Naturalist’s Miscellany

The Naturalist’s Miscellany
by George Shaw
Volume 17

v

CELSISSIMO ET AUGUSTISSIMO

GEORGIO,

WALLIARUM PRINCIPI,

CUJUS AUSPICIIS

VELUTI ALTERIUS MÆCENATIS

FLORENT ARTES INGENUÆ;

hunc
DECIMUM SEPTIMUM

NATURÆ VIVARII

FASCICULUM

SUMMA CUM OBSERVANTIA

d. d. d.
GEORGIUS SHAW,
E. NODDER.

r

to
HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS

GEORGE

PRINCE OF WALES,

THE AUGUST HOPE

of the
BRITISH EMPIRE,

THE ACCOMPLISHED PATRON

of

SCIENCE AND LITERATURE,

THIS SEVENTEENTH VOLUME
of the

NATURALIST’S MISCELLANY

is

MOST RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED

by
GEORGE SHAW,
E. NODDER.

v

 

685

Greater Bulfinch

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

LOXIA ENUCLEATOR.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum conico-gibbum, frontis basi rotundatum versus caput; mandibula inferiore margine laterali inflexa.

Nares in basi rostri.

Lingua integra.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 299.

Character Specificus, &c.

LOXIA rosea, alis caudaque nigris, rectricibus albo marginatis.

LOXIA linea alarum duplici alba, rectricibus totis nigricantibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 299.

Coccothraustes Canadensis.

Briss. 3. p. 250.

Apud Britannos non nisi in partibus septentrionalibus, idque rarius, conspicitur formosa hæc avis, Loxia Pyrrhula fere duplo Major. Semina præcipue depascitur e conis pinorum et abietum rostro extracta. Feminæ color est olivaceus.

v

the
GREATER BULFINCH.

Generic Character.

Bill thick and convex.

Nostrils small.

Tongue truncated.

Specific Character, &c.

Rose-red Grosbeak, with black wings and tail; the coverts edged with white.

Greatest BULFINCH.

Edw. pl. 123.

Pine Grosbeak.

Penn. Brit. Zool.

Gros-Bec du Canada.

Pl. Enl. 135. f. 1.

This beautiful bird, which is a rare species in England, being only observed occasionally in the northern coun­ties, is nearly twice the size of the common Bulfinch. It feeds principally on the seeds of firs and pines, which it picks out of the cones. The female is of an olive colour.

686

Muricated Madrepore

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

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MADREPORA MURICATA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Medusa.

Corallium cavitatibus lamelloso-stellatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1272.

Character Specificus, &c.

MADREPORA composita subimbricata, stellis oblique truncatis, prominentibus, adscendentibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1279.

MADREPORA spinosa et corymbosa.

Lin. Mus. Tessin. p. 118.

Millepora MURICATA.

Lin. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. p. 792.

Circa littora maris Indici præcipue conspicitur Madre­pora muricata, figura et magni­tudine plurimum varians.

v

the
MURICATED MADREPORE.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Medusa.

Coral marked with lamellar star-shaped impressions or cavities.

Specific Character, &c.

Compound, subimbricated, branched MADREPORE, with obliquely truncated, prominent, subascendant pores.

Rough, branched MADREPORE.

The present species of Madrepore is principally found about the coasts of the Indian seas, and varies extremely both in form and size.

687

Adonis Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

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PAPILIO ADONIS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes. (Volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis dentatis, supra cæruleis nitidissimis apice nigris, subtus griseo albidoque undulatis.

PAPILIO ADONIS.

Cram. t. 61. f. A. B.

An var. P. Menelai?

Surinamiam incolit pulcherrimus hic Papilio, magni­tudine vera in tabula depictus.

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ADONIS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and commonly terminating in a club-shaped tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

Bright-blue Butterfly, with denticulated wings tipped with black; beneath grey, with whitish undulations.

This highly beautiful insect is a native of Surinam, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

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688

Trilineated Phyllidia

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PHYLLIDIA TRILINEATA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus ovatum, dorso coriaceo, pulmones foliaceo-multifidos obtegente.

Tentacula duo in fronte.

Anus foramen tubulosum.

Character Specificus, &c.

PHYLLIDIA nigra, verrucis flavis; lateralibus transversis, dorsalibus in triplici serie longi­tudinali dispositis.

PHYLLIDIA TRILINEATA.

Cuvier Ann. M. N. Hist. Nat.

Marinum hoc animal, quod apte satis annumerari possit generi Linnæano Doridis, descripsit Dominus Cuvierus in opere cui titulus “Annales du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle,” retulitque ad novum Molluscorum genus Phyllidiæ nomine distinctum. In maribus enutritur Indicis. Exprimit tabula veram magni­tudinem.

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the
TRILINEATED PHYLLIDIA.

Generic Character.

Body ovate, with coriaceous back, covering the foliaceous, multifid lungs.

Tentacula two, in front.

Vent a tubular orifice.

Specific Character, &c.

Black PHYLLIDIA, with yellow warts; the lateral ones disposed transversely, the dorsal ones in three longi­tudinal rows.

PHYLLIDIA TRILINEATA.

Cuvier Ann. d. M. N. H. N.

The marine animal represented on the present plate, and which might very properly be referred to the Linnæan genus Doris, is by Mons. Cuvier, by whom it is described in the work entitled “Annales du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle,” considered as constituting a new genus of Mollusca, under the name of Phyllidia. It is a native of the Indian seas, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

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689

Bald Grakle

R Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

C

GRACULA CALVA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum convexo cultratum, basi nudiusculum.

Lingua integra, acutiuscula, carnosa.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

GRACULA subcinerea, alis caudaque fuscis, capite utrinque nuda rubra.

GRACULA CALVA. G. subcinerea, capite utrinque nudo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 164.

Merula calva.

Briss. av. 2. p. 305.

In insulis Philippeis generata rara hæc avis nidificare dicitur in cavis arborum, præcipue Cocos nuciferæ Linnæi. Depascitur varias fruges. Magnitudo est quasi merulæ vulgaris.

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C2

the
BALD GRAKLE.

Generic Character.

Bill convex-cultrate.

Tongue entire, sharpish, fleshy.

Feet formed for walking.

Specific Character, &c.

Subcinereous GRAKLE, with dusky wings and tail, and bare red cheeks.

BALD GRAKLE.

Lath. Syn. 1. p. 457.

Merle chauve des Philippines.

Pl. Enl. 200.

The rare species represented on the present plate is a native of the Philippine islands, where it is said to breed in the hollows of trees, and particularly in those of the Cocoa Palm (Cocos nucifera. Lin.) Its general size is that of a common Blackbird.

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690

Trapezial Murex

R Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

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MUREX TRAPEZIUM.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, exasperata suturis membranaceis.

Apertura desinens in canalem integrum, rectum, seu subascendentem.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1213.

Character Specificus, &c.

MUREX subflavescens oblongus, anfractibus subno­dosis, lineis geminatis nigricantibus.

MUREX TRAPEZIUM. M. testa oblonga obtuse angulata, anfractibus subnodosis, apertura dentata, cauda breviore recta.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1224.

Maria incolit Indica Murex Trapezium, interdum major quam in tabula depingitur.

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the
TRAPEZIAL MUREX.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Limax or Slug.

Shell univalve, roughened by membranaceous sutures.

Aperture ending in a straight or subascending channel.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish oblong MUREX, with slightly-knobbed spires, and double blackish lines.

Double-streaked Indian MUREX.

Limacon a Bosses et a Bandes.

Knorr. Vergn. 4. pl. 20. f. 1.

The trapezial Murex is a native of the Indian seas, and is sometimes of a larger size than repre­sented on the plate.

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691

Spotted Balistes

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

BALISTES MACULATUS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes plures in maxilla utraque.

Corpus compressum, abdomine carinato.

Cutis coriacea, scabra, sæpe squamis coadunatis reticulata.

Character Specificus, &c.

BALISTES subviolaceus, cæruleo maculatus, abdomine albido.

BALISTES pinna anali lata, aculeis duobus in prima pinna dorsali.

Lin. Gmel.

Bloch. ichth. t. 151.

Marium Indicorum et Americanorum incola Balistes maculatus in longi­tudinem crescere solet bipedalem. In piscibus est qui esculenti habentur, et inesse dicitur carni sapor haud ingratus.

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the
SPOTTED BALISTES.

Generic Character.

Teeth several in both jaws.

Body compressed: abdomen carinated.

Skin tough, often reticulated by scale-like divisions.

Specific Character, &c.

Subviolaceous File-Fish, with blue spots and whitish abdomen.

The spotted File-Fish.

Der gefleckte Hornfisch.

Bloch. Ichth. pl. 151.

The Balistes maculatus, or Spotted File-Fish, is a native of the Indian and American seas, where it grows to the length of about two feet: its flesh is said to be of a good flavour, and it is therefore numbered among the esculent fishes.

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692

Icarus Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO ICARUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes. (Volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis integerrimis, superioribus fusco-olivaceis, fasciis duabus albidis; inferioribus rubris nigro variis.

PAPILIO ICARUS.

Cram. t. 18. f. A. B.
Dan. festiv.

In America australi, præcipue autem in Surinamia conspicitur Papilio Icarus, magni­tudine vera in tabula depictus.

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ICARUS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and commonly terminating in a club-shaped tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with entire wings; the upper pair olive-brown, with two whitish bands; the lower red, with black variegations.

PAPILIO ICARUS.

Cram. pl. 18. f. A. B.
Dan. festiv.

This elegant insect is a native of South America, and particularly of Surinam, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

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693

Mississippi Tanager

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

D

TANAGRA MISSISSIPENSIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum conicum, acuminatum, emarginatum, basi subtrigonum, apice declive.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 313.

Character Specificus, &c.

TANAGRA tota rubra, rostro fusco.

TANAGRA tota rubra.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 421.

Cardinalis Mexicanus.

Briss. av. 3. p. 40.

Varias Americæ partes incolit hæc avis, magni­tudine Tanagram Brasiliensem æquans.

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r

the
MISSISSIPPI TANAGER.

Generic Character.

Bill conic, acuminated, a little inclining towards the point; the upper mandible slightly ridged, and notched near the end.

Specific Character, &c.

Red TANAGER, with brown beak.

MISSISSIPPI TANAGER.

Lath. Syn. 2. p. 252.

TANGARA du MISSISSIPPI.

Buff. 4. p. 252.

Pl. Enl. 741.

This species is found in several parts of America, and is equal in size to the Brasilian Tanager.

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694

Variegated Crab

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

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CANCER GRAPSUS.

Character Genericus.

Pedes octo (rarius sex aut decem); insuper manus duæ chelatæ.

Oculi distantes, plurimis pedunculati; elongati, mobiles.

Cauda articulata, inermis.

Character Specificus, &c.

CANCER brachyurus flavus, rubro variatus, corpore rotundato, thorace antice lobato-denticulato.

CANCER marinus, &c. orientalis rarissimus.

Seb. mus. 3. t. 18. f. 5.

CANCER GRAPSUS. C. brachyurus, thorace strigis subimbricato gibbo, antice trilobo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1048.

Litora insularum Indicarum et Americanarum incolit pulchra hæc Cancri species, interdum major quam in tabula monstratur.

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the
VARIEGATED CRAB.

Generic Character.

Legs generally eight (in some species six or ten), besides two claspers or chelated arms.

Eyes two, commonly distant; footstalked, moveable.

Tail jointed.

Specific Character, &c.

Short-tailed yellow CRAB, with red variegations, rounded body, and thorax lobate-denticulated in front.

VARIEGATED INDIAN CRAB.

This beautiful species of Crab inhabits the shores of the Indian and American islands, and is sometimes seen of larger size than shewn on the annexed plate.

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695

Echinoid Asterias

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

ASTERIAS ECHINITES.

Character Genericus.

Corpus depressum; crusta coriacea, tentaculis muricata.

Os centrale, quinque valve.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1098.

Character Specificus, &c.

ASTERIAS subviginti-radiata, fulva, radiis corporeque spinosis.

ASTERIAS ECHINITES.

Ell. Zooph. t. 60, 51.

Rarissimæ hujus Asteriæ in maribus Indicis generatæ exsuperat interdum diametros latitudinem pedalem. Vinculo quodam communi connectere videtur genera Asteriæ et Echini, cum alterius formam sortita sit depressam, alterius munita tegumento forti et crustato. Jactat Museum Leverianum pulcherrima rari hujus animalis specimina.

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Dolenter sane ferent ii omnes quos tangit ulla delegatio mirabilium Naturæ, brevi tempore in varias partes discerptum, hastæ subjectum iri Museum Leverianum: armarium tanta cum cura digestum; gradatim auctum, et jam fere perfectum, ut ei saltem integritas si non immor­talitas exoptanda esset. Ut lauta hæc et magnifica supellex publico (proh pudor!) orbata patrocinio, meo qualicunque non destituatur præconio, ausus sum chartis mandare laudes festinanter et temere effusas; quas cum evidentur sint quæ vocantur centonicæ, minus aptas censeo in linguam Anglicam transferri.

696

Echinoid Asterias

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

r

the
ECHINOID ASTERIAS.

Generic Character.

Body depressed; covered with a coriaceous crust, muricated with tentacula.

Mouth central, five-valved.

Specific Character, &c.

Fulvous Star-Fish, with about twenty rays, and both rays and body spinose.

ASTERIAS ECHINITES.

Ell. Zooph. t. 60, 61.

The very rare species of Asterias here repre­sented, is a native of the Indian seas, and arrives at a very consi­derable size, measuring more than twelve inches in diameter. It seems to form a kind of connecting link between the genera of Asterias and Echinus, having the depressed form of the one, and the strong, calcareous covering of the other. Most elegant specimens of this curious animal are preserved in the Leverian Museum.

v

The impending dispersion of the Leverian Museum, so disgracefully suffered to fall, through a want of public patronage, in a nation like that of Britain, calls for the unfeigned regret of all who are touched by the love of science, or are alive to the charms of Nature.

As a last tribute of acknowledgment to an institution so noble and so unfortunate, I shall make no apology for inserting (even uncorrected by minute attention), the following effusion in its praise, which the reader will immediately perceive to be in the form of a Cento, and which it is, of course, impossible to translate.

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CENTO IN MUSEUM LEVERIANUM.

Verane conspicio, seu fallax mentis imago

Attonitum me per splendida tecta rapit.

Monstrat et in somnis varii miracula mundi,

Et docet humana vix capienda fide?

Rara quot ignotis errant animalia lucis

Ante oculos adstant, mira caterva meos;

Omne quod Occiduo generatur in orbe, et Eoö

Quod vetus omnigenum, quod novus orbis alit.

Convenere simul pecudes, armentaque late

Bucera, quæque colunt invia lustra feræ:

Apparent diræ facies sine clade feroces

Nec vivunt quas tu vivere posse putas.

Credideris formas magnorum ululare luporum,

Posseque setigeras dente ferire sues.

Credideris voces audiri irasque leonum,

Aut quales raucas pessima tigris habet.

Aspice sed formas plectro leviore canendas,

Queis jocus, insulsi queis placuere sales.

Simia, quam similis, turpissima bestia, nobis!

In varios torquet brachia lenta modos.

Spectatum admissi risum teneatis, ut omnes

Officiis instant, ludicra turba, suis?

Ecce autem, pictis velatæ corpora plumis.

Agmine quam denso conglomerantur aves.

Omnes queis liquido vibrantur in aere pennæ

Vivere bis, forma nunc meliore vides.

Turget edax Vultur, protensis horridus alis,

Ceu vivas properans dilacerare dapes.

Stat moestus Bubo, similis jam flebile carmen

Ducenti, et longos funereo ore sonos.

Strymeniæque Grues, longoque Ciconia rostro,

Ardeaque, aut rivos aut vada cæca colens.

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Hic Cygnus pedibus tacitas eremigat undas,

Ridiculasque minas sibilus Anser agit.

Dilectæ Thetidi Alcyones ex arbore in undas

Prospiciunt, viridi-cærula terga micant.

Spectat et ipsa suas ales Junonia pennas;

Oscula dat cupido blanda columba mari.

Psittacus, Eois imitatrix ales ab oris,

Blæsos (pene putes) reddit ab ore sonos.

Et tu, pervigili Auroram clangore salutans,

Sanguinis atque animæ prodige Galle tuæ.

Et vos, quarum omnis blandis strepit aura querelis,

Et dulci impletur musica sylva sono.

Tuque etiam, decus en ævi! cui munere cantus

Nulla potest modulis æquivalere suis.

Tuque, trahens varios adverso sole colores,

Excipiens minima dulcia mella tuba.

Quid plures memorem? nihil hic nisi carmina desunt;

His quoque vix animus posse carere putat.

En maris immensi prolem, et genus omne natantum,

Æquoreosque duces, squamigerumque pecus!

Quam variæ rerum facies, quot monstra videntur,

Ante oculos adstant agmina quanta tuos!

Armatus spinis Diodon, Squalusque tremendus,

Horrendum patulo Lophius ore minax;

Australesque latens miranda Anguilla sub undas,

Pectoribus condens fulgura clausa suis,

Ætherea dives anima, tactuque potenti

Hostibus in mediis regna tenere valens.

Hic quoque Torpedo, quem nemo impune lacessit;

Fulmineo penetrans territa membra dolo.

Quid dubitem narrare Helenam, piscesque volantes,

Splendide vel varia te Coryphæne cute?

Vel dubiæ quid Sirenis memorare querelas,

Seu piscis potius, sive lacertus erit.

Adsunt et picti squalentia terga lacerti,

Multaque Bufonum corpora pigra tument;

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Miraque, conceptam foecundi tegmine dorsi

Progeniem excludens, extera Rana suam;

Et, positis novus exuviis, en squamiger Anguis

Lubrica contorquens pectora, verrit humum,

Quique redundabit foecundo vulnere vermis,

Fertilis, et damnis dives ab ipse suis!

Admiranda tibi levium spectacula rerum;

Eminet in minimis maximus ipse Deus!

Hic Grylli omnivori, Blattæ, argutæque Cicadæ,

Multus et in vario Papilione decor.

Aspice, cæruleo splendet Menelaus amictu,

Atque Helena, aurata veste decora nitet.

Sapphiri Paridis fulgent e fronte superbi,

Expandit varias hic Polydorus opes.

Tuque, velut maculas gestans e clade recenti,

Hector, coccineis sanguinolente notis.

Scorpius hic, diro metuendus acumine caudæ,

Horridaque armatis stat Scolopendra genis.

Non asper Crabro, sævo nec Aranea telo,

Miraque nec Mantis, nec Scarabæus abest;

Splendida nec picta galea Fulgora renidens,

Phosphoream in tenebris spargere docta diem.

Parte nitent alia pulcherrima munera ponti,

Lectaque diverso littore concha jacet.

Tot cernuntur ibi quot habet Natura colores,

Copia judicium sæpe morata meum.

Jam satis est Divæ; cygnis descendere tempus

Duxerunt collo qui juga nostra suo.

Omnia jam fiunt fieri quæ posse negarem;

Jam nulli cedit terra Britanna solo;

Sed, nimium felix, intra sua mœnia claudit

Quicquid formosi pendulus orbis habet.

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697

Fasciated Duck

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

E

ANAS FASCIATA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum lamelloso-dentatum, convexum, obtusum.

Lingua ciliata, obtusa.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 194.

Character Specificus, &c.

ANAS albida, fasciis numerosissimis transversis nigris, alis fuscis, occipite subcristato.

Obs. Rostrum pedesque nigra: post oculos utrinque macula elongata rosea: occipitis pennæ elongatæ, acuminatæ, nigræ: uropygium albo nigroque fasciatum.

In Australasia generatur nova hæc nec antea descripta species, magni­tudine quasi Anatis Querquedulæ Linnæi.

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the
FASCIATED DUCK.

Generic Character.

Bill broad and flattened; the edges marked with sharp lamellæ.

Tongue broad, and ciliated at the edges.

Specific Character, &c.

Whitish DUCK, with very numerous transverse black bands, brown wings, and slightly crested hind-head.

Obs. Bill and legs black: behind the eyes on each side a lengthened rose-coloured spot: feathers of the hind-head lengthened, sharp-pointed, black: rump fasciated with black and white.

The present species which appears to have been hitherto undescribed, is a native of Australasia, and is about the size of the Garganey or Anas Querquedula of Linnæus.

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698

Sea-Pen Sertularia

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

SERTULARIA PENNATULA.

Character Genericus.

Animal crescens plantæ habitu.

Stirps emittens e cellulis vel denticulis calyciformibus hydras.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3844.

Character Specificus, &c.

SERTULARIA simplex pinnata, pinnis incurvis articulatis, denticulis secundis campanulatis corniculo truncato suffultis; marginibus crenatis, spinis duabus oppositis instructlis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3853.

Ell. Zooph. p. 56. t. 7. f. 1.

Super rupes maris Indici crescit Sertularia Pennatula, interdum major quam in tabula depingitur.

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the
SEA-PEN SERTULARIA.

Generic Character.

Animal growing with the appearance of a plant.

Stem emitting Polypes from calycular cells or denticles.

Specific Character, &c.

Simple pinnated SERTULARIA, with incurved, jointed pinnæ, and bell-shaped crenated denticles, growing on one side, and each supported by a horn-shaped process.

SEA-PEN CORALLINE.

Ellis Zooph. p. 56. pl. 7. f. 1.

The elegant Sertularia here figured, is found adhering to rocks in the Indian seas, and is sometimes larger than repre­sented on the plate.

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699

Sylla Moth

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt. 1805

Notes

r

PHALÆNA SYLLA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ. (Volatu nocturno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 808.

Character Specificus, &c.

PHALÆNA alis integris subfuscis, fascia communi fusca flavo marginata.

PHALÆNA SYLLA.

Cram. t. 240. f. A.

An var. Phal. Erythrinæ Fab.?

Surinamiam incolit Phalæna Sylla, magni­tudine vera in tabula depicta.

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SYLLA.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually lessening from base to point.

Wings (when at rest) generally deflected. Flight nocturnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Moth with entire, brownish wings, with a common brown band edged with yellow.

Phal. SYLLA.

Cram. pl. 240. A.

Perhaps a variety of Ph. Erythrinæ Fab.

This insect is a native of Surinam, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

700

Bifasciated Labrus

R. P. Nodder Delt. Sculpt.

Notes

r

LABRUS BIFASCIATUS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes robusti subacuti: molares, interdum, conferti, convexi: labia crassa, duplicata: pinnæ dorsalis radii, in certis speciebus, ramento elongati.

Opercula mutica, squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

LABRUS glaucus, capite rufo, corpore antice fasciis duabus transversis fuscis, cauda fusco arcuata.

LABRUS BIFASCIATUS. L. fasciis duabus brunneis.

Bloch ichth. t. 283.

Maria incolit Indica Labrus bifasciatus, magni­tudine, ut plurimum, pedali.

v

 

r

the
BIFASCIATED LABRUS.

Generic Character.

Teeth strong and subacute: the grinders sometimes convex and crowded: lips thick and doubled: rays of the dorsal fin, in some species, elongated into soft processes.

Gill-covers unarmed and scaly.

Specific Character, &c.

Glaucous LABRUS, with rufous head, body marked in front by two transverse brown bands, and tail by a brown crescent.

Das doppelband.

Bloch. ichth. pl. 283.

The bifasciated Labrus is a native of the Indian seas, and generally measures about twelve inches in length.

v

 

701

Malimbic Bee-Eater

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

F

MEROPS MALIMBICUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum curvatum, compressum, carinatum.

Lingua apice laciniata.

Pedes gressorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 182.

Character Specificus, &c.

MEROPS cinereo-violaceus, subtus roseo-sanguineus, stria oculari nigra, gula alba.

MEROPS bicolor. M. supra atro-violaceus, subtus roseus mento albo, cauda longa et bifurcata.

Daudin Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. No. 13.

Africæ partes interiores incolit Merops Malimbicus, magni­tudine Meropis vulgaris sive Apiastri. Primus illum descripsit Dominus Daudin in opere cui titulus “Annales du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle.”

v

 

r

the
MALIMBIC BEE-EATER.

Generic Character.

Beak curvated, compressed, carinated.

Tongue laciniated at the tip.

Feet gressorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Cinereo-violaceous BEE-EATER, sanguine-rose-coloured beneath, with black eye-stripe, and white throat.

Guepier bicolor.

Daud. Ann. Mus, Hist. Nat. No. 12. p. 440. pl. 42. f. 1.

The Malimbic Bee-Eater is a native of the interior parts of Africa, and is of the size of the Merops Apiaster of Linnæus, or common Bee-Eater. It seems to have been first described by Monsieur Daudin, in the Annales du Museum National d’Hisioire Naturelle.

v

 

702

Undulated Volute

R. P. N. Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

VOLUTA UNDULATA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa unilocularis, spiralis.

Apertura ecaudata, subeffusa.

Columella plicata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1195.

Character Specificus, &c.

VOLUTA gilvo-flavescens, glabra, lineis longi­tudinalibus flexuosis fusco-purpureis, columella quadriplicata.

VOLUTA UNDULATA. V. ovato-fusiformis lævigata submaculosa, lineis fuscis longi­tudinalibus undatim flexuosis picta; columella quadriplicata.

Lamarck, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. No. 27. p. 157. pl. 12. f. 1, 2.

Maria Antarctica, præcipue circa litora Australasiæ incolit rara hæc Voiutæ species, magni­tudine vera in tabula depicta.

v

 

r

the
UNDULATED VOLUTE.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax or Slug.

Shell unilocular, spiral.

Aperture somewhat spreading, simple.

Pillar wreathed or pleated.

Specific Character, &c.

Dull-yellow smooth VOLUTE, with longitudinal, flexuose, purple-brown lines, and four-pleated pillar.

VOLUTE ondulée.

Lamarck, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. No. 27.

The present species of Volute is a native of the Antarctic seas, and is principally found about the coasts of Austra­lasia. It is repre­sented in its natural size.

v

 

703

Thistle Madrepore

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

MADREPORA CARDUUS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Medusa.

Corallium cavitatibus lamelloso-flexuosis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1272.

Character Specificus, &c.

MADREPORA dichotoma, ramis sulcato-muricatis, stellis simplicibus regularibus, lamellis serrato-dentatis.

Soland. et Ellis Zooph. p. 153. t. 35.

β. MADREPORA lacera.

Pall. Elench. Zooph. 298.

Super rupes Maris Indici crescit Madrepora Carduus. Veram ejus magni­tudinem ostendit tabula.

v

 

r

the
THISTLE MADREPORE.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Medusa.

Coral marked with lamellar star-shaped cavities.

Specific Character, &c.

Dichotomous MADREPORE, with furrowed, muricated branches, simple, regular stars, and tooth-serrated lamellæ.

MADREPORA CARDUUS.

Soland. & Ellis Zooph. p. 153. pl. 35.

The Thistle Madrepore is found adhering to rocks in the Indian ocean, and is repre­sented in its natural size on the annexed plate.

v

 

704

Deiphobus Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO DEIPHOBUS.
Var.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (Volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis caudatis; subtus basi rubro maculatis; posticis maculis septem rubris subannularibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 746.

Var. Alis inferioribus macula media palmata alba, marginibus interioribus ochraceis.

Pap. Achates.

Cram. t. 243.

In India præcipue conspicitur Papilio Deiphobus, cujus veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula.

v

 

r

DEIPHOBUS.
Var.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and commonly terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards; (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

Black Butterfly with tailed wings; beneath spotted at the base with red; the lower pair with seven subannular red spots.

Var. With the lower wings marked by a palmated, white middle spot, and with the inner margins ochre-coloured.

The Papilio Deiphobus is principally found in India, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

705

Brasilian Curlew

H. Davies Esq. Del. R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

G

NUMENIUS GUARAUNA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum longum, teretiusculum, incurvum.

Facies pennis tecta.

Nares lineares juxta basin.

Lingua brevis, acuta.

Pedes tetradactyli, digitis basi connexis.

Character Specificus, &c.

NUMENIUS fuscus, purpureo viridique nitens, capite colloque albo-punctatis.

Numenius Guarauna. N. rostro flavicante, corpore fusco albo striato, pedibus fuscis.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 712.

GUARAUNA.

Marcgr. Bras.

SCOLOPAX GUARAUNA. S. rostro arcuato flavicante, pedibus fuscis, capite fusco albo-striato.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 242.

Avem hanc raram et elegantem perhumaniter nobiscum communicavit vir Reverendus Hugo Davisius, quem in sexto operis nostri fasciculo consulere possit lector de Charadrio Himantopo præclare disserentem.

Advena iste rarissimus, (inquit Davisius) pilula v plumbea confectus est in insula Mona, exeunte mense Septembri nuperrime elapso; et asservatur in museo quod felici delectu congessit Domina Hester Meyrick de Bello­marisco in eadem insula. Errasse mihi videtur præclarus ille ornithologus Lathamus in descriptione specifica; et pro corpore fusco albo striato, legendum potius putem capite &c.; quod si ita sit (et ita certe se res habet in specimine de quo jam agitur) magis congruat avi definitio quæ sequitur, viz. “Numenius rostro pedibusque fuscis, capite et gutture albo striatis.”

Pergit Davisius quærere unde originem duxerit adagium quod legitur in Willoughbeio, p. 294.

“Numenius sive albus, sive sit ater,

“Portat in dorso (valet) duodecim denarios.”

et ortum fuisse suspicatur ab hac specie in oris Suffolciæ conspecta; quæ enim (inquit) alia possit esse proverbii interpretatio?

His Davisii annotationibus liceat mihi adjicere, summam esse avi huic nostræ generalem similitudinem tam quoad magni­tudinem quam colores (excepta in charactere generico facie nuda) cum Tantalo igneo et Tantalo Falcinello, quorum prior interdum Britanniam inviserit.

G2

the
BRASILIAN CURLEW.

Generic Character.

Bill long, subcylindric, incurved.

Face covered with feathers.

Nostrils linear, near the base of the bill.

Tongue short, sharp.

Feet tetradactyle, with the toes connected at the base.

Specific Character, &c.

Brown CURLEW, glossed with purple and green, with the head and neck speckled with white.

GUARAUNA.

Marcgr. Brasil. Will. orn. p. 215. t. 53.

Brasilian Whimbrel.

Lath. Syn. 3. p. 125.

The highly rare and curious bird exhibited on the present plate, was communicated by the Reverend Mr. Hugh Davies, whose excellent observations relative to the Charadrius Himantopus, may be found in the sixth volume of the present work.

“This extraordinary visitant, (says Mr. Davies) was shot in Anglesey about the end of September last, v and is preserved in the interesting and beautiful collection of Miss Hester Meyrick of Beaumaris in Anglesey. A mistake seems to have occurred in the excellent ornithology of Mr. Latham, where instead of corpore fusco albo striato, should be read capite fusco, &c. and the bird should (at least according to the present specimen) be rather defined thus: Numenius rostro pedibusque fuscis, capite et gutture fuscis albo striatis.”

Mr. Davies adds, “Might not the appearance of this species on the coast of Suffolk formerly, have given origin to what we read in Willoughby’s Ornithology, p. 294.

“A Curlew, be she white, be she black,

“She carries twelve-pence on her back.”

what else can that saying mean?”

In addition to what Mr. Davies has said, I shall observe, that it cannot escape the attention of every naturalist, that, excepting in the generic particular of the naked front, this bird bears a very striking general resemblance, both in size and colour, to the Tantalus igneus and Tantalus Falcinellus, the former of which has occasionally been observed in this country.

706

Peronian Aplysia

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

APLYSIA PERONIANA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus repens, obvelatum membranis reflexis, clypeo dorsali pulmones obtegente.

Foramen laterale dextrum.

Anus supera extremitatem dorsi.

Tentacula quatuor, anterius sita.

Character Specificus, &c.

APLYSIA subflavescens subcylindrica, antice subattenuata, postice truncata.

Dolabella.

Cuvier, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. No. 30.

Maria Indica incolit Aplysia Peroniana, interdum major quam in tabula depingitur.

v

 

r

the
PERONIAN APLYSIA.

Generic Character.

Body repent, covered by relieved membranes and a dorsal shield.

Foramen on the right side.

Vent situated at the extremity of the back.

Tentacula four, situated in front.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish subcylindric APLYSIA, subattenuated in front, and truncated behind.

La Dolabelle.

Cuvier, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. No. 30.

This species is an inhabitant of the Indian seas, and is sometimes seen of larger size than repre­sented on the plate.

v

 

707

Avicular Crenatula

R P N. Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

CRENATULA AVICULARIS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Tethys?

Testa bivalvis, irregularis, complanata, clausa.

Cardo linearis, serie fossularum excavatus et crenatus.

Character Specificus, &c.

CRENATULA subrhombea, compresso-membranacea, obsolete squamosa, flavescens, lineis undulatis radiatim picta, valvis inæqualibus.

CRENATULA AVICULARIS.

Lamarck, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. No. 13.

Circa littora insularum Americanarum præcipue conspicitur Crenatula avicularis, cujus veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula.

v

 

r

the
AVICULAR CRENATULA.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Tethys?

Shell bivalve, irregular, flattened, shut.

Hinge linear, excavated and crenated by a series of fossules.

Specific Character, &c.

Subrhomboid, flattened, membranaceous, yellowish CRENATULA, with unequal valves marked by obscure scales, and radiated with undulating dusky lines.

La CRENATULE AVICULAIRE.

Lamarck, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. No. 13.

The shell here figured is represented in its natural size, and is chiefly found about the coasts of the American islands.

v

 

708

Pinnated Gorgonia

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

GORGONIA PINNATA.

Character Genericus.

Animal crescens plantæ facie.

Hydra; sparsæ e poris lateralibus.

Stirps radicata, cornea, continua, ramosa, basi explanata, cortice obducta.

Character Specificus, &c.

GORGONIA compressiuscula pinnata sanguinea, ramis simplicissimis, poris oblongis.

GORGONIA PINNATA. G. compressiuscula pinnata, ramis compressis simplicissimis, cortice rubro, poris oblongis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1292.

GORGONIA depressa ramosa pinnataque, pinnis suboppositis rigentibus, cortice miniato subver­rucoso.

Pall. Elench. Zooph. 174.

Super rupes oceani Africani crescit Gorgonia pinnata, alta interdum tres pedes.

v

 

r

PINNATED GORGONIA.

Generic Character.

Animal growing with the habit of a plant.

Polypes scattered from the lateral pores.

Stem fixed, horny, branched, covered with a soft bark.

Specific Character, &c.

Slightly compressed pinnated blood-red GORGONIA, with simple branches, and oblong pores.

Red African GORGONIA.

PINNATED GORGONIA.

The pinnated Gorgonia adheres to rocks in the African seas, and is sometimes seen of the height of three feet.

v

 

709

Madagascar Pigeon

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

H

COLUMBA AUSTRALIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum rectum, versus apicem descendens.

Nares oblongæ, membrana molli tumida semitectæ.

Lingua integra.

Character Specificus, &c.

COLUMBA viridis, alis nigris, tectricibus flavo marginatis.

COLUMBA AUSTRALIS. C. viridis, abdomine crisso femoribusque maculatis, humeris violaceis.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 604.

Palumbus viridis Madagascariensis.

Briss. av. 1. p. 142.

Columbam domesticam (inquit Brissonus) crassitie circiter adæquat hæc avis, ab apice rostri ad caudam extremam undecim pollices et sex lineas longa. Caput, collum, pectus, venter et latera sunt viridi-olivacea. Dorsum, uropygium, caudam superne tegentes pennæ et tectrices alarum ejusdem sunt coloris sed saturatioris. In parte alarum suprema macula rubescens adest. Remiges superne nigricant, inferne cinerascunt, et ipsarum oræ exteriores sunt sulphureæ. Majores alarum tectrices eodem colore terminantur. Pennæ imum ventrem et crura tegentes eodem viridi quo corpus tingitur, sulphureo et nigricante variegantur. Rostrum cinereum; pedes et digiti rubri. Habitat in insula Madagascariensi.

v

 

H2

the
MADAGASCAR PIGEON.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, descending towards the tip.

Nostrils oblong, half covered by a soft tumid membrane.

Tongue entire.

Specific Character, &c.

Green PIGEON, with black wings; the coverts edged with yellow.

PIGEON Ramier verd de Madagascar.

Buf. ois. 2. p. 540.

Pl. Enl. 111.

MADAGASCAR PIGEON. Var. A.

Lath. Synops. 2. p. 641.

This species, according to Brisson, is about equal in size to a common domestic pigeon; measuring eleven inches and six lines from the tip of the bill to that of the tail. The head, neck, breast, belly and sides are olive-green: the back, rump, upper tail and wing-coverts of the same colour, but deeper. On the upper part of the wing is a reddish spot. The larger wing-feathers are blackish above, and ash-coloured beneath, with sulphur-coloured edges: the larger coverts are also tipped with the same colour. The under parts of the body and the thighs are of the same green colour with the body, and varied with blackish and yellow marks: the bill is ash-coloured; the legs and feet red. It is a native of the island of Madagascar.

v

 

710

Achilles Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO ACHILLES.
Var.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis dentatis; supra nigris fascia cærulea, subtus fuscis ocellis tribus quinisve.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 752.

Var.

PAPILIO Helenor.

Cramer, t. 86. f. A. B.

In Surinamia generatur pulchrum hoc insectum, et magni­tudine vera in tabula depingitur.

v

 

r

ACHILLES.
Var.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and commonly terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards; (flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with denticulated wings, black above with a transverse blue bar, beneath brown, with three ocellated spots on the upper, and four or five on the lower pair.

P. Helenor.

Cram. pl. 86. f. A. B.

This beautiful insect is a native of Surinam, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

711

Curled Madrepore

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

MADREPORA CINCINNATA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Medusa.

Corallium cavitatibus lamelloso-flexuosis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1272.

Character Specificus, &c.

MADREPORA conglomerata albida, lamellis gyrosis, laxis, duplicatis.

MADREPORA gyrosa??

Soland. et Ellis Zooph. t. 51. f. 1.

Maria incolit occidua pulcherrimum hoc Corallium, cujus veram magni­tudinem ostendit tabula.

v

 

r

the
CURLED MADREPORE.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Medusa.

Coral marked with lamellar star-shaped cavities.

Specific Character, &c.

Conglomerated whitish MADREPORE, with loose, undulating, double lamellæ.

Crested Indian MADREPORE.

CURLED MADREPORE.

Ellis Zooph. pl. 51. f. 1.

This highly elegant coral is a native of the West-Indian seas, and is repre­sented in its natural size on the annexed plate.

v

 

712

Cuticular Mite

R P N. Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

ACARUS EXULCERANS.

Character Genericus.

Pedes octo.

Oculi duo, ad latera capitis.

Tentacula duo (in quibusdam) pediformia.

Character Specificus, &c.

ACARUS femoribus quatuor anticis crassissimis, tibiis gracilibus tubulosis; posticis quatuor ovato-elongatis, tibiis longissimis setaceis.

ACURUS EXULCERANS A. pedibus longissimis setaceis; anticis duobus brevibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1024.

ACARUS Scabiei. A. subrotundus albus, pedibus rufescentibus brevibus, posticis quatuor seta longissima, plantis quatuor anticis fistulatis capitulo terminatis.

Degeer. Ins. 7. p. 94. t. 2. f. 13, 14.

ACARUS humanus subcutaneus.

Lin. Faun. Suec. p. 347.

Depingitur in hoc opere Acarus exulcerans sive psoricus, ut corrigi possit insigne erratum in sexto volumine Zoologiæ Generalis quod nuperrime edidimus. Pro nomine Adamsi, qui perhumaniter nobiscum specimen insedi communicavit, irrepsit in paginam nescio quo fato Bakeri nomen.

v

Oblata est Adamso, cum in insulis Maderis commo­raretur, ampla occasio animalculum examinandi, et in naturam morbi qui psora dicitur inquirendi: quodque de hac re disseruit permissum est judicio regalis societatis Londinensis, hyeme proxime elapsa.

Qui plura de hoc insecto desiderat, adeat Zoologiam nostram. Satis sit notare accuratissime delineari iconas quæ in tabula exprimuntur. Ad hoc plurimum contulere optima specimina quæ ab Adamso accepimus.

r

the
CUTICULAR MITE.

Generic Character.

Legs eight.

Eyes two, one on each side the head.

Tentacula two (in some species) resembling legs.

Specific Character, &c.

MITE with the thighs of the four upper legs very thick, with slender tubular tibiæ; of the four lower ovate-elongated, with extremely long setaceous tibiæ.

The Itch-insect.

Phil. Trans. No. 283. pl. 9. f. 127, 128.

Baker’s Microscope made easy, p. 169. pl. 13. f. 2. a. b.

The Hand-Worm.

Mouff. Theatr. Ins.

The Acarus exulcerans or Cutaneous Mite, makes its appearance in the present publication in consequence of a remarkable erratum in the letter-press of the sixth volume of General Zoology, in which the name of Baker is, through oversight, printed, in the description of the insect, instead of Adams, the name of the ingenious communicator of the specimens there described.

Dr. Adams, during his residence in the Madeiras, v had ample opportunities of investigating the nature of the insect, and of the disease in which it occurs, and his paper on the subject was read to the Royal Society in the course of the last winter.

For farther particulars I must refer to the description already given in the General Zoology, and have only to add, that the present figures are carefully executed from some of the most perfect specimens communicated by Dr. Adams.

713

Boat-Bill

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

I

CANCROMA COCHLEARIA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum gibbosum, mandibula superiore cymbæ resupinatæ forma.

Nares exiguæ in sulco rostri.

Lingua parva.

Pedes fissi.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

Character Specificus, &c.

CANCROMA occipite cristato nigro.

CANCROMA COCHLEARIA. C. ventre rufescente.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

CANCROMA Cancrophaga. C. ventre candicante.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Americam Australem incolit Cancroma Cochlearia, locaque aquosa frequentat, victitans more ardearum, ranis, piscibus, reliquisque id genus animalibus.

v

 

I2

the
BOAT-BILL.

Generic Character.

Bill shaped like an inverted boat.

Nostrils small, lodged in a furrow.

Tongue small.

Toes divided.

Specific Character, &c.

BOAT-BILL with the hind-head furnished with a black, pendent crest.

BOAT-BILL.

Lath. Syn. 5. p. 26.

Le Savacou.

Buf. ois. 7. p. 443.

Pl. Enl. 38. 869.

The Boat-Bill is an inhabitant of South-America, where it frequents watery places, feeding nearly in the manner of herons, on frogs, fish, &c.

v

 

714

Biaculeated Pipefish

R. P. Nodder. Sculpt.

Notes

r

SYNGNATHUS BIACULEATUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum subcylindricum, ore terminali.

Corpus elongatum, articulatum, cataphractum.

Pinnæ ventrales nullæ.

Character Specificus, &c.

SYNGNATHUS ferrugineus, corpore tetragono, capite supra biaculeato.

SYNGNATHUS BIACULEATUS. S. corpore quadrangulato, aculeis duobus ad caput.

Bloch. ichth. t. 121.

Longus est Syngnathus biaculeatus circiter sex uncias, et in maribus enutritur Indicis. Cauda a basi hexagona gradatim fit tetragona seu quadrata, desinitque in extremitatem pinnis carentem.

v

 

r

the
BIACULEATED PIPEFISH.

Generic Character.

Snout subcylindric, with terminal mouth.

Body lengthened, jointed, mailed.

Ventral fins none.

Specific Character, &c.

Ferruginous PIPEFISH, with quadrangular body, and two spines above the head.

BIACULEATED PIPEFISH.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 453.

This species, which usually measures about six inches in length, is a native of the Indian seas: the tail, which is hexagonal at its origin, gradually becomes tetragonal in its progress, and terminates in a finless point or tip.

v

 

715

Tuberculated Haliotis

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

HALIOTIS TUBERCULATA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa auriformis, pateus; spira occultata laterali; disco longi­tudinaliter poris pertuso.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1255.

Character Specificus, &c.

HALIOTIS TUBERCULATA. H. testa subovata, dorso transversim rugoso, tuberculato.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1256.

Auris marina.

Rondel. pisc. 5.

Patella major, seu fera.

Gesn. Aquat. 807, 808.

In oris plurimis Europæis adhæret rupibus Haliotis vulgaris seu tuberculata eodem modo quo solet Patel­larum genus. Color testæ generalis exterior infuscatur, interdum ferrugineo seu virescente undulatus; interior est quasi margaritaceus, pro variata luce iricolor.

v

 

r

the
TUBERCULATED HALIOTIS.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Slug.

Shell ear-shaped, spreading, with obliterated lateral spire; the disc longi­tudinally perforated with pores.

Specific Character, &c.

HALIOTIS with subovate, transversly wrinkled, tuberculated shell.

The Common HALIOTIS or Ear-shell.

Venus’s Ear.

The common or tuberculated Haliotis is found on many of the European coasts, adhering, in the manner of the genus Patella, to rocks. The usual colour of the shell on the outside is brown, sometimes varied either with ferruginous or greenish clouds: of the inside bright pearl-colour with iridescent variegations.

v

 

716

Arcesilaus Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO ARCESILAUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis falcatis nigris, primoribus fascia transversa fulva maculaque ad apicem nivea.

PAPILIO ARCESILAUS.

Cram. t. 94.

PAPILIO Chorinæus. P. alis integerrimis fuscis, anterioribus falcatis, fascia fulva, posterioribus caudatis.

Fabr. sp. ins. 2. p. 60.

Americam Australem, præcipue Surinamiam incolit Papilio Arcesilaus, cujus veram magni­tudinem ostendit tabula.

v

 

r

ARCESILAUS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and commonly terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards; (flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with falcated black wings, the upper pair marked by a transverse fulvous bar and a white speck near the tip.

Chorinæus.

Fab. sp. ins. 2. p. 60.

Sulz. ins. t. 14. f. 4.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2281.

The species represented on the present plate is exhibited in its natural size, and is a native of South-America, particularly of Surinam.

v

 

717

Green Toucan

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

K

RAMPHASTOS VIRIDIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum maximum, inane, convexum, extrorsum serratum: mandibula utraque apice incurva.

Nares pone rostri basin.

Lingua pennacea.

Pedes scansorii.

Character Specificus, &c.

RAMPHASTOS VIRIDIS. R. viridis, abdomine flavo, uropygio rubro.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 150.

Tucana cayennensis VIRIDIS.

Briss. av. 4. p. 423.

In America Australi, præcipue in Cayana generatur Ramphastos viridis, magni­tudine merulam vulgarem paulo superans. Feminæ caput collumque castanea, mari nigra.

v

 

K2

the
GREEN TOUCAN.

Generic Character.

Bill extremely large, hollow, convex, serrated outwards: the upper mandible incurved at the tip.

Nostrils seated behind the base of the bill.

Tongue feather-shaped.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

GREEN TOUCAN, with yellow abdomen and red rump.

GREEN TOUCAN.

Lath. Syn. 1. p. 331.

TOUCAN verd de Cayenne.

Pl. Enl. 727, 728.

The Green Toucan is a native of South-America, and is principally seen in Cayenne. Its size is somewhat larger than that of a common blackbird: the head and neck, which in the male are black, are of a chesnut-colour in the female.

v

 

718

Anchises Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO ANCHISES.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis dentatis nigris concoloribus; anticis nubecula media alba, posticis maculis septem coccineis ovatis.

PAPILIO ANCHISES. P. alis dentatis nigris conco­loribus; posticis maculis septem coccineis ovatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 740.

“Exiguorum citriorum (inquit Meriana) est species quædam in sylvis nascens, cujus arbor ad altitudinem proceræ mali excrescit, folia dimidia vulgaris citri folia magni­tudine æquant, flores quoque eadem proportione minores existunt. Fusca hæc eruca maculaque superbiens albicante, plurima reperitur in arboribus istis, quibus in acervos coacta adhæret. Limacum in modum sibi invicem agglutinantur; tacta vero flavescentia ex capite cornicula protrudunt, vel semetipsas quasi defensuræ, vel hostes etiam offensuræ. Foliis limonum ad diem vicesimum Martii, anno 1700, easdem nutrivi, tum in fusci coloris aurelias mutatæ sunt, qualis in caudice jacens delineatur; hinc die Aprilis secunda ejusdem anni papiliones prodi­erunt nigricantes, et ex albo rubroque maculati.”

v

 

r

ANCHISES.

Generic Character.

Antennæ gradually thickening towards the upper part, and generally terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest,) meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with denticulated black wings; the upper pair marked with a white cloud; the lower pair with six or seven oval crimson spots.

Seb. mus. 4. pl. 7. f. 27, 28.

Mer. Surin. pl. 17.

Cram. pl. 318.

A small species of Lemon, according to Madam Merian, grows in the woods of Surinam, rising to the height of a tall apple tree, but with leaves and flowers of not more than half the size of the common kind. On these trees are found in great numbers the caterpillars here repre­sented, collected together in groupes, and adhering to each other like snails. Their colour is brown, with whitish varie­gations, and, when touched, they protrude from their front a pair of soft, yellowish horns, as if to defend themselves, or to attack their enemies. Madam Merian kept some of these caterpillars v on lemon-leaves to the twentieth of March, 1700; at which period they changed each into a brown chrysalis, as repre­sented; out of which, on the second of April in the same year, proceeded the Butterfly, which is of a blackish colour, with red and white spots.

719

HOODED Madrepore

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

MADREPORA CUCULLATA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Medusa.

Corallium cavitatibus lamelloso-stellatis.

Character Specificus, &c.

MADREPORA CUCULLATA. M. foliacea explanata concatenata, stellis subserialibus profundis, ambulacris acute carinatis subflexuosis.

Soland. et Ellis Zooph. p. 157. t. 42.

Super rupes maris Indici crescit Madrepora cucullata, cujus veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula.

v

 

r

the
HOODED MADREPORE.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Medusa.

Coral marked with lamellar star-shaped cavities.

Specific Character, &c.

Foliaceous, flattened, concatenated MADREPORE, with deep stars disposed in rows, and subflexuose, sharply carinated expansions.

This curious species of Madrepore is found on the rocks of the Indian seas, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

720

Under-Jawed Mysticete

Notes

r

BALÆNA MUSCULUS.

Character Genericus.

Dentium loco in maxilla superiore laminæ corneæ.

Fistula respiratoria duplici orificio externo supra caput.

Character Specificus, &c.

BALÆNA MUSCULUS. B. fistula duplici in fronte, maxilla inferiore multo latiore.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 226.

BALÆNA tripinnis, ventre rugoso, rostro rotundo?

Briss. regn. anim. p. 353.

In maximis Balænacei generis est species quam depin­ximus, in oceano enutrita septentrionali et Atlantico, clupeis præcipue victitans. Color superior subnigrat, inferior albescit.

v

 

r

the
UNDER-JAWED MYSTICETE.

Generic Character.

Horny Laminæ in the upper jaw in place of teeth.

Spiracle with a double external orifice on the top of the head.

Specific Character, &c.

Whale with double spiracle on the front, and lower jaw wider than the upper.

Round-lipped Whale?

Penn. Brit. Zool. 3. p. 52.

La Baleinoptère Rorqual.

Cepede. Hist. Cet. p. 126. pl. 5. f. 1.

The present species of whale, which is one of the largest of the genus, is an inhabitant of the Atlantic and northern seas, where it is said to feed principally on herrings. Its colour is blackish above, and whitish beneath.

v

 

721

Crested Ibis

R P Nodder Delt et Sculpt.

Notes

L

TANTALUS CRISTATUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum longum, subulatum, teretiusculum, subarcuatum.

Facies ultra oculos nuda.

Lingua brevis, lata.

Saccus jugularis nudus.

Nares ovatæ.

Pedes tetradactyli, palmati.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 240.

Character Specificus, &c.

TANTALUS CRISTATUS. T. cristatus ferrugineus, capite crisso caudaque nigris, alis albis.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 709.

TANTALUS CRISTATUS. T. facie pallida, capite, colli parte, cauda et crisso nigris, cristæ occipitis longæ pennis partim albis partim nigris, corpore ferrugineo, alis exalbidis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 650.

Insulam Madagascariam incolit Tantalus cristatus eadem fere magni­tudine qua Numenius Arquata. In elegantissimis sui generis merito numerari possit.

v

 

r

the
CRESTED IBIS.

Generic Character.

Bill long, thick at the base, incurvated.

Face, and sometimes the whole head, naked.

Nostrils linear.

Tongue short.

Toes connected by a membrane.

Specific Character, &c.

CRESTED IBIS. Ferruginous Ibis, with black and white crested head, and white wings.

Lath. syn. 3. p. 118.

Courlis huppé de Madagascar.

Buff. ois. 8. p. 33.

Pl. Enl. 841.

The present species of Ibis, which is about the size of the common Curlew, is an inhabitant of the island of Madagascar, and may justly be considered as one of the most elegant birds of its genus.

v

 

722

St. Domingo Crocodile

R P Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

LACERTA HISPANIOLICA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus tetrapodum, elongatum, caudatum, nudum.

Character Specificus, &c.

LACERTA (Crocodilus) rostro flexuoso, dentibus duobus primoribus maxillas inferioris superi­orem perforantibus.

Crocodile de St. Domingue.

Geoffr. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. No. 7. t. 37.

Habitu corporis et facie generali simillima est hæc species Crocodilo vulgari qui et Niloticus dicitur. In insulis generatur Americanis occidentalibus. Primus eam descripsisse videtur Dominus Geoffroy in opere cui titulus “Annales du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle;” specimenque quod ille examinavit longum erat quasi quatuor pedes.

v

 

r

the
ST. DOMINGO CROCODILE.

Generic Character.

Body four-footed, elongated, tailed; without any secondary integument.

Specific Character, &c.

CROCODILE with flexuous snout; the two front teeth of the lower jaw perforating the upper.

CROCODILE DE ST. DOMINGUE.

Geoffroy Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. No. 7. pl. 37.

This species, which in general appearance bears the greatest resemblance to the common or Nilotic Crocodile, is a native of the West-Indian islands, and appears to have been first described by Mons. Geoffroy in the Annales du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle. The specimen examined by Mons. Geoffroy measured about four feet.

v

 

723

Orange Carp, or Orf

R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

CYPRINUS ORFUS.

Character Genericus.

Os parvum, edentulum. Dentes gutturales.

Membr. branch. triradiata.

Pinnæ ventrales sæpius novemradiatæ.

Character Specificus, &c.

CYPRINUS ORFUS. C. croceus, abdomine argenteo, pinna dorsi parva, cauda lunata.

CYPRINUS ORFUS. C. pinna ani radiis tredecim.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

CYPRINUS corpore colore croceo, pinna ani radiis quatuordecim.

Bloch. ichth. t. 96.

Piscis aureus Europæ non immerito haberi possit formosus Cyprinus quem in tabula depinximus. In solo natali, silicet Germanico, ad longi­tudinem pertingit fere pedalem. Eadem est indole qua reliquum fluviatile Cyprinum genus, et eodem utitur vivendi modo.

v

 

r

the
ORANGE CARP, or ORF.

Generic Character.

Mouth small, toothless: teeth in the throat.

Gill-Membrane three-rayed.

Ventral Fins, in general, nine-rayed.

Specific Character, &c.

Orange-coloured CARP, with silvery abdomen, small dorsal fin, and lunated tail.

General Zoology, vol. 5. p. 213.

The ORF, or Lady-Fish.

This beautiful species, which may be considered as the Gold Fish of Europe, is a native of many parts of Germany, where it arrives at the length of ten or twelve inches. In its habits or mode of life, it resembles the rest of the fresh-water carp.

v

 

724

Lineated Sphinx

R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

SPHINX LINEATA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ medio crassiores, seu utraque extremitate attenuatæ, subprismaticæ.

Alæ deflexæ, (volatu graviore vespertino seu matutino).

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 790.

Character Specificus, &c.

SPHINX LINEATA. S. alis virescentibus, fascia striisque albis, posticis nigris, fascia rubra.

Fabr. sp. ins. 2. p. 147.

SPHINX Koechlini.

Fuessli Arch. ins. 1.

SPHINX Daucus.

Cram. t. 25. f. D.

Partes Europæ calidiores incolit Sphinx lineata, cujus veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula.

v

 

r

LINEATED SPHINX.

Generic Character.

Antennæ subprismatic, thickest in the middle, and attenuated at each extremity.

Wings deflected. Flight generally in the morning and evening.

Specific Character, &c.

Greenish SPHINX, with white band and stripes; the lower wings black, with a red band.

Le SPHINX Koechlini.

Fuessli Arch. ins. 1. p. 10.

This elegant insect is a native of the warmer parts of Europe, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

725

Abyssinian Plant-Cutter

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

M

PHYTOTOMA ABYSSINICA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum conicum, rectum, serratum.

Character Specificus, &c.

PHYTOTOMA nigricans, capite pectoreque rubris, pedibus tridactylis.

PHYTOTOMA tridactyla.

Daudin Orn. 2. p. 306. pl. 28. f. 1.

Quod ad physicos pervenerit notitia Phytotomæ Abyssinicæ debetur omnino celeberrimo Brucio; a quo iconem adeptus Buffonus avem descripsit. Cum in Loxiæ speciebus haberi solita sit, Daudinus in præcellenti suo opere ornithologico novum ei genus non immerito instituit, cui titulum dedit Phytotomæ. In tabula depingitur juxta magni­tudinem naturalem.

v

 

M2

the
ABYSSINIAN PLANT-CUTTER.

Generic Character.

Bill conical, strait, serrated.

Specific Character, &c.

Blackish PLANT-CUTTER, with red head and breast, and three-toed feet.

Phytotome D’Abyssinie.

Daud. Orn. 2, p. 306.

It is to the celebrated Mr. Bruce that we owe the first knowledge of this curious bird, which is a native of Abyssinia, and was described by Buffon from a drawing communicated by that adventurous traveller.

It has been generally considered as a species of Loxia, but Mons. Daudin, in his excellent ornithological work, has with great propriety instituted for it a new genus, under the title of Phytotoma or Plant-Cutter. The plate represents it in its natural size.

v

 

726

Laryngoid Barnacle

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

LEPAS TRACHEALIS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Triton.

Testa multivalvis, inæquivalvis, basi affixa.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

LEPAS testa cylindrica albida annulata.

Tubicinella major et minor.

Lamarck Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 6. p. 461, &c.

Sub cute majorum balænarum adeo profunde se interdum immergere solet rarissima hæc Lepadis species, ut summa tantum testæ superficies exinde emineat. Quæ inter se quasi unita specimina in tabula repræsentantur, ea mutuati sumus ab opere cui titulus “Annales du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle.” Quod solitarium est et ab aliis disjunctum, id suppeditavit Museum Leverianum.

v

 

r

the
LARYNGOID BARNACLE.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Triton.

Shell multivalve, with unequal valves, affixed by the base.

Specific Character, &c.

BARNACLE with whitish, cylindric, annulated shell.

Tubicinella major.

Lamarck Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 6, p. 461, &c.

The very rare species of Lepas here repre­sented, is occasionally found deeply imbedded beneath the skin of the larger animals of the Whale tribe, the tip alone of the shell appearing above the surface of the skin. Of the specimens figured in the present plate, the principal groupe is copied from the plate of Mons. Lamarck, in the “Annales du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle;” the single specimen from the Leverian Museum.

v

 

727

Appendiculated Shark

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

SQUALUS APPENDICULATUS.

Character Genericus.

Os in anteriore et inferiore capitis parte, dentibus numerosis seriatis.

Spiracula utrinque ad latera colli, plerisque quinque.

Corpus oblongum, teretiusculum.

Character Specificus, &c.

SQUALUS fuscus, maculis subocellatis pallidis, ore utrinque appendiculis cutaneis fimbriato.

Watts’s Shark.

Phill. V. to Bot. Bay, p. 285.

In minimis sui generis numeratur hæc species. Raro longi­tudinem tripedalem exuperavere specimina quæ adhuc reperta sunt. Generant Squalum appendiculatum maria Antarctica.

v

 

r

the
APPENDICULATED SHARK.

Generic Character.

Mouth situated beneath the anterior part of the head, with numerous teeth disposed in rows.

Spiracles on each side the neck, in most species five in number.

Body oblong, somewhat cylindric.

Specific Character, &c.

Brown SHARK, with pale subocellated spots, and mouth fringed on each side with cutaneous appendages.

Watt’s SHARK.

Phillips’s Voyage to Botany Bay, p. 285.

This species is considered as one of the smallest of its genus, the specimens hitherto observed, having rarely exceeded the length of three feet. It is a native of the Antarctic seas.

v

 

728

Pelagic Scyllæa

R. P. Nodder et Sculpt.

Notes

r

SCYLLÆA PELAGICA.

Character Genericus.

Tentacula duo, foliacea.

Corpus subcompressum, sulco subtus longi­tudinali.

Lobi utrinque suberecti, foliacei, branchiis muricati.

Character Specificus, &c.

SCYLLÆA flavescens, lobis utrinque duobus suberectis foliaceis.

SCYLLÆA PELAGICA.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1094.

Veram Scyllææ pelagicæ conformationem luculenter descripsit celeberrimus Cuvierus. In maribus generatur Indicis et Americanis, eadem fere magni­tudine quam ostendit tabula. Color flavo-fusco pallescit.

v

 

r

the
PELAGIC SCYLLÆA.

Generic Character.

Tentacula two, foliaceous.

Body subcompressed, with a longi­tudinal furrow beneath.

Foliaceous Lobes on each side, suberect, and muricated with branchiæ.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish SCYLLÆA, with two suberect foliaceous lobes on each side.

La Scyllée.

Cuvier, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 36. p. 416, &c.

This marine animal, of which the true structure has been so well ascertained and described by Mons. Cuvier, is found in the Atlantic and Indian seas, and is generally of the size repre­sented in the plate. Its colour is a pale yellowish brown.

v

 

729

Chinese Snipe

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

N

SCOLOPAX SINENSIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum teretiusculum, obtusum, capite longius.

Nares lineares.

Facies tecta.

Pedes tetradactyli, postico pluribus articulis insistente.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 242.

Character Specificus, &c.

SCOLOPAX subflavescens, glauco fusco nigroque variegata, capite albo lineato, abdomine albo.

SCOLOPAX SINENSIS. S. cærulescente fusco rufo nigroque variegata, superciliis linea verticis gula abdomineque albis.

Lath. Ind. Orn. p. 717.

Sinensis hæc species magnitudine fere æquat scolo­pacem Gallinaginem, sive vulgarem et Europæum. Dicitur etiam iisdem esse moribus, et eodem vivendi modo.

v

 

N2

the
CHINESE SNIPE.

Generic Character.

Bill long, slender.

Nostrils linear, situated in a furrow.

Face covered with feathers.

Feet tetradactylous; back toe jointed.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish SNIPE, with brown, black, and glaucous variegations; the head streaked with white, and white abdomen.

La Becassine de la Chine.

Buff. ois. 7. p. 495.

Pl. Enl. 881.

This species, which is a native of China, is of nearly similar size with the common European Snipe, which it is supposed to resemble in its manner of life.

v

 

730

Cacique Beetle

R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

SCARABÆUS CACICUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ clavatæ, capitulo fissili.

Tibiæ sæpius dentatæ.

Corpus crassum, compactum.

Character Specificus, &c.

SCARABÆUS capite furcato, thorace luteo nigro lineato, elytris subargenteis nigro marginatis.

SCARABÆUS CACICUS ingens.

Voet. Coleopt. t. 22. f. 151.

Cetonia CACICUS. C. clypeo porrecto bicornuto, thorace luteo nigro lineato, elytris albis nigro marginatis.

Olivier Coleopt.

Insignem hunc scarabæum existimavere nonnulli varietatem esse scarabæi Goliathi. Visum tamen est Oliviero, operis entomologici præclaro scriptori, speciem revera diversam statuere. Generatur insectum in America australi. Ostenditur in tabula juxta magni­tudinem naturalem.

v

 

r

the
CACIQUE BEETLE.

Generic Character.

Antennæ or horns clavated, with a fissile tip.

Legs generally toothed.

Body thick and compact.

Specific Character, &c.

BEETLE with forked head; the thorax yellow, streaked with black; the wing-shells silvery, with black edges.

Cétoine Cacique.

Oliv. Coleopt.

This remarkable Beetle has sometimes been regarded as a variety of the Scarabæus Goliathus. Mons. Olivier however, in his excellent entomological work, is inclined to consider it as a perfectly distinct species. It is a native of South-America, and is repre­sented in its natural size.

v

 

731

Glaucous Chætodon

Notes

r

CHÆTODON GLAUCUS.

Character Genericus.

Caput parvum: Os exiguum: Dentes conferti, flexuosi, setacei.

Membr. branch. radiis tribus ad sex.

Corpus latum, compressum, pluribus fasciatum; pinna dorsi anique basi crassa, carnosa, squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

CHÆTODON corpore rhombeo-ovato, supra cæruleo fasciis transversis nigris, subtus argenteo.

CHÆTODON linea laterali recta, aculeis dorsalibus quinque.

Bloch ichth. t. 210.

Piscem repræsentavimus Americanum, cui longi­tudo interdum est fere tripedalis. Primus illum depinxisse videtur celeberrimus Plumierus, unde iconem in splendidum suum opus icthyologicum transtulit Blochius.

v

 

r

the
GLAUCOUS CHÆTODON.

Generic Character.

Head small: Mouth small: Teeth close-set, flexile, setaceous.

Gill-Membrane, three, four, five, or six-rayed.

Body broad, compressed, and, generally, fasciated: dorsal and anal fin thick, fleshy, and scaly at the base.

Specific Character, &c.

Blue CHÆTODON, with rhombic-ovate body; the upper parts crossed by black bands; the sides and abdomen silvery.

Der blanc Klippfisch.

Bloch ichth. t. 210.

The fish here represented is a native of the American seas, and is sometimes found of the length of near three feet. It seems to have been first figured by Plumier, from whose drawing it is engraved in the splendid ichthyological work of Dr. Bloch.

v

 

732

Telemachus Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO TELEMACHUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes (volatu diurno).

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis dentatis fuscis, maculis marginalibus subluteis, area communi cærulea radiata.

PAPILIO TELEMACHUS. P. alis dentatis; supra fuscis immaculatis area communi cærulea radiata, singulis subtus ocellis sex.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 752.

Mer. Surin. t. 68.

Pulcherrimum hunc papilionem depinxit Domina Merian in opere suo cui titulus “Metamorphoses Insectorum Surinamensium:” quæ tamen silet de planta quam depasci solet eruca, cum a servo nacta sit insectum in sylva captum. Erupit papilio exacto quasi mense e quo eruca in chrysalidem conversa est.

v

 

r

TELEMACHUS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and commonly terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards; (flight diurnal).

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with denticulated brown wings, with radiated blue disk, and yellowish marginal spots.

Merian Ins. Surin. pl. 68.

The highly elegant Butterfly here repre­sented is figured by Madam Merian in her History of the Inserts of Surinam. Madam Merian however was unable to say on what particular plant the caterpillar fed, having received it from a slave who had found it in a wood. The Butterfly made its appearance in about the space of a month from the time of changing into its chrysalis state.

v

 

r

INDEX.

Pl.
712. Acarus exulcerans.
697. Anas fasciata.
706. Aplysia Peroniana.
695.
696.
Asterias echinites.
720. Balæna musculus.
691. Balistes maculatus
694. Cancer Grapsus.
713. Cancroma Cochlearia.
731. Chætodon glaucus.
707. Crenatula avicularis.
709. Columba australis.
723. Cyprinus Orfus.
708. Gorgonia pinnata.
689. Gracula calva.
715. Haliotis tuberculata.
700. Labrus bifasciatus.
722. Lacerta Hispaniolica.
726. Lepas trachealis.
685. Loxia Enucleator.
703. Madrepora Carduus.
686. —— muricata.
719. —— cucullata.
711. —— cincinnata.
701. Merops Malimbicus.
690. Murex Trapezium.
705. Numenius Guarauna.
687. Papilio Adonis.
692. —— Icarus.
704. —— Deiphobus var.
710. —— Achilles var.
716. —— Arcesilaus.
718. —— Anchises.
732. —— Telemachus.
699. Phalæna Sylla.
688. Phyllidia trilineata.
725. Phytotoma Abyssinica.
717. Ramphastos viridis.
698. Sertularia Pennatula.
714. Syngnathus biaculeatus.
724. Sphinx lineata.
727. Squalus appendiculatus.
728. Scyllæa pelagica.
730. Scarabæus Cacicus.
729. Scolopax Sinensis.
693. Tanagra Mississippensis.
721. Tantalus cristatus.
702. Voluta undulata.

INDEX.

Pl.
706. Aplysia Peronian.
695.
696.
Asterias echinoid.
726. Barnacle laryngoid.
691. Balistes spotted.
730. Beetle Cacique.
701. Bee-Eater Malimbic.
713. Boat-Bill.
687. Butterfly Adonis.
692. —— Icarus.
704. —— Deiphobus var.
710. —— Achilles var.
716. —— Arcesilaus.
718. —— Anchises.
732. —— Telemachus.
685. Bulfinch greater.
723. Carp orange.
731. Chætodon glaucous.
694. Crab variegated.
707. Crenatula avicular.
722. Crocodile Domingo.
705. Curlew Brasilian.
697. Duck fasciated.
689. Grakle bald.
708. Gorgonia pinnated.
715. Haliotis tuberculated.
721. Ibis crested.
700. Labrus bifasciated.
686. Madrepore muricated.
703. —— Thistle.
711. —— curled.
719. —— hooded.
712. Mite cuticular.
699. Moth Sylla.
690. Murex trapezial.
720. Mysticete under-jawed.
688. Phyllidia trilineated.
714. Pipe-Fish biaculeated.
709. Pigeon Madagascar.
725. Plant-Cutter Abyssinian.
728. Scyllæa pelagic.
698. Sertularia Sea Pen.
727. Shark appendiculated.
729. Snipe Chinese.
724. Sphinx lineated.
717. Toucan green.
693. Tanager Mississippi.
702. Volute undulated.

Printed by B. M‘Millan,
Bow-Street, Covent-Garden.

Notes and Corrections: Volume 17

Volume 17 of the Naturalist’s Miscellany was published in twelve monthly installments, conjecturally from September 1805 through August 1806. It is “conjecturally” because there has not been a full month-and-year date since the third installment of Volume 13 (November 1801), and no date at all since the tenth installment of Volume 15 (“1804”, probably June).

In the present volume, the only suggestion of a date is in the fourth installment, fortunately “1805”. (The expected date is December 1805, so if it had said “1806” we would have to postulate one or more skipped months.) Volume 14, three years ago, also thoughtfully named its year in the last possible month.

Each installment is 16 pages.

[B]; C; D; E; F (January 1806); G; H; I; K; L; M; N

Just when we thought we’d seen the last of catchwords, they return at the end of installment 6, halfway through the volume. (In theory they could have returned as early as installment 4, but there weren’t any multi-page articles to require them.) They disappear again—for good, this time—a few installments later, when the volume has its last two-page article.

Loxia Enucleator, the Greater Bulfinch

is now Pinicola enucleator, the pine grosbeak. It lives mainly in northern Europe and North America.

LOXIA rosea, alis caudaque nigris
text has candaque

conspicitur formosa hæc avis
text has hæc acis
[This is an odd error. The letters “c” and “v” don’t look alike, and in printers’ cases—unlike your keyboard—they were nowhere near each other.]

Madrepora Muricata, the Muricated Madrepore

is now Acropora muricata. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Papilio Adonis, the Adonis (butterfly)

is probably Morpho adonis, though some sources want to put it under M. marcus instead. Either way, it lives in South America.

PAPILIO alis dentatis, supra cæruleis nitidissimis apice
text has supra cæmleis nitidissim isapice
[Printer? Are you feeling all right? The “cæmleis”, in particular, is more what you would expect of an OCR error. Perhaps Shaw’s handwriting has taken a(nother) turn for the worse.]

An var. P. Menelai?
[No, but P. menelaus—which we met at Plate 49 of Volume 2—did also end up in genus Morpho.]

Phyllidia Trilineata, the Trilineated Phyllidia

is now Phyllidia varicosa, because Lamarck got there first. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans. (In case the picture does not make it plain, it’s a nudibranch, which is—news to me!—a type of gastropod.)

the work entitled “Annales du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle”
[George, we’ve talked about this before.]

Gracula Calva, the Bald Grakle

is now Sarcops calvus, the coleto. It lives mainly in the Philippines.

Murex Trapezium, the Trapezial Murex

is now Pleuroploca trapezium, the trapeze horseconch. It lives in the Indian and western Pacific oceans.

Aperture ending in a straight or subascending channel.
[You might expect the “straight” spelling to become more frequent over the years, as spelling standardizes (compare “colour”). But in fact this is its last occurrence in the Miscellany; from here on it is nothing but “strait”.]

Balistes Maculatus, the Spotted Balistes

is now Canthidermis maculata, the ocean triggerfish. It lives in most tropical-to-temperate oceans, but is especially common around Africa.

Papilio Icarus, the Icarus (butterfly)

Cramer’s P. icarus (1775) is either Elina icarus, Castnia penelope or C. invaria, depending on whom you ask. It lives in South America. Don’t confuse it with Rottemburg’s P. icarus (also 1775, but at least five minutes earlier than Cramer), which is now Polyommatus icarus, the common blue, found all over Europe.

Tanagra Mississipensis, the Mississippi Tanager

Unidentified, no matter how you spell it, no matter what synonyms you try. Genus Piranga (also spelled Pyranga), northern tanagers, does seem to be a recurring theme. The bird comes up again in the final volume of Shaw’s General Zoology, published long after his death, with an entirely different description and some more synonyms (but no illustration).

The picture looks something like the flame-colored tanager, Piranga bidentata, and something more like the summer tanager, Piranga rubra (Linnaeus’s Fringilla rubra). Both live in North America, extending into northern South America.

The “Mississipensis” spelling, incidentally, is as printed. It should probably have two ps or another i—or both. Among species with similar names, Mississippensis, Mississipiensis, and Mississippiensis all occur, sugges­ting that spelling “Mississippi” is no longer the prized grade-school achievement it once was. (To this day I can spell it backward.)

Cancer Grapsus, the Variegated Crab

is now Grapsus grapsus, the delightfully named Sally Lightfoot crab. It is most common around Central America (both coasts) and the Caribbean.

Asterias Echinites, the Echinoid Asterias

is now Acanthaster planci (by way of Asterias planci), the crown-of-thorns. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

The English article is the first since Volume 15 to run to a third page—and a fourth, and a fifth—but only because of the three-page Latin Cento, inexplicably included on the English side. The article proper is only two pages.

The impending dispersion of the Leverian Museum
[Back in 1792-96 George Shaw had joined the long list of people who wrote books extolling the Leverian Museum.

Sir Ashton Lever died in 1788, the year before the Miscellany began publication. His collection had been sold by lottery in early 1786. The winner was James Parkinson—dedicatee of Volume 16, no relation to Parkinson’s Disease Guy—almost by accident, as his wife had bought a ticket shortly before her death. He maintained the collection as a public museum until 1806, when he too ran out of money and the Leverian Collection had to be broken up and auctioned off. There’s a recent book by Adrienne Kaeppler tracing as much of the Leverian collection as has been possible to hunt down.]

and which it is, of course, impossible to translate
[But why, then, did he put in on the English side instead of the Latin side?]

in the form of a Cento
[I’m not going to look it up line by line, but it seems to be drawn from modern—that is, non-classical—sources. The last two lines, for example, are from a Milton elegy:

Tu nimium felix intra tua mœnia claudis

Quicquid formosi pendulus orbis habet. ]

Aut quales raucas pessima tigris habet.
text has rancans

Quique redundabit foecundo vulnere vermis, / Fertilis, et damnis dives ab ipse suis!
[All right, so it isn’t all post-classical. Ovid, Epistulae, Deianira to Hercules (no. IX in editions that number them), 95-96:

Quaeque redundabat fecundo vulnere serpens

Fertilis et damnis dives ab ipsa suis; ]

Anas Fasciata, the Fasciated Duck

may be Malacorhynchus membranaceus (by way of Anas membra­naceus), the pink-eared duck. If so, Shaw is mistaken about “hitherto undescribed”, since the name goes back to Latham 1801. It lives in Australia.

Sertularia Pennatula, the Sea-Pen Sertularia

If he meant to say Sertularia pennaria, it is now Monoserius pennarius. It ranges from Japan to New Zealand, including Indonesia. And if that isn’t what he meant, your guess is as good as mine.

Pennatula is a genus name in its own right. This seems to have been a pretty common way to express the idea of “this animal has points of similarity with some other, completely unrelated animal”. Compare, for example, Scarabæus Macropus, the Kanguroo Beetle of Volume 10.

Phalæna Sylla, the Sylla (moth)

is now Arsenura sylla. It lives in South America.

[Plate 699] R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt. 1805
[Whew.]

An var. Phal. Erythrinæ Fab.? / Perhaps a variety of Ph. Erythrinæ Fab.
[Possibly the other way around, since I don’t find a Phalaena erythrinae.]

Labrus Bifasciatus, the Bifasciated Labrus

is now Thalassoma bifasciatum, the bluehead (wrasse). It lives in the Caribbean and around the Atlantic coast of North America.

Merops Malimbicus, the Malimbic Bee-Eater

is also known as the rosy bee-eater, with naming credit to Shaw. It lives in west Africa.

Voluta Undulata, the Undulated Volute

is now Amoria undulata, the waved volute. (That’s assuming he is referring to Lamarck’s binomial from 1804. A different gastropod was given the same name, Voluta undulata, back in 1788. That one is now Cryptospira strigata. Go figure; clearly there is more to this primacy-of-naming business than meets the eye.) It lives along the coast of southern and western Australia.

Madrepora Carduus, the Thistle Madrepore

If it is the same as Pallas’s M. lacera, it is now Scolymia lacera, the atlantic mushroom coral. (There is also a M. carduus that is now Acropora carduus—but that one wasn’t named until 1846.) In spite of its current English name, it lives mainly around the Caribbean.

Papilio Deiphobus, the Deiphobus (butterfly)

Unchanged. It lives in Indonesia and the Philippines. (Cramer’s P. achates is a different butterfly, now equated with P. memnon. It lives in east and Southeast Asia.)

Numenius Guarauna, the Brasilian Curlew

If it is the same as Linnaeus’s Scolopax guarauna, it is now Aramus guarauna, the limpkin. It lives in South America, the Caribbean islands, and the southeastern parts of North America.

[Plate 705]
[The observant reader will notice that the picture—credited to Hugh Davies himself—doesn’t even remotely agree with the colors named in the description.]

Advena iste rarissimus, (inquit Davisius)
[“As long as we’re being old-fashioned and bringing back catchwords, let’s put the name in Small Capitals like we did in Volumes 1 and 2.” —Printer.
“All right, but just this once.” —Publisher.]

whose excellent observations relative to the Charadrius Himantopus
[As seen at Plate 195 of Volume 6.]

This extraordinary visitant, (says Mr. Davies) was shot in Anglesey
[“Well, in that case I’m going to italicize all the place names instead.” —Printer.]

a very striking general resemblance . . . to the Tantalus igneus and Tantalus Falcinellus
text has ingneus
[T. calcinellus is now Plegadis falcinellus, the glossy ibis. T. igneus may simply be a synonym.]

Aplysia Peroniana, the Peronian Aplysia

Unknown. Linnaeus’ genus Aplysia and Lamarck’s genus Dolabella are both sea hares.

Crenatula Avicularis, the Avicular Crenatula

is now Crenatula picta, the painted tree-oyster, because Gmelin got there first. It lives mainly in Australia.

Gorgonia Pinnata, the Pinnated Gorgonia

is now Leptogorgia pinnata. Sources are coy about where, exactly, it lives.

Columba Australis, the Madagascar Pigeon

is now Treron australis, the Madagascan green pigeon. In addition to Mada­gascar, it lives in central Africa.

Remiges superne nigricant
text has Renisges
[Insert boilerplate about George Shaw’s handwriting.]

Papilio Achilles, the Achilles (butterfly)

is now Morpho achilles, the blue-banded morpho. In fact it is surprising how many of Shaw’s butterflies ended up in genus Morpho, which is not an especially large genus. The present version is labeled “Var.” because Papilio Achilles was previously described at Plate 68 of Volume 2. Then as now, it lives in South and Central America.

Madrepora Cincinnata, the Curled Madrepore

If it is the same as M. gyrosa—which Shaw seems to doubt—it is now Colpophyllia natans (by way of Madrepora natans, because Houttuyn got there first), the boulder brain coral. It lives around the Caribbean.

Acarus Exulcerans, the Cuticular Mite

is listed as “doubtful”, as is Degeer’s A. scabiei. Linnaeus’s A. scabiei—which may be a different mite—is now Sarcoptes scabiei.

ACARUS Scabiei.
text has Scabici

Cancroma Cochlearia, the Boat-Bill

is now Cochlearius cochlearius, the boat-billed heron. It lives in South and Central America.

Syngnathus Biaculeatus, the Biaculeated Pipefish

is now Syngnathoides biaculeatus, the alligator pipefish. (Genus names in -oides tend to mean “we took a closer look and decided it’s too far removed to stay in the original genus, but it’s not worth coming up with a whole new name”.) It lives in the Indian and South Pacific oceans.

Haliotis Tuberculata, the Tuberculated Haliotis

is also known as the European edible abalone and the green ormer. It lives along the coast of Europe, especially in the Mediterranean. Although Shaw doesn’t say, the illustration is approximately natural size. That makes it somewhat smaller than the South African abalone, and much smaller than the California abalone. But unlike either of those, it is not currently off-limits.

Papilio Arcesilaus, the Arcesilaus (butterfly)

is probably a conflation of several species in what is now genus Faunis. The genus as a whole lives in Southeast Asia, including Indonesia. Fabricius’s P. chorinaeus is now Caerois chorinaeus, elsewhere in family Nymphalidae; the genus lives in South America.

Ramphastos Viridis, the Green Toucan

is now Pteroglossus viridis, the green aracari. It lives in South America.

Papilio Anchises, the Anchises (butterfly)

is now Parides anchises. It lives in South America.

This will be the last two-page article in the volume. As such, it also marks the last time the printer will ever use a catchword. Ever, ever, ever—and this time he means it.

Madrepora Cucullata, the Hooded Madrepore

is now Helioseris cucullata, the sunray lettuce coral. It lives in the Caribbean.

Balæna Musculus, the Under-Jawed Mysticete

is now Balaenoptera musculus, the blue whale—our first mammal since Volume 15. It is found in all oceans, though not all at the same time; it has a very wide-ranging migration pattern.

one of the largest of the genus
[Make that: the largest of the genus, the family, the order and so on up to kingdom.]

Tantalus Cristatus, the Crested Ibis

is now Lophotibis cristata, the Madagascan ibis. It lives, as advertised, on Madagascar.

Lacerta Hispaniolica, the St. Domingo Crocodile

is now Crocodylus acutus, the American crocodile. (In yet another head-scratcher, Cuvier’s C. acutus name is a year later than Shaw’s. Admittedly Shaw was being awfully old-fashioned in clinging to the genus name Lacerta when Crocodylus had been defined almost 40 years earlier.) It lives in Central America and around the Caribbean.

Cyprinus Orfus, the Orange Carp, or Orf

is now Leuciscus idus (by way of Cyprinus idus), the golden orfe. It lives in Europe, except Iberia.

Sphinx Lineata, the Lineated Sphinx

is probably Hyles lineata, the white-lined sphinx. It is most common in North America.

Antennæ medio crassiores, seu utraque extremitate attenuatæ
text has attennatæ

Alæ deflexæ, (volatu graviore vespertino seu matutino).
close-parenthesis missing

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 790.
text has Lyn.

Fabr. sp. ins. 2. p. 147.
text has ip. ins.
[Hang in there, typesetter. We’re almost at the end of the installment.]

Phytotoma Abyssinica, the Abyssinian Plant-Cutter

may be Lybius guifsobalito, the black-billed barbet. It lives in east Africa. (Do not ask what “guifsobalito” means; only Buffon knows, and he isn’t telling.) It has also been equated with Loxia tridactyla, an equally hard-to-pin-down species; the “tridactyla” element makes it safe to say it does not belong in genus Phytotoma or, for that matter, Loxia.

Lepas Trachealis, the Laryngoid Barnacle

If it is the same as Lamarck’s Tubicinella major, it still has that name. (T. minor may not exist.) It lives around the Indian ocean.

Lin. Syst. Nat.
text has Lyn.

Squalus Appendiculatus, the Appendiculated Shark

is now Orectolobus maculatus, because Shaw didn’t notice that someone else had already named it. It lives around Australia.

Scyllæa Pelagica, the Pelagic Scyllæa

is better known as the Sargassum nudibranch. It is most common in the Caribbean and west Atlantic, but is also found in other waters.

Scolopax Sinensis, the Chinese Snipe

may be Gallinago megala, Swinhoe’s snipe, which wasn’t officially named until 1861. 19th-century sources tend to put S. sinensis somewhere in genus Rostratula (also known as Rhynchaea).

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 242.
text has Lyn.

Scarabæus Cacicus, the Cacique Beetle

is probably Goliathus cacicus, making it a Goliath beetle. It lives in west Africa.

Chætodon Glaucus, the Glaucous Chætodon

is now Trachinotus goodei, the banner pompano. (This binomial dates only to 1896. What gives?) It lives in the Caribbean and along the Atlantic coast of the Americas.

Der blanc Klippfisch.
text unchanged: error for blaue

Papilio Telemachus, the Telemachus (butterfly)

is now Morpho telemachus, which lives in South America. That’s Linnaeus’s P. telemachus from 1767. At one time there was also a P. telemachus, Cramer 1782. After some years as Morpho crameri—when you can’t get naming credit, having it named after you is the next-best thing—it was established that they are, after all, the same butterfly.

Index
Latin

691.   Balistes maculatus
index entry missing
[You’d think the printer would have noticed that the Latin index is one line shorter than the English index. Unlike the previous volume’s index, there are no line-sharing hiccups, so the discrepancy is clearly visible.]

731.   Chætodon glaucus.
text has Chœtodon

716.   [Papilio] Arcesilaus.
text has Arciselaus

714.   Syngnathus biaculeatus.
text has Syngnatbus bianculeatus

English

691.   Balistes spotted.
text has 695
[This error isn’t found on the Latin side . . . but only because the whole entry is missing.]

716.   [Butterfly] Arcesilaus.
text has Arciselaus

The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.