is now Dosidicus gigas, the Humboldt squid. (Do not ask me how or why Molina’s S. tunicata, from 1782, counts as a “junior synonym” to D’Orbigny’s D. gigas from 1835.) It lives along the Pacific coast of the Americas.

It is said to grow . . . to the weight of five hundred pounds
[It is large, but not that large. One hundred pounds, maybe.]

Acanthurus Velifer, the Broad-Finned Acanthurus

is now Zebrasoma veliferum, Desjardin’s sailfish tang. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Spina mobilis utrinque ad basin caudæ.
text has at basin

Phalæna Hebe, the Hebe (moth)

is probably Arctia festiva, the banded tiger. It lives mostly in Europe.

inferioribus rubris, rioulis nigris
text unchanged
[Did the typesetter’s cat get into the room? The expected word in this context would be either maculis or notis; the former is probably what Shaw intended.]

page image

Corvus Glandarius, the Common Jay

is now Garrulus glandarius, the Eurasian jay. It lives in Europe, west Asia and east Asia, though it doesn’t seem to like south and central Asia.

Like the Common Sparrow of Volume 9, it is classified as “cuddly”. Is it possible that someone at GBIF is pulling our collective legs?

Willughb. ornith. p. 130.
text has Willugb.

Papilio Helenus, the Helenus (butterfly)

is also known as the red Helen—not to be confused with P. helena, now Troides helena, the birdwing, described at Plate 77 of Volume 3. It ranges from south to east Asia. (Helenus and Helena are both proper names, not adjectives, and therefore don’t have to agree grammatically with anything. This has led to endless grief for taxonomists.)

Papilio Steneles, the Steneles (butterfly)

is probably Siproeta stelenes, the malachite. Its range extends from southern North America to most of South America. Shaw was not alone; “P. steneles” seems to have been a popular misspelling of Linnaeus’s actual name, P. stelenes.

Chætodon Setifer, the Red-Striped Chætodon

is now Chaetodon auriga, the cross-stripe butterfly (fish), because Forsskål got there first. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Voluta Hebræa, the Veined Volute

is now known by Linnaeus’s spelling, Voluta ebraea, the Hebrew volute. It lives along the eastern tip of South America.

Argevo. 17. f. D.
text unchanged
[I think he means Argenv., meaning d’Argenville, but the English side has different references so I can’t be sure.]

Corvus Brachyurus, the Short-Tailed Crow

is probably Pitta brachyura, the Indian pitta. It lives all over South Asia.

[Plate 553] RPN 1802
[“RPN 1802” is the first hint of a date since the 8th installment of the previous volume (probably April). Fortunately, even the meager “1802” confirms that we have been keeping to a steady pace of one installment per month. If everything had been dated, month by month, this would be December 1802.]

Lepas Anserifera, the Anserine Barnacle

is otherwise known as the goose barnacle. It lives all over the world, but seems to especially like the coasts of North America and Australia.

the Lepas anatifera, before figured in the present work
[The duck barnacle was Plate 191 of Volume 6.]

Papilio Apollo, the Apollo (butterfly)

is now Parnassius apollo. It lives in Europe and parts of Asia.

Cyprinus Rondeletii, the Rondeletian Carp

is now Cyprinus carpio, the Aischsgrund carp. Apparently Shaw and his sources thought it was a different fish than the carp Linnaeus had already named. (He was not alone; Cyprinus carpio has a list of synonyms as long as your arm, extending right through the 19th century.) Today, thanks to introduction into fishponds worldwide, it lives almost everywhere; where it really lived in Shaw’s time is anyone’s guess.

Turdus Cochinchinensis, the Cochinchina Thrush

is probably Chloropsis cochinchinensis, the blue-winged leafbird. It lives in Southeast Asia.

Voluta Vespertilio, the Bat’s-Wing Volute

is now Cymbiola vespertilio, the bat volute. It lives in and around Indonesia.

the Voluta Hebræa, figured in a former number
[Plate 550, just two months ago. Plates in that installment were out of sequence, so it is the last selection, not the second.]

Platystacus Anguillaris, the Eel-Shaped Platystacus

is now Plotosus lineatus, the barbel-eel catfish, because Bloch didn’t know that Thunberg got there first. (Forsskål was still earlier. Go figure.) It lives along the coast of the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

The Platystacus cotylephorus has before been repre­sented
[The Latin side says non ita pridem, “just recently” or “not long ago”, which is a bit of an exaggeration. It was two and a half years ago, at Plate 432 of Volume 11.]

Scarabæus Dichotomus, the Fork-Horned Beetle

is probably Trypoxylus dichotomus. It lives in Japan, Korea and especially Taiwan.

This is not the first time Shaw’s geography has been off by some consi­derable distance. If he had said it lives in Surinam, citing Madam Merian as a source, I would have yanked the tentative Trypoxylus identification. But “South America” is too vague to be dispositive.

Corvus Caudatus, the Long-Tailed Crow

may be Ptilostomus afer (by way of Corvus afer), the piapiac. It lives in central Africa.

Avis elegantis nondum forsitan descriptæ, in Africa, ut vulgo creditur, generatæ
text has in Africæ
[“We’ve had four consecutive genitives, and another in the next phrase, so this one must be genitive too.”]

Turbo Pica, the Magpie Turbo

is now Cittarium pica, the West Indian topsnail. It lives around the Caribbean.

Synbranchus Marmoratus, the Marbled Synbranchus

is also known as the marbled eel. It lives in South and Central America.

Papilio Laertes, the Laertes (butterfly)

is probably Morpho laertes (formerly Morpho epistrophus, Papilio epistrophus and assorted other combinations). It lives in South America.

Palamedea Cornuta, the Horned Screamer

is now Anhima cornuta. It lives in South America.

Sphinx Annonæ, the Annona Sphinx

may be Cocytius antaeus, the giant sphinx moth. The same suggestion will be made for Sphinx Jatrophæ at Plate 680 of Volume 16. If is is C. antaeus, it is scattered around the Americas, especially Central America. Its range has been extending northward (and presumably southward) in recent years.

feeds on the leaves of the Annona Squamosa
[A. squamosa—the binomial dates back to the Species Plantarum—is and remains the custard apple.]

Cornucopia Helicina, the Helicine Cornucopia

If it is the same as Gmelin’s Serpula cornucopiae, it is now Cornu aspersum (originally Helix aspersa), the brown garden snail. This seems to have been a very early identification. Thanks to a couple of centuries of introduction—intentional or otherwise—it now lives on most continents.

Serpula Cornu copiæ.
text unchanged
[It may well be a mistake, but Linnaeus did occasionally use a two-word phrase for his species names (what Shaw calls the “trivial” name).]

Muscicapa Coronata, the Round-Crested Flycatcher

is probably Onychorhynchus coronatus, the Amazonian royal flycatcher. It lives in South and Central America.

Lemur Minutus, the Minute Lemur

may be some variety of galago; in the past it has been identified with Galagoides demidoff, Prince Demidoff’s bushbaby or Demidoff’s dwarf galago. Or then again it may be a mouse lemur, genus Microcebus, as suggested by the “Var. Lem. Murin.” alternative. The former lives in central Africa, the latter in Madagascar.

To make up for the previous installment having only three animals, this time Shaw gives us a bird and a mammal in the same installment—a conjunction we haven’t seen since Volume 9.

[Plate 570] R. P. Nodder. Del.
[I think this is the first time Richard Polydore Nodder has identified himself as artist (“Del.”) instead of engraver (“Sculp.”). In future volumes, “Delt et Sculpt”—with variations—will become a standard signature.]

Serpula Anguina, the Anguine Serpula

is now Tenagodus anguinus. It ranges from Japan to western Australia.

Aphroditis et Nereidibus apud Mollusca . . . . Amphitritæ and Nereides among the Mollusca
[One of these has to be wrong, but I don’t know which. Linnaeus’s genus Aphrodita is now sea mice; Müller’s genus Amphitrite is less certain.]

Papilio Antimachus, the Antimachus (butterfly)

is also known as the giant African swallowtail. It lives in central Africa.

Otis Tetrax, the Little Bustard

is now Tetrax tetrax. It ranges from western Europe to central Asia; unlike most animals with this distribution, it seems to be especially fond of Iberia.

Papilio Cyparissias, the Cyparissias (butterfly)

is probably Eupalamides cyparissias—named by Fabricius, not Linnaeus. Cramer’s P. daedalus is the same butterfly. It lives in South America.

Serpula Muricata, the Muricated Serpula

Linnaeus had it right: it’s simply a variety of the previous installment’s Serpula anguina (now Tenagodus anguinus). By any name, it ranges from Japan to western Australia.

Helix Ampullacea, the Dilated Snail

is now Pila ampullacea, the South Asian applesnail. In spite of the name, it lives mainly in the islands of Southeast Asia. Müller’s Nerita effusa is a different though related gastropod, now Pomacea glauca. It lives in South America and the Caribbean.

Paradisea Parkinsoniana, the Parkinsonian Paradise Bird

may be Menura novaehollandiae, the superb lyrebird. It lives in eastern Australia.

This will be the last three-page English description until Volume 15. (The Latin fits into two pages.)

Hypochondrial Feathers (in most species) elongated
close-parenthesis missing

Desray and Viellot. Oiseaux Dorées.
text has Doreés

Larva Australasiæ, an Australian Caterpillar

is not a binomial, and doesn’t pretend to be.

Nautilus Pompilius

is also known as the Emperor nautilus. As its name indicates, it is not a gastropod but a cephalopod. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans. The author forgot to say that we previously met this Nautilus—that is, its shell—at Plate 515 of Volume 13.

the ingenious Mons. Denys Montfort
[Printed as shown. Everywhere else, the name is given (in English) as “Denys-Montfort” with a hyphen. Today it is canonicalized as Pierre Denys de Montfort. Unlike many of Shaw’s favorite sources, Montfort was alive at the time this passage was written; in fact he outlived George Shaw.]

Of the present plates the first . . . the second
[The “first” plate is the one engraved 580; the “second” is 579. Since the plates were bound-in separately, some owners were clever enough to place 580 before 579.]

Tanagra Malimbica, the Malimbic Tanager

is probably Malimbus malimbicus, the crested malimbe. It lives in central Africa.

Shaw didn’t invent the “malimbicus” name, but he obviously liked it. In 1805 he gave us Merops malimbicus, the rosy bee-eater; in 1813 came what is now Halcyon malimbica, the blue-breasted kingfisher.

Le TANGARA de MALIMBE.
[We have seen elsewhere that Brisson’s spelling “Tangara” came into conflict with Linnaeus’s “Tanagra”.]

Phalæna Boreas, the Boreas (moth)

is probably Dysdaemonia boreas. It is most common in Central America.

Cypræa Zebra, the Zebra Cowry

is now Macrocypraea zebra, the measled cowrie. It lives around the Caribbean and along the easternmost part of South America.

Apertura utrinque effusa, linearis
text has Apertum
[This is the second time this particular error has shown up in the Miscellany. It’s an error more often associated with OCR, where -ura for -um and vice versa are both common, but it could also arise from a typesetter misreading George Shaw’s handwriting. In fact, an increasing number of typographical errors are best attributed to this cause.]

Centriscus Scolopax, the Scaly Centriscus

is now Macroramphosus scolopax, the bellowsfish. It lives along most coasts—and its snout really does look like that.

Os edentulum
word italicized for consistency

Klein Misc. Pisc. 4. p. 24.
text has Khlein

Turdus Lunulatus, the Lunulated Thrush

may be Philepitta castanea, the velvet asity. (If so, the picture shows the female; the male is much gaudier.) It lives in Madagascar.

[Plate 585]
[If the installments have been plodding along at a pace of one a month, it is now August 1803. But you wouldn’t know it from the plates.]

Gymnotus Rostratus, the Rostrated Gymnotus

is now Rhamphichthys rostratus. It lives in South America.

Branchiostegous membrane five-rayed.
word “membrane” italicized for consistency

Papilio Aurelius, the Aurelius (butterfly)

is probably Zeuxidia aurelius, the giant Saturn. It lives in and around Indonesia. (Shaw’s picture really doesn’t look much like Z. aurelius. As so often, it is possible his artist was looking at an entirely different butterfly.)

Cancer Uka, the Uka Crab

is now Uca major. It lives in the Caribbean.

the very large size of its right claw
[The attentive reader will notice that in the picture, it is the left claw that is oversized. Engravers did not always take care to preserve the right-left orientation of the original picture.]

occasionally retracted under the shell, the tail is very small
[Punctuated as shown. It probably ought to be a (semi)colon.]

Index

Several plates are misnumbered in the Index. The numbers are correctly engraved on the plates themselves.

In the printed book, the paired plates—566-567 (Sphinx) and 579-580 (Nautilus)—were each listed on a single Index line, joined with “&” (Latin) or “and” (English).

Latin

588.   Cancer Uca.
[Spelled “Uka” in body text.]

585.   Turdus lunulatus.
text has 485

English

582.   [Moth] Boreas.
text has 565

577.   Paradise-bird Parkinsonian.
text has 57
[Nor is that all. This item comes at the top of the second Index page. For reasons best known to himself, the printer included a catchword for each column (Latin and English), although normally he didn’t bother when it came to the Index. The Latin side has the expected “560. Sca-” (for Scarabæus dichotomus, the first Index entry on the second page); the English side has neither 577 nor 57 but “557. Pa-”.]

585.   [Thrush] lunulated.
text has 485

The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.