Naturalist’s Miscellany

The Naturalist’s Miscellany
by George Shaw
Volume 16

v

JACOBO PARKINSONO ARMIGERO,

in

MUSEI CELEBERRIMI LEVERIANI

ADMINISTRATIONE
facili et ingenua liberalitate

COMMENDATISSIMO,

DECIMUM SEXTUM

HUNC

NATURÆ VIVARII

FASCICULUM
d. d. d.
GEORGIUS SHAW.
E. NODDER.

r

to

JAMES PARKINSON ESQUIRE,

THE WORTHY AND LIBERAL PROPRIETOR

of the celebrated

LEVERIAN MUSEUM,

THIS SIXTEENTH VOLUME OF
the

NATURALIST’S MISCELLANY

IS WITH MUCH REGARD INSCRIBED

by
GEORGE SHAW.
E. NODDER.

v

 

637

Red-Throated Butcher-Bird

R. P. N. Delt. Sculpt.

Notes

r

LANIUS GUTTURALIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum rectiusculum, dente utrinque versus apicem, basi nudum.

Lingua lacera.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 134.

Character Specificus, &c.

LANIUS olivaceus, gula coccinea, lunula pectorali nigra, fronte humerisque flavis.

LANIUS GUTTURALIS. L. viridi-olivaceus, mento, gula, infero pectore et ano coccineis; fronte humerisque flavis, cum linea oculari in lata lunula pectorali transversa protensa.

Daudin. Ann. Mus. d’Hist. Nat.

In regionibus Africanis calidioribus generatur Lanius gutturalis, eadem magni­tudine qua Lanius Excubitor seu vulgaris. Sedem præcipue seligere dicitur in excelsis arborum cacuminibus, et in hoc plerisque sui generis esse dissimilis quod baccis vescatur.

v

the
RED-THROATED BUTCHER-BIRD.

Generic Character.

Bill straitish, with a tooth or small process on each side near the tip.

Tongue jagged.

Specific Character, &c.

Olive BUTCHER-BIRD, with scarlet throat, black pectoral crescent, and yellow front and shoulders.

Pie-Grièche à gorge rouge.

Daudin. Ann. Mus. d’Hist. Nat.

This bird is a native of the warmer parts of Africa, and is equal in size to the great grey or common Butcher-Bird. It is said chiefly to frequent the tops of lofty trees, and, contrary to most of the genus, to feed on various kinds of berries.

638

Speckled Aplysia

R. P. N.Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

APLYSIA PUNCTATA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus repens obvelatum membranis reflexis, clypeo dorsali pulmones obtegente.

Foramen laterale dextrum.

Anus supra extremitatem dorsi.

Tentacula quatuor, anterius sita.

Character Specificus, &c.

APLYSIA purpurea albido-punctata.

LAPLYSIA PUNCTATA.

Cuvier. Ann. d’Hist. Nat.

Aplysiam quam depinximus primus descripsisse videtur celeberrimus Cuvierus utpote speciem genuinam, et a reliquis vere sejunctam. Narrat ille non raro latere eam sub saxis lapidibusque littoris Massiliensis, vel ipso limace vulgari seu hortensi tardius incedere, vescique parvulis testaceis, et reliquis v ejusmodi. Si quis eam turbaverit seu contrectaverit, liquorem purpureum e corporis meatibus emittere solet, aquasque propius circumfusas concolores reddere. Creditur Aplysiam punctatam prolis esse fœcundam, pullosque spatio bimestri plene adolevisse.

r

the
SPECKLED APLYSIA.

Generic Character.

Body repent, covered by reflected membranes and a dorsal shield.

Foramen on the right side.

Vent situated at the extremity of the back.

Tentacula four, situated in front.

Specific Character.

Purple APLYSIA with whitish specks.

LAPLYSIA PUNCTATA.

Ann. Mus. d’Hist. Nat. No. 10.

The present species of Aplysia appears to have been first distinguished as a separate species by the celebrated Mons. Cuvier, who assures us that it is v very common about the coasts of Marseilles, generally lying concealed beneath rocks or stones, moving in a slower manner than even the common garden slug, and feeding on very small testacea, &c. When disturbed or handled it discharges from its pores a purple juice, discolouring the water to some small distance round. It is supposed to be a prolific animal, and the young are said to arrive at their full size in the space of two months at farthest.

639

Jacobæan Scallop

R. P. N— Delt. Sculpt.

Notes

r

OSTREA JACOBÆA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Tethys.

Testa bivalvis, inæquivalvis, subaurita.

Cardo edentulus fossula cava ovata striisque lateralibus transversis.

Character Specificus, &c.

OSTREA JACOBÆA. O. testa inæquivalvi radiis quatuordecim angulatis longi­tudinaliter striatis.

Gualt. test. t. 99. f. B.

Lesser testaceoth. f. 139.

In oris Europæis sæpius reperitur Ostrea Jacobæa, coloribus non raro varians, Ostrea maxima, ut plurimum, paulo minor.

v

the
JACOBÆAN SCALLOP.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Tethys.

Shell bivalve: valves unequal, subauriculated.

Hinge toothless, with an ovate fossule and transverse lateral streaks.

Specific Character, &c.

SCALLOP with fourteen angular, longitudinally-striped rays.

Lesser SCALLOP.

Penn. Brit. Zool. pl. 60. f. 62.

The Jacobæan Scallop is sufficiently common about the European coasts, often varying in colour, and generally rather smaller than the common Scallop.

640

Apollonia Moth

R. P. N— Delt. Sculpt.

Notes

r

PHALÆNA APOLLONIA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ. (Volatu nocturno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 808.

Character Specificus, &c.

PHALÆNA alba, alis omnibus macula ocellata fasciisque transversis nigris luteo marginatis.

PHALÆNA APOLLONIA.

Cram. t. 250. f. A.
Attaci.

Africam Australem incolit pulchra hæc phalæna, magni­tudine vera in tabula depicta.

v

 

r

APOLLONIA.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, decreasing in size from base to point.

Wings (when at rest) generally deflected.

Flight nocturnal.

Specific Character.

White Phalæna with all the wings marked by a black ocellated spot and transverse black bands edged with yellow.

This beautiful Phalæna is a native of the southern parts of Africa, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

641

Spike-Crested Peacock

Notes

B

PAVO SPICIFER.

Character Genericus.

Caput pennis revolutis tectum.

Pennæ uropygii elongatæ, ocellatæ.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 267.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAVO capite cæruleo, pennis cristæ lanceolatis erectis, fascia utrinque suboculari lutea.

PAVO muticus. P. capite crista subulata, calcaribus nullis?

PAVO japonensis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 268.

Aldrov. orn. 2. p. 35.

Eandem sibi patriam vindicat pulcherrima hæc avis quam et pavo vulgaris; Indiam scilicet, ibique præcipue regiones montanas. Moribus modoque vivendi pavoni vulgari similis esse dicitur, a quo etiam verisimile est sæpius non fuisse discretam. Speciem tamen revera esse diversam satis probat v peculiaris cristæ conformatio, nec non macula saturatim flava utrinque sub oculis sita. Si idem sit pavo muticus Linnæi, (spicifere Buffoni) atque hæc nostra avis; vel in illo describendo evidenter erratum est, vel variare solent colores et alia nonnulla; Linnæus enim, et Aldrovandus, (qui primus descriptor avem quam depictam adeptus est, repræsentavit,) calcaribus carentem ostendunt; quæ in icone unde deducta est nostra simili­tudo, admodum conspicua sunt: hanc autem effigiem ipsius avis viventis expressit pictor Indicus, eamque nobiscum perhumaniter communicavit Dominus Fleming, chirurgus Anglicus qui prope Calcuttam in Bengala multos annos versatus est.

B2

the
SPIKE-CRESTED PEACOCK.

Generic Character.

Head covered with revolute feathers.

Uropygial feathers elongated and ocellated.

Specific Character.

PEACOCK with blue head, upright lanceolate crest, and yellow band beneath each eye.

The beautiful bird represented on the present plate is, like the common Peacock, a native of India, chiefly inhabiting mountainous regions. It is distinguished as a species by the peculiar structure of its crest, as well as by the bright-yellow patch beneath each eye. In its manners it is said to resemble the common peacock, with which it has probably been often confounded. If it be the bird intended by the Pavo muticus of Linnæus, (the Spicifere of Buffon,) it is evident either that the description of that species is erroneous, or that the bird is subject v to vary in colour and other circumstances; since Linnæus and Aldrovandus, (who first described it from a painting,) represent it as destitute of spurs, which are conspicuous in the drawing from which the present figure was copied, and which was taken from the life in India, and politely communicated by T. Fleming, Esq. several years resident in the neighbourhood of Calcutta in Bengal.

642

Long-Bodied Crab

R P Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

CANCER MANTIS.

Character Genericus.

Pedes octo (rarius sex aut decem;) insuper manus duæ chelatæ.

Oculi duo, distantes, plurimis pedunculati; elongati, mobiles.

Cauda articulata, inermis.

Character Specificus, &c.

CANCER MANTIS. C. macrourus articularis, manibus adactylis, compressis, falcatis, serrato-dentatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1054.

Squilla MANTIS.

Fabr. sp. ins. 1. p. 514.

CANCER arenarius.

Rumph. mus. t. 3. f. 2.

Nomen adeptus est Cancer Mantis ab exilitate et graci­litate corporis; qua in re accedit quodammodo v ad similitudinem insectorum quæ complectitur genus Mantis. In mari innascitur mediterraneo, repertus præcipue apud oras Italicas.

In systemate Fabriciano non satis ad normam redacto datur huic speciei genus distinctum nomine Squillæ.

De novis plurimis generibus nuperrime institutis liceat mihi dicere, me judice, obscurari ab iis insectorum historiam magis quam elucidari, quique antea satis clarus erat et facilis investigationis modus, eum incertum sæpius et difficilem reddi.

Major sæpe est Cancer Mantis quam qui in tabula ostenditur.

r

the
LONG-BODIED CRAB.

Generic Character.

Legs generally eight, (in some species six or ten,) besides two claspers or chelated arms.

Eyes two, commonly distant; footstalked, moveable.

Tail jointed.

Specific Character, &c.

Long-tailed many-jointed CRAB, with fingerless, compressed, falcated, tooth-serrated chelæ.

The Cancer Mantis, so named from its long and slender habit, in which it in some measure resembles the insects of the genus Mantis, is a native of the mediterranean sea, and is principally observed about the Italian coasts.

In the singular and irregular system of Fabricius, this species ranks under a distinct genus entitled Squilla.

v

I may here be permitted to observe, that of many new genera which the spirit of modern entomologists has endeavoured to establish it may with truth be affirmed that they have rather tended to obscure than elucidate the history of insects, by rendering that investigation trouble­some and uncertain which was before sufficiently easy and clear.

The Cancer Mantis is often found of a much larger size than repre­sented on the present plate.

643

Nummular Medusa

R. P. N. Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

MEDUSA NUMMULARIA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus gelatinosum, orbiculatum, depressam.

Os subtus, centrale.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1096.

Character Specificus, &c.

MEDUSA orbicularis albida subpellucida radiata, subtus appendicibus tribus cæruleis.

Le PORPITE appendiculée.

Nouv. Dict. d’Hist. Nat.

Pulchram hanc Medusam, marium septentrionalium incolam, juxta magni­tudinem naturalem depinximus. Radit sæpius hæc species summas aquas catervatim congregata. Habitu seu facie generali simillima est Medusæ Porpitæ Linnæi, quam inter et hanc nostram sæpius nullum discrimen fecisse videntur descriptores.

v

 

r

the
NUMMULAR MEDUSA.

Generic Character.

Body gelatinous, orbicular, depressed.

Mouth beneath, central.

Specific Character.

Whitish, orbicular, subpellucid, radiated MEDUSA, with three blue appendicles beneath.

The beautiful Medusa represented in its natural size on the present plate is a native of the northern seas, where it is often observed in considerable numbers, swimming on the surface of the water. In its general habit it bears the greatest resemblance to the Medusa Porpita of Linnæus, with which it appears to have been generally confounded.

v

 

644

Fabia Moth

R P Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

PHALÆNA FABIA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ. (volatu nocturno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 808.

Character Specificus, &c.

PHALÆNA alis rotundatis luteis, macula marginali lineisque transversis undulatis fuscis.

PHALÆNA Fabia.

Cram. t. 250. f. B.

Varias Indiæ partes incolit Phalæna Fabia, cujus veram magni­tudinem ostendit tabula.

v

 

r

FABIA.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually lessening from base to point.

Wings (when at rest) generally deflected. Flight nocturnal.

Specific Character.

MOTH with deep-yellow rounded wings, with brown marginal spot and transverse undulated lines.

PHALÆNA FABIA.

Cram. t. 250. f. B.

The Phalæna Fabia is a native of many parts of India, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

645

Red-Vented Shrike

R P N Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

C

LANIUS JOCOSUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum rectiusculum, dente utrinque versus apicem, basi nudum.

Lingua lacera.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 134.

Character Specificus, &c.

LANIUS fuscus capite nigro, macula suboculari crissoque coccineis.

LANIUS JOCOSUS. L. cauda rotundata, corpore griseo, palpebra inferiore purpurea, ano sanguineo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 138.

MERULA sinensis cristata minor.

Briss. 2. p. 255. t. 21. f. 2.

Avem Sinæ incolam magnitudine deminuta repræ­sentavimus, inter pulcherrimas sui generis species numerandam, ingenio præditam agili alacrique, et apto ad imitationem.

v

 

C2

the
RED-VENTED SHRIKE.

Generic Character.

Bill straitish, with a tooth or small process on each side near the tip.

Tongue jagged.

Specific Character, &c.

Brown SHRIKE, with black head, red vent, and red spot beneath the eyes.

JOCOSE SHRIKE.

Lath. Syn. 1. p. 175.

La petit Merle huppé de la Chine.

Briss. orn. 2. t. 21. f. 2.

This bird, one of the most beautiful of the genus, is a native of China, and is repre­sented smaller than the natural size: it is remarkable for the liveliness and docility of its disposition.

v

 

646

Tarquinia Moth

R. P. Nodder

Notes

r

PHALÆNA TARQUINIA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ (volatu nocturno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 808.

Character Specificus, &c.

PHALÆNA alis superioribus nigris, linea media furcata alba, inferioribus fulvis.

PHALÆNA TARQUINIA.

Cram. t. 4. f. A.

Americam australem incolit Phalæna Tarquinia cujus veram magni­tudinem ostendit tabula.

v

 

r

TARQUINIA.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually lessening from base to tip.

Wings (when sitting) generally deflected. (Flight nocturnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

MOTH with the upper wings black, marked by a forked middle line; the lower wings fulvous.

TARQUINIA.

Cram. pap. 1. pl. 4. f. A.

This elegant species is a native of South-America, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

647

Four-Lobed Lucernaria

R P Nodder, Sculpt.

Notes

r

LUCERNARIA QUADRILOBA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus gelatinosum, rugosum, ramosum.

Os inferum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3151.

Character Specificus, &c.

LUCERNARIA rubra, brachiis quatuor apice tentaculatis.

LUCERNARIA quadricornis. L. Corpore elongato tortili, brachiis quatuor dichotomis, apice tentaculatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3151.

Müll. Zool. Dan. t. 39. f. 1.-6.

Mirum hoc Zoophyton, cui cum hydris arctissima videtur esse affinitas, ad genus ab iis separatum, et nomine Lucernariæ distinctum, primus retulit celeber­rimus Müllerus in opere cui titulus Zoologia Danica. Maria incolit septentrionalia, repertum præcipue v circa oras Danicas et Norvegianas; adhæretque fucis, aliisque multis quæ in oceano nascuntur. Nec ab ipsis Britannis omnino ignoratur, cum paucis abhinc annis perpulchrum detexerit specimen prope littus Hibernicum Dominus Templetonus Linnæanæ societatis Londinensis socius. Exhibet tabula naturalem magni­tudinem.

r

the
FOUR-LOBED LUCERNARIA.

Generic Character.

Body gelatinous, wrinkled, branched.

Mouth beneath.

Specific Character, &c.

Red LUCERNARIA, with four arms tentaculated at the tip.

Müll. Zool. Dan. t. 39. f. 1.-6.

This highly curious Zoophyte, allied in the strongest manner to the Polypes, seems to have been first consi­dered as forming a distinct genus by the celebrated Müller in his Zoologia Danica, under the title of Lucer­naria. It is a native of the northern seas, and has been chiefly observed about the shores of Denmark and Norway, adhering to fuci and other marine substances; nor is it altogether a stranger to the British isles, a very fine specimen having been v discovered some years past on the coast of Ireland by the ingenious Mr. Templeton, Fellow of the Linnæan Society. The plate represents it in its natural size.

648

Brittle Cowry and Arabian Cowry

R P Nodder. Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

CYPRÆA FRAGILIS
et
CYPRÆA ARABICA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, involuta, subovata, obtusa, lævis.

Apertura utrinque effusa, linearis, utrinque dentata, longi­tudinalis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1172.

Character Specificus, &c.

CYPRÆA FRAGILIS. C. testa turbinata ovata glauca, testaceo-undata subfasciata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1175.

Mus. Lud. Ulric. 570. n. 188.

Gualt. test. t. 10. f. Q.

Habitat in mari mediterranea.

v

Character Specificus, &c.

CYPRÆA ARABICA. C. testa subturbinata characteribus inscripta, macula longi­tudinali simplici.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1173.

Percellana literata s. ARABICA.

Rumph. mus. t. 38. f. M.

List. Conch. t. 658. f. 3?

Gualt. test. t. 16. f. V.

Habitat in mari Indico.

r

the
BRITTLE COWRY
and
ARABIAN COWRY.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax or Slug.

Shell univalve, involute, obtuse, ovate.

Aperture linear, longitudinal, toothed on both sides.

Specific Character, &c.

BRITTLE COWRY. Glaucous-brown Cowry with yellowish-brown bands and streaks.

Knorr. vergn. 5. t. 18. f. 2.

Native of the Mediterranean sea.

v

Specific Character, &c.

ARABIAN COWRY. Subturbinated Cowry with characteriform variegations and violet-coloured mouth.

List. Conch. t. 658. f. 3.

Native of the Indian seas.

649

Russian Warbler

R. P. N. Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

D

MOTACILLA ROSSICA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum subulatum, rectum; mandibulis subeequalibus.

Nares obovatæ.

Lingua lacero-emarginata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 328.

Character Specificus, &c.

MOTACILLA grisea, capite nigro, collo utrinque albo, pectore abdomineque croceis.

MOTACILLA rubicola. var. β.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

MOTACILLA superne nigricans, torque albo interrupto, pectore atque abdomine superiore croceis.

Lepechin Act. Petrop. 15. t. 25. f. 3.

In Russiæ et Sibiriæ betuletis atque locis paludosis præcipue conspicitur Motacilla Rossica, a Domino Lepechin in Actis Petropolitanis ita descripta.

“Rostrum tenue nigrum, mandibula superior paulo longior apice incurva uti in congeneribus: v vertex capitis, genæ, gula atque collum anterius atra, nucha quoque insignitur nigredine a capillitio ad dorsum producta; partes laterales colli albæ; qui color etiam summa hypochondriorum tenet: pectus atque abdomen crocea, sed in abdomine croceus color magis magisque diluitur ita ut ad pedes albidus sit: dorsum nigricans margine pennarum parum rufescente: scapulæ alarum niveæ, rectrices anteriores nigras apicibus ex albido rufes­centibus: remiges majores fuscæ, minores nigricantes, omnes margine vexilli interni ad dimidium albo: uropygium utrinque niveum: rectrices duodecim æquales nigræ exceptis utrinque externis, quarum margo vexilli externi albicat: pedes unguesque nigri. Fæmina supra fusca marginibus pennarum rufes­centibus, macula alarum candida, gutture sordide albo, pectore atque abdomine dilute rufescente: remiges rectricesque prouti in mare.”

D2

the
RUSSIAN WARBLER.

Generic Character.

Bill subulate, strait: mandibles nearly equal.

Nostrils nearly oval.

Tongue jagged, or lacerated towards the tip.

Specific Character, &c.

Grey-brown WARBLER, with black head, sides of the neck white, breast and abdomen pale orange.

TSCHECANTSCHIKI.

Lepech. Act. Petr. 15. p. 489.

The bird represented on the present plate is principally found in the beech-woods and marshy places of Siberia, and is described by Lepechin in the 15th volume of the Petersburg Transactions. The bill is thin and black, with the upper mandible rather longer than the lower, and slightly curved at the tip, as in others of this genus. The top of the head, the cheeks, throat, and fore part of the neck, are v black, which colour also reaches from the nape to the beginning of the back: the sides of the neck, and upper parts of the sides are white: the breast and abdomen orange, the colour gradually growing paler as it approaches the legs, where it becomes whitish: the back is blackish, the feathers being slightly rufous on their edges: the scapulars are white, the smaller coverts black, with rufous-white tips: the great wing-feathers brown, the smaller blackish, the inner edges of both being white for half their length: the rump and vent are white: the twelve tail-feathers are of equal length, and black, except the outside ones, which are whitish on the inner edges: the legs and claws are black. The female is brown above, with the feathers slightly edged with rufous: on each wing is a white patch: the throat is of a dull white: the breast and abdomen slightly rufous: wings and the tail similar to those of the male bird.

650

Amphrysius Butterfly

R P Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO AMPHRYSIUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erecta; sursumque conniventes; (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis denticulatis nigris, versus apices flavo-substriatis, inferioribus flavis nigromarginatis.

PAPILIO alis concoloribus nigris, anterioribus maculis, posterioribus disco flavis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2230.
Eq. Tr.

Merian Ins. Surin. t. 72?

PAPILIO AMPHRYSIUS.

Cram. t. 219. f. A.

Affinis P. Helenæ.

Insulas Javam atque Amboinam præcipue incolit formosa hæc papilionis species, magni­tudine vera in tabula depicta.

v

 

r

AMPHRYSIUS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ generally thickening towards the extremities, and terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when sitting) erect, and meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

BUTTERFLY with denticulated wings; the upper pair black, with obscure yellow streaks towards the tips; the lower yellow, bordered with black.

Jablonsk. pap. 1. t. 1. f. 3.

This beautiful Butterfly is principally found in the islands of Java and Amboina, and is repre­sented in its natural size on the annexed plate.

v

 

651

Subauriculated Spondylus

R. P. N. Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

SPONDYLUS GŒDEROPUS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Tethys.

Testa inæquivalvis, rigida.

Cardo dentibus duobus recurvis, cum foraminulo intermedio.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1136.

Character Specificus, &c.

SPONDYLUS testa subaurita spinosa.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1136.

Gualt. test. 100. 101. f. A. B.

Rumph. mus. t. 47. f. E.

Regenf. conch. 16. t. 4. f. 48.

Adeo inter se generali quadam similitudine commis­centur Spondyli et Chamæ genera, (quæ ambo ad genus Ostreæ proxime accedunt) ut primo visu dubitari fere possit de nonnullis speciebus, sintne ad hoc an ad illud genus referendas. Nota tamen insignis est ad distinc­tionem, quæ a Chamis Spondylos secernit; umbo nempe valvulæ inferioris, qui quasi abscissus seu abrasus super­ficiem habet complanatam. Species præcipua, quam depinximus, spargit se in innumeras varietates quoad colorem et magni­tudinem. v E pulcherrimis speciminibus, quæ in Museo Leveriano asservantur, testam selegimus, cujus ad similitudinem figuram hanc nostram exprimi curavimus.

r

SUBAURICULATED SPONDYLUS.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Tethys.

Shell of unequal valves, strong.

Hinge with two recurved teeth and intermediate hollow.

Specific Character, &c.

SPONDYLUS with subauriculated, spinose shell.

Bonann. recr. t 20. 21.

Seb. mus. 3. t. 88. f. 1-11.

The two genera of Spondylus and Chama, (both nearly allied to that of Ostrea,) bear so great a general resem­blance to each other, that, in some species, it appears doubtful, at first sight, to which of the two the shell should be most properly referred. One great particularity however always distinguishes the shells of this genus from those of the genus Chama; viz. the aspect of the top of the inferior valve, which appears exactly as if sawn or cut away by an instrument, so as to leave a flat surface on that part. The v principal species, or Spondylus Gœderopus, here repre­sented, is subject to innumerable varieties in point of size and colour. Among the most elegant of these is the specimen figured, which is copied from a shell in the Leverian Museum.

652

Black-Finned Sparus

Notes

r

SPARUS MELANOPTERUS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes validi: Primores duplici, triplici, vel quad­ruplici ordine dispositi.

Molares (plerisque) validi, convexi, læves, in series dispositi, et quasi pavimentum in ore effor­mantes.

Labia crassa: Opercula mutica, squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

SPARUS purpurascens, abdomine flavo-virente, orbitis viridi-radiatis, pinnis nigris.

LABRUS MELAPTERUS. L. Pinnis nigris, aculeis dorsalibus octo.

Bloch. t. 285.

Maria incolit Indica Sparus melanopterus, longi­tudine, ut plurimum, pedali.

v

 

r

the
BLACK-FINNED SPARUS.

Generic Character.

Teeth strong; Front-Teeth disposed in a single, double, treble, or quad­ruple row.

Grinders (in most species) convex, smooth, and disposed in ranges, forming a kind of pavement in the mouth.

Lips thick: Gill-Covers unarmed, smooth, scaly.

Specific Character, &c.

Purplish SPARUS, with yellowish-green abdomen, orbits of the eyes radiated by green streaks, and black fins.

Black-Finned SPARUS.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 451.

The black-finned Sparus is seen chiefly in the Indian seas, and usually measures about twelve inches in length.

v

 

653

Black-Backed Parrakeet

R. P. N. Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

E

PSITTACUS MELANOTUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum; mandibula superiore mobili, cera instructa.

Nares in rostri basi.

Lingua carnosa, obtusa, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 139.

Character Specificus, &c.

PSITTACUS macrourus viridis, dorso nigro, tectri­cibus sanguineis, uropygio cæruleo.

Psittacus Melanotus a nemine antea descriptus proculdubio habendus est in iis quos pulcherrimos alit Australasia. Psittaco Pennantii et illo qui eximius dicitur paulo minor colores jactat egregie vividos et elegantes.

v

 

E2

the
BLACK-BACKED PARRAKEET.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked: upper mandible moveable, and furnished with a cere.

Nostrils in the base of the bill.

Tongue fleshy obtuse, generally entire.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Long-tailed green PARRAKEET, with black back, scarlet wing-coverts, and blue rump.

The Parrakeet represented on the present plate is unquestionably one of the most beautiful that have yet been discovered in the regions of Australasia, and is a species hitherto undescribed. Its size is somewhat smaller than that of the Pennantian and nonpareil parrakeets, and its colours in the highest degree vivid and elegant.

v

 

654

Plumierian Mackrel

R. P. N. Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

SCOMBER PLUMIERI.

Character Genericus.

Corpus oblongum, læve, linea laterali interdum carinatum.

Pinnulæ sæpius supra infraque versus caudam.

Character Specificus, &c.

SCOMBER viridi-cæruleus, subtus argenteus, squamis magnis, pinnis pectoralibus lanceolatis, linea laterali rotundato-loricata.

SCOMBER PLUMIERI. S. squamis magnis, pinnis flavis.

Bloch. t. 344.

Maria incolit Americana Scomber Plumieri, longi­tudine, ut plurimum pedali.

v

 

r

the
PLUMIERIAN MACKREL.

Generic Character.

Body oblong, smooth, sometimes carinated by the lateral line.

Finlets (in most species) above and below, towards the tail.

Specific Character, &c.

Blue-green MACKREL, silvery beneath, with large scales, lanceolate pectoral fins, and roundly-mailed lateral line.

The Plumierian Mackrel is an inhabitant of the American seas, and usually measures about twelve inches in length.

v

 

655

Oval-Tailed Crab

Notes

r

CANCER SCYLLARUS.

Character Genericus.

Pedes octo (rarius sex aut decem;) insuper manus dure chelatæ.

Oculi duo, distantes, plurimis pedunculati; elongati, mobiles.

Cauda articulata, inermis.

Character Specificus, &c.

CANCER macrourus articularis, manibus adactylis, ventricosis rectis angulatis introrsum tridentatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1054.

SQUILLA arenaria.

Seb. mus. 3. t. 20. f. 6.

Cancro Manti, quem in opere hoc nostro non ita pridem repræsentavimus, licet longe minor sit Cancer Scyllarus, in aliis tamen conjungi videtur cum eo propinqua cognatione. In maribus enutritur Indicis.

v

 

r

the
OVAL-TAILED CRAB.

Generic Character.

Legs generally eight, (in some species six or ten,) besides two claspers or chelated arms.

Eyes two, commonly distant; footstalked, moveable.

Tail jointed.

Specific Character, &c.

Long-tailed many-jointed CRAB, with adactyle, ventricose, strait, angular arms, tridentated on the inner side.

Rumph. mus. t. 3. f. F.

This species, though of much smaller size, is very nearly allied in point of general resemblance to the Cancer Mantis lately figured in the present work, and is a native of the Indian seas.

v

 

656

Janus Moth

R. P. N. Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PHALÆNA JANUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ. (Volatu nocturno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 808.

Character Specificus, &c.

PHALÆNA alis primoribus fuscis griseo-fasciatis, posterioribus rubris macula media magna ocellata nigra.

PHALÆNA alis patulis, anticis variegatis, subtus ocello atro, posticis sanguineis ocello atro.

Fab. sp. ins. 2. p. 169.

Insectum depinximus amplum et venustum, cum Phalæna Augusta, de qua antea in hoc opere disseruimus, remota quadam cognatione conjunctum. In America Australi generatum sedem sibi præcipuam seligere dicitur in Surinamia. Ostenditur in tabula naturalis magni­tudo.

v

 

r

JANUS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually lessening from base to point.

Wings (when at rest) generally deflected. Flight nocturnal.

Specific Character, &c.

PHALÆNA with the upper wings brown with grey bands, the lower red with a large black ocellated spot.

PHALÆNA JANUS.

Cram. pl. 64. f. A. B.

The large and elegant insect here exhibited, and which is in some degree allied to the Phalæna Augusta, before repre­sented in the present work, is a native of South-America, and is said to be principally found in Surinam. The plate expresses it in its natural size.

v

 

657

Zoned Parrot

R. P. N. Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

F

PSITTACUS ZONARIUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum; mandibula superiore mobili, cera instructa.

Nares in rostri basi.

Lingua carnosa, obtusa, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 139.

Character Specificus.

PSITTACUS macrourus viridis, capite remigibusque nigris, torque nuchali fasciaque abdominali flavis.

De hac specie satis sit notare novam omnino esse nec antea descriptam. In Australasia generatur, magni­tudine quasi Psittaci Tabuani.

v

 

F2

the
ZONED PARROT.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked: upper mandible moveable, and furnished with a cere.

Nostrils in the base of the bill.

Tongue fleshy, obtuse, generally entire.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character.

Long-tailed green PARROT, with the head and long wing-feathers black, the collar on the nape and abdominal zone yellow.

Of this species it may be sufficient to observe that it is new and hitherto undescribed. Its size is that of the Tabuan Parrot.

v

 

658

Fan Coralline

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

CORALLINA FLABELLUM.

Character Genericus.

Animal? crescens habitu plantæ.

Stirps fixa. Rami articulati, ramulosi.

Character Specificus, &c.

CORALLINA FLABELLUM. C. stipite simplici incrustato, &c.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 3842.

CORALLINA stipite simplici incrustato, ramis omnibus conglutinatis, fronde flabelliformi incrustata subundulata.

Soland. et Ellis Zooph. p. 124. t. 24.

Rupibus maris Americani adhærescit elegans hæc Corallinæ species; interdum major quam in tabula depicta.

v

 

r

the
FAN CORALLINE.

Generic Character.

Animal? growing in the form of a plant.

Stem fixed. Branches jointed and subdivided.

Specific Character.

Greenish-white CORALLINE, with simple stem, conglutinated branches, and fan-shaped subundulated frond.

Fan-shaped CORALLINE.

This elegant species of Coralline is found on the rocks of the American seas, and sometimes arrives at a larger size than repre­sented on the plate.

v

 

660

Paphia Moth

R. P. N. Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PHALÆNA PAPHIA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ. (Volatu nocturno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 808.

Character Specificus, &c.

PHALÆNA pectinicornis elinguis flava, alis falcatis concoloribus ocello fenestratis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 809.

PHALÆNA alis patentibus concoloribus flavis, strigis rufis ocelloque fenestrato.

Fabr. sp. ins. 2. p. 168.

Phalænam quam depinximus generant multæ Indicæ regiones; ibique larva ejus prægrandis et quasi bombycina nomine Tusseh distinguitur. Rhamni Jujubæ Linnæi (quam Byer nuncupant Hindostaniam incolentes) folia præcipue depascitur; et a Bengalensi populo copiose colligitur, ut v inde deducatur sericum subfuscum, crassum, firmum et durabile, quo vestiri solent Brachmanes, et alii nonnulli religiosi. Involvitur chrysalis tela seu theca ovata, unde comparatur sericum, quam ab extremo ramulis affigit chorda valida e filamentis agglutinatis contorta. Postquam novem menses transegerit chrysalis, nascitur phalæna, mense præcipue Julio; cujus color variat, interdum flavus, interdum fusco seu gilvo leviter suffusus. In tabula nostra exprimitur phalæna, nec non larva, magni­tudine naturali.

Larvæ imaginem et notitiam debemus ingenioso Domino Roxburgh, qui de illa disseruit in septimo volumine actorum Societatis Linnæanæ.

659

Paphia Moth

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

r

PAPHIA.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually lessening from base to point.

Wings (when at rest) generally deflected. Flight nocturnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellow PHALÆNA, with patulous subfalcated wings, marked by a rufous stripe and transparent ocellated central spot.

PHALÆNA Mylitta.

Drury ins. 2. t.

Cram. t. 146. 147.

The beautiful Phalæna here represented is a native of many parts of India, where its caterpillar, which grows to a large size, is known by the name of the Tusseh Silk-worm. It feeds principally on the leaves of the Rhamnus Jujuba of Linnæus, (called Byer among the Hindoos,) and is so plentiful in v many parts of Bengal as to afford natives, who collect it for that purpose, a strong, dark-coloured, coarse silk, extremely durable, and serviceable for many articles of dress, being much worn by the Bramins and some other sects. The webs in which the animal changes into its chrysalis state, and which afford the silk above-mentioned, are of an oval shape, and fastened at one end to the twigs on which they are placed by a very strong cord of agglutinated filaments. The moth makes its appearance chiefly in the month of July, having lain nine months in its chrysalis state. In colour it varies, being sometimes more or less tinged with pale brown or buff, instead of clear pale yellow, and, as well as the caterpillar, is exhibited on the plate in its natural size. For the above history of the insect, with the figure of the larva or caterpillar, we are obliged to the ingenious Dr. William Roxburgh, whose description of the animal is inserted in the seventh volume of the Transactions of the Linnæan Society.

661

Swedish Red-Breast

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

G

MOTACILLA SUECICA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum subulatum, rectum; mandibulis subæ­qualibus.

Nares ovatæ.

Lingua lacero-emarginata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 328.

Character Specificus, &c.

MOTACILLA fusca, pectore caudæque basi ferru­gineis, gula cærulea, abdomine albido.

MOTACILLA SUECICA. M. pectore ferrugineo fascia cærulea, rectricibus fuscis, versus basin ferru­gineis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 336.

CYANECULA.

Briss. orn. 3. p. 413.

Partes Europæ boreales incolit pulchra hæc avicula, magni­tudine vera in tabula depicta.

v

 

G2

the
SWEDISH RED-BREAST.

Generic Character.

Bill subulate, strait: mandibles nearly equal.

Nostrils obovate.

Tongue jagged or lacerated towards the tip.

Specific Character.

Brown MOTACILLA, with the throat blue, the breast and base of the tail ferruginous, and the abdomen whitish.

La Gorge-Bleue.

Buff. ois. 5. p. 206.

This elegant species is a native of the northern parts of Europe, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

662

Phosphoric Pyrosoma

RPN Sculpt.

Notes

r

PYROSOMA PHOSPHORESCENS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus liberum, oblongo-tubulosum, gelatinosum, altera extremitate apertum.

Character Specificus, &c.

PYROSOMA hyalino-virescens, papillosum, ore intus crenato.

PYROSOMA Atlanticum.

Peron. ann. du mus. nation. d’hist. nat. No. 24. p. 437. t. 72.

De eleganti hoc marino animali primus vere et accurate scripsisse videtur Dominus Peronus, in opere cui titulus “Annales du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle.” Illas incolit maris Atlantici partes quas circulo æquinoctiali dirimuntur, gregatim radens interdum summas aquas, interdum natans altius submersum. Otiosum et quiescens, ut plurimum sordido-virescit, seu flavescit; simul atque autem sese moverit, fit phosphoro-splendidissimum, singulo contracti corporis actu laminæ simillimum v ferreæ cum ab igni plene incanduerit; singulis autem laxati et extensi vicibus per varios gradus rubri, aurantii, flavi, leviter cærulei transiens, donec tandem ad colorem naturalem, hyalino nempe virescentem redierit. Super­ficies externa plurimis papillis seu processibus conicis obsita est: interna constat e membrana molli et reticulata, sine ullo visibili intestinorum vestigio. De modo vivendi et sobolem propagandi nihil pro certo compertum est; probabile tamen est alimentum ei subministrari eodem modo quo hydræ; absorpto nempe succo prædæ prius inclusæ et dein ab ore ejectæ. Magnitudinem iconis in tabula expressæ sæpius exsuperat Pyrosoma phosphor­escens.

r

the
PHOSPHORIC PYROSOMA.

Generic Character.

Body nayant, oblong, tubular, gelatinous, open at one extremity.

Specific Character, &c.

Greenish-hyaline, papillose PYROSOMA, with the mouth crenated within.

PYROSOMA.

Peron annales du Mus. Nat. d’Hist. Nat. No. 24. p. 437.

This elegant marine animal seems to have been first distinctly described by Mons. Peron, in the work entitled “Annales du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle.” It is a native of the equatorial parts of the Atlantic ocean, where it is sometimes seen in vast numbers, both floating on the surface, and swimming at considerable distances beneath. When in a state of perfect inaction or repose, it is usually v of a dull greenish or yellow cast, and semitransparent; but when in action, is distinguished by a very high degree of phosphoric splendor, exhibiting, during each contraction of its body, the appearance of a bar of iron in the highest degree of incandescence, and, during each relaxation, passing thro’ all the gradations of red, orange, yellow, pale-blue, &c. till at length it returns to its first greenish-hyaline aspect. It is externally beset with numerous conical elongations or papillæ, and within appears to be lined merely by a smooth vascular or reticular membrane, without any appearance of intestines, &c. Nothing particular is known relative to its manner of feeding, production of young, &c. It is however probable that it is nourished in the manner of the Polype, viz. by the absorption of the juices of its inclosed prey, which is afterwards ejected by the mouth or opening. In size it often greatly exceeds the figure repre­sented in the annexed plate.

663

Scaly-Footed Lizard

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

LACERTA LEPIDOPUS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus (plerisque) tetrapodum, elongatum, caudatum, nudum.

Character Specificus, &c.

LACERTA olivacea, nigro-punctata, pedibus anterioribus nullis; posterioribus adactylis, squamosis.

Bipes lepidopodus.

Cepede. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. No. 21. p. 209.

Quam juxta naturalem magnitudinem expressimus lacertam in Australasia generatur, ab aliis omnibus adhuc cognitis diversa, teste Cepedio, qui illam in opere descripsit quod characteri specifico subjungitur. Pedes habet posticos non divisos in digitos, sed omnino e processibus expansis, orbiculatis, squamosis constantes. Habitu generali accedit ad similitudinem lacertæ quæ Apus dicitur, anguinæ, bipedis, &c.; colore olivaceo seu virescente, punctulis parvulis nigris consperso.

v

 

r

the
SCALY-FOOTED LIZARD.

Generic Character.

Body (in most species) four-footed, elongated, tailed; without any secondary integument.

Specific Character, &c.

Olivaceous LIZARD, speckled with black, without fore-feet, and with scaly, undivided hind-feet.

Le Lepidopode.

Cepede. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. No. 21. p. 194.

The Lizard here represented in its natural size is a native of Australasia, and, according to the Count de Cepede, by whom it is described in the work quoted beneath the specific character, differs from every other species yet known in having the hind-feet perfectly destitute of divisions or toes, and consisting merely of a roundish scaly expansion or process. In general habit it resembles the Lacerta apus, anguina, bipes, &c. and is of a greenish or olivaceous colour, variegated by minute blackish specks.

v

 

664

Tridentated Hyale

R P N Sculpt.

Notes

r

HYALE TRIDENTATA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Clio.

Testa bivalvis, tenuis; valvulis connatis; superiore inflato-convexa, inferiore planiuscula.

Character Specificus, &c.

HYALE testa pallida, fusco-flavente, extremitate inferiore tridentata.

ANOMIA tridentata. A.

HYALE.

Cuvier. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. No. 21. p. 223.

N. B. Figuræ superiores et inferiores leviter auctæ; cæteræ magni­tudine vera exprimuntur.

A testa pellucida nomen adeptum est genus Hyale; accurate descriptum et depictum a Domino Cuviero in opere cui titulus “Annales,” &c. Testam primus detexit Dominus Forskalius, et ad genus Anomiæ retulit, cujus habita est species anomala. In mari Mediterraneo enutritum summas v radit aquas quo modo solet genus Clio, e Molluscorum familia; cui affine admodum est, animal quod in testa includitur. Longa est testa, ut plurimum, quasi tertiam unciæ partem, interdum pertingens ultra unciam dimidiatam. Color levissime fusco-flavescit.

r

the
TRIDENTATED HYALE.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Clio.

Shell bivalve, thin, subtransparent; valves connate; the upper convex-inflated, the lower flattish.

Specific Character, &c.

Pale yellowish-brown Hyale, with the shell triden­tated at the lower part.

HYALE.

Cuvier. Ann. Hist. Nat. No. 21. p. 194.

N. B. The upper and lower figures are slightly magni­fied; the rest are of the natural size.

The genus Hyale, so named from the transparency of the shell, is accurately described and figured by Mons. Cuvier in the “Annales du M. N. d’Hist. Nat.” By Forskal, its first describer, it was referred to the genus Anomia, of which it was allowed v to constitute an anomalous species. It is a native of the Mediterranean sea, and is observed to swim on the surface in the manner of the genus Clio among the Mollusca, to which its inhabiting animal is much allied. The usual length of the shell is from one to two-thirds of an inch, and its colour a very pale yellowish brown.

665

Cape Swallow

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

H

HIRUNDO CAPENSIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum minimum, incurvum, subulatum, basi depressum.

Rictus capite amplior.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 343.

Character Specificus, &c.

HIRUNDO nigro-cærulescens, subtus ochro-leuca lineolis fuscis, pileo uropygioque rufis.

HIRUNDO Capensis. H. nigro-cærulescens, subtus flavescens nigricante striata, pileo rufo, rectricibus lateralibus macula alba.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 574.

Juxta veram magnitudinem in tabula depingitur Hirundo Capensis, in Africa australi, ut plurimum, reperta.

v

 

r

the
CAPE SWALLOW.

Generic Character.

Bill very small, incurved, subulate, depressed at the base.

Gape wider than the head.

Specific Character, &c.

Blueish-black SWALLOW, yellowish white beneath with small dusky streaks, with the top of the head and rump rufous.

HIRONDELLE au capuchon roux.

Buff. ois. 6. p. 608.

CAPE SWALLOW.

Lath. Syn. 2. p. 506.

This species of Swallow, which the plate represents in its natural size, is chiefly found in the Southern parts of Africa.

v

 

666

Blue Millepore

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

MILLEPORA CÆRULEA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Hydra.

Corallium poris turbinatis teretibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1282.

Character Specificus, &c.

MILLEPORA polymorpha subcompressa cærulea, poris inæqualibus.

MILLEPORA plana scabra, laminis crassis varie tortuosis subdivisa, apicibus sæpe lobatis porisque substellatis cylindricis utrinque instructis.

Soland. et Ell. zooph. p. 142. t. 12. et 56.

CORALLOIDES philippensis cærulea.

Pet. gaz. t. 10. f. 12.

In maribus Indicis præcipue conspicitur formosum hoc corallium, magni­tudine vera in tabula expressum.

v

 

r

BLUE MILLEPORE.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Polype.

Coral with very numerous cylindric pores.

Specific Character, &c.

Polymorphous, subcompressed, blue Millepore, with unequal pores.

Blue MILLEPORE.

Soland. et Ellis zooph. t. 12. et 56.

Blue INDIAN CORAL.

This beautiful Coral is chiefly seen in the Indian seas, and is repre­sented in its natural size on the annexed plate.

v

 

668

Wild-Vine Sphinx

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

SPHINX LABRUSCÆ.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ medio crassiores, seu utraque extremitate attenuatæ, subprismaticæ.

Alæ deflexæ, (volatu graviore vespertino seu matutino.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 796.

Character Specificus, &c.

SPHINX olivacea, alis integris, posticis subcæruleis nigro-fasciatis, margine interiore sanguineis.

SPHINX LABRUSCÆ. S. alis subfuscis; primoribus subtus puncto albo, abdomine lateribus punctis quinque albis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 800.

Insectum depinximus elegantissimum, in America australi generatum, a Domina Meriana primo, ut videtur, descriptum et expressum in splendido opere quod inscri­bitur “Metamorphoses insectorum v Surinamensium.” Larva, cui præ alio cibo gratæ sunt variæ vitium species, teste Meriana, Augusto mense in chrysalidem convertitur, e qua Septembri insequente erumpere solet ipsa Sphinx.

667

Wild-Vine Sphinx (caterpillar and pupa)

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

r

the
WILD-VINE SPHINX.

Generic Character.

Antennæ subprismatic, thickest in the middle; and attenuated at each extremity.

Wings deflected.

Specific Character, &c.

Olivaceous SPHINX, with entire wings; the lower ones blueish with black bars and blood-red interior margin.

MERIAN. Ins. Surin. t. 34.

The highly elegant insect here represented is a native of South-America, and seems to have been first described and figured by the celebrated Madam Merian, in her splendid work on the insects of Surinam. Its caterpillar feeds principally on the different species of Vine. According to Madam Merian it changes to a chrysalis in the month of August, from which in that of September emerges the Sphinx.

v

 

669

Black-Crowned Tanager

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

I

TANAGRA MELANICTERA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum conicum, acuminatum, emarginatum, basi subtrigonum, apice declive.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 313.

Character Specificus, &c.

TANAGRA ferrugineo-fusca subtus lutea, pileo genisque nigris, alis albo longi­tudinaliter striatis.

Lath. Ind. Orn. p. 423.

TANAGRA supra ferruginea, subtus flavissima, capite nuchaque atris, alis albido-striatis caudaque fuscis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 898.

TANAGRA melanictera.

Guldenst. Nov. Comm. Petrop. 19. p. 465.

A Domino Gueldenststædt in Actis Petropolitanis ita describitur Tanagra melanictera.

“Magnitudine Tanagra melanictera Emberizæ miliariæ æqualis est. Caput supra a fronte usque ad nucham et ad latera atrum; collum supra et dorsum brunneo-ferru­gineum; uropygium lutescenti-ferru­gineum; avis tota subtus uniformiter flavissima. Alæ complicatæ cauda medium attingentes, fuscæ, albido longi­tudinaliter striatæ; remiges fusca, marginibus albidis; tectrices superiores remigibus concolores, inferiores v autem albido-flavæ. Cauda subforcipata, tres pollices longa; rectrices duodecim, fuscæ, marginibus albido-flavicantibus.

“Femina differt coloribus capitis et trunci; illa nimirum supra tota a fronte ad caudam usque sordide olivaceo-ferruginea fusco maculata, subtus tota ex albido flava.

“Habitat in submontanis promontorii utriusque, et septentrionalis et meridionalis Caucasi, circa thermas ad fluvium Terek obvias et in Georgia circa Teflisium.”

r

BLACK-CROWNED TANAGER.

Generic Character.

Bill conic, acuminated, a little inclining towards the point; the upper mandible slightly ridged, and notched near the end.

Specific Character, &c.

Ferruginous-brown TANAGER, yellow beneath, with black crown and cheeks, and wings streaked with white.

Black-crowned TANAGER.

Lath. Syn. 2. p. 223.

This species is described by Guldenstadt in the Peters­burgh Transactions. Its size is that of the common Bunting: the crown and cheeks are black, the neck and back brown-ferruginous, the rump yellowish-ferruginous, and the whole bird beneath deep yellow; the wings which, when closed, reach to the middle of the tail, are streaked longi­tudinally with white; the tail is slightly forked, measuring about three inches in length. The female differs in being entirely of a dull olive-ferruginous above, spotted with black, and beneath yellowish white.

It is an inhabitant of the Caucasian mountains and of the country of Georgia.

v

 

670

Panopus Sphinx

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

SPHINX PANOPUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ medio crassiores, seu utraque extremitate attenuatæ, subprismaticæ.

Alæ deflexæ (volatu graviore respertino seu matutino).

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 796.

Character Specificus, &c.

SPHINX alis gilvis fusco fasciatis, primoribus ocello nigro ad angulum interiorem.

SPHINX PANOPUS.

Cram. t. 224. f. A. B.

Insulam Javam incolet Sphinx Panopus, magni­tudine vera in tabula depictus.

v

 

r

PANOPUS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ subprismatic, thickest in the middle, and attenuated at each extremity.

Wings deflected.

Specific Character, &c.

Sphinx with buff-coloured wings barred with brown; the upper pair marked by a black ocellated spot at the interior angle.

PANOPUS.

Cram. pap. exot. t. f. A. B.

This insect is a native of the island of Java, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

671

Purple Gorgonia

R. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

GORGONIA CERATOPHYTA.

Character Genericus.

Animal crescens plantas facie.

Hydræ sparsæ e poris lateralibus.

Stirps radicata, cornea, continua, ramosa, basi explanata, cortice obducta.

Character Specificus, &c.

GORGONIA subdichotoma purpurea, ramis virgatis, poris bifariis.

GORGONIA subdichotoma, axillis divaricatis, ramis virgatis bisulcatis, cortice rubro, poris bifariis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 3800.

GORGONIA CERATOPHYTA.

Soland. et Ellis Zooph. p. 81. t. 12.

Corallina fruticosa purpurea.

C. Bauh. pin. 366.

Circa oras Americanas præcipue conspicitur formosum hoc Corallium, altitudine, ut plurimum, pedali vel sesqui­pedali.

v

 

r

PURPLE GORGONIA.

Generic Character.

Animal growing with the habit of a plant.

Polypes scattered from the lateral pores.

Stem fixed, horny branched, covered with a soft bark.

Specific Character, &c.

Subdichotomous purple GORGONIA, with twiggy branches, and double rows of white polypes.

Purple shrubby GORGONIA.

This beautiful coral is principally seen about the American coasts: its general height is about a foot or eighteen inches.

v

 

672

Eared Barnacle

R N Sculpt.

Notes

r

LEPAS AURITA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Triton.

Testa multivalvis, inæquivalvis, basi affixa.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1107.

Character Specificus, &c.

LEPAS pedunculata fusca membranacea, appendi­cibus auriculatis.

LEPAS testa membranacea ventricosa tubo insidente, ore octovalvi dentato, tubulo gemino aurita.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1110.

Speciem quam depinximus, marium Arcticorum incolam, primum descripsisse arbitramur Ellisium in Actis Anglicis. Adhæret, ut solet ferme reliquum genus, plurimis marinis substantiis. Quas ostendit tabula Lepadas repræsentavimus grandiori cuidam speciei affixas, cui nomen inditum est corporis figuræ conveniens; Lepas nempe Diadema.

v

 

r

the
EARED BARNACLE.

Generic Character.

Animal a Triton.

Shell multivalve, with unequal valves, affixed by the base.

Specific Character, &c.

Brown membranaceous pedunculated BARNACLE, with auriculated appendages.

Auriculated BARNACLE.

This species is a native of the northern ocean, and seems to have been described by Mr. Ellis in the Philo­sophical Transactions. Like others of this genus, it adheres to various marine substances; and the individuals on the present plate are repre­sented adhering to a larger species, called from its figure Lepas Diadema.

v

 

673

Undulated Parrakeet

Dr. S. Del. R. Nodder Sculp.

Notes

K

PSITTACUS UNDULATUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum, mandibula superiore mobili, cera instructa.

Nares in rostri basi.

Lingua carnosa, obtusa, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 139.

Character Specificus, &c.

PSITTACUS macrourus viridis, supra fusco undulatus, gula flavente cœruleo maculata, rectricibus basi flavis.

Ostendit tabula perpulchram speciem psittacinam, Australasiæ incolam, quamque censeo non antea fuisse descriptam. Superiora avis a rostro nempe ad uropygium flavo-viridi-pallent, undulis plurimis fuscis et linearibus transverse decorata, gradatim majoribus prope humeros et imum dorsum. Fuscæ sunt alarum pennæ, marginibus olivaceo-subflavescentibus. Inferiora cum uropygio virent eleganter pallida. Gula flavo-pallet, maculis paucis cæruleis, lunulisque nigris, huc illuc utrinque conspersa. Cauda cuneata cyanea est, fascia flavissima per omnes pennas in obliquum ducta, exceptis duabus mediis, quæ cæteras longi­tudine exsuperant. Rostrum pedesque fusca. Exprimitur in tabula vera avis magni­tudo.

v

 

r

the
UNDULATED PARRAKEET.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked; upper mandible moveable.

Nostrils round, placed in the base of the bill.

Tongue fleshy, broad, blunt at the end.

Legs short: feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Long-tailed green PARRAKEET, undulated above with brown; the throat yellowish, with blue spots, and the tail-feathers yellow at the base.

The highly elegant species of Parrakeet repre­sented on the present plate in its natural size, is an inhabitant of New Holland, and seems to have been hitherto unde­scribed. The upper parts of the bird, from the bill to the rump, are of a pale yellowish green, beautifully crossed by numerous linear brown undulations, which become gradually larger as they approach the back and shoulders; the wing-feathers are brown, with pale olive-yellow edges; the under parts of the bird, together with the rump, are of an elegant pale green; the throat pale yellow, mottled on each side with a few small deep blue scattered spots, accompanied by v small black crescents: the tail is of a cuneated form, and of a deep-blue colour, with a bright yellow bar running obliquely across all the feathers except the two middle ones, which considerably exceed the rest in length: the bill and legs are brown.

674

Thick Gorgonia

R P Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

GORGONIA CRASSA?

Character Genericus.

Animal crescens plantæ facie.

Hydræ sparsæ e poris lateralibus.

Stirps radicata, cornea, continua, ramosa, basi explanata, cortice obducta.

Character Specificus, &c.

GORGONIA teres dichotoma, ramis crassis adscen­dentibus, carne violacea.

GORGONIA CRASSA? G. dichotoma, &c. &c.

Soland. & Ellis Zooph. p. 91.

GORGONIA CRASSA?

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3806.

Super rupes maris Indici et Americani conspicitur Gorgonia crassa, cujus veram magni­tudinem exprimit tabula.

v

 

r

THICK GORGONIA.

Generic Character.

Animal growing with the habit of a plant.

Polypes scattered from the lateral pores.

Stem fixed, horny, branched, covered with a soft bark.

Specific Character, &c.

Round-stemmed, dichotomous GORGONIA, with thick, ascendant branches, and violet-coloured bark.

This species of Gorgonia is principally seen on the rocks of the Indian and American seas, and is repre­sented in its natural size.

v

 

675

Denticulated Oyster

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

OSTREA DENTICULATA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Tethys.

Testa bivalvis, inæquivalvis, subaurita.

Cardo edentulus, fossula cava ovata, striisque lateralibus transversis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1144.

Character Specificus, &c.

OSTREA testa rotunda, foliacea, valva altera plana parasitica, cardine utrinque denticulato.

Born. test. Mus. Cæs. Vind. p. 113. t. 6. f. 9, 10.

OSTREA major sulcata, inæqualiter utrinque ad cardinem denticulata.

List. Conch. t. 193, 194.

Circa promontorium bonæ spei, scopulis affixa, conspi­citur Ostrea denticulata, interdum major quam in tabula ostenditur.

v

 

r

the
DENTICULATED OYSTER.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Tethys.

Shell bivalve, subauriculated.

Hinge generally toothless, with an ovate or subtrigonal fossule, and lateral transverse streaks.

Specific Character, &c.

OYSTER with foliaceous, rounded shell; one valve flat and parasitic, with the hinge denticulated on each side.

Born. Test. Mus. Cæs. Vindob. t. 6. f. 9, 10.

The denticulated Oyster is found adhering to rocks about the Cape of Good Hope, and is sometimes larger than the specimen repre­sented on the annexed plate.

v

 

676

Great Myrmeleon

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

MYRMELEON GRANDE.

Character Genericus.

Os maxillosum, dentibus duobus. Palpi quatuor elongati.

Stemmata nulla.

Cauda maris forcipe e filamentis duobus rectiusculis.

Antennæ clavatæ, longitudine thoracis.

Alæ deflexæ.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 913.

Character Specificus, &c.

MYRMELEON antennis gracilibus clavatis, alis fusco maculato-fasciatis.

Drur. Ins. Exot. 3. t. 41.

Disseruere interdum physici de eleganti hoc insecto, quasi mera esset varietas Myrmeleontis libelluloidis. Rectius fortasse statuatur speciem esse revera diversam. In Africa generatur Myrmeleon grande, et veram ejus magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula.

v

 

r

the
GREAT MYRMELEON.

Generic Character.

Mouth furnished with jaws and two teeth.

Feelers four, elongated.

Stemmata none.

Tail (of the male) forcipated by two straitish filaments.

Antennæ equalling the thorax in length, and clavated.

Wings deflected.

Specific Character, &c.

MYRMELEON with slender, clavated antennæ, and wings barred by patches of brown.

Drury Ins. 3. t. 41.

This elegant insect, which is sometimes regarded as a variety only of the Myrmeleon libelluloides, may, perhaps, with greater propriety be considered as consti­tuting a distinct species. It is a native of Africa, and is repre­sented in its natural size.

v

 

677

Ludovician Grossbeak

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

L

LOXIA LUDOVICIANA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum conico-gibbum, fronds basi rotundatum versus caput; mandibula inferiore margine laterali inflexa.

Nares in basi rostri.

Lingua integra.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 299.

Character Specificus, &c.

LOXIA nigra, subtus alba, pectore roseo, alis fascia duplici alba.

LOXIA LUDOVICIANA. L. nigra, pectore, ventre, alarum fascia, basique remigum albis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 306.

Coccothraustes LUDOVICIANA.

Briss. av. 3. p. 247. t. 12. f. 2.

Americæ septentrionalis varias regiones incolit Loxia Ludoviciana, cujus veram magni­tudinem ostendit tabula.

v

 

r

the
LUDOVICIAN GROSSBEAK.

Generic Character.

Bill, strong, thick, and convex.

Nostrils small.

Tongue truncated.

Specific Character, &c.

Black GROSSBEAK, white beneath, with rose-coloured breast, and a double white bar on the wings.

Red-breasted GROSSBEAK.

Lath. Syn. 3. p. 126.

Penn. Arct. Zool. p. 350.

Le Rose-gorge.

Buff. Ois. 3. p. 460.

GROS-BEC de la LOUISIANE.

Pl. Enl. 153. f. 2.

The Ludovician Grossbeak is a native of several parts of North America, and is exhibited on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

678

Glossy Nerite and Feathered Nerite

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

NERITA POLITA
and
NERITA PENNATA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, gibba, subtus planiuscula.

Apertura semiorbicularis, labio columellæ transverso, truncato, planiusculo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1251.

Character Specificus, &c.

NERITA POLITA. N. testa lævi, vertice obliterato, labiis utrisque dentatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1254.

NERITA POLITA. N. testa lævi obtusa, labio dentato, labro crenulato.

Born. Mus. Cæs. p. 405. t. 17. f. 15, 16.

NERITA PENNATA. N. testa olivacea albo variegata, maculis transversis pennatis nigris.

NERITA PENNATA. N. testa rotundata lævi, labio plano crenulato.

Born. Mus. Cæs. p. 404. t. 17. f. 11, 12.

Si generis Neritæ formam generalem spectes, quæ bella admodum et concinna est, videbitur propius accedere v ad similitudinem generis Helicis. Sed quoniam major pars Neritarum maria incolat, datæ sunt iis testæ densiores multo et validiores quam helicibus vel terrestribus vel fluviatilibus. In mari Indico generantur ambas species in tabula depictæ.

r

the
GLOSSY NERITE
and
FEATHERED NERITE.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Limax or Slug.

Shell univalve, spiral, gibbose, flattish beneath.

Aperture semiorbicular, with the lip of the pillar transverse, truncated, and flattish.

Specific Character, &c.

GLOSSY NERITE. Smooth, whitish Nerite, with reddish and dusky variegations and streaks.

Born. Mus. Cæs. pl. 17. f. 15, 16.

FEATHERED NERITE. Olivaceous Nerite, with white variegations, and transverse, feather-shaped, black spots.

Born. Mus. Cæs. pl. 17. f. 11, 12.

The genus Nerita is possessed of a singular neatness of appearance. In point of form, it bears a near resemblance to that of Helix, or Snail; but as by far the greater number of species are natives of the sea, they are of a much thicker and stronger fabric than either the land or fresh-water snails. Both the species here repre­sented are produced in the Indian seas.

v

 

680

Jatropha Sphinx

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

SPHINX JATROPHÆ.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ subprismaticæ, utroque fine attenuatæ.

Lingua exserta (plerisque).

Palpi duo reflexi.

Alæ deflexæ.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2371.

Character Specificus, &c.

SPHINX grisea, alis superioribus nigro undulatis, corpore utrinque ocellis tribus luteis nigro marginatis.

SPHINX JATROPHÆ. S. alis subdentatis, posticis nigris basi rufis fasciaque fenestrata, capite bicorni.

Fab. Sp. Ins. 2. p. 143.

In Surinamia innascitur Sphinx Jatrophæ, nec non in aliis Americæ Australis regionibus. Memoravit et depinxit hanc speciem celeberrima Domina Merian. Larva Jatrophæ gossypifoliæ ramulos præcipue depascitur.

v

 

679

Jatropha Sphinx (caterpillar and pupa)

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

r

the
JATROPHA SPHINX.

Generic Character.

Antennæ subprismatic, attenuated at each extremity.

Tongue generally exserted.

Feelers two, reflex.

Wings deflected.

Specific Character, &c.

Grey SPHINX, with the upper wings undulated with black, and the body ocellated on each side by three yellow spots with black margins.

Merian Ins. Surin. pl. 38.

This insect is an inhabitant of Surinam, as well as of some other parts of South America, and is figured by the celebrated Madam Merian, in her work on the Insects of Surinam. The caterpillar feeds chiefly on the shoots of the Jatropha gossypifolia.

v

 

681

Tridigitated Kingfisher

Dr. S. Del. R. P. Nodder Sculp.

Notes

M

ALCEDO TRIBRACHYS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum trigonum, crassum, rectum, longum.

Lingua carnosa, brevissima, plana, acuta.

Pedes gressorii plerisque.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 178.

Character Specificus, &c.

ALCEDO cyanea, subtus ferruginea, alis nigrican­tibus, pedibus tridactylis.

Australasiam incolit Alcedo Tribrachys. Ostendit tabula veram avis magni­tudinem, a nemine, ut opinor, antea descriptæ aut depictæ.

v

 

r

the
TRIDIGITATED KINGFISHER.

Generic Character.

Bill trigonal, thick, straight, long.

Tongue fleshy, very short, flat, sharp-pointed.

Feet gressorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Deep-blue KINGFISHER, ferruginous beneath, with blackish wings and tridactyle feet.

The present species, which is a native of Australasia, does not appear to have been hitherto either figured or described. It is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

682

Red-Spotted Perch

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PERCA? MACULATA.

Character Genericus.

Squamæ duræ, asperæ.

Opercula spinosa.

Bloch. ichth. 2. p. 56.

Character Specificus, &c.

PERCA? albo-flavescens, rubro guttata.

PERCA MACULATA. P. alba, guttis rubris.

Bloch. t. 313.

Sparus Atlanticus?

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 453.

In mari Atlantico præcipue repertus, sedem sibi jure vindicat hic piscis inter pulcherrimos sui generis. Colore interdum variat, et in longi­tudinem quasi quindecim vel octodecim unciarum crescit.

v

 

r

RED-SPOTTED PERCH?

Generic Character.

Gill-covers spiny.

Scales hard and rough.

Bloch.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish-white PERCH, with red spots.

Red-spotted American PERCH.

This fish is principally seen in the American seas, and may justly be considered as one of the most beautiful of its genus. In colour it sometimes varies, and grows to the length of fifteen or eighteen inches.

v

 

683

Citron Snail

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

HELIX CITRINA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, subdiaphana, fragilis.

Apertura coarctata, intus lunata seu subrotunda, segmento circuli dempto.

Character Specificus, &c.

HELIX testa subumbilicata convexa obtusa flavescente, fascia fusca.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1245.

Gualt. test. t. 3. f. D. E.

Seb. mus. 3. t. 39. f. 1, 2.

Born. mus. Cæs. Vind. test. t. 13. f. 14, 15.

Varias Asia atque Americæ regiones incolit Cochlea hac elegantissima, magni­tudine vera in tabula depicta.

v

 

r

the
CITRON SNAIL.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Slug.

Shell spiral sub-pellucid.

Aperture semilunar.

Specific Character, &c.

SNAIL with citron-coloured, subumbilicated, convex, obtuse shell, with a dusky band.

The citron-coloured Jamaica SNAIL.

The yellow Indian SNAIL.

This highly elegant shell is a native of many parts of Asia and America, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

684

Thick-Armed Gorgonia

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

GORGONIA BRIAREUS.

Character Genericus.

Animal crescens plantæ facie.

Hydræ sparsæ e poris lateralibus.

Stirps radicata, cornea, continua, ramosa, basi explanata, cortice obducta.

Character Specificus, &c.

GORGONIA teres, crassa, cinerea, basi explanata, osse vitreo-aciculato, hydris magnis cirratis.

GORGONIA BRIAREUS. G. subramosa teres crassa, basi supra rupes late explanata, carne interna subalbida, externe cinerea, polypis majoribus octotentaculatis cirratis, osse ex aciculis vitreis purpureis, inordinate sed longi­tudinaliter compactis composito.

Soland. et Ellis Zooph. p. 93. t. 14. f. 1.

Circa oras Americanas præcipue conspicitur Gorgonia Briareus, altitudine decem vel quindecim uncias æquans. Colore interdum variat.

v

the
THICK-ARMED GORGONIA.

Generic Character.

Animal growing with the habit of a plant.

Polypes scattered from the lateral pores.

Stem fixed, horny, branched, covered with a soft bark.

Specific Character, &c.

Round-armed, thick, cinereous GORGONIA, with expanded base, glassy-fibred bone, and large cirrated polypes.

The GORGON BRIAREUS.

Soland. et Ellis Zooph. p. 93. pl. 14. f. 1.

This species of Gorgonia is chiefly found about the American coasts, and grows to the height of ten or fifteen inches. In colour it sometimes varies.

r

INDEX.

Pl.
638. Aplysia punctata.
681. Alcedo tribrachys.
642. Cancer Mantis.
655. —— Scyllarus.
648. Cypræa fragilis.
—— Arabica.
658. Corallina Flabellum.
671. Gorgonia ceratophyta.
674. —— crassa.
684. —— Briareus.
683. Helix citrina.
664. Hyale tridentata.
665. Hirundo Capensis.
637. Lanius gutturalis.
645. —— jocosus.
672. Lepas aurita.
663. Lacerta lepidopus.
677. Loxia Ludoviciana.
647. Lucernaria quadriloba.
643. Medusa Nummularia.
649. Motacilla Rossica.
661. —— Suecica.
666. Millepora cærulea.
676. Myrmeleon grande.
678. Nerita polita
—— pennata.
675. Ostrea denticulata.
639. —— Jacobæa.
641. Pavo spicifer.
640. Phalæna Apollonia.
646. —— Tarquinia.
644. —— Fabia.
656. —— Janus.
659. —— Paphia, larva.
660. —— Paphia.
650. Papilio Amphrysius.
653. Psittacus melanotus.
657. —— zonarius.
673. —— undulatus.
682. Perca maculata.
662. Pyrosoma phosphorescens.
654. Scomber plumieri.
651. Spondylus gædaropus.
652. Sparus melanopterus.
667. Sphinx labruscæ. larva.
668. —— labruscæ.
670. —— Panopus.
679. —— Jatrophæ. larva.
680. —— Jatrophæ.
669. Tanagra melanictera.

INDEX.

Pl.
638. Aplysia speckled.
637. Butcher-Bird red-throated.
650. Butterfly Amphrysius.
672. Barnacle eared.
642. Crab long-bodied.
655. Crab oval-tailed.
658. Coralline fan.
648. Cowry brittle
—— Arabian.
671. Gorgonia purple.
674. —— thick.
684. —— thick-armed.
677. Grossbeak Ludovician.
664. Hyale tridentated.
681. Kingfisher tridigitated.
647. Lucernaria four-lobed.
663. Lizard scaly-footed.
643. Medusa nummular.
644. Moth Fabia.
640. —— Apollonia.
646. —— Tarquinia.
656. —— Janus.
659. —— Paphia-larva.
660. —— Paphia.
654. Mackrel Plumerian.
666. Millepore blue.
676. Myrmeleon great.
678. Nerite glossy
—— feathered.
675. Oyster denticulated.
653. Parrakeet black-backed.
673. —— undulated.
657. Parrot zoned.
662. Pyrosoma phosphoric.
641. Peacock spike-crested.
682. Perch red-spotted.
661. Red-Breast Swedish.
639. Scallop Jacobæan.
683. Snail citron.
645. Shrike red-vented.
665. Swallow Cape.
652. Sparus black-finned.
651. Spondylus subauriculated.
667. Sphinx wild vine. larva.
668. —— wild vine.
679. —— Jatropha. larva.
680. —— Jatropha.
670. —— Panopus.
669. Tanager black-crowned.
649. Warbler Russian.

Printed by B. M‘Millan,
Bow Street, Covent Garden.

Notes and Corrections: Volume 16

Volume 16 of the Naturalist’s Miscellany was published in twelve monthly installments, conjecturally from September 1804 through August 1805. It is “conjecturally” because there has not been a full month-and-year date since the third installment of Volume 13 (November 1801), and no date at all since the tenth installment of Volume 15 (“1804”, probably June). In the current volume, I couldn’t find a single date, not even the bare year.

Installments are 16 pages, except as noted.

[A]; B; C; D; E (January 1805?); F (12 pg.); G; H (12 pg.); I; K; L (12 pg.); M

In the course of this volume, the printer comes ever closer to deciding that catchwords are hopelessly old-fashioned and need no longer be used. (The fact that multi-page articles are increasingly rare probably made the decision easier.) They disappear near the end of the third installment, return in the sixth, and disappear again—seemingly for good—in the seventh installment.

And speaking of typographic fashions: In the ninth installment, more than four years after the long ſ was dropped, the ct ligature suddently reappears—not once or twice as in the previous volume, but consistently and until further notice. This time around, it is not only in the descriptive paragraphs, printed in smaller type, but consistently in all text. At the same time, the format of the “Generic Character” and “Specific Character” headlings changes from Small Capitals to ALL CAPITALS. (You won’t see the change in this ebook, as I’ve kept them the same throughout all 24 volumes.)

The printer responsible for all these changes, incidentally, is B. M‘Millan of Bow Street, Covent Garden. From this volume onward, he names himself at the end of the Index.

Plates 639, 640 (the last two plates of the first installment) are engraved 640, 641, but are correct in the Index. Plates 655, 656 (the last two plates of the fifth installment) are engraved 656, 657, but are correct in the Index. In the three pairs of moth-and-larva plates, I have put the adult moth first, regardless of plate numbering.

Lanius Gutturalis, the Red-Throated Butcher-Bird

may be Telophorus viridis, the four-colored bush shrike. It lives in southern Africa.

Aplysia Punctata, the Speckled Aplysia

is otherwise known as the sea hare, the common sea hare, the dotted sea hare, the small rosy sea hare, lièvre de mer . . . and so on. I don’t see the resemblance myself. It lives along the coast of Europe, especially the British Isles.

LAPLYSIA PUNCTATA.
text has LAPLYSIA, PUNCTATA with superfluous comma
[The French name really is “Laplysia”; I had expected “L’APLYSIA” followed by displacement of the apostrophe. What Shaw means by “No. 10” is anyone’s guess. Annales du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle was published in yearly volumes beginning in 1802, and the volumes don’t seem to have been subdivided. But I did find an article in Volume 2 (1803) that seems to be about this animal.]

Ostrea Jacobæa, the Jacobean Scallop

is now Pecten jacobaeus, St. James’s scallop. It lives mainly in the Mediterranean.

[Plate 639]
[The plate number is engraved “640”, but is indexed as the expected 639.]

Lesser testaceoth. f. 139.
text has testaccoth.
[Friedrich Christian Lessers (1792–1754), Testaceotheologia, 1744 and later. Although the book as a whole is printed in fraktur, the title is in huge clear Antiqua, so this must be a case of the printer misreading Shaw’s handwriting. Full title of the 1756 edition, omitting the six lines describing the author:

TESTACEO-THEOLOGIA / oder / gründlicher Beweis / des Daseyns und der vollkommensten Eigenschaften / eines Göttlichen Wesens, / aus / natürlicher und geistlicher Betrachtung / der / Schnecken und Muscheln, / zur gebührenden Verherrlichung / des grossen GOttes [sic] / und Beförderung des ihm schuldigen Dienstes / ausgefertiget.

The same author also gave us Insecto-Theologia with a similarly expansive title.]

Phalæna Apollonia, the Apollonia (moth)

is probably Heniocha apollonia. It lives in southern Africa.

[Plate 640]
[The plate number is engraved “641”, but is indexed as the expected 640.]

Pavo Spicifer, the Spike-Crested Peacock

If it is Linnaeus’s Pavo muticus, it is also known as the green peafowl. (The ordinary peafowl is Pavo cristatus.) It lives in Southeast Asia and the Malay archipelago.

Cancer Mantis, the Long-Bodied Crab

is now Squilla mantis, the spottail mantis squillid. It lives in the Mediter­ranean and along the west coast of Africa.

In the singular and irregular system of Fabricius, this species ranks under a distinct genus entitled Squilla.
[Sorry, George. Fabricius wins this round.]

many new genera . . . have rather tended to obscure than elucidate the history of insects
[The author voiced a similar complaint when discussing the Cancroid Monoculus (Plate 368 of Volume 10). Oddly, he doesn’t seem to have a problem with new genera of birds, fishes or mollusks—only “insects“, or what are now known as arthropods.]

Medusa Nummularia, the Nummular Medusa

If it is the same as Linnaeus’s Medusa porpita after all, it is now Porpita porpita, the blue button. It lives in all tropical-to-temperate oceans.

Phalæna Fabia, the Fabia (moth)

is probably Eupterote fabia. It lives in South Asia.

Lanius Jocosus, the Red-Vented Shrike

is now Pycnonotus jocosus, the red-whiskered bulbul. It lives in South and Southeast Asia and eastern Australia.

La petit Merle huppé de la Chine.
text has hupé

Phalæna Tarquinia, the Tarquinia (moth)

is probably Dirphia tarquinia. It lives in South America.

Lucernaria Quadriloba, the Four-Lobed Lucernaria

If it is the same as Müller’s Lucernaria quadricornis, it is also known as the horned stalked jellyfish. It lives around the north Atlantic.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3151.
[At this point, Shaw belatedly decides that there is no earthly reason not to italicize “Gmel.” along with the rest of the title.]

Cypræa Fragilis, the Brittle Cowry

Search me. GBIF says “doubtful”, while WoRMS offers over 1000 species with “fragilis” in the name—but C. fragilis isn’t one of them.

Cypræa Arabica, the Arabian Cowry

is now Mauritia arabica. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Motacilla Rossica, the Russian Warbler

If it really is just Motacilla rubicola—no relation to M. rubecula—it is now Saxicola rubicola, the European stonechat. It is most common in Europe, but also ranges into Africa and Asia.

Papilio Amphrysius, the Amphrysius (butterfly)

If he means P. amphrysus, it is now Troides amphrysus. It lives in Indonesia west of Wallace’s Line.

Affinis P. Helenæ.
[We met P. helena at Plate 77 of Volume 3. Since it is now Troides helena, they really are close relatives.]

Spondylus Gœderopus, the Subauriculated Spondylus

If he means S. gæderopus, it is also known as the European thorny oyster. (It would have been easy to take this as a typographical error, since the compartments for Æ and Œ—and for æ and œ—were adjacent in printers’ cases. But the English text also has an unambiguous lower-case œ, which is pushing coincidence.) It lives mainly around the Mediterranean. Incidentally, I have no idea what the element γοιδ-, γαιδ-, or possibly γηδ- or γεδ- is supposed to mean.

[Plate 651]
[It may look as if I accidentally cropped away some of its “thorns” along straight vertical lines, but that really is what the engraving looks like.]

Sparus Melanopterus, the Black-Finned Sparus

is probably Hemigymnus melapterus (by way of Labrus melapterus), the blackedge thicklip wrasse. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Psittacus Melanotus, the Black-Backed Parrakeet

may be Aprosmictus erythropterus, the red-winged parrot. It lives in Australia.

Scomber Plumieri, the Plumierian Mackrel

is now Selar crumenophthalmus (by way of Scomber crumenophthalmus, because Bloch named the same fish twice), the big-eye scad. It lives in most tropical-to-temperate oceans, but doesn’t seem to like Europe.

Cancer Scyllarus, the Oval-Tailed Crab

is now Odontodactylus scyllarus, the peacock mantis shrimp. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

[Plate 655]
[The plate number is engraved “656”, but is indexed as the expected 655.]

In maribus enutritur Indicis.
text has , for .

the Cancer Mantis lately figured in the present work
[Plate 642 of the current volume, three installments ago.]

Phalæna Janus, the Janus (moth)

is probably Automeris janus. It lives in South and Central America.

[Plate 656]
[The plate number is engraved “657”, but is indexed as the expected 656.]

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ. (Volatu nocturno.)
close-parenthesis missing

with a large black ocellated spot.
text has oscellated

the Phalæna Augusta, before repre­sented in the present work
[Plate 300 of Volume 8. Unfortunately, nobody seems to be sure what moth he was talking about.]

Psittacus Zonarius, the Zoned Parrot

is probably Barnardius zonarius, the Australian ringneck, with naming credit to Shaw. It lives in Australia.

Corallina Flabellum, the Fan Coralline

is now Udotea flabellum. It lives around Australia, and also the Caribbean and the east coast of South America. Like all corallines, it’s a plant—the first one since Volume 6 if you don’t count the fossil fern in Volume 15, and the first non-animal since Volume 12.

Phalæna Paphia, the Paphia (moth)

is probably Antheraea paphia. It lives in South Asia.

(Volatu nocturno.)
close-parenthesis missing

called Byer among the Hindoos
[This kind of thing would be far more useful if British writers of the period had even the remotest conception of “Continental” vowel values. Looking it up I do find assorted combinations of बेर (ber), which suggests that Shaw’s sources are not entirely making it up.]

Motacilla Suecica, the Swedish Red-Breast

is now Luscinia svecica, the bluethroat. It lives almost everywhere in Eurasia, extending into both Alaska and north Africa. (But presumably not all at the same time.)

Pyrosoma Phosphorescens, the Phosphoric Pyrosoma

Now Pyrosoma atlanticum (using Péron’s binomial). In spite of the species name, it is found in all tropical-to-subarctic oceans; in fact it seems to be especially fond of New Zealand. Shaw’s English name, “phosphoric pyrosoma”, is also misleading, since phosphorescence is a characteristic of the entire Pyrosoma genus. And of the family, Pyrosomatidae. And of the order, Pyrosomatida.

in the work entitled “Annales du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle
[Shaw is fond of this construction, making it sound as if some individual author single-handledly wrote a book and called it “Annals of . . .” or “Proceedings of . . .”]

Lacerta Lepidopus, the Scaly-Footed Lizard

is now Pygopus lepidopodus, the common scaly foot. (The name involves the Greek λεπις, a scale, no relation to Latin lepidus.) It lives in Australia.

Hyale Tridentata, the Tridentated Hyale

If it is the same as Forsskål’s Anomia tridentata, it is now Cavolinia tridentata, the three-toothed cavoline. (In German the cavoline is called, more picturesquely, a Seeschmetterling or sea butterfly.) It lives in most tropical-to-temperate oceans.

the genus Clio among the Mollusca, to which its inhabiting animal is much allied
[This kind of statement is often erroneous, but in this case it remains correct; Clio and Cavolinia belong to the same family.]

Hirundo Capensis, the Cape Swallow

may be Cecropis cucullata (by way of Hirundo cucullata), the greater striped swallow. It lives in South Africa.

Millepora Cærulea, the Blue Millepore

is probably Heliopora coerulea, the blue coral. It lives around Australia and the south Pacific.

formosum hoc corallium
text has coralium
[The misspelling will crop up several more times, in this volume and again in Volume 20, but it’s still a mistake.]

Sphinx Labruscæ, the Wild-Vine Sphinx

is probably Eumorpha labruscae, the gaudy sphinx. It lives in the Americas, especially in and around Central America.

Tanagra Melanictera, the Black-Crowned Tanager

may be Emberiza melanocephala, the black-headed bunting. It ranges from Europe to South Asia.

Sphinx Panopus, the Panopus (sphinx)

is probably Amplypterus panopus. It lives in Southeast Asia, including Indonesia.

Gorgonia Ceratophyta, the Purple Gorgonia

is now Ellisella ceratophyta. (Was the genus named in honor of John Ellis, co-author of Zoophytes? I haven’t pinned it down, but it certainly should have been.) It lives in Indonesia and around Australia.

formosum hoc Corallium
text has Coralium
[Sorry, George. It’s still a typo.]

pedali vel sesquipedali.
text has sesquispedali

Lepas Aurita, the Eared Barnacle

is now Conchoderma auritum, the rabbit-ear barnacle. It lives along all coasts.

Psittacus Undulatus, the Undulated Parrakeet

is probably Melopsittacus undulatus, the budgerigar, with naming credit to Shaw. It lives in Australia. (Also in Europe and North America—but only in cages.)

[Plate 673] Dr. S. Del.
[Who the heck is “Dr. S”? All I can say with certainty is that it is not the stage name of my cousing Sveinung, who is a physician by day, a rapper by night. (This is really true.) Did George Shaw, M.D., moonlight as an illustrator? If so, it’s the first we’ve seen of it. Two installments further along, Plate 681 will carry a similar credit.]

gula flavente cœruleo maculata . . . . maculis paucis cæruleis
[Could Shaw himself not make up his mind how to spell the word? No, let’s blame it on the typesetter.]

Gorgonia Crassa, the Thick Gorgonia

If Shaw’s G. crassa is the same as Ellis and Solander’s G. crassa—he himself seems to be unsure—it is now Pseudoplexaura flagellosa (by way of Houttuyn’s Gorgonia flagellosa), the porous sea rod. It lives mainly around the Caribbean.

Ostrea Denticulata, the Denticulated Oyster

is now Striostrea denticulata. It is scattered here and there, but doesn’t seem to be common anywhere.

Myrmeleon Grande, the Great Myrmeleon

If it really is a variety of M. libelluloides, it is now Palpares libelluloides. It is most common along the Mediterranean coast of Europe.

Loxia Ludoviciana, the Ludovician Grossbeak

is now Pheucticus ludovicianus, the rose-breasted grosbeak. It lives in North America and the northernmost part of South America.

Nerita Polita, the Glossy Nerite

is also known as the polished nerite. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Nerita Pennata, the Feathered Nerite

is now Vittina pennata. Unlike the preceding, it prefers brackish waters (river mouths, typically).

NERITA POLITA / and / NERITA PENNATA
[Oops. I believe the conjunction he’s groping for is et.]

Sphinx Jatrophæ, the Jatropha Sphinx

may be Cocytius antaeus, the giant sphinx. But the same suggestion was made for Sphinx Annonæ at Plates 566-567 of Volume 14, and they can’t all be giant sphinxes, can they? If the identification is right, it lives in and around Central America.

Antennæ subprismaticæ, utroque fine attenuatæ.
text has Alæ for Antennæ

Alcedo Tribrachys, the Tridigitated Kingfisher

may be Alcedo azurea, the azure kingfisher. It lives in Australia and New Guinea.

Deep-blue KINGFISHER
text has KINGSFISHER

Perca Maculata, the Red-Spotted Perch

is now Epinephelus fasciatus (by way of Forsskål’s Perca fasciata), the banded reef cod. It lives along the coasts of Africa, Australia and Asia.

Helix Citrina, the Citron Snail

is now Xesta citrina. It is most common around New Guinea.

Gorgonia Briareus, the Thick-Armed Gorgonia

Unknown. In fact I couldn’t find anything-briareus at WoRMS that was named earlier than 1824. (“Briareus” is a personal name, like “Helenus” and “Helena” among the lepidopterans, so it isn’t subject to grammatical modifi­cation.)

Index

Although the number of plates isn’t any smaller than in previous volumes, the Index from here on will always fit in a single page. The printer changed to smaller type—and, concurrently, started putting his name at the end of the Index. Or, in the alternative: Shaw and Nodder changed printers, and B. M’Millan put his mark on the remainder of the Miscellany.

Two plates in this volume each show two different species of shell. Three of the four resulting Index entries were printed on a single line: “Nerita polita et pennata” (Latin); “Cowry brittle and Arabian” (English); ”Nerite glossy and feathered” (English). I have split all three into separate lines. This, in turn, made it easier to notice that an unrelated Index entry was missing from the Latin side.

Finally: Did the author or publisher change his mind at the last minute about the arrangement of the sixth installment? Going by engraved numbers—which agrees with the plates’ sequence in the book—the plates are: 658 (Fan coralline), 659 (Paphia moth larva), 660 (adult Paphia moth). But according to the printed Index numbers, the coralline (“660”) would have come after the two moth plates (“658”, “659”).

Latin

654.   Scomber plumieri.
index entry missing
[As noted above, one Index entry on the Latin side and two on the English side were run-in to a single line. This helps explain why the printer didn’t notice that he had left something out.]

English

658.   Coralline fan.
text has 660

659.   [Moth] Paphia-larva.
text has 658

660.   [Moth] Paphia.
text has 659

The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.