Naturalist’s Miscellany

The Naturalist’s Miscellany
by George Shaw
Volume 15

v

REGIO

CHIRURGORUM COLLEGIO

LONDINENSI
DECIMUM QUINTUM
hunc

NATURÆ VIVARII

FASCICULUM,
d. d. d.
GEORGIUS SHAW.
E. NODDER.

r

to the

ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS

of
LONDON
THIS FIFTEENTH VOLUME
of the

NATURALIST’S MISCELLANY

is

RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED

by
GEORGE SHAW.
E. NODDER.

v

 

589

Sand Partridge

Notes

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TETRAO ARENARIA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum convexum, breve.

Macula prope oculos nuda, aut papillosa, aut plumis rarius tecta.

Character Specificus, &c.

TETRAO griseo-flavescens, torque abdomine crissoque (maris) atris.

TETRAO ARENARIA. T. torque, abdomine et crisso atris, rectricibus fusco et griseo fasciatis apice albis, intermediis duabus fulvescentibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 755.

Pall. nov. comm. Petrop. p. 418.

Primus accurate descripsit hanc speciem celeberrimus Pallas in Academiæ Petropolitanæ Commentariis.

“Magnitudine hæc avis Perdicem superat, habitu Alchatam refert. Rostrum quam in perdice tenuius, prorsus ut in Alchata, cinereo cærulescens, apice nigricante. Palpebræ nudæ, pallidæ, marginibus subpapillosis, flavescentibus. Supercilia plumosa, tecta. Caput albido cinereum in masculis, vertice v usque in cervicem griseo-flavescenti nebuloso. Gula ferrugineo-fulva, colore versus latera colli diffuso diluto, triangu­loque atro submedio collo terminata. Collum jugulumque totum, in hoc sexu, cano albida, plumis vestita singu­laribus truncatis, densioribus, elasticis, columbarum similibus. Cervix inferior, dorsum totum adusque caudam, alarumque bases plumis testaceo-albidis, annulo singulis fusco terminali, maculam ovatam lutescentem cingente, notatis variantur. Inter pectus et jugulum circulus ater, hinc pectus albidum; sed abdomen, femora, crissum atra. Subcaudales albæ, strigis aliquot transversis nigris. Tectrices primariæ remigibus concolores, canes­centes; secundariæ extus luteo-fulvescentes, efficientes quasi speculum alare hujus coloris. Femina paulo major mare differt colore per totum corpus pallide flavescente, in capite, collo, juguloque nigro guttato, in dorso fasciolis transversis sagittatis, crebris variegato. Loca incolit deserta circa mare Caspium.”

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the
SAND PARTRIDGE.

Generic Character.

Bill convex, short.

Spot near the eyes, either naked, granulated, or but sparingly covered with feathers.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish-grey PARTRIDGE with the abdomen, vent, and collar (of the male) black.

Sand Grouse.

Lath. syn. 2. p. 751.

This species seems to have been first accurately described by the celebrated Dr. Pallas, in the Petersburg Transactions. Its size exceeds that of a common partridge, and its habit resembles that of the Alchata: the bill, which is more slender than in the partridge, is of a blueish ash-colour, with a black tip: the eye-lids naked, pale, and beset with slight yellowish papillæ round the edges: the brows covered with feathers: the head, in the male, of a whitish ash-colour, the crown being clouded as far as the neck with yellowish grey; the v throat orange-ferruginous, growing paler towards the sides of the neck, and termi­nated below by a black triangle: the neck is whitish-grey, and covered by feathers of a truncated shape, strong, and elastic like those of a pigeon: the remainder of the neck, and the back with pale testaceous feathers, each marked at the tip with a black ring including a yellowish spot: the abdomen, thighs, and vent are black: the smaller wing-coverts, and the quill-feathers are pale grey; but the larger coverts are of an orange-yellow, forming a speculum or oblong spot of that colour on the wings. The female, which is rather larger than the male, is almost entirely of a pale yellowish colour, marked on the head and neck with black specks, and variegated on the back by transverse streaks of the same colour. This bird is an inhabitant of the sandy deserts in the neighbourhood of the Caspian Sea.

590

Protenor Butterfly

Notes

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PAPILIO PROTENOR.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ, sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis dentatis nigris, anticis stria humerali rubra, posticis annulo rubro ad angulum ani.

PAPILIO PROTENOR. P. alis dentatis nigris, posticis subtus macula difformi rubra anguli ani.

Fabr. spec. ins. 2. p. 7.
Eq. Troj.

Indiam? incolit Papilio Protenor. Pulchrum specimen unde desumpta est figura hæc nostra in Museo celeber­rimi Gulielmi Hunter asservatur.

v

PROTENOR.

Generic Character.

Antennæ gradually thickening towards the tip, and generally terminating in a knob.

Wings (when sitting) erect and meeting upwards: (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character.

Black Butterfly with denticulated wings, the upper pair marked by a red shoulder-streak, the lower by a red ring at the inner angle.

The Papilio Protenor is a native of India? The elegant specimen from which the present figure was taken, is preserved in the Museum of Dr. William Hunter.

591

Seban Crab

Notes

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CANCER SEBANUS.

Character Genericus.

Pedes octo (rarius sex aut decem:) insuper manus duæ chelatæ.

Oculi duo, distantes, plurimis pedunculati, elongati, mobiles.

Cauda articulata, inermis.

Character Specificus, &c.

CANCER miniatus, thorace orbiculato, pedibus hirsutis, chela dextra maxima.

CANCER fluviatilis, sive Gammarus Americanus.

Seb. mus. 3. p. 43. t. 18. f. 4.

Americam testante Seba, incolit Cancer hic depictus, “cujus dextri lateris pes insolitæ est crassitiei atque magni­tudinis, ut vel reliquis omnibus pedibus, totique simul corpori fere præponderet.”

v

the
SEBAN CRAB.

Generic Character.

Legs generally eight; (in some species six or ten,) besides two claspers or chelated arms.

Eyes two, commonly distant; footstalked, moveable.

Tail articulated.

Specific Character, &c.

Red CRAB with orbicular thorax, hairy feet, and right claw excessively large.

Great-clawed American CRAB.

This Crab, according to Seba, is a native of America, and is remarkable for the excessive size of its right claw, which is said to exceed the weight of all the rest of the animal.

592

Fern Phytolithus

Notes

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PHYTOLITHUS FILICIS.

In Natura investiganda vix aliud jucundius quam vegetabilium et animalium certissimas reliquias per totum fere orbem sparsas, interdum etiam ipsis animalibus plantisque quæ in iisdem regionibus nunc dierum inveniuntur prorsus dissimiles attentius consi­derare. In re difficillima etiamnum satis obscura diu inter philosophos pugnatum est variis et sibi invicem contrariis argumentis. At manca fortasse vel adhuc est telluris cognitio, et concedendum certe est hanc nostram a primæva terra longe esse diversam, quam magna sæpe vi convulsam fuisse satis constat et igni aquaque vastatam; adeo ut hodie super rudera quasi et ruinas ambuletur.

Hujusmodi permutationum quamvis causa lateat, vis est notissima. In summis montibus a mari longe remotis, in ipsis etiam Andibus Peruvianis reperiuntur plurima substantiarum marinarum tum animalium tum vegeta­bilium vestigia, quarum multas cum recentes nunquam viderimus, vel species deperditas putemus necesse est, vel in altissimo oceani profundo latere, unde forsan nec insana tempestatum vi attolluntur.

In intimis etiam carbonis et schisti stratis manifesta insunt indicia piscium, crustatorum, plantarum, &c.; sæpissime autem filicum variarum, quarum aliæ ad species genuinas facile reduci possunt, aliæ vero ad illas referendæ sunt quæ aut diu perierunt, aut ajdhuc ignorantur. Harum quæ in v Museo Leveriano spectantur perfectior nulla est quam quas in tabula cernitur, filix scilicet mas vulgaris seu Polypodium filix mas Linnæi, quo specimine vix bellius et integrius vel in ipso horto sicco videris, ipsæ enim in foliis fructificationes clare inspici possunt.

De planta vulgatissima speciatim tractare superva­caneum foret; per totam fere Angliam in locis incultis et juxta sepes generatur.

Repertum est hoc specimen in fragmento lapidis schistosi immersum.

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a
FERN PHYTOLITHUS.

The indisputable remains of animal and vegetable bodies, so plentifully dispersed throughout almost all parts of the globe, and of which a great many are of a widely different appearance from the present natives of the regions in which they are found, form one of the most interesting points of speculation in the history of nature.

Various and even contradictory hypotheses have occasionally been proposed as elucidations of this subject, which yet remains in a considerable degree of obscurity; the true theory of the earth being perhaps still but very imperfectly understood. It must be allowed, however, that vast and violent changes have been wrought in the body of the primeval earth; that we walk as it were on the ruins of the original structure; and that both fire and water have united their forces to derange the first formation.

Of these great convulsions of nature, though the causes yet remain unexplored by all the endeavours of improved philosophy, yet the effects are every where visible.

On the tops of mountains, remotely distant from the sea, even on those of the Andes in Peru, are found the remains of innumerable marine productions, both animal and vegetable; many of which are still unknown in their recent state, and are therefore v either lost species, or else such as inhabit the deepest recesses of the ocean, from whence they are scarce ever raised by the utmost violence of storms and tempests.

In deep-laid strata of coal, slate, &c. are found plentiful specimens of fish, crustacea, plants, &c. The most frequent, however, seem to be those of Ferns, of which a great many different kinds are observed; some easily reducible to their archetypes or proper species, while others appear to belong to species either lost or still unknown.

Among the most complete and curious specimens in the Leverian Museum, is that figured on the annexed plate, which represents in the most perfect manner the well-known European plant called the common male fern, (Polypodium filix mas. Lin.) So extremely perfect is this fossil vegetable, that the fructifications are distinctly seen on the leaves nearly in the same state as in a dried specimen.

To particularize the history of so well known a vegetable would be entirely unnecessary: it is sufficient to say that it is principally found in waste places, and by hedge sides, and is produced in most parts of this kingdom. The specimen is imbedded in a fragment of slaty stone.

593

Rock Manakin

Notes

B

PIPRA RUPICOLA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum capite brevius, basi subtrigonum, integer­rimum, apice incurvum.

Pedes gressorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 338.

Character Specificus, &c.

PIPRA RUPICOLA. P. crista erecta margine purpurea, corpore croceo, tectricibus rectricum truncatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 338.

Upupa Americana lutea.

Ger. orn. 2. p. 64. t. 206.

Coq de roche.

Pl. Enl. 39. & 747.

Avem hanc raram et perpulchram, in Peruvia et Surinamia generatam, insignit mira cristæ et tectricum conformatio. Incolit, ut plurimum, rupes et loca caver­nosa, magni­tudine columbas minori par. Differt a mari femina penitus infuscata.

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B2

the
ROCK MANAKIN.

Generic Character.

Bill shorter than the head, somewhat triangular at the base, and bent at the tip.

Feet formed for walking.

Specific Character, &c.

Orange-coloured MANAKIN, with upright compressed crest, and truncated tail-coverts.

Hoopoe Hen.

Edw. Glean. t. 264.

Coq de roche du Perou.

Buff. ois. 4. p. 437.

Museum Leverianum 1. p. 15. pl. 4.

This rare and beautiful bird is a native of Peru and Surinam, and is remarkable for the singular conformation of its crest and tail-coverts. It is generally seen in the neighbourhood of rocks and caverns, and is about the size of a small pigeon. The female differs from the male in being entirely of a brown colour.

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594

Lobe-Cheeked Lizard

Notes

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LACERTA AURITA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus tetrapodum, elongatum, caudatum, nudum.

Character Specificus, &c.

LACERTA collo utrinque lobo semiorbiculato denti­culato.

LACERTA AURITA. L. cauda tereti mediocri utrinque ad latus callosis punctis aspera, plica gulæ transversa subgemella, oris angulis utrinque in cristam semiorbiculatam mollem scabram dentatam dilatatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

LACERTA Mystacea.

Pall. ih. 3. p. 702.

Luculente adeo et accurate explicuit hanc speciem celeberrimus Pallas ut ipsissima auctoris verba sine ulla immutatione transcribere non dubitaverim.

“Magnitudo adultis fere supra Geckonem. Caput retusum. Anguli oris dilatati utrinque in cristam semior­biculatam mollem, extus punctis scabram, margine dentatam, in vivo animale sanguine turgescentem. v Parotides utrinque muricatæ; plica gulæ transversa subgemella. Corpus ventricosum, depressum, cum cauda totum punctis acute prominulis scabrum, quas majora in pedibus. Caudæ latera (in tractu utrinque longi­tudinali) callulis muricata. Digiti pedum unguiculati, intermedii tres serrati, duo bifariam, interior uno versu. Color supra cinereo et lutescente nebulosus, atomis creberrimis fuscis; subtus sordide albus, litura sterni apiceque caudæ subtus atris. In collibus arenosis Naryn, ut et in deserti Comani sabuletis non infrequens.”

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the
LOBE-CHEEKED LIZARD.

Generic Character.

Body four-footed, elongated, tailed; without any secondary integument.

Specific Character, &c.

LIZARD with a semiorbicular denticulated lobe on each side the neck.

LOBE-CHEEKED LIZARD.

General Zoology, vol. 3. p. 244.

This remarkable Lizard is thus accurately described by Dr. Pallas:—

The size of the full-grown animal is somewhat superior to that of the Lacerta Gecko: the head is obtuse, and rounded in front; and the corners of the mouth are dilated on each side into a soft, semiorbicular crest, which is roughened externally with small points, toothed on the edges, and, in the living animal is turgid with blood: the parotids are muricated, and the throat is furnished with a double transverse pleat: the body is ventricose, depressed, and together with the tail is roughened by small sharply prominent points, which are largest on the v feet: the sides of the tail are muricated in a longi­tudinal direction with small callous points; the toes are furnished with claws, and the three intermediate toes are serrated; two on both sides, and the other only on one: the colour above is a clouded variegation of yellowish and cinereous, with thickly-scattered dusky specks; beneath dull white, with a black streak on the breast and beneath the tip of the tail. It inhabits the sandy and hilly deserts of Siberia.

595

Cluentius Sphinx

Notes

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SPHINX CLUENTIUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ subprismaticæ, utroque fine attenuatæ.

Lingua exserta (plerisque.)

Palpi duo reflexi.

Alæ deflexæ.

Character Specificus, &c.

SPHINX alis fuscis subferrugineo-variis, inferioribus basi fasciaque flavis, corpore utrinque luteo-maculato.

SPHINX CLUENTIUS.

Cram. pap. t. 78. f. B. & 126. f. A.

Surinamiam incolit Sphinx Cluentius, magni­tudine vera in tabula depictus.

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CLUENTIUS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ subprismatic, attenuated at each extremity.

Tongue generally exserted.

Feelers two, reflex.

Wings deflected.

Specific Character, &c.

SPHINX with brown wings, with subferruginous variegations; the lower wings yellow at the base and in the middle, and the body marked on each side by deep-yellow spots.

SPHINX CLUENTIUS.

Cramer, t. 78.

The superb Sphinx here exhibited is a native of Surinam, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

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596

Marbled Buccinum

Notes

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BUCCINUM RUMPHII.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, gibbosa.

Apertura ovata, desinens in canaliculum (s. retusam lacunam) dextrum, cauda retusum.

Labium interius explanatum.

Character Specificus, &c.

BUCCINUM carneo-flavescens fasciis longi­tudinalibus undulatis fuscis.

B: tuberosum, var. γ.

Lin. Gmel. p. 3473.

Le Papier marbré.

Knorr. 6. t. 18. f. 1.

Rumph. t. 23. f. C.

E maribus Indicis extrahitur rarissima hæc cochlea, cujus magni­tudinem veram cernere est in tabula.

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the
MARBLED BUCCINUM.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Slug.

Shell univalve, spiral, gibbous.

Aperture ovate, ending in a channel pointing towards the right.

Interior Lip expanded.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish flesh-coloured BUCCINUM, with longi­tudinal undulated brown bands.

Le Papier marbré.

Rumph. Knorr. &c.

This very rare shell is a native of the Indian seas, and is exhibited on the plate in its natural size.

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597

Painted Emberiza

Notes

C

EMBERIZA CIRIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum conicum.

Mandibula basi deorsum a se invicem discedentes: inferiore lateribus inflexo-coarctata, superiore angustiore.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 308.

Character Specificus, &c.

EMBERIZA capite cæruleo, abdomine fulvo, dorso viridi, pennis viridi-fuscis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 313.

Chloris ludoviciana vulgo Papa dicta.

Briss. av. 3. p. 200.

Fringilla Mariposa.

Scopoli ann. 1. No. 222.

Sive formæ sive colorum habeatur ratio, merito numerari debet Americana hæc avis in pulcherrimis sui generis. Magnitudinem naturalem ostendit tabula. Femina a mare differt corpore supra viridi, subtus flavescente.

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C2

the
PAINTED EMBERIZA.

Generic Character.

Bill conical: Mandibles separating a little from the base downwards: the sides of each mandible bending rather inwards.

Specific Character, &c.

Green EMBERIZA, with blue head, fulvous abdomen, and brownish-green wing-feathers.

The painted Finch.

Edw. pl. 130.

Le Pape.

Buff. ois. 4. p. 176.

Pl. Enl. 159. f. 1.

This species, which is a native of many parts of America, may be considered as one of the most elegant and beautiful of its tribe: it is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size: the female differs from the male in being green above, and yellowish beneath.

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598

Panther Anarhichas

Notes

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ANARHICHAS PANTHERINUS.

Character Genericus.

Caput obtusiusculum.

Dentes primores supra infraque conici, divergentes, sex pluresve.

Molares inferiores palatique rotundati.

Membr. branch. radiis sex.

Corpus teretiusculum, pinna caudæ distincta.

Character Specificus, &c.

ANARHICHAS luteus, maculis rotundatis fuscis.

ANARHICHAS PANTHERINUS. A. maculis per totum corpus rotundis fuscis.

Zouiew act. Petrop. 1781.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 1144.

In Actis Petropolitanis primum descripta fuit hæc species, cujus longi­tudo tres circiter pedes æquat.

“Corpus teretiusculum, ventricosum, lanceolatum, a medio ventre, ubi crassities ejus maxima est, ad caudam, sensim decrescens, nudum, lubricum, squamarum loco punctis minoribus concoloribus adspersum; cute firma, densa, coloris luteo-flavescentis, maculis per totum corpus et pinnam v dorsalem, excepta parte prona, rotundis, fuscis, majoribus notatum. Caput subglobosum; labia duplicata; rictus amplus; palato inserti dentes septem; oculi majusculi; dissiti; branchiarum apertura lunata, coarctata, opercula ex laminis duabus conflata; pinnæ pectorales amplissimæ, rotundatæ; anus post medium corporis ad exordium pinnæ ani: linea lateralis nulla: cauda lanceolata, ad pinnam subcaudalem torosior quam ad dorsalem.

“Habitat in Oceano Septentrionali et Mari Albo. A Russis in esum non trahitur etiamsi caro ejus laudetur.”

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the
PANTHER ANARHICHAS.

Generic Character.

Head rather obtuse.

Fore-Teeth both above and below conical, divergent, strong, six or more in number.

Grinders in the lower jaw and palate rounded.

Gill Membrane six-rayed.

Body roundish: tail-fin distinct.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellow Wolf-Fish, with rounded brown spots.

The Panther Wolf-Fish.

This species, which measures about three feet in length, seems to have been first described in the Petersburg Transactions. The body is subcylindric, ventricose, and lanceolate, gradually decreasing from the middle of the abdomen, where it is thickest, to the tail. It is naked, slippery, and beset in place of scales with small points of the same colour with the skin, which is thick and strong, and of a deep yellow, marked throughout the whole body except the under part, as well as on v the dorsal fin, with round, large, dusky spots: the head is subglobose; the lips doubled, and the gape wide: in the palate are inserted seven teeth: the eyes are rather large and distant: the branchial apertures lunated and straitened, and the gill-covers consist of two plates on each side: the pectoral fins are very large and rounded: the vent is situated beyond the middle of the body, at the beginning of the anal fin: the lateral line is wanting: the tail is lanceolate, and is thicker towards the subcaudal fin than towards the dorsal one. It is a native of the Northern and White Seas, and though the flesh is said to be agreeable, is not eaten by the Russians.

599

Femoral Murex

Notes

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MUREX FEMORALE.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, exasperata suturis membra­naceis.

Apertura desinens in canalem integrum, rectum seu subadscendentem.

Lin. Syst Nat. p. 1213.

Character Specificus.

MUREX FEMORALE. M. testa varicibus decussatis trigona rugosa anterius nodulosa, apertura edentula anterius transversa.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Gualt. test. t. 50. f. C.

Seb. Mus. 3. t. 63. f. 7.-10.

Regenf. Conch. 1. t. 2. f. 21.

Maria Indica præcipue incolit elegans conchylium magni­tudine vera in tabula depictum.

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the
FEMORAL MUREX.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Slug.

Shell univalve, spiral, commonly roughened by membranaceous sutures.

Aperture, terminating in a strait or subascending channel.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellow-brown roughened MUREX, with subtrigonal ventricose body, and toothless aperture.

Argenv. t. 10. f. B.?

Grew. Mus. Reg. Soc. t. 10. f. 4.?

This elegant shell is chiefly found in the Indian Seas, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

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600

Amphitryon Butterfly

Notes

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PAPILIO AMPHITRYON.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes (volatu diurno.)

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis anticis apice flavo-maculatis, posticis fascia flavescente, subtus lunulis cæruleis.

PAPILIO AMPHITRION. P. alis nigris fascia inæquali flava, posterioribus subtus striga e punctis flavis lunulisque cæruleis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2247.

PAPILIO AMPHITRYON.

Cram. t. 7. f. A. B.
Eq. Achiv.

Americæ Australis partes calidiores incolit Papilio Amphitryon, coloribus interdum leviter varians. Magnitudinem veram ostendit tabula.

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AMPHITRYON.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the upper part, and generally terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when sitting) erect, and meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

Blackish Butterfly, with the upper wings spotted with yellow at the tips, the lower wings marked by a yellowish band, and beneath by a row of blue crescents.

This insect is a native of several parts of South America, and is subject to some slight variation as to colour: the plate represents it in its natural size.

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601

Australasian Jabiru

Notes

D

MYCTERIA AUSTRALIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum subascendens, acutum, mandibula superiore triquetra.

Frons calva.

Nares lineares.

Pedes tetradactyli.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 670.

Character Specificus, &c.

MYCTERIA alba, capite colloque viridi-nigris, tectricibus, pennis scapularibus, caudaque nigris, rostro nigro, pedibus rubris.

MYCTERIA AUSTRALIS.

Lin. Trans. Vol. 5. p. 34.

Generis Mycteriæ species Americana seu communis, physicis jamdiu cognita, varias Americæ Australis partes, incolit. Species autem quam depinximus, quamque generat Australasia, distat insigniter ab avi Americana, quod caput et collum non denudentur, sed plumis vestiantur saturatim viridibus, qualibus fere collucere solet Anas Boschas mas; splendore insuper versicolori vel in cæruleum vel purpureum transeunte. Rostrum nigrat; et a basi v mandibulæ inferioris dependet extensa aliqua­tenus in gulam cutis quædam nuda, seu sacculus membranaceus ruberrimus. Cætera avis nivei est candoris, alarum tectricibus omnibus exceptis nigerrimis, nigraque cauda. Crura pedesque ruberrima. Icones accuratissime delineatæ sunt apud Dominum White, coloniæ Britannicæ in Australasia chirurgum præcipuum, unde constat hanc speciem, cum plene adoleveret, Mycteriæ ipsi Americanæ magni­tudine esse parem; sex enim vel septem pedes alta depingitur. Specimen autem nostrum quod ostendit tabula, quodque in Museo Leveriano asservatur, vix quinque pedes superat.

D2

the
AUSTRALASIAN JABIRU.

Generic Character.

Bill subascendant, sharp, with the upper mandible triquetrous.

Front bare.

Nostrils linear.

Feet tetradactylous.

Specific Character, &c.

White JABIRU, with the head and neck green-black; the coverts, scapulars, and tail black; the bill black, and the legs red.

New Holland JABIRU.

Lin. Trans. Vol. 5. p. 34.

The common or American Jabiru has long since been known to naturalists, and is found in many parts of South America. The present species is a native of Australasia, or New Holland, and differs very strikingly from the American bird in the appearance of the head and neck, which, instead of being bare, are entirely covered with feathers of a most elegant dark green, similar to those of a mallard, and accompanied by an elegant blue or purple v changeable lustre. The bill is black, and beneath the lower mandible, to some little distance down the throat, is an extensile naked skin or sacculus of a bright red colour: the rest of the bird is of a snowy whiteness, the coverts of the wings, and the tail excepted, which are jet-black: the legs and feet are of a bright red. According to some very accurate drawings, in the collection of Mr. White, Chief Surgeon to the Settlement at Botany Bay, this species, when full-grown, must be equal in size to the common Jabiru, being not less than six or seven feet high. The present specimen, however, which is preserved in the Leverian Museum, falls short of the height just mentioned, scarcely exceeding that of four and a half, or five feet.

602

Tarantula

Notes

r

ARANEA TARANTULA.

Character Genericus.

Pedes octo.

Oculi octo.

Os unguibus seu retinaculis duobus.

Palpi duo articulati; masculis genitalibus capitati.

Anus papillis textoriis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1030.

Character Specificus, &c.

ARANEA fusca, abdomine supra maculis trigonis nigris margine albidis, pedibus nigro variatis.

ARANEA TARANTULA. A. subtus atra, pedibus atro-fasciatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1035.

Araneam Tarantulum, de qua abunde fabularum nugarumque laboriose doctarum audivimus, quæque ad hunc usque diem vulgi fidem et ignorantiam exercet, generant, calidiores Italice regiones, aliæque nonnullos partes European arva amantem, ut plurimum, v sicca et soli exposita. Magnitudo et colores accurate in tabula exprimuntur. In ævo, cui plenum scientiæ lumen affulsit, satis sit notare ficta et inania haberi quæ de symptoma­tibus morsum Tarantulæ sequentibus, non nisi musica tollendis decantari solita sunt, et apud sanos omnes totam fabulam exolevisse.

r

the
TARANTULA.

Generic Character.

Legs eight.

Eyes eight.

Mouth furnished with two hooks or holders.

Palpi or Feelers two, the tips of which (in the males) distinguish the sex.

Abdomen terminated by papillæ or teats, thro’ which the insect draws its thread.

Specific Character, &c.

Brown Spider, with the back of the abdomen marked by trigonal black spots with whitish edges, and the legs variegated with black.

The TARANTULA Spider.

The Tarantula, of which so many idle recitals have been detailed in the works of the learned, and which even to this day continues to exercise the faith and ignorance of the vulgar, is a native of the warmer parts of Italy, and some other European regions, and is generally found in dry and sunny v plains. Its size and colours are accurately repre­sented on the annexed plate. In the present illumi­nated period, it may be sufficient merely to add, that the extraordinary symptoms supposed to ensue from its bite, as well as their supposed cure by the power of musick alone, are entirely fabulous, and are now sufficiently exploded among all rational philosophers.

603

Campanular Wasp

Notes

r

VESPA CAMPANARIA.

Character Genericus.

Os corneum; maxilla compressa. Palpi quatuor inæquales, filiformes.

Antennæ filiformes; articulo primo longiore cylindrico.

Oculi lunares.

Corpus glabrum.

Aculeus punctorius reconditus.

Alæ superiores plicatæ.

Character Specificus, &c.

VESPA Holsatica. V. nigra, linea utrinque ad humeros, maculisque scutellaribus luteis, abdomine luteo segmentis basi transverse punctisque contiguis nigris.

Latreille. Ann. du Museum d’Histoire Naturelle, p. 287.

Insectorum in nidificando æque ac avium ingeniosa est solertia, et fortasse magis varia, illorum præcipue quæ Hymenoptera et Neuroptera dicuntur; aliorum rarior longe, at non minus miranda. Ingens species araneæ Americanæ nidum struit calido artificio v cylindraceum et tubulatum, cujus introitum, ut minus suspecta lateat, valvis mobilibus occludit, prædam si quam appropinquantem viderit, exiliendo arreptura. Nota est Myrmeleonis Formicaleonis Linnæi astutia, qui dum adhuc larva est, in arena cubans suo ipsius labore profunde et orbiculatim excavata, insectis quæ forte juxta repentia deciderint, vigilantissime insidiatur. Termitum quos parit Asia et Africa mirandum est ingenium, qui nidos ædificant in altitudinem multorum pedum, concameratos, et in magnam cellarum varietatem divisos. At longe præ aliis omnibus dædalis apum vesparumque laboribus maximus semper habitus est honos; e quibus nulla elegantius nidificat quam species reliquis minus nota, quod cubile sibi faciat in locis solitariis, in summis scilicet stabulis, aliisque id generis. Struit hæc nidum insignem festucæ, ut plurimum, seu frustulo ligni, aut tali alicui affixum, pendentemque de culmine horrei, aut septi cujuslibet, ore deorsum spectante, constantemque e globis concentricis tribus, quatuor, et interdum pluribus, substantiæ fere ejusdem ac papyri rudioris, imo modice aperto rotun­doque. In medio globi interioris construitur cellularum congeries, duodecim scilicet seu quindecim, seu etiam viginti, quasi papyriarum, more ipsius nidi, et circa columnam centralem dispositarum. Cæteris paulo humilior est circulus cellularum exterior. Reperitur nidus fere exeunte æstate. Quod impossibile sit internam nidi conformationem plene repræsentare, ni execta sit pars aliqua ut inspiciantur cellulæ, ideo in tabula duæ proponuntur figuræ, quarum una nidum externum ostendit; altera r per globos omnes concentricos nidum totum aperit sectione recta longi­tudinali.

Notandum porro est Vespam quandam Americanam nidum formare eodem omnino modo quo hæc nostra; longe autem majorem, et e numerosioribus globis concentricis constantem, duodecim scilicet seu pluribus; suspensum, ut plurimum, ramulis arborum, pinorum nempe et aliarum; seu potius iis affixum.

v

the
CAMPANULAR WASP.

Generic Character.

Mouth horny; with a compressed jaw: Feelers four, unequal, filiform.

Antennæ filiform; with the first joint longer than the rest and cylindrical.

Eyes lunated.

Body smooth.

Sting concealed.

Wings pleated.

Specific Character, &c.

Black WASP, with a luteous line on each side the thorax, two luteous spots on the scutellum, and luteous abdomen with transverse annular black bands accompanied by black spots at their ends.

La Guepe de Holstein.

Latreille. Ann. d’Hist. Nat. p. 288.

The nidification of insects is scarcely less curious than that of birds, and the variety of structure is even greater. It is principally in the classes Hymenoptera r and Neuroptera that this practice prevails; in the other classes it is less general, though not less singular. Thus a large species of American spider forms a very curious tubular or cylin­drical nest in which it generally resides, and, in order to remove all suspicion of the dangerous inhabitant, it constantly forms a moveable valve or door, with which it closes the entrance, and when it perceives the approach of any other insect, springs out and seizes the prey.

The curious policy of the Myrmeleon Formicaleo in its larva state is well known. It lies in ambush at the bottom of a deep conical cavity formed in dry sand, into which other insects accidentally falling are sure of being seized by the watchful inhabitant.

The Termites of Africa and Asia afford wonderful examples of this nidificating power, and form stupendous structures of many feet in length, and divided into a vast variety of cells and passages. Of all insects however those whose operations are most conspicuous are the different kinds of Bees and Wasps, whose labours have been admired in all ages, and celebrated from the most remote antiquity. Amongst the most elegant of these structures may be numbered that of a species of Wasp, which, on account of its frequenting retired places, and fixing its nest in the upper parts of buildings, is less attended to than many others of its genus. The structure of the nest is singularly curious. It is commonly fastened or suspended by a straw, or slight fragment of wood, or other small projecting substance, from the upper part of some barn or outhouse, and consists of three or four, and sometimes more concentric v globes, of an appearance resembling that of coarse paper, with a rather small round opening at the bottom. In the middle of the interior or central globe is placed the congeries of cells, to the number of twelve, fifteen, or even twenty: these are arranged round a kind of central column, and are composed of the same, paper-like substance with rest of the nest; the exterior circle of cells being somewhat lower or shorter than the rest. These curious nests are generally found about the latter end of summer. It being impossible to give a clear idea of the internal structure of the nest without laying it open, it is repre­sented in two views on the annexed plate; one of the figures shewing its complete exterior appearance; the other being cut perpendicularly downwards in order to display the central cells.

It may not be improper to observe that there is an exotic species of Wasp, a native of America, which forms a nest on a plan exactly similar to our present species, but differing in being much larger, and having the concentric globes far more numerous, viz. from ten to twelve, or more. These American Wasp-nests are commonly suspended from, or rather affixed to the small branches of trees, as Firs, &c.

604

Merope Butterfly

Notes

r

PAPILIO MEROPE.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis flavis limbo nigro, posterioribus subtus fascia fusca.

PAPILIO Brutus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2237.

PAPILIO MEROPE.

Cram. t. 378. f. D. E.

Africæ varias partes incolit Papilio Merope, cujus veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula: coloribus interdum paulo variat.

v

MEROPE.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the upper part, and generally terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when sitting) erect, and meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with yellow wings bordered with black; the lower pair marked beneath by a transverse brown band.

P. MEROPE.

Cram. t. 378. f. D. E.

This species is a native of several parts of Africa, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size. In colour it sometimes varies a little.

605

Egyptian Goose

Notes

E

ANAS ÆGYPTIACA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum lamelloso-dentatum, convexum, obtusum.

Lingua ciliata, obtusa.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 194.

Character Specificus, &c.

ANAS flavo-ferruginea, fusco-undulata, speculo alari candido, fascia nigra.

ANAS ÆGYPTIACA. A. rostro subcylindrico, corpore undulato, vertice albo, speculo alari albo fascia nigra.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 197.

Elegantem hanc speciem, in variis Africanis partibus generatam, abundantius alere dicitur Ægyptus. In Angliam jam olim illata est; commendatque eam tam venustas quam cicur et mansuetum ingenium. In avium numero est quarum imaginibus adornare soliti sunt antiqui Ægyptii sacras sculpturas; in obeliscis nonnullis præcipue notabilis, quos, inter alia vetera monumenta in Museo Britannico jam asservatos, a Gallis nuperrime eripuerunt celeberrimi nostri bellici ductores qui in Ægypto militarunt.

Magnitudo avis eadem fere est atque anseris communis.

v

 

E2

the
EGYPTIAN GOOSE.

Generic Character.

Bill broad and flattened; the edges marked with sharp lamellæ.

Tongue broad and ciliated at the edges.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish-ferruginous GOOSE, with brown undulations, and white wing-coverts crossed by a black bar.

EGYPTIAN GOOSE.

Lath. syn. 3. p. 453.

L’Oye d’Egypte.

Buff. 9. p. 79.

Pl. Enl. 379. 982. 983.

This elegant species is found in several parts of Africa, and is said to be particularly plentiful in Egypt. In our own country it is often seen in a domestic state, and is highly esteemed on account of its agreeable appearance. It is one of those birds v which were frequently represented among the sacred sculptures of the ancient Egyptians, and is particularly observable on some obelisks lately brought from Egypt by our celebrated countrymen, and now deposited in the British Museum.

606

Brown Patella

Notes

r

PATELLA FUSCA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, subconica, absque spira.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1257.

Character Specificus, &c.

PATELLA testa subintegra ovata obtusa fusca, elevato-striata, intus alba.

PATELLA FUSCA. P. testa integerrima ovata, obtusa, striis elevatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Maria Indica et Americana incolit Patella fusca, magni­tudine vera in tabula depicta.

v

 

r

the
BROWN PATELLA.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Limax or Slug.

Shell univalve, subconic, without spire.

Specific Character, &c.

PATELLA with nearly entire, ovate, brown, ribbed Shell, white within.

The brown Indian Limpet.

The Brown Patella is a native of the Indian and American seas, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

607

Pezizoid Madrepore

Notes

r

MADREPORA PEZIZOIDES.

Character Genericus.

Animal Medusa.

Corallium cavitatibus lamelloso-stellatis.

Character Specificus, &c.

MADREPORA subcærulea subfoliacea concava, supra stellis muricata, subtus aceroso-scabra.

MADREPORA cinerascens. M. subfoliacea explanata aggregata, subtus aceroso-scabrosa, stellis remoti­usculis elevatis, ambulacris scabrosis.

Soland. et Ellis Zooph. p. 157. t. 43.

E maribus Indicis extrahitur rara hæc Madrepora, interdum multo major quam in tabula depingitur.

v

 

r

the
PEZIZOID MADREPORE.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Medusa.

Coral marked by lamellar star-shaped cavities.

Specific Character.

Blueish subfoliaceous concave MADREPORE, muricated above with star-shaped pores, and of a chaffy-rough surface beneath.

This rare species of Madrepore is found in the Indian seas, and is sometimes much larger than the specimen figured on the present plate.

v

 

608

Doubtful Phalangium

Notes

r

PHALANGIUM DUBIUM.

Character Genericus.

Pedes octo.

Oculi verticis duo contigui, duo laterales.

Frons antennis pediformibus.

Abdomen rotundatum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1028.

Character Specificus.

PHALANGIUM fuscum, chelis minutis dorsalibus.

In litoribus Americanis? generatur Phalangium dubium. A Domino Lathamo nacti sumus specimen quod depinximus. Ignotum credimus fuisse ipsum insectum, nec ab aliquo antea depictum.

v

 

r

the
DOUBTFUL PHALANGIUM.

Generic Character.

Legs eight.

Eyes two vertical and two lateral.

Antennæ resembling legs.

Abdomen rounded.

Specific Character.

Brown PHALANGIUM, with minute dorsal claspers.

This species is supposed to be a native of some of the American coasts. The specimen figured on the annexed plate was communicated by Mr. Latham. It is an insect which seems not to have been hitherto described or figured.

v

 

609

Hyacinthine Maccaw

RN Del.

Notes

F

PSITTACUS AUGUSTUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum; mandibula superiore mobili; cera instructum.

Nares in rostri basi.

Lingua carnosa, obtusa, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 139.

Character Specificus, &c.

PSITTACUS macrourus cyaneus, fostro pedibusque nigris; orbitis basique mandibulæ inferioris luteis.

Museum Leverianum. No. 2. t. 2.

PSITTACUS hyacinthinus.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 84.

In Museo Leveriano asservatur avis hæc rarissima, quæ reliquis fere omnibus psittacini generis mole et magnifi­centia antecellere videtur. Tota avis est eximie cyanea, nisi quod super frontem et margines remigum levissima sit coloris thalassini tinctura. Superficies inferior alarum caudæque nigra v est. Rostrum præter solitum magnum validumque omnino nigerrimum. Nigrant quoque crura et pedes, quorum ingens est robur. Orbitæ seu spatia nuda circum oculos coloris sunt lutei: lutea est etiam cutis nuda qua mandibulæ inferioris basis cingitur. Partium corporis proportio eadem fere est cum Psittaco Ararauna. In iisdem quoque Americæ Australis partibus fortasse generatur. Præter specimen quod descripsimus vix aliud in tota Europa inveniri dicitur.

F2

the
HYACINTHINE MACCAW.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked: upper mandible moveable, and furnished with a cere.

Nostrils round, placed at the base of the bill.

Tongue fleshy, broad, blunt at the end.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Long-tailed deep-blue MACCAW, with the bill and legs black; the orbits and base of the lower mandible yellow.

HYACINTHINE MACCAW.

Museum Leverianum. No. 2. pl. 2.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 84.

This extremely rare bird, which surpasses in the magnificence of its appearance almost all the rest of the Parrot tribe, is preserved in the Leverian Museum. The whole bird is of a very fine deep blue, except that the forehead and edges of the wing-feathers have a slight cast of sea-green. The under v surface of the wings and tail is black. The beak, which is uncommonly large and strong, is of a deep black, as are also the legs and feet, which are extremely stout. The orbits or naked spaces round the eyes are of a deep yellow, as is also the skin round the base of the lower mandible. The general proportions of the bird are nearly the same as those of the Psittacus Ararauna, and it is probably a native of the same parts of South America. The specimen now described is perhaps the only one known to exist at present in Europe.

610

Canadian Sheep

Notes

r

OVIS CANADENSIS.

Character Genericus.

Cornua concava, retrorsum versa, intorta, rugosa.

Dentes primores inferiores octo.

Laniarii nulli.

Character Specificus, &c.

OVIS pilosa fusco-ferruginea, fronte uropygioque albis, cauda brevissima, cornibus compressis lunatis.

Belier de Montague.

Geoffr. Ann. Mus. Nat. No. 11. p. 360.

Physicis Europæis non nisi nuperrime innotuisse videtur Ovis quam describere pergimus, in Canada interiori generata, nec lana vestita, sed pilo denso, valido, et quasi cervino. Crura, si cum corpore comparentur, longa et gracilia. Cornua iis simillima quos gerit aries nostras vulgaris: at fœminæ minora longe quam mari. Color generalis fusco-ferrugineo-pallet, idem fere ac cernere est in multis cervini generis. Genæ obscuriores. Rostrum et uropygium alba. Cauda brevissima. Idem fere dicitur esse huic vivendi modus qui Ibici; scandenti nempe montium cacumina, et mira celeritate de v rupe in rupem salienti. Ovium hujusmodi congregantur, ut plurimum, viginti seu triginta; vocantque eas Canadenses oves rupestres. Juniorum caro in cibis lautissimis habetur. Ovi Canadensi eadem fere est magni­tudo atque Ibici. Perpulchrum rari hujus quadrupedis specimen in Museo Britannico conspicitur.

r

the
CANADIAN SHEEP.

Generic Character.

Horns hollow, wrinkled, turning backwards, and spirally intorted.

Front-Teeth eight in the lower jaw.

Canine-Teeth none.

Specific Character, &c.

Ferruginous-brown hairy SHEEP, with white front and rump, very short tail, and compressed lunated horns.

Belier de Montagne.

Geoffr. ann. mus. nat. No. 11. p. 360.

The species of sheep here represented, and which appears to have been, till very lately, unknown to the naturalists of Europe, is a native of the interior parts of Canada. It is remarkable for being covered, instead of wool, with very thick and strong hair, greatly resembling that of a Deer. The legs are long in proportion to the body. The horns very much resemble v those of the common ram, and those of the female are said to be much smaller than those of the male. The general colour is a pale ferruginous brown, similar to that of many of the Deer tribe: the cheeks are of a darker cast than the other parts, and the muzzle and rump are white: the tail is very short. The general habits of the animal are said to resemble those of the Ibex, frequenting chiefly the highest and most inaccessible parts of the mountainous regions, occa­sionally skipping from rock to rock with incredible swiftness. It is generally observed in small flocks of twenty or thirty together, and is known to the Canadians by the name of Mountain Sheep. The young are considered as the most delicate meat which that extensive country can afford. A very fine specimen of this rare quadruped may be seen in the British Museum.

612

Persimon Moth

Notes

r

PHALÆNA REGIA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setacece, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ sedentis sæpius deflexæ. (Volatu nocturno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 808.

Character Specificus, &c.

PHALÆNA (Bombyx) elinguis, alis deflexis griseo-fuscis flavo maculatis fulvoque nervosis; posticis corporeque fulvis.

Smith. Abbot. Ins. Amer. p. 121. t. 61.

Bombyx regalis.

Fabr. ins. emend. vol. 4. p. 436.

PHALÆNA Laocoon.

Cram. pap. t. 117. B. C.?

Quamvis erucam seu larvam pulcherrimi hujus insecti satis accurate delineaverunt Catesbeius aliique, ipsam tamen phalænam primo depictam esse arbitror in Crameri pagina. Quod autem animalculi omnes permutationes subeuntis plena ad nos notitia pervenerit, debetur laudabili industriæ Domini Abboti, qui opus nuperrime edidit insoliti splendoris v de insectis Transatlanticis, doctis præterea ditatum observationibus Domini Smithii, M. D. Societatis Linnæanæ Londinensis præsidis. Docet Dominus Abbotus, erucam, (nomine diaboli cornuti vulgo dictam) folia Diospyri Virginianæ et Juglandis albæ præcipue depascere, et tela tenui invo­lutam in chrysalidem converti mense Junio, mense autem Julio erumpere phalænam.

Notavit recte omnino Dominus Smithius phalænam hanc phalænæ nostræ Europææ Ph: Humuli Linnæi (Ghost-Moth) habitu generali evidenter esse affinem.

Variæ insecti vices ostenduntur in tabula juxta naturalem magni­tudinem.

611

Persimon Moth (caterpillar and pupa)

r

the
PERSIMON MOTH.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, decreasing in size from base to point.

Wings (when at rest) generally deflected. Flight chiefly nocturnal.

Specific Character, &c.

MOTH with deflected grey-brown wings, with yellow spots and fulvous nerves: the lower wings and body fulvous.

The PERSIMON MOTH.

Abbot’s American Insects. p. 121. pl. 61.

The caterpillar of this highly-elegant insect has long ago been figured with sufficient accuracy by Catesby and others, but the Moth seems to have been first figured in the work of Cramer. For the complete knowledge of the insect in all its states we are indebted to the laudable industry of Mr. Abbot, whose researches on the Trans­atlantic Insects, assisted by the learned and accurate annotations of Dr. Smith, president of the Linnæan Society v of London, have lately appeared with such superior splendour. Mr. Abbot informs us that the caterpillar (which is popularly known by the title of the Horned Devil) feeds principally on the leaves of the Persimon and the Hiccory, and that it changes into a chrysalis in the month of June, (first enveloping itself in an oval web,) the moth appearing in the month of July. Dr. Smith, in his annotations, has very judiciously added, that in point of general habit this moth is evidently allied to the European species called the Ghost-Moth (Phalæna Humuli Lin.) The plate represents the animal in its several changes, and in its natural size.

613

Blue-Headed Bee-Eater

R Nodder. Del & Scuptt.

Notes

G

MEROPS CÆRULOCEPHALUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum compressum, curvatum, carinatum.

Lingua apice laciniata.

Pedes gressorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 182.

Character Specificus, &c.

MEROPS RUBER, capite gula uropygioque cæruleo-viridibus.

MEROPS NUBICUS. M. ex cæruleo viridis subtus ruber, dorso, alis, caudaque furcata lateritiis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 464.

Africæ partes interiores incolit Merops Cærulocephalus: magni­tudo avis eadem fere est atque Meropis communis sive Europææ. Variat cauda subintegra vel forcipata.

v

 

r

the
BLUE-HEADED BEE-EATER.

Generic Character.

Bill compressed, curvated, and carinated.

Tongue generally laciniated at the tip.

Feet formed for walking.

Specific Character, &c.

RED BEE-EATER, with the head, throat, and rump blue-green.

BLUE-HEADED BEE-EATER.

Lath. Syn. 1. p. 680.

Le Gnépìer rouge a tete bleue.

Buf. ois. 6. p. 506.

Gnépìer de Nubie.

Pl. Enl. 649.

This bird is a native of the interior parts of Africa, and is nearly similar in size to the common or European Bee-Eater. It varies in having the tail either even or slightly forked.

v

 

614

American Tarantula

RPN 1804

Notes

r

ARANEA VENATORIA.

Character Genericus.

Pedes octo.

Oculi octo.

Os unguibus seu retinaculis duobus.

Palpi duo articulati; masculis genitalibus capitati.

Anus papillis textoriis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1030.

Character Specificus, &c.

ARANEA CASTANEA, thorace glabro, abdomine pubescente fusco.

ARANEA VENATORIA. A. thorace orbiculato glabro atro, abdomine ovato pubescente fusco.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2960.

Fabr. sp. ins. 1. p. 546.

Jamaicam insulasque alias Americanas incolit Aranea venatoria, in locis siccis et arenosis nidum struens cylin­draceum, quinque vel sex uncias longum, et operculo seu valvula instructum, quæ ad libitum resilit et clauditur. In hoc latibulo prædæ insidiatur, insectis nempe prope repentibus aut volantibus, quæ saltu subito arrepta et in nidum subducta, clauso operculo, devorat. Ostenditur in tabula animalis vera magni­tudo; nidus autem magni­tudine diminuta conspicitur.

v

 

r

the
AMERICAN TARANTULA.

Generic Character.

Legs eight.

Eyes eight.

Mouth furnished with two hooks or holders.

Palpi or Feelers two, the tips of which (in the males) distinguish the sex.

Abdomen terminated by papillæ or teats thro’ which the insect draws its thread.

Specific Character, &c.

CHESNUT SPIDER, with smooth thorax, and brown pubescent body.

BLACK TARANTULA.

Brown’s Jamaica.

AMERICAN TARANTULA.

The Aranea venatoria inhabits Jamaica, and other American islands: it constructs in dry and sandy situa­tions a cylindrical nest of five or six inches in length, furnished with an elastic closing valve. In this nest the animal waits the arrival of its prey, viz. any insect flying or creeping near; and suddenly rushing out, secures its victim, which it drags into the nest, and devours at leisure, the valve immediately closing behind it. In the annexed plate the spider itself is repre­sented in its natural size; the nest of half its real dimensions.

v

 

616

Cecropian Moth

Notes

r

PHALÆNA CECROPIA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ sedentis sæpius deflexæ. (Volatu nocturno).

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 808.

Character Specificus, &c.

PHALÆNA alis subfalcato-rotundatis griseo-fuscis, fascia ferruginea maculaque media fenestrata.

PHALÆNA CECROPIA. P. alis subfalcatis griseis, fascia fulva, primoribus ocello subfenestrato ferrugineo.

Lin. Syst. Gmel. p. 2401.

Catesb. Carol. 2. t. 86.

Cram. pap. 4. t. 42. f. A. B.

In variis Americæ borealis partibus conspicitur pulcher­rima hæc Phalæna. Operi splendidissimo Domini Abboti de insectis Americanis effigiem debemus larvæ et pupæ.

v

 

615

Cecropian Moth (caterpillar and pupa)

R P Nodder

r

the
CECROPIAN MOTH.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, decreasing in size from base to point.

Wings (when at rest) generally deflected. Flight nocturnal.

Specific Character, &c.

GREY-RROWN MOTH, with rounded subfalcated wings, marked by a ferruginous band and semitransparent middle spot.

Seb. Mus. 4. t. 58. f. 4. 5?

Drury. 1. pl. 18. f. 2.

This highly beautiful insect is found in many parts of North America. It is to the splendid publication of Mr. Abbot on the American insects that we are indebted for the figure of the larva and pupa.

v

 

617

Blue-Tailed Thrush

R P Nodder 1804.

Notes

H

TURDUS CYANURUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum tereti-cultratum, mandibula superiore apice deflexo, emarginato.

Nares nudæ, superne membranula semitectæ.

Faux ciliata.

Lingua lacero-emarginata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 291.

Character Specificus, &c.

TURDUS SUBFERRUGINEUS subtus flavus, abdomine cæruleo lineato, cauda cyanea.

TURDUS CYANURUS. T. rufo-fuscus, subtus flavus, abdomine cæruleo fasciato, pileo lateribusque colli striga longi­tudinali nigra, fascia pectorali caudaque cæruleis.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 301.

In avibus quas plurimas alit America australis, haud facile elegantiorem reperies Turdo cyanuro. Caput fasciis nigris flavisque lateralibus decoratur: v dorsum humerique nitidissime castanea: alarum remiges nigri; tectricum apicibus albis fasciam concolorem per medium quasi alæ ducentibus. Tota avis inferior a gula pulchre flavet, lineis plurimis transversis læte cæruleis variata. Cauda brevis et acutula splendidissime cyanea est, pennis lateralibus a mediis duabus gradatim utrinque decrescentibus. Rostrum nigrum, pedes fusci. Avem hanc raritate mirabilem jactant perpauca musea. In Cayenna præcipue generari dicitur Turdus cyanurus.

r

the
BLUE-TAILED THRUSH.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, obtusely carinated at the top, bending a little at the point, and slightly notched near the end of the upper mandible.

Nostrils oval and naked.

Tongue slightly jagged at the end.

Middle-toe slightly connected to the outer as far as the first joint.

Specific Character, &c.

SUBFERRUGINOUS THRUSH, yellow beneath, with deep blue tail, and abdomen marked by numerous blue lines.

L’Azurin.

Buff. ois. 3. p. 410.

Merle de la Guiane.

Pl. Enl. 355.

The Blue-Tailed Thrush may be considered as one of the most elegant of the South-American v birds. The head is ornamented on each side by black and yellow stripes: the back and shoulders are of a bright chesnut colour: the wing-feathers black; the coverts tipped with white, forming a band of that colour across the middle of each wing; the whole under part of the bird, from the throat, is of a bright yellow, marked with numerous bright-blue transverse lines: the tail is short, and of a slightly sharpened shape, the feathers gradually shortening on each side from the middle ones: the bill is black and the legs brown. This highly rare and beautiful bird is but rarely seen in European museums, and is principally found in Cayenne.

618

Strix Moth

R P Nodder. 1804

Notes

r

PHALÆNA STRIX.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ. (Volatu nocturno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 808.

Character Specificus, &c.

PHALÆNA ALBIDA, alis concoloribus fusco nigroque reticulatis nebulosisque.

PHALÆNA STRIX? P. alis concoloribus albo nigroque reticulatis nebulosisque?

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2529.

Cram. pap. vol. 2. t. 145. f. A.

Insulas Indicas, præcipue Javam et Amboynam incolit Phalæna Strix, magni­tudine vera in tabula depicta.

v

 

r

STRIX.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, decreasing in size from base to point.

Wings (when at rest) generally deflected.

Flight nocturnal.

Specific Character, &c.

WHITISH MOTH, with the wings clouded and reticulated by black and brown variegations.

INDIAN COSSUS or Owl-Moth.

The Phalæna Strix is a native of the Indian islands, and particularly of Java and Amboina. The plate represents it in its natural size.

v

 

619

Argus Cowry and White-Eyed Cowry

R P Nodder 1804

Notes

r

CYPRÆA ARGUS
et
CYPRÆA LEUCOPIS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, involuta, subovata, obtusa, larvis.

Apertura utrinque effusa, linearis, utrinque dentata, longi­tudinalis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1172.

Character Specificus, &c.

CYPRÆA ARGUS. C. subferruginea, ocellis subcon­vexis fuscis, subtus maculis quatuor fuscis.

CYPRÆA ARGUS. C. testa subturbinata subcylin­drica, adspersa ocellis, subtus maculis quatuor fuscis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1173.

Argus magnus.

Regenf. t. 5. f. 57.

Porcellana major, Argus.

Rumph. t. 38. D.

Argus mas.

Martini. 1. p. 363. t. 28. f. 285. 286.

v

Character Specificus, &c.

CYPRÆA LEUCOPIS. C. subferruginea ocellis albis.

CYPRÆA EXANTHEMA? C. testa subturbinata ferruginea, maculis pailidis rotundis adspersa, linea longi­tudinalis subramosa.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1172?

ARGUS pupilla fusca in iride alba.

Martini 1. p. 368. t. 28. f. 289. & t. 29. f. 298. 299.

E maribus Indicis præcipue extrahuntur rara hæc et pulchra conchylia, interdum majora quam in tabula ostenduntur.

r

 

v

the
ARGUS COWRY
and
WHITE-EYED COWRY.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax or Slug.

Shell univalve, involute, obtuse, ovate.

Aperture linear, longitudinal, toothed on both sides.

Specific Character, &c.

ARGUS COWRY. Subferruginous Cowry, with subconvex, brown, eye-shaped spots, and four brown patches beneath.

Le Grand Argus.

Argenv. pl. 18. D.

Le Double Argus.

Knorr. vergn. 3. t. 11. f. 5.

Specific Character, &c.

WHITE-EYED COWRY: Subferruginous Cowry, with white, eye-shaped spots.

Le Faux-Argus.

Davila.

Le veritable Argus.

Knorr. vergn. 2. t. 24. f. 2.

These rare and beautiful shells are chiefly found in the Indian seas, and are sometimes seen of a larger size than repre­sented on the present plate.

620

Slender-Limbed Star-Fish

R P Nodder 1804

Notes

r

ASTERIAS OLIGACTES.

Character Genericus.

Corpus depressum; crusta coriacea, tentaculis muricata.

Os centrale, quinquevalve.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1098.

Character Specificus, &c.

ASTERIAS ALBO-FLAVESCENS, radiis longissimis simplicibus.

ASTERIAS OLIGACTES. A. radiis longissimis simplicibus; articulis singulis basi stylis binis mobilibus acutis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3167.

Pall. nov. act. Petrop. 2. p. 239.

A celeberrimo Pallas in Novis Actis Academiæ Petro­politanæ ita describitur Asterias oligactes.

“Corpusculum duriusculum, exiguum, magni­tudine ea quam figura exprimit, pentagonum, angulis truncatis; superiore facie medio impressa, stellataque costis rotundatis denis, per paria versus angulos truncatos subparallelis, extrorsum crassescentibus; v inferiore facie plana, ore in medio ramis linearibus discisso, stellato et ad ortam radiorum fissura utrinque obliqua incisa. Radii proportione corporis enormi longi­tudine ad quindecim pollices et ultra explere visi, quantum mensurare filo potuere, tereti-filiformes, lentissime adtenuati, compositi articulis creberrimis, crustaceis, osseis, consistentia et colore ut in Asteria Medusæ. Singuli articuli ad latus ori respondens instructi pedunculis seu stylis binis mobi­libus, ipso articulo vix longioribus, approximatis. Color totius albo-flavescens, consistentia dura, crustacea.”

r

the
SLENDER-LIMBED STAR-FISH.

Generic Character.

Body depressed; covered with a coriaceous crust, muricated with tentacula.

Mouth central, five valved.

Specific Character, &c.

YELLOWISH WHITE STAR-FISH, with very long, simple rays; the joints furnished at the base with two moveable styles.

SLENDER-RAYED ASTERIAS.

This curious species of Star-Fish is described by the celebrated Dr. Pallas in the New Petersburg Transactions. It is of the size repre­sented on the plate, and consists of a small, hardish, pentagonal body with truncated angles: the upper surface is marked in a stellated manner by ten ribs or elevations disposed by pairs towards the corners: these ribs are somewhat thicker towards the corners than towards the middle of the body: the mouth is central, v star-shaped and divided by linear processes: the rays or limbs are of enormous length in proportion to the body, measuring more than fifteen inches, and are of a rounded, thread-like appearance, tapering very gradually to their extremities, and consist of very numerous, crustaceous or bony joints, of similar consistence to those of the Asterias Medusa: each joint, on the side or surface answering to the mouth, is furnished with two moveable styles or processes, scarce longer than the joint itself: the whole animal is of a yellowish white colour, and of a hard, crustaceous substance.

621

Tiger Bittern

R Nodder

Notes

I

ARDEA TIGRINA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum rectum, longum, acutum.

Nares lineares.

Lingua acuminata.

Pedes tetradactyli.

Character Specificus, &c.

ARDEA ferruginea, fasciis transversis nigris.

ARDEA tigrina. A. capitis lævis vertice, caudaque albo-fasciata nigris, corpore nigromaculato supra rufo subtus ochroleuco, mento et crisso albis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 638.

ARDEA TIGRINA. A. maculis nigris difformibus notata, supra rufa subtus albida, vertice caudaque nigris, rectricibus fasciis quatuor albis.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 682.

Partes Americæ Australis calidiores incolit Ardea v tigrina, loca paludosa amans, moreque congenerum pisciculis, ranis, aliisque ejusmodi victitans: magni­tudine Ardeam stellarem fere eequat.

I2

the
TIGER BITTERN.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, long, sharp-pointed.

Nostrils linear.

Tongue pointed.

Feet tetradactylous.

Specific Character, &c.

Ferruginous BITTERN, with transverse black, bands.

TIGER BITTERN.

Lath. syn. 3. p. 63.

Heron tigré.

Fermin Surin. 2. p. 151.

L’Onoré.

Buff. ois. 7. p. 431.

Pl. Enl. 790.

The Tiger Bittern is a native of the warmer regions of South-America, frequenting marshy places, and v preying, like the rest of this genus, on small fishes, frogs, &c. In size it nearly equals the common Bittern.

622

Poisonous Solpuga

Notes

r

SOLPUGA VENENOSA.

Character Genericus.

Mandibulæ maximæ, porrectæ, forcipata.

Labium inferius porrectum, subulatum.

Palpi elongati, pedibus anterioribus basi connexi.

Character Specificus, &c.

SOLPUGA tomentosa fusca, corpore ovato.

SOLPUGA arachnodes.

Herbst. apt. p. 37. t. 1. f. 2.

SOLPUGA araneoides.

Fabr. suppl. entom. p. 294.

Phalangium araneoides.

Pall. sp. zool. 9. p. 37. t. 3. f. 8. 9.

In genere Solpuga, cui cum Phalangio et Aranea multa videtur esse affinitas, continentur plures species. Harum fortasse princeps haberi possit, cujus veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula. Generant eam Europæ Australis Africæque loca calidiora. v In agris versatur, morsuque cutem irritando, tumores excitare solet acerbe molestos, interdum lethales. A celeberrimo Herbstio in opere suo præstanti de insectis apteris primo institutum est genus Solpuga.

r

the
POISONOUS SOLPUGA.

Generic Character.

Mandibles very large, stretched forwards, forcipated at the tips.

Lower lip stretched forwards, subulate.

Feelers elongated, connected at their base with the fore-legs.

Specific Character, &c.

Brown, downy SOLPUGA, with ovate abdomen.

Galeode araneoide.

Olivier Nouveau Diet. D’Histoire Naturelle.

Sonnini Voy. en Grece. 2. p. 115.

The genus Solpuga, much allied to those of Phalangium and Aranea, contains several species, of which that repre­sented in its natural size on the plate may perhaps be considered as the principal. It is a native of the warmer parts of the South of Europe, and of Africa, inhabiting fields, and by its bite producing most painful swellings on the skin, v and even, as it is said, sometimes proving fatal. The genus Solpuga seems to have been first instituted by Mr. Herbst, in his excellent work on the Apterous Insects.

623

Oblong Madrepore

R Nodder

Notes

r

MADREPORA PILEUS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Medusa.

Corallium cavitatibus lamelloso-stellatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

MADREPORA ovato-elongata albida, sulco longi­tudinali medio.

MADREPORA PILEUS. M. simplex acaulis oblonga, stella convexa conglomerato-lamellosa, lamellis abbreviatis, subtus concava.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1273.

Mitra Neptuni.

Tournef. act. Paris. 1700. p. 30.

Pileus Neptuni.

Seb. mus. 3. t. 111. f. 3. 5.

In oceano Indico reperta, quam descripsimus, Madre­pora, major sæpe est icone quæ ostenditur in tabula. Color albo-flavescit.

v

 

r

OBLONG MADREPORE.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Medusa.

Coral marked by radiating lamellar cavities.

Specific Character, &c.

Oblong whitish MADREPORE, with a longi­tudinal central furrow.

Mitra Polonica.

Rumph. Amb. 6. p. 243.

Oblong white MADREPORE.

The Madrepore figured on the present plate is a native of the Indian seas, and is frequently found much larger than here repre­sented: its colour is yellowish white.

v

 

624

Tentaculated Erpeton

R Nodder

Notes

r

ERPETON TENTACULATUS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus caudaque squamosa.

Abdomen scutatum.

Character Specificus, &c.

ERPETON rostro utrinque tentaculato.

ERPETON TENTACULATUS.

Cepede.

Ab illustri Cepede institutum genus Erpeton ex unica constat specie quæ insulas Indicas creditur incolere, quamque insigniunt tentacula duo, seu quasi cornua, super labium superius sita, parvulis squamis vestita, nec unquam retracta. Bipedali quasi longi­tudine est Erpeton tentaculatus, veneni expers, dentes habens minimos, eodem modo dispositos quo dentes serpentum innocu­orum. Cuinam vivendi modo se præcipue assuescat, non satis est compertum.

Specimen quod descripsit Cepede in musco Principis Aransiaci asservatur.

v

 

r

TENTACULATED ERPETON.

Generic Character.

Body and tail scaly.

Abdomen lamellated.

Specific Character, &c.

ERPETON with the upper lip tentaculated on each side.

ERPETON tentaculé.

Cepede Ann. Mus. National D’Hist. Nat. No. 10. p. 280. pl. 1.

The genus Erpeton, instituted by the Count de Cepede, consists at present of a single species, which is supposed to be a native of the Indian islands, and is remarkable for a pair of tentacula or elongated processes situated above the upper lip: these tentacula are covered with very minute scales, and are not retractile. The animal measures about two feet in length, and is not of a poisonous nature, the teeth, which are very small, resembling those of innoxious serpents. Of its particular habits or history nothing seems to be known.

The specimen described by Cepede belonged to the Museum of the Prince of Orange.

v

 

625

Magnificent Paradisea

R P Nodder 1804

Notes

K

PARADISEA MAGNIFICA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum capistri plumis tomentosis tectum.

Pennæ hypochondriorum longiores (plerisque.)

Rectrices duæ superiores singulares denudatæ.

Character Specificus, &c.

PARADISEA rufo-castanea, subtus viridi-nitens, collo utrinque pennis flavis fasciculato.

PARADISEA MAGNIFICA. P. supra spadicea, gula viridi lunulis aureis, cervicis fasciculo pennarum flavarum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 401.

Paradiseam magnificam commendat formæ elegantia et versicolor plumarum varietas. In insulis Moluccanis præcipue generatur, magni­tudine Paradiseæ apodæ paulo inferior.

v

 

K2

the
MAGNIFICENT PARADISEA.

Generic Character.

Bill surrounded at the base by velvet-like feathers.

Hypochondrial feathers (in most species) long and loose.

Tail-feathers two upper naked or unwebbed.

Specific Character, &c.

RUFOUS-CHESNUT PARADISE-BIRD, lucid green beneath, with fasciculated yellow plumes on each side the neck.

MAGNIFICENT BIRD of PARADISE.

Lath. Syn. 1. p. 477.

Oiseau de Paradis, de la Nouvelle Guinée dit le Magnifique.

Pl. Enl. 631.

This elegant species, so remarkable for the splendor and variety of its colours, is principally found in the Molucca islands, and is of somewhat smaller size than the Paradisea apoda or common Paradise-Bird.

v

 

626

Ascanius (monkey)

R Nodder Sculpt

Notes

r

SIMIA ASCANIUS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes primores utrinque quatuor, approximati.

Laniarii solitarii, longiores, hinc remoti.

Molares obtusi.

Character Specificus, &c.

SIMIA caudata, barbata, olivacea, subtus grisea, facie violacea, naso albo.

SIMIA ASCANIUS. S. caudata barbata, facie subcærulea, naso albo.

Audeb. Singes. fam. 4. sect. 2. f. 13.

Simiam Ascanium primus descripsisse videtur Dominus Audebertius, in eleganti opere, cui titulus “Histoire des Singes, &c.” Eadem fere est magni­tudine atque Simia Sabæa Linnæi, et indole esse dicitur alacri, sed mansueta. De patria ambigitur; Africanam tamen crediderim.

v

 

r

ASCANIUS.

Generic Character.

Front-teeth in each jaw four, placed near together.

Canine-teeth solitary, longer than the others, distant from the grinders.

Grinders obtuse.

Specific Character, &c.

Long-tailed, bearded, olive-coloured Monkey, grey beneath, with violaceous face, and white nose.

L’Ascagne.

Audeb. Singes.

The animal represented on the present plate seems to have been first described by Monsr. Audebert, in his elegant publication entitled Histoire des Singes, &c. In size it nearly equals the Simia Sabæa or green monkey, and is said to be of a very lively, but gentle disposition. Its native country is not certainly known, but it is probably an African species.

v

 

628

Sharp-Tailed Oniscus

R P Nodder Sculpt

Notes

r

ONISCUS ENTOMON.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ.

Palpi inæquales, posteriores longiores.

Corpus ovale.

Pedes quatuordecim.

Character Specificus, &c.

ONISCUS antennis quaternis, cauda oblonga acuta.

Fabr. spec. ins. 1. p. 375.

ONISCUS ENTOMON. O. abdomine subtus nudo, cauda subulata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1060.

Marina hæc species, Oniscorum Britannicorum maxima, adhæret plerumque piscibus majoribus. Color viventi livido-fuscus, exsiccatæ obscuro-albidus.

v

 

r

the
SHARP-TAILED ONISCUS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous.

Feelers unequal, the hinder longest.

Body oval.

Legs fourteen.

Specific Character, &c.

Pale brown ONISCUS, with four antennæ, and oblong, sharpened tail.

SQUILLE ENTOMON.

Degeer. 7. p. 514.

This insect, the largest of the British Onisci, is a marine species, and is commonly found attached to the bodies of the larger fishes: its colour, when living, is pale brown, which fades in the dried animal into dull white.

v

 

627

Linear Crab

R P Nodder Sculpt

Notes

r

CANCER LINEARIS.

Character Genericus.

Pedes octo, (rarius sex aut decem;) insuper manus duæ chelatæ.

Oculi duo, distantes, plurimis pedunculati, elongati, mobiles.

Cauda articulata, inermis.

Character Specificus, &c.

CANCER corpore lineari, manibus monodactylis.

CANCER LINEARIS. Cancer manibus quatuor monodactylis, pedibus decem.

Fabr. sp. ins. 1. p. 517.

CANCER LINEARIS. C. macrourus articularis, manibus quatuor monodactylis, pedibus decem.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1030.

Circa littora varia Europæa invenitur perpusilla huc Cancri species. Magnitudine vera nec non microscopio aucta in tabula annexa exprimitur.

v

 

r

the
LINEAR CRAB.

Generic Character.

Legs generally eight, (in some species six or ten,) besides two claspers or chelated arms.

Eyes two, commonly distant, footstalked, moveable.

Tail articulated.

Specific Character, &c.

LINEAR-BODIED CANCER, with monodactylous feet.

ONISCUS SCOLOPENDROIDES?

Pall. sp. zool. 9. t. 4. f. 15.

CHEVROLLE LINEAIRE.

Latreille.

This very small species of Crab is found about several of the European coasts. It is repre­sented on the annexed plate both in its natural size, and as it appears when viewed by a microscope.

v

 

629

Georgian Flycatcher

R Nodder Del. Scult

Notes

L

MUSCICAPA MELANOLEUCA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum subtrigonum, utrinque emarginatum, apice incurvo: vibrissæ patentes versus fauces.

Nares subrotundæ.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 324.

Character Specificus, &c.

MUSCICAPA NIGRA, dorso albo, femoribus albo nigroque annulatis, rectricibus albis apice nigris.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 469.

MUSCICAPA MELANOLEUCA.

Guldenst. nov. comm. Petrop. t. 19. p. 468.

Primus accurate descripsit hanc speciem Dominus Guldenstadt in Academiæ Petropolitanæ Commentariis.

“Longitudo avis extensæ ab apice rostri ad caudæ extremum sex pollicum, trium linearum: capistrum, caput infra usque ad medium collum et v ad latera usque ad supercilia atrum; sed caput supra et corpus totum niveum, pectore levissime flavescente; basi obtecta pennarum omnium fusca; alæ totæ supra infraque atræ, apicis margine remigum secundariarum obsolete albido; complicatæ ultra mediam caudam procedentes: cauda integra, duos pollices et sex lineas longa; rectrices duodecim, albæ, apice nigræ, eoque magis quo interiores, attamen nec in medio pari nigredo ad medietatem accedit: femora usque ad genu plumosa, fusco et albido annulata; tibiæ decem lineas longæ, atræ-læves; digiti pariter atri, quarum tres antici, quartus posticus, omnes nigri, medio reliquis subæqualibus aliquantum longiore; ungues incurvi, acuti, nigri, subæquales. In femina ea quæ in mare nigra, fusca; et quæ in mare alba, sordide cinerea sunt. Habitat per æstatem in Georgia campestri ad fluviorum ripas fruticetis obsitas.

L2

the
GEORGIAN FLYCATCHER.

Generic Character.

Bill somewhat triangular, flattened at the base, notched at the end of the upper mandible and beset with bristles.

Toes generally divided as far as their origin.

Specific Character, &c.

Black FLYCATCHER with white back, thighs annu­lated with black and white, and tail-feathers tipped with black.

Black-and-white WARBLER.

Lath. Syn. 2. p. 457.

The present species of Muscicapa seems to have been first accurately described in the Petersburg Transactions, by Mr. Guldenstadt, who informs us that it measures six inches and three lines from the tip of the bill to the end of the tail: the frontlet and the head beneath, as far as the middle of the v neck, and on each side as far as the eyebrows, is black; but the upper part of the head, as well as the whole body, is white, with a very slight cast of yellow on the breast; the covered parts or bases of all the feathers being brown: the whole wings, both above and beneath, are black, the edges of the tips of the secondary feathers whitish: the wings, when closed, reach beyond the middle of the tail, which is entire, and about two inches and six lines in length: the twelve tail-feathers are white: with black tips, that colour increasing gradually on the interior feathers; but even in the two middle feathers not reaching half way up the tail: the thighs are feathered as far as the knees, and annulated with brown and whitish: the legs are ten lines long, smooth, and black, as are likewise the toes, of which the middlemost is rather longer than the rest; the claws are curved, black, and of equal length. In the female all the parts which are black in the male are brown, and all the white parts are of a dull ash-colour. It is an inhabitant of Georgia during the summer, frequenting the shrubby banks of rivers.

630

Tentaculated Shark

Notes

r

SQUALUS TENTACULATUS.

Character Genericus.

Os in anteriore et interiore capitis parte, dentibus numerosis seriatis.

Spiracula utrinque ad latera colli, plerisque quinque.

Corpus oblongum, teretiuscubim.

Character Specificus, &c.

SQUALUS rostro utrinque tentaculato, spinoso, spinis longioribus brevioribusque intermediis.

PRISTIS cirratus. P. rostro cirrato, spinis longioribus; brevioribusque intermediis.

Lath. Lin. Trans. 2. p. 281.

In maribus australibus reperitur rara hæc Squali species, longa forsan, cum plene adoleverit, multos pedes. Quæ tamen ab Australasiæ litoribus in Angliam delata fuerint specimina vix tres quatuorve pedes exuperant. Color totius animalis leviter fuscus, abdomine pallidiore.

v

 

r

the
TENTACULATED SHARK.

Generic Character.

Mouth situated beneath the anterior part of the head, with numerous teeth disposed in rows.

Spiracles on each side the neck, in most species five in number.

Body oblong, somewhat cylindric.

Specific Character.

SHARK with serrated snout tentaculated on each side, with short teeth interposed between the longer ones.

The rare species of Shark here represented is a native of the Southern Seas, and probably measures several feet in length, when full grown; tho’ the specimens which have been hitherto observed have scarcely exceeded three or four feet: the colour of the whole animal is pale brown, with the abdomen of a still paler cast.

v

 

631

Snipe Murex

R P Nodder Del. Scult

Notes

r

MUREX BRANDARIS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, exasperata suturis membranaceis.

Apertura desinens in canalem integrum rectum seu subadscendentem.

Character Specificus, &c.

MUREX testa subovata spinis rectis cincta, cauda mediocri subulata recta spinisque oblique circumdata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1214.

MUREX Purpura.

Rondel. test. 64.

E mari Mediterraneo præcipue extrahitur Murex Brandaris, magni­tudine, spinis, coloribusque multum varians.

v

 

r

the
SNIPE MUREX.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Limax or Slug.

Shell univalve, spiral, roughened by membranaceous sutures.

Aperture ending in a strait subascending channel.

Specific Character, &c.

Subovate cinereous MUREX, with strait spines, and subulate, obliquely-spined beak.

Snipe’s-Bill MUREX.

This shell is principally found in the Mediterranean sea, and varies very much in size, spines, and colours.

v

 

632

Jaïrus Butterfly

R P Nodder Del. Scult

Notes

r

PAPILIO JAÏRUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes(volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis integerrimis fuscis; posterioribus disco albo, supra ocello, subtus duobus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2277.

PAPILIO alis integerrimis fuscis, posticis disco albo, supra ocello, subtus duobus.

Fab. sp. ins. 2. p. 63.
Danai Festivi.

PAPILIO JAÏRUS.

Cramer t. 16. A. B.

Indiam incolit Papilio Jaïrus, magnitudine vera in tabula depictus.

v

 

r

JAÏRUS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ generally thickening towards the extremities, and terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when sitting) erect, and meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Brown BUTTERFLY with entire wings, a white cloud on each, an eye-shaped spot on each lower wing and two beneath.

JAÏRUS.

Cramer. t. 6.

Clerk. ic. t. 29. f. 3.

The Papilio Jairus is a native of India, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

633

Philippine Lory

RPN— Delt. Sculpt

Notes

M

PSITTACUS LORY.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum: mandibula superiore mobili.

Nares in rostri basi.

Lingua carnosa, obtusa, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 139.

Character Specificus, &c.

PSITTACUS brachyurus coccineus, subtus cæruleus, pileo nigro-violaceo, alis viridibus.

PSITTACUS brachyurus purpureus, pileo violaceo, alis viridibus, pectore genibus caudaque cæruleis, orbitis incarnatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 145.

In insulis Philippensibus generata pulcherrima hæc avis indole est docili admodum et mansueta. Minor paululum turture, longa plerumque est circiter decem uncias.

v

 

M2

the
PHILIPPINE LORY.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked: upper mandible moveable.

Nostrils round, placed in the base of the bill.

Tongue fleshy, broad, blunt at the end.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

SHORT-TAILED SCARLET PARROT, blue beneath, with violet-black crown, and green wings.

BLACK-CAPPED LORY.

Edw. pl. 170.

LE LORI D’AMBOINE.

Pl. Enl. 518.

This most beautiful species is a native of the Philippine islands, and is remarkable for the gentleness of its manners in a state of captivity. It is somewhat smaller than a turtle-dove, usually measuring about ten inches in length.

v

 

634

Gangetic Dolphin

RPN— Del. Sculpt

Notes

r

DELPHINUS GANGETICUS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes in maxilla utraque.

Fistula in capite.

Character Specificus, &c.

DELPHINUS cinereus, rostro elongato.

DELPHINUS Gangeticus.

Roxb. Ind. Res. vol. 7.

Quem depinximus Delphinum norunt Indi nomine Soosoo. Horum in Gangi flumine congregantur interdum plurimi. Longus est piscis, ut plurimum, pedes circiter duodecim. Color cinereus, subtus pallidior. Maxillæ elongatæ admodum et graciles continent utræque sexaginta dentes. Delphina Gangeticum primus accurate descripsisse videtur Dominus Roxburgh in volumine septimo Disquisitionum Asiaticarum.

v

 

r

the
GANGETIC DOLPHIN.

Generic Character.

Teeth in both jaws.

Spiracle on the head.

Specific Character, &c.

CINEREOUS DOLPHIN, with lengthened snout.

GANGETIC DOLPHIN.

Narrow-Snouted INDIAN DOLPHIN.

The species of Dolphin represented on the present plate is occasionally observed in great multitudes in the river Ganges, and is known in India by the name of Soosoo. Its general length is about twelve feet, and its colour cinereous, paler beneath: the jaws are remarkably long and slender, and in each jaw are sixty teeth. This animal seems to have been first distinctly described by Dr. Roxburgh in the seventh volume of the Asiatic Researches.

v

 

636

Heart Chama

Notes

r

CHAMA COR.

Character Genericus.

Animal Tethys.

Testa bivalvis, grossior.

Cardo callo gibbo, oblique inserto fossulæ obliquæ.

Character Specificus, &c.

CHAMA testa subrotunda lævi, natibus recurvatis, rima hiante.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1137.

COR BOVIS.

Argenv. t. 26. f. K.

CUCULLA fatui dichoncha.

Seb. 3. p. 177. t. 86. f. 1.

Maribus Europæis innascitur concha hic depicta, interdum major icone quæ in tabula ostenditur.

v

 

r

the
HEART CHAMA.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Tethys.

Shell bivalve, strong.

Hinge with a gibbose callus obliquely inserted into an oblique fossule.

Specific Character, &c.

CHAMA with smooth roundish shell, with recurved tips, and gaping orifice.

The Smooth OX-HEART CHAMA.

The present shell is a native of the European seas, and is sometimes found of a larger size than repre­sented on the annexed plate.

v

 

635

Andromachus Butterfly

R P N. Delt. Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO ANDROMACHUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes; (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis fuscis basi fulvis, primoribus subfalcatis fascia flava, subtus albo-maculatis.

PAPILIO Andromachus.

Cram. pap. t. 56. f. A. B.
Eq. Achiv.

Americæ Australis partes calidiores incolit Papilio Andromachus, magni­tudine vera in tabula depictus.

v

ANDROMACHUS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ generally thickening towards the extremities, and terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when sitting) erect, and meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character.

BUTTERFLY with brown wings, fulvous at the base, with the upper wings subfalcated, marked with a yellow band, and spotted beneath with white.

This rare insect is an inhabitant of the warmer parts of South America, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

r

INDEX.

Pl.
605. Anas Ægyptiaca.
598. Anarhichas pantherinus.
614. Aranea venatoria.
602. —— Tarantula.
621. Ardea tigrina.
620. Asterias oligactes.
596. Buccinum Rumphii.
591. Cancer Sebanus.
627. —— linearis.
636. Chama Cor.
619. Cypræa Argus.
—— leucopis.
634. Delphinus Gangeticus.
597. Emberiza Ciris.
624. Erpeton tentaculatus.
594. Lacerta aurita.
623. Madrepora Pileus.
607. —— pezizoides.
599. Murex Femorale.
631. —— Brandaris.
613. Merops cœrulocephalus.
629. Muscicapa melanoleuca.
601. Mycteria Australis.
628. Oniscus Entomon.
610. Ovis Canadensis.
590. Papilio Protenor.
604. —— Merope.
600. —— Amphytrion.
632. —— Jairus.
635. —— Andromachus.
606. Patella fusca.
625. Paradisea magnifica.
608. Phalangium dubium.
618. Phalæna Strix.
611.
612.
—— regia.
615.
616.
—— Cecropia.
592. Phytolithus Filicis.
593. Pipra rupicola.
609. Psittacus Augustus.
633. —— Lory.
626. Simia Ascanius.
595. Sphinx Cluentius.
622. Solpuga venenosa.
630. Squalus tentaculatus.
589. Tetrao arenaria.
617. Turdus cyanurus.
603. Vespa campanaria.

INDEX.

Pl.
598. Anarhichas panther.
613. Bee-Eater blue-headed.
621. Bittern Tiger.
596. Buccinum marbled.
635. Butterfly Andromachus.
632. —— Jaïrus.
604. —— Merope.
590. —— Protenor.
600. —— Amphytrion.
636. Chama Heart.
619. Cowry White-Eyed.
—— Argus.
591. Crab Seban.
627. —— linear.
634. Dolphin Gangetic.
597. Emberiza painted.
624. Erpeton tentaculatus.
629. Flycatcher Georgian.
605. Goose Egyptian.
601. Jabiru Australasian.
594. Lizard lobe-cheeked.
607. Madrepore pezizoid.
623. —— oblong.
609. Maccaw hyacinthine.
593. Manakin rock.
611.
612.
Moth Persimon.
615.
616.
—— Cecropian.
618. —— Strix.
626. Monkey Ascanius.
599. Murex femoral.
631. —— Snipe.
628. Oniscus sharp-tailed.
606. Patella brown.
625. Paradisea magnificent.
633. Parrakeet Lory.
589. Partridge sand.
608. Phalangium doubtful.
592. Phytolithus Fern.
630. Shark tentaculated.
610. Sheep Canadian.
595. Sphinx Cluentius.
622. Solpuga poisonous.
620. Star-Fish slender-limbed.
602. Tarantula.
614. —— American.
617. Thrush blue-tailed.
603. Wasp campanular.

Notes and Corrections: Volume 15

Volume 15 of the Naturalist’s Miscellany was published in twelve monthly installments, conjecturally from September 1803 through August 1804. It is “conjecturally” because there has not been a full month-and-year date since the third installment of Volume 13 (November 1801), and no date at all since the fourth installment of Volume 14 (“1802”, probably December). The seventh installment of the present volume finally offers a grudging, crudely engraved “1804” (March, I hope), followed by a few more in the eighth and tenth (April and June, with any luck).

Each installment is 16 pages, except as noted.

[A]; B; C; D; E (January? 1804); F (12 pg.); G (12 pg.); H; I; K; L; M

This is the first time since Volume 8 that a single volume has described more than one mammal, and the first since Volume 2 to describe more than two. Better yet, all three are in addition to, not instead of, a colorful bird. We also meet our first land plant since Volume 2—well, sort of. It’s a fossil.

Typograpic trivia: At several points in the book, the “ct” ligature makes an unexpected appearance. Unlike the occasional long ſ that showed up in Volumes 12 and 13, this can only be an intentional action on the part of the printer. Was he trying to make some kind of point? To counterbalance the archaism, the printer again dabbles with the daring scheme of no catch­words. But he isn’t able to stick to it.

The plate that should have been 600, Papilio Amphitryon, is numbered 597 both in the Index and on the plate itself. The last two Plates, 635 and 636, are both indexed as 635. I’ve treated Papilio Andromachus as the correct 635—even though it comes after Chama Cor in the book—because it agrees with the engraved number of the plate itself. Fortunately, the next volume starts with the expected 637. More prosaically, Plate 628 (Oniscus) comes before Plate 627 (Crab).

Tetrao Arenaria, the Sand Partridge

may be Pterocles orientalis (by way of Tetrao orientalis), the black-bellied sandgrouse. It lives in Iberia, North Africa, and west-to-central Asia.

its habit resembles that of the Alchata
[If he—which is to say Pallas—means the Tetrao alchata of Linnaeus, it is now Pterocles alchata, the pin-tailed sandgrouse.]

Papilio Protenor, the Protenor (butterfly)

is otherwise known as the spangle. It ranges from the Himalayas to Japan.

Cancer Sebanus, the Seban Crab

is now Eriphia sebana, the smooth redeye crab, with naming credit to Shaw & Nodder. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

This Crab . . . is remarkable for the excessive size of its right claw
[As with last month’s Uka Crab—Plate 588 of Volume 14—the engraving shows the left claw oversized.]

Phytolithus Filicis, or Fern Phytolithus

The Latin name is not a binomial, though he wants it to look like one.

Polypodium filix mas Linnæi
word “Linnæi” printed in italics

one of the most interesting points of speculation in the history of nature . . . . the true theory of the earth being perhaps still but very imperfectly understood
[History Myth #1: prior to the year 1492, everybody in the world believed the earth was flat. History Myth #2: prior to the year 1859, everybody in the Western world believed the earth was created less than 6000 years ago.]

the well-known European plant called the common male fern, (Polypodium filix mas. Lin.)
[Now Dryopteris filix-mas, the male fern. That’s the actual name of the plant, not its sex.]

To particularize the history of so well known a vegetable
[Fun fact: In British English, the -ise spelling of this particular word didn’t become more common than the -ize spelling until quite late in the 19th century.]

Pipra Rupicola, the Rock Manakin

is probably Rupicola rupicola, the Guianan cock-of-the-rock. It lives in South America.

Lacerta Aurita, the Lobe-Cheeked Lizard

is now Phrynocephalus mystaceus, subsp. mystaceus (by way of Pallas’s name, Lacerta mystacea), the secret toadhead agama. It lives in central Asia.

Pall. ih. 3. p. 702.
[This doesn’t seem like a plausible abbreviation (ih-what?) but that’s how it was printed.]

Sphinx Cluentius, the Cluentius (sphinx)

is probably Neococytius cluentius. It lives in South and Central America

Buccinum Rumphii, the Marbled Buccinium

If it really is a variety of Linnaeus’s B. tuberosa, it is now Cassis tuberosa, the Caribbean helmet. It lives in the Caribbean and also along the eastern­most part of South America. If, on the other hand, he means Gmelin’s B. rumpfii, it is now Cassis tessellata. That one lives along the Atlantic coast of Africa.

Emberiza Ciris, the Painted Emberiza

is now Passerina ciris, the painted bunting. It lives in North America.

Anarhichas Pantherinus, the Panther Anarhichas

Zuiew’s actual spelling was Anarrhichas with two r‘s, suggesting that his Greek was better than Linnaeus’s. Either way, it is now Anarhichas minor, the spotted wolf-fish or spotted sea cat. (Someone at GBIF must be fond of collecting Inuktitut names; this one is identified as kaerrak, kêrak or qêrak, none of which I could figure out how to render in syllabics.) It is most common around eastern Canada.

Murex Femorale, the Femoral Murex

is now Cymatium femorale, the angular triton. It lives in the Caribbean and along the Atlantic coast of South America.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1213.
text has Lin. Lyst.
[I would like to call this a brain-o rather than a typo, but L and S may have looked quite similar in script.]

Papilio Amphitryon, the Aphitryon (butterfly)

is now Papilio gambrisius. (Either Cramer forgot that he had already named this butterfly, or he mistook male and female for different species.) It lives in Indonesia, especially Ambon.

[Plate 600]
[Although I’ve labeled it 600 as logic demands, the plate is actually called 597—a number that has already been used—both in the engraving and in the Index.]

Specific Character, &c.
[The “&c.” was printed with the Generic Character—a heading that never has an etcetera, either in English or in Latin. Not that this particular Specific Character really warrants an etcetera either, since it’s just one paragraph with no authorities cited.]

Mycteria Australis, the Australasian Jabiru

is now Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus australis, a subspecies of the black-necked stork, with naming credit to Shaw. Like so many of Shaw’s newly named species, it lives in Australia.

[Plate 601]
[Assuming a steady pace of one installment a month, we are now in December 1803, marking a full calendar year with no trace of a date.]

Lin. Trans. Vol. 5. p. 34.
[This was presumably Shaw’s original description; the M. australis name is dated to 1800, a few years before the present work. M. asiatica, or what is now the species-as-a-whole, was named by Latham about ten years earlier.]

The present species . . . differs very strikingly from the American bird
[That would be because it isn’t a jabiru. If it is any consolation, they are both storks (family Ciconiidae in order Ciconiiformes).]

Aranea Tarantula, the Tarantula

is now Lycosa tarantula, technically not a tarantula but a wolf spider. It lives in Europe, especially near the Mediterranean.

Vespa Campanaria, the Campanular Wasp

If it is the same as Fabricius’s V. holsatica, it is now Dolichovespula silvestris (by way of Vespa sylvestris). Oddly, the only V. campanaria listed at GBIF dates from 1833, although it’s the same wasp. Did someone misplace a bit of documentation? It lives in central and northern Europe; in most languages it is called “forest wasp”.

nidum struit calido artificio
text unchanged: error for callido
[I’m tolerably certain he meant the spider is clever, not warm.]

This marks the last time any article in the Miscellany runs longer than two pages in both Latin and English. There won’t be another three-page article in either language until Volume 24, and then only in English. (I don’t count the Cento in Volume 17.)

Papilio Merope, the Merope (butterfly)

. . . Whew. For starters, assume Shaw is talking about Fabricius’s P. merope. I’m reasonably confident he didn’t mean de Prunner’s P. merope; that one is now Euphydryas aurina, the marsh fritillary, which Shaw and his readers would have seen every day. Attempting to look it up led me into a rabbit hole of articles on mimicry in female butterflies, with possible syno­nymies including P. cenea, P. brutus and P. dardanus (a name that still exists).

If Shaw’s butterfly really is Linnaeus’s Papilio brutus, it is now Charaxes brutus. It lives in subsaharan Africa.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)
text has volatu-diurno

[Plate 604]
[Going by the position of the artist’s initials, the plate should have been upside-down. I’ve left it as bound in the book.]

Anas Ægyptiaca, the Egyptian Goose

is now Alopochen aegyptiaca. Today it lives in eastern and southern Africa, all over Europe, and in North America. Some of those may have been introduced, both before and after Shaw’s time. (The Latin “iam olim illata est” is less ambiguous than the English “often seen in a domestic state”.)

celeberrimi nostri bellici ductores qui in Ægypto militarunt. / Magnitudo avis eadem fere est atque anseris communis.
[The emotionally charged reference to bellici ductores had to be left out of the version meant for a general English readership. In so doing, the author also inadvertently omitted the final sentence, with its wholly uncontro­versial reference to the bird’s size.]

Patella Fusca, the Brown Patella

Already in 1817, one writer—with sources that include the Miscellany—said “It is perhaps impossible to place it beyond a doubt what the P. fusca of Linnæus is”. He equates it with Gmelin’s P. magellanica, now Nacella magellanica, from the southern tip of South America. (If it were Landt’s P. fusca from 1800, it would now be Patella pellucida, the blue-rayed limpet, which lives along the Atlantic and Arctic coasts of Europe. This does not strike me as probable.)

Madrepora Pezizoides, the Pezizoid Madrepore

Unknown. The binomial doesn’t seem to exist outside of the Miscellany. Ellis & Solander’s M. cinerascens is equally unidentified (the dreaded “taxon inquirendum”). It has been suggested that it is the same as Lamarck’s Turbinaria mesenterina, which lives mainly around Australia.

Phalangium Dubium, the Doubtful Phalangium

George, if you yourself aren’t sure, how can you expect us to know what you mean? The genus implies that it either is, or looks like, a harvestman. But it is unusual of Shaw not to even try to come up with a proper binomial.

Psittacus Augustus, the Hyacinthine Maccaw

If it is the same as Latham’s P. hyacinthinus, it is probably Anodo­rhynchus hyacinthinus, the hyacinth macaw. It is most common in the interior of South America.

[Plate 609] RN Del.
[I got quite excited when I saw something more than “RN” in the signature line, but alas, still no useful information.]

levissima sit coloris thalassini tinctura
[The typesetter found a stray “ct” ligature in the bin, and decided he might as well use it.]

Ovis Canadensis, the Canadian Sheep

is also known as the bighorn sheep, with naming credit to Shaw. It lives in North America (all of it) west of the Rockies.

Rostrum et uropygium alba.
[Shaw momentarily forgets that he is describing a mammal. He will sometimes refer to a fish’s “rostrum”, but nowhere else does he use the word “uropygium” of anything but a bird. (The uropygium is that myste­rious fleshy triangular thing you find at the back of a whole chicken. In life, it’s what the tailfeathers are attached to.)]

Phalæna Regia, the Persimon Moth

If it is the same as Fabricius’s Bombyx regalis, it is now Citheronia regalis, the hickory horned devil. It lives in eastern North America. If, on the other hand, it is the same as Cramer’s Ph. laocoon, it is now Citheronia laocoon, which lives in South America. It could well be both, or neither, or anything-and-everything in genus Citheronia.

[Plate 611, Plate 612]
[I have switched the two plates to put the adult insect (Plate 612) first.]

primo depictam esse arbitror . . . . de insectis Transatlanticis
[The typesetter sneaks in a couple more “ct” ligatures. (He isn’t doing it consistently, though. The immediately following “doctis” uses separate letters, as do all the other “ct” combinations in this passage.)]

evidently allied to the European species called the Ghost-Moth (Phalæna Humuli Lin.)
[Now Hepialus humuli. Aside from being lepidopterans, they’re not related.]

Merops Cærulocephalus, the Blue-Headed Bee-Eater

If it is the bird Linnaeus described, it remains Merops nubicus, the northern carmine bee-eater. And if so, we may already have met it, under the name Merops superbus, at Plate 78 of Volume 3. It lives in sub-Saharan Africa.

Gnépìer
[This was so patently improbable that I had to look it up. Buffon’s actual word is Guépier—which means “bee-eater” when it doesn’t mean “wasp’s nest”.]

Aranea Venatoria, the American Tarantula

is now Heteropoda venatoria, the giant crab spider. It lives in most tropical-to-subtropical regions.

[Plate 614] RPN 1804
[Hallelujah! It’s a year! We will have to stipulate that the last digit is a backward (sloppily engraved) “4”. It doesn’t say “March”, but one can always hope. And I’m going to pretend that the first letter is an “R” (for Richard) with a piece missing:]

engraver’s signature

it constructs in . . . . any insect flying
[“I will use the ct ligature and there’s not a thing you can do to stop me!” —The Printer.]

Phalæna Cecropia, the Cecropian Moth

is probably Hyalophora cecropia, the cecropia silkmoth. It lives mostly in the eastern half of North America.

[Plate 615, Plate 616]
[In some copies of the book, Plate 616 is bound in before Plate 615. As with plates 611-612 in the previous installment, I have done the same in order to put the adult moth first.]

Turdus Cyanurus, the Blue-Tailed Thrush

may be Pitta guajana (by way of Müller’s Turdus guajanus), the banded pitta. It lives in Indonesia.

[Plate 617] R P Nodder 1804.
[Whee! And this time he got the “4” facing in the right direction, along with an unambiguous initial “R”:]

engraver’s signature

the BLUE-TAILED THRUSH
[It’s unusual for this page not to be labeled “H2”, but there you have it. Perhaps the printer was exhausted after two consecutive months with a dateline.]

Phalæna Strix, the Strix (moth)

is probably Xyleutes strix. It lives in South and Southeast Asia, but is most common in Taiwan.

Insulas Indicas, præcipue Javam et Amboynam
text has Indicus

in tabula depicta
[“Will you stop with the ct ligatures?” —Geo. Shaw.]

Cypræa Argus, the Argus Cowry

is now Arestorides argus, the eyed cowrie. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Cypræa Leucopis, the White-Eyed Cowry

If it is the same as Linnaeus’s C. exanthema, it is now Macrocypraea zebra (by way of Cypraea zebra), the measled cowrie, which we previously met at Plate 583 of Volume 14. (You can see the confusion. Shaw isn’t sure they are the same, while Linnaeus must have been sure they were not the same, since he gave them two different names, C. exanthema and C. zebra.) It lives mainly in the Caribbean and along the eastern part of South America.

the ARGUS COWRY
[Yup, the whole thing is printed on a verso page, blank on the front.]

Asterias Oligactes, the Slender-Limbed Star-Fish

is now Asteroschema oligactes.

Character Specificus
[Typographic trivia: In both Latin and English, for this animal only, the “Specific” headers (but not the “Generic” ones) are printed in smaller type. He will do the same for the Linear Crab, two months further along, though only on the English side.]

It is of the size repre­sented on the plate
[On the Latin side this is part of a verbatim quote from Pallas. It may be the size of the plate in the Petersburg Transactions, but don’t assume it is the size of Shaw’s plate. I suppose you could measure one of the curly limbs and see if it would straighten out to 15 inches.]

Ardea Tigrina, the Tiger Bittern

may be Tigrisoma lineatum, the rufescent tiger heron. It lives in South America.

Solpuga Venenosa, the Poisonous Solpuga

If it is the same as Phalangium araneoides, it is now Galeodes arane­oides. (The genus name goes back to the Olivier listed in the citations on the English side.) It lives in the area of the Caucasus.

Sonnini Voy. en Grece.
[Indented and italicized for consistency. The source isn’t cited in any other article, but it seemed reasonable.]

The genus Solpuga seems to have been first instituted by Mr. Herbst
[Well, sort of. Johann Herbst’s Natursystem der Ungeflügelten Insekten came out in 1797. Its first section, “Naturgeschichte der Insekten-Gattungen Solpuga und Phalangium”, credits authors Herbst and Lichtenstein, while later sections give Herbst as sole author. GBIF says that genus Solpuga was defined by Lichtenstein in 1796.]

Madrepora Pileus, the Oblong Madrepore

is now Halomitra pileus, the bowl coral. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Erpeton Tentaculatus, the Tentaculated Erpeton

is now Erpeton tentaculatum, the tentacle snake, because Lacépède’s grammar was better than Shaw’s. It lives in Southeast Asia.

The genus Erpeton . . . consists at present of a single species
[Surprisingly, it still does. In fact, its entire family seems to consist of genera with no more than a handful of species each.]

Paradisea Magnifica, the Magnificent Paradisea

is probably Diphyllodes magnificus, the magnificent bird of paradise. It lives in New Guinea.

Simia Ascanius, the Ascanius (monkey)

is probably Cercopithecus ascanius, the red-tailed monkey. It lives in central Africa.

[Plates 626, 627, 628]
[In all three non-bird plates, the engraver got the artist’s signature backward—or, if you prefer, he forgot to engrave it backward. (Was he being modest? Richard P. Nodder may have been the artist as well as the engraver.) Here’s what it was supposed to look like (from Plate 628):]

engraver’s signature, reversed

entitled “Histoire des Singes, &c.
text has “Histoire des Singes,” &c.
[Closing quotation mark moved to agree with the Latin side. Shaw’s “&c.” is not as helpful as it might be. Audebert wrote two books with similar titles, or possibly one book with variable titles: Histoire Naturelle des Singes Peints d’Après Nature (1797), and Histoire Naturelle des Singes et des Makis (1799 and later). A maki is a lemur, so Audebert’s book covers both of Linnaeus’s primate genera.]

Oniscus Entomon, the Sharp-Tailed Oniscus

is now Saduria entomon. It lives in the Arctic seas, including the Baltic and all around Alaska.

Cancer Linearis, the Linear Crab

is now Caprella linearis, the ghost shrimp. It lives on the north Atlantic coasts of Europe and North America.

Muscicapa Melanoleuca, the Georgian Flycatcher

is probably the subspecies Oenanthe hispanica melanoleuca, the black-eared wheatear. It is most common around the eastern Mediterranean, extending into the Caucasus.

[Plate 629, Plate 631]
[The engraver continues to have trouble with this left/right mirror-image business. His name is now facing the right direction . . . but he still hasn’t got the hang of the letters “dd”:]

engraver’s signature

rectrices duodecim
[By Jove, it’s another ct ligature.]

Squalus Tentaculatus, the Tentaculated Shark

is now Pristiophorus cirratus (by way of Pristis cirratus, Latham’s original name), the sawshark. It lives around southern Australia.

Murex Brandaris, the Snipe Murex

is now Bolinus brandaris, the dye murex. It lives around the Mediterranean.

Rondel. test. 64.
text has Rondel, for Rondel.

Papilio Jaïrus, the Jaïrus (butterfly)

may be Taenaris urania (by way of Papilio urania). It is most often seen on Ambon.

(volatu diurno.)
opening parenthesis missing

magnitudine vera in tabula depictus.
[Another ct ligature. I hope the printer is enjoying himself.]

Psittacus Lory, the Philippine Lory

is probably Lorius lory, the black-capped lory. It lives in New Guinea.

Rostrum aduncum: mandibula superiore mobili.
text has : for .

Delphinus Gangeticus, the Gangetic Dolphin

is now Platanista gangetica, the Ganges river dolphin. Its snout really is that long.

Chama Cor, the Heart Chama

is now Glossus humanus (by way of Cardium humanum, because Linnaeus named it twice), the heart cockle. It lives all around western Europe.

Papilio Andromachus, the Andromachus (butterfly)

is probably the subspecies Morpho rhetenor rhetenor, one of the blue morphos. (As so often, males and females were initially identified as different species. Only the male is brilliantly blue.) It lives in South America.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes; (volatu diurno.)
text has volatu-diurno

Index

As noted above, the plate that should have been 600, Papilio Amphi­tryon, is numbered 597 both in the Index and on the plate itself. (The Index spells it “Amphytrion” both in Latin and in English, but that’s secondary.) The last two Plates, 635 and 636, are both indexed as 635. I’ve treated Papilio Andro­machus as the correct one.

In the printed book, the paired plates 611-612 and 615-616 (both moths) were each listed on a single Index line.

Latin

636   Chama Cor.
text has 635

600   [Papilio] Amphytrion.
text has 597

609   Psittacus Augustus.
text has Angustus

English

600   [Butterfly] Amphytrion.
text has 597

636   Chama Heart.
text has 635

The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.