Naturalist’s Miscellany

The Naturalist’s Miscellany
by George Shaw
Volume 18

v

VIRIS ORNATISSIMIS

REGIÆ INSTITUTIONIS

LONDINENSIS

FUNDATORIBUS ET PATRONIS
hunc

DECIMUM OCTAVUM

NATURÆ VIVARII

FASCICULUM

d. d. d.
GEORGIUS SHAW,
E. NODDER.

r

to the

ROYAL INSTITUTION

of

LONDON,

DISTINGUISHED BY ITS

ZEALOUS PROMOTION

of

USEFUL KNOWLEDGE,

THIS EIGHTEENTH VOLUME

of the

NATURALIST’S MISCELLANY

is

RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED

by
GEORGE SHAW,
E. NODDER.

v

 

733

Variegated Tinamou

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

TINAMUS VARIEGATUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum longiusculum, obtusum; nares in medio rostri.

Rictus amplus.

Latera capitis subdenudata.

Cauda breviuscula.

Pedes tetradactyli, digito postico a terra elevato.

Lath. Ind. Orn. p. 633.

Character Specificus, &c.

TINAMUS fuscus, rufo variatus, vertice nigro, pectore ferrugineo.

TINAMUS rufo fusco nigricanteque fasciatus, subtus rufus, pileo nigro, gula abdomineque medio albis.

Lath. Ind. Orn. p. 634.

Tetrao variegatus. T. pedibus rostroque fuscis, capite et cervice nigris, corpore supra lineis transversis spadiceis et nigris vario, subtus rufo, gula medioque abdominis albis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 768.

Americam Australem, præcipue Cayanam incolit Tinamus variegatus, magni­tudine quasi Tetraonis Perdicis Linnæi.

v

the
VARIEGATED TINAMOU.

Generic Character.

Bill longish, obtuse; nostrils in the middle of the bill.

Gape wide.

Cheeks slightly bared.

Tail rather short.

Feet tetradactyle, with the hind-toe raised from the ground.

Specific Character, &c.

Brown TINAMOU, with rufous variegations, black crown, and ferruginous breast.

VARIEGATED TINAMOU.

Lath. Syn. 2. p. 726.

TINAMOU varié de Cayenne.

Pl. Enl. 828.

The variegated Tinamou is a native of South-America, and particularly of Cayenne. Its size is that of a common partridge.

734

Tortoise-Shell Cowry

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

CYPRÆA TESTUDINARIA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, involuta, subovata, obtusa, lævis.

Apertura utrinque effusa, linearis, utrinque dentata, longi­tudinalis.

Character Specificus, &c.

CYPRÆA subflavescens, nebulis maculisque fuscis atomis albis irroratis.

CYPRÆA testudinaria. C. testa obtusa subcylindrica, extremitatibus depressis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1173.

TESTUDINARIA.

Rumph. Mus. t. 38. f. C.

In suo genere Cypræa testudinaria est species facile maxima. In maribus Indicis nascitur, coloribus interdum nonnihil varians.

v

the
TORTOISE-SHELL COWRY.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax or Slug.

Shell univalve, involute, obtuse, ovate.

Aperture linear, longitudinal, toothed on both sides.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish COWRY, with brown clouds and spots freckled with minute white specks.

The Great Indian COWRY.

Porcelaine a ecaille de tortue.

Knorr. Vergn. 4. pl. 27. f. 2.

The tortoise-shell Cowry is the largest of the genus Cypræa. It is a native of the Indian seas, and sometimes varies slightly in colour.

735

Imperial Moth

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PHALÆNA IMPERATORIA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ, (volatu nocturno.)

Character Specificus, &c.

PHALÆNA IMPERATORIA. P. (Bombyx) elinguis, alis reversis flavis fusco irroratis; omnibus macula subocellari strigaque undata purpurascente.

Smith. Abbot. Ins. Amer. 2. p. 109. t. 55.

PHALÆNA imperialis.

Fabr. entom. emend. 4. p. 435.

Drury Ins. 1. t. 9. f. 1, 2.

Iconem quam ostendit tabula suppeditavit nobis eximium opus de insectis quas in America Septentrionali generantur ab Abboto conscriptum, et Smithii, societatis Linnæanæ præsidis, annotationibus illustratum. Larvam cum chrysalide primus repræsentasse videtur Abbotus. Depascitur larva folia platani Americanæ, et mense Septembri idoneum sibi sub humo nacta latibulum, in chrysalidem convertitur; unde Julio proxime sequente erumpit insectum plene conformatum. In Georgia et Carolina præcipue cernitur Phalæna imperatoria.

v

 

r

the
IMPERIAL MOTH.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually lessening from base to tip.

Wings (when sitting) generally deflex, (flight nocturnal).

Specific Character, &c.

MOTH with yellow wings, freckled with brown; each marked by a subocellated spot and waved purplish stripe.

The Great Plane-Tree Moth.

Smith’s Abbot. 2. p. 109. pl. 55.

It is from the highly elegant work of Mr. Abbot on North-American Insects, accompanied by the notes of Dr. Smith, president of the Linnæan Society, that the beautiful moth here repre­sented is copied. Mr. Abbot seems to have been the first who has figured its caterpillar and chrysalis: the former feeds on the leaves of the Occidental or American Plane-Tree, and undergoes its change in the month of September, retiring for that purpose under­ground; and gives birth to the complete animal in the month of July in the succeeding year. It is principally found in Georgia and Carolina.

v

 

736

Carp Monoculus

Notes

r

MONOCULUS CYPRINACEUS.

Character Genericus.

Pedes natatorii.

Corpus crusta tectum.

Oculi, plerisque, approximati, testæ innati.

Character Specificus, &c.

MONOCULUS orbicularis, acetabulis duobus pecto­ralibus, cauda biloba.

MONOCULUS Delphinus. M. pedibus octo.

Lin. Gmel. p. 3005.

Mull. entomostr. p. 123. No. 58.

Corporibus, ut plurimum, affigitur bella hæc species diversorum piscium; cyprinorum præcipue; quibus adhæret ope duorum brevium acetabulorum utrinque e thorace sitorum. Ostenditur in tabula tum vera magni­tudo tum microscopice aucta. Primus eam descripsisse videtur Bakerus in opere cui titulus “Employment for the Microscope;” qui iconem addidit fidam satis, carentem tamen elegantia. Observavit Dominus Bakerus mori hanc speciem unius aut duorum dierum spatio, nisi in eadem aqua servetur una cum pisce quem morsu infestat. In hoc tamen eum errare ausim asserere; cum monoculos cypri­naceos diu valentes vixisse cognoverim sine visibili ullo nutrimento præter animalcula quæ suppeditarunt aquæ.

In lateribus vasis in quo servantur hæc insecta, deponi solent ovorum ovatorum, alborum, acervi horizontales, oblongi, singulo acervo ova quasi triginta seu quadra­ginta continente.

v

 

r

the
CARP MONOCULUS.

Generic Character.

Feet formed for swimming.

Body covered by a crustaceous tegument.

Eyes, in most species, approximated, and imbedded in the shell.

Specific Character, &c.

Orbicular MONOCULUS, with two pectoral suckers, and bilobate tail.

Carp-Louse.

Baker Empl. for the Microscope, p. 374. pl. 14. f. 14.

This elegant species is generally found attached to the bodies of different kinds of fish; more especially to the carp; adhering by means of two short, cylindric suckers or acetabula situated on each side the thorax. The plate shews the animal both in its natural size, and as it appears when magnified. It seems to have been first described by Mr. Baker in his work entitled “Employment for the Microscope,” where a figure may be found, suffi­ciently exact to ascertain the species, though not very elegant. Mr. Baker observes that, unless this animal be kept in the same water with the fish it infests, it dies in the space of a day or v two; but this I have found to be a mistake; having preserved several in perfect vigour for a very considerable time, though without any visible nutri­ment, except the animalcules floating about in the water. The eggs of these insects are whitish, and are deposited in small, horizontal, oblong groupes of thirty or forty in each, on the sides of the glass vessel in which they are kept.

737

Indian Lory

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

B

PSITTACUS COCCINEUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum, mandibula superiore mobili, cera instructa.

Nares in rostri basi.

Lingua carnosa, obtusa, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 139.

Character Specificus, &c.

PSITTACUS macrourus coccineus, dorso antico, abdomine, fascia capitis, caudaque violaceis, alarum tectricibus fusco-cæruleo marginatis.

PSITTACUS Indicus. P. coccineus, fusco et violaceo variegatus, capite et collo superioribus, pectore et tænia pone oculos violaceis, rectricum majorum apice dilute fusco, minorum rectricibusque ex fusco violaceis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 318.

In insulis Indicis, præcipue in Amboina conspicitur Psittacus coccineus, coloribus interdum leviter varians. Magnitudo ejus est quasi Psittaci Domicellæ.

v

 

B2

the
INDIAN LORY.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked: upper mandible moveable.

Nostrils round, placed in the base of the bill.

Tongue fleshy, broad, blunt at the end.

Legs short; feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Long-tailed crimson LORY, with violet-blue varie­gations; the wing-coverts with dusky-blue margins.

INDIAN LORY.

Lath. syn. 1. p. 217.

Perruche des Indes orientales.

Pl. Enl. 143.

The splendid species here represented is found in the Indian isles, particularly in Amboyna, and sometimes is observed to vary a little in its colours. Its size is that of the Psittacus Domicella or purple-capped Lory.

v

 

738

Palmated Sponge

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

SPONGIA PALMATA.

Character Genericus.

Animal? fixum, flexile, polymorphum, torpidissimum, contextum vel e fibris reticulatis, vel e spinulis gelatina viva vestitis.

Osculis seu foraminibus superficiei aquam respirantibus.

Soland. et Ellis p. 182.

Character Specificus, &c.

SPONGIA flavo-ferruginea palmata, poris prominulis.

SPONGIA palmata. S. palmata, digitis apice subdivisis, poris prominulis inordinate dispositis.

Soland. et Ellis Zooph. p. 189. t. 58. f. 6.

Circa litora Britannica conspicitur Spongia palmata, ab Ellisio primum descripta. Tabula magni­tudinem veram exprimit.

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r

the
PALMATED SPONGE.

Generic Character.

Animal? fixed, flexible, torpid, of various forms; composed either of reticulated fibres, or masses of small spines interwoven together; clothed with a gelatinous flesh full of small mouths or fora­mina on its surface, by which it sucks in and throws out the water.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellow-ferruginous, palmated SPONGE, with prominent pores.

PALMATED SPONGE.

Ellis Zooph. p. 189. pl. 58. f. 5.

The palmated Sponge is found about the British coasts, and seems to have been first described by Mr. Ellis. The plate represents it in its natural size.

v

 

739

Fig-Tree Sphinx

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

SPHINX FICUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ medio crassiores, seu utraque extremitate attenuatæ, subprismaticæ.

Alæ deflexæ, (volatu graviore vespertino seu matu­tino.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 796.

Character Specificus, &c.

SPHINX alis superioribus olivaceo-fuscis, apicibus pallidis, inferioribus fasciis duabus subnigris.

SPHINX FICUS. S. alis fusco-nebulosis; posticis angulo ani albis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 800.

SPHINX alis fusco-nebulosis, posticis fascia nigra, anguloque ani albo.

Fab. Sp. Ins. p. 145.

Surinamiam incolit Sphinx Ficus. Larva ejus folia Ficus præcipue depascitur, et in tabula nostra cum chrysalide et insecto perfecto magni­tudine vera exprimitur.

v

 

r

the
FIG-TREE SPHINX.

Generic Character.

Antennæ subprismatic, thickest in the middle, and attenuated at each extremity.

Wings deflected. Flight generally matutine or vespertine.

Specific Character, &c.

SPHINX with olive-brown upper wings with pale tips; and pale under-wings with two blackish bars.

The FIG-TREE SPHINX.

Merian Sur. Ins. pl. 33.

This species is a native of Surinam. The Caterpillar feeds chiefly on the leaves of the Fig-tree, and is repre­sented on the annexed plate, together with the chrysalis and complete Insect, in its natural size.

v

 

740

Limacine Onchidium

R. P. Nodder

Notes

r

ONCHIDIUM TYPHÆ.

Character Genericus.

Corpus limacinum, subverrucosum.

Caput brachiis duobus brevibus, totidemque tenta­culis.

Os infra.

Character Specificus, &c.

ONCHIDIUM griseo-olivaceum, subtus flavescens margine nigro.

ONCHIDIUM TYPHÆ.

Buchanan in Trans. Lin. Soc. Vol. 5. p. 132.

Genus Onchidium, cui cum genere Limacis arcta videtur esse cognatio, instituit Buchananus; qui in quinto volu­mine actorum societatis Linnæanæ speciem descripsit de qua jam agitur, Bengalæ incolam, et in specie quadam Typhæ, Typhæ scilicet elephantinæ præcipue repertam. Magnitudo eadem fere est atque atri limacis communis; color supra leviter olivaceus infra flavo-pallescit.

v

 

r

the
LIMACINE ONCHIDIUM.

Generic Character.

Body snail-shaped, slightly warted.

Head with two short lateral arms, and two tentacula.

Mouth beneath.

Specific Character, &c.

Greyish-olive ONCHIDIUM, yellowish beneath with black margin.

ONCHIDIUM.

Trans. Lin. Soc. vol. 5. p. 132.

The genus Onchidium, extremely nearly allied to that of Limax, appears to have been instituted by Dr. Buchanan, who, in the fifth volume of the Transactions of the Linnæan Society, has described the present species, which is a native of Bengal, and is chiefly found on a large species of Typha, called Typha elephantina. Its size is that of the common black slug, and its colour pale olive above, inclining to yellow beneath.

v

 

741

Common Falcon

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

C

FALCO COMMUNIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum, basi cera instructum.

Caput pennis arcte tectum.

Lingua bifida.

Character Specificus, &c.

FALCO fuscus, rufo undulatus, cauda subnigro fasciata, pectore abdomineque albidis fusco maculatis.

FALCO COMMUNIS. F. rostro cærulescente, cera iridibus pedibusque luteis, corpore fusco, pennarum margine rufo, rectricibus fasciis saturatioribus.

Lath. Ind. Orn. p. 30.

Falconem hunc ad id docilitatis perducere solent aucupes, ut inita cum iis societate, dato signo, in perdices et aves majores volantes irruat, comprensasque unguibus retinens ad dominos deportet. Exuperat paulum magni­tudine falconem palumbarium Linnæi, longus nempe, ut plurimum, pedem cum dimidio. Color avis superior infuscatur, marginibus pennarum ferrugineis, caudaque fasciis nigricantibus transversis decorata; inferior albet, non sine maculis fuscis huc illuc dispersis. Notissimum tamen est variare situm et dispositionem colorum. In omni fere Europa reperitur Falco communis.

v

 

r

the
COMMON FALCON.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked, furnished at the base with a cere.

Head closely covered with feathers.

Tongue bifid.

Specific Character, &c.

Brown FALCON with rufous undulations, the tail marked with dusky bars; the breast and belly whitish with dusky spots.

Le FAUCON.

Briss. Ornith. 1. p. 321.

This bird, so much esteemed in the diversion of Falconry, in which it is usually flown at partridges and other kind of game, is somewhat larger than the Falco palumbarius or Goshawk, measuring about eighteen inches in length. The general colour of its plumage is brown above, with rufous margins, the tail being crossed by several dusky bars: the under parts of the bird are white, with numerous dusky spots. It is known however to vary extremely in the particular distribution of its colours. The Falcon is a native of most parts of the European continent.

v

 

742

Fish Caligus

R P N. Sculp.

Notes

r

CALIGUS PISCINUS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus suborbiculare.

Pedes sex vel decem, posterioribus branchiatis.

Cauda appendiculata.

Character Specificus, &c.

CALIGUS corpore brevi, pedibus decem, cauda bifida.

Oniscus lutosus.

Slabb. Micr. t. 16. f. 1. 2.?

CALIGUS curtus.

Mull. entomostr. p. 180. No. 63.

Monoculus piscinus.

Fabr. syst. ent. 2. p. 189.?

Infestat hocce animalculum varios pisces eodem modo quo solet monoculi species quam in opere hoc nostro antea descripsimus, marinos præcipue, salmones sæpius, interdum et flesos; celeriter nempe huc illuc super corpora discurrendo, et ad libitum se cuti affigendo. Si certorum quorundum signorum habeatur ratio, ad genus Monoculi inter insecta videtur accedere; sunt tamen alia, ob quæ ad genus Lernææ inter vermes referendum putes. Exprimitur in tabula tam vera magni­tudo quam microscopice aucta.

v

 

r

the
FISH CALIGUS.

Generic Character.

Body suborbicular.

Legs six or ten, the lower branchiated.

Tail appendiculated.

Specific Character, &c.

CALIGUS with short body, ten legs, and bifid tail.

Calige des poisons.

Latreille ins. et crustac. 4. p. 111.

This animal, like the species of Monoculus described in a preceding number of the present work, infests several sorts of fishes, but principally the marine ones. It is found more particularly on the Salmon, and sometimes on the Flounder, wandering about with celerity over various parts of the fish, and occasionally fixing itself tenaciously to the skin. It seems allied in some points to the genus Monoculus among Insects, and in others to the genus Lernæa among the Vermes. It is repre­sented in the plate both in its natural size and magnified.

v

 

743

Green Locust

R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

GRYLLUS VIRIDISSIMUS.

Character Genericus.

Caput inflexum, maxillosum, palpis instructum.

Antennæ setaceæ seu filiformes.

Alæ quatuor, deflexæ, convolutæ: inferiores plicatæ.

Pedes postici saltatorii: ungues ubique bini.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 692.

Character Specificus, &c.

GRYLLUS viridis, antennis setaceis longissimis, linea thoracica subrufa.

GRYLLUS VIRIDISSIMUS. G. thorace rotundato, alis viridibus immaculatis, antennis setaceis longis­simis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 698.

Locusta viridis cantatrix.

Degeer ins. 3. p. 428.

Gryllorum Britannicorum maximus et elegantissimus est qui in tabula depingitur, exeunte æstate non raro peragrare solitus prata et sepes. Foemina mense autumno ova paululum sub terra occulit, e quibus vere insequente erumpunt pulli; iique certis temporis intervallis cum exuvias sæpius deposuerint, alis tandem instruuntur, et perfecti evadunt Grylli.

v

 

r

the
GREEN LOCUST.

Generic Character.

Head inflected, armed with jaws, and furnished with feelers.

Antennæ (in most species) setaceous or filiform.

Wings four, deflected and convoluted; the lower ones pleated.

Hind-Legs formed for leaping: claws on all the feet double.

Specific Character, &c.

GREEN LOCUST, with very long setaceous antennæ, and a subferruginous line down the thorax.

The common GREEN LOCUST.

The Gryllus viridissimus or Great green Locust, the largest and most elegant of the British species, is not very uncommon in fields and hedges towards the decline of summer. In autumn the female deposits her eggs beneath the surface of the ground, and from these, in the following spring, are hatched the young, which, after casting their skin several times, during the different periods of their growth, at length acquire their wings, and become complete.

v

 

744

Antiopa Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO ANTIOPA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis angulatis purpureo-nigricantibus limbo albo-flavescente.

PAPILIO ANTIOPA. P. alis angulatis nigris limbo albido.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 776.

Roes. ins. belust. 1. pap. diurn. t. 1.

Inter insecta Britannica rariora numeratur Papilio Antiopa, cujus larva folia Salicis præcipue depascitur, et mense Julio in chrysalidem convertitur, e qua mense Augusto erumpit papilio.

v

 

r

ANTIOPA.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and commonly terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with purplish-black angular wings, with whitish yellow border.

The black willow Butterfly.

The yellow-edged black Butterfly.

The Papilio Antiopa is numbered among the rarer insects of Great Britain. The Caterpillar feeds principally on the leaves of the willow, and changes into chrysalis in the month of July, from which in the month of August emerges the complete insect.

v

 

745

Caurale Snipe

R P N— Del. Sculpt.

Notes

D

SCOLOPAX HELIAS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum teretiusculum, obtusum, capite longius.

Nares lineares.

Facies tecta.

Pedes tetradactyli, postico pluribus articulis insistente.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 242.

Character Specificus, &c.

SCOLOPAX rufa, albo nigroque transversim fasciata, abdomine albo, cauda fascia nigra.

SCOLOPAX HELIAS. S. corpore nigro fulvo alboque fasciato, abdomine strigisque capitis albis, collo rufo lineis transversis nigris, cauda nebulosa fascia nigra.

Lath. Ind. Orn. p. 725.

ARDEA Helias. A. capite lævi, corpore supra nigro lineis transversis ferrugineis undulato, subtus albido, remigum rectricumque fasciis ferrugineis.

Pall. Nord. beytr.

Lin. Gmel. p. 640.

In elegantissime variatis Scolopacini generis habenda est species de qua jam agitur, quæque Scolopacem rusti­colam Linnæi fere æquat magni­tudine. Ali creditur eodem fere modo quo reliquum genus, loca nempe aquosa frequentando, vermesque et insecta exinde extrahendo. Nascitur in calidioribus regionibus Americæ Australis.

v

 

D2

the
CAURALE SNIPE.

Generic Character.

Bill long, slender.

Nostrils linear, situated in a furrow.

Face covered with feathers.

Feet tetradactylous; back toe jointed.

Specific Character, &c.

Rufous SNIPE, with black and white transverse bands, and a black band across the tail.

The CAURALE SNIPE.

Lath. syn. 3. p. 150.

CAURALE; ou petit Paon des Roses.

Buff. ois. 8. p. 109. pl. 14.

Le CAURAL de Cayenne.

Pl. Enl. 782.

This bird may be considered as the most elegantly variegated species of the genus Scolopax hitherto discovered. Its size is nearly that of a Woodcock. In its habits it is supposed to resemble the rest of its tribe, frequenting watery places, and feeding on worms, insects, &c. &c. It is a native of the hotter parts of South America.

v

 

746

Spotted Surmullet

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

MULLUS MACULATUS.

Character Genericus.

Caput compressum, declive, squamosum.

Os cirratum.

Membr. branch. triradiata.

Corpus squamis magnis subdeciduis.

Character Specificus, &c.

MULLUS ruber, corpore utrinque maculis tribus rotundatis nigris.

MULLUS MACULATUS. M. maculis tribus nigris ad lineam lateralem.

Bloch. ichth. 10. p. 79. t. 348. f. 1.

PIRAMETARA Brasiliensibus.

Marcgr. Bras. p. 150.

MULLUS Surmuletus. var. β.

Lin. Syst. Gmel. p. 1339.

Maria incolit Americana Mullus maculatus, in pedalem vel sesquipedalem non raro crescens longi­tudinem.

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r

the
SPOTTED SURMULLET.

Generic Character.

Head compressed, scaly.

Mouth bearded.

Gill-Membrane three rayed.

Body covered with large subdeciduous scales.

Specific Character, &c.

Red SURMULLET, with the body marked on each side by three rounded black spots.

Der gefleckte Rothbart.

Bloch ichth. p. 348. f. 1.

The spotted Surmullet is a native of the American seas, where it often grows to the length of twelve or eighteen inches.

v

 

747

Spiral-Winged Locust

Notes

r

GRYLLUS MONSTROSUS.

Character Genericus.

Caput inflexum, maxillosum, palpis instructum.

Antennæ setaceæ seu filiformes.

Alæ quatuor, deflexæ, convolutæ: inferiores plicatæ.

Pedes postici saltatorii: ungues ubique bini.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 692.

Character Specificus, &c.

GRYLLUS subfuscus, alis apice contortuplicatis, pedibus utrinque appendiculatis.

GRYLLUS MONSTROSUS. G. elytris alisque caudato-convolutis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2059.

ACHETA monstrosa.

Fabr. Spec. ins. 1. p. 353.

Drury ins. 2. pl. 43.

E plurimis congeneribus insectis vix aliud insignius reperiri possit Gryllo monstroso, qui in India generatus, et Gryllo Europæo qui Gryllotalpa dicitur, contribulis, eodem fere, (ut a forma conjicere licet,) utitur vivendi modo. In tabula depingitur alis clausis, nec non alis plene expansis.

v

 

r

the
SPIRAL-WINGED LOCUST.

Generic Character.

Head inflected, armed with jaws, and furnished with feelers.

Antennæ (in most species) setaceous, or filiform.

Wings four, deflected and convoluted; the lower ones pleated.

Hind-Legs formed for leaping: claws on all the feet double.

Specific Character, &c.

Brownish LOCUST, with the wings twisted at the tips, and the feet appendiculated on each side.

The SPIRAL-WINGED Indian LOCUST.

Among the numerous insects of the genus Gryllus, hardly any can be adduced of an appearance more remarkable than the present species, which is a native of India, and belongs to the same tribe with the Gryllus Gryllotalpa or Mole-Cricket, to which in its habits of life it is probably similar. The plate represents it both in its general state, and as it appears when the wings are fully expanded.

v

 

748

Schlosserian Alcyonium

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

ALCYONIUM SCHLOSSERI.

Character Genericus.

Animal plantæ forma crescens.

Stirps fixa, carnosa, gelatinosa, spongiosa, vel coriacea.

Superficies cellulosa, poris seu osculis stellatis pertusa, hydras tentaculatas oviparas exserentibus.

Character Specificus, &c.

ALCYONIUM planum subcoriaceum subcæruleum, stellis flavis.

ALCYONIUM carnosum asteriscis obtusis ornatum.

Ellis et Schlosser Act. Angl. 49. p. 451.

ALCYONIUM SCHLOSSERI. A. carnosum lividum, asteriscis luteis radiis obtusis ornatum.

Soland. et Ellis Zooph. p. 177.

Quod in tabula depinximus zoophyton, cuique, cum species sit valde anomala Alcyonii, genus distinctum et proprium non immerito possit institui, primus accurate descripsisse et depinxisse videtur Albertus Schlosserus in actis Anglicis philosophicis. Apud oras Britannicas reperitur, fortasse etiam apud oras plerasque Europæas, ut plurimum vel fucorum majorum caulibus circum­volutum, vel super rupes et alia marina frustulatim et multiformiter dispersum.

v

 

r

the
SCHLOSSERIAN ALCYONIUM.

Generic Character.

Animal growing in the form of a plant.

Body fixed; fleshy, gelatinous, spongy, or coriaceous.

Surface cellular with star-shaped openings, from which are extended polype-shaped oviparous heads.

Specific Character, &c.

Flat subcoriaceous blueish ALCYONIUM, with yellow stars.

SCHLOSSER’S ALCYONIUM.

Solander & Ellis’s Zoophytes. p. 477.

The curious zoophyte represented on the present plate seems to have been first distinctly described, and figured with accuracy, by Dr. Albert Schlosser in the Philosophical Transactions. It is a native of the British and probably of most other European coasts, and is commonly found either investing the stems of the larger fuci, or spread in irregular patches of various size on rocks, &c. It must be considered as a very anomalous species of Alcyonium, and might not improperly constitute a distinct genus.

v

 

749

Golden Finch

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

E

FRINGILLA TRISTIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum conicum, rectum, acuminatum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 317.

Character Specificus, &c.

FRINGILLA flava, fronte alis caudaque nigris.

FRINGILLA tristis. F. flava, fronte nigra, alis fuscis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 320.

Carduelis Americana.

Catesb. Carol. 1. t. 43.

Depingitur in tabula magnitudo vera Fringillæ tristis, varias Americæ septentrionalis regiones incolentis.

v

 

E2

the
GOLDEN FINCH.

Generic Character.

Bill conic, slender towards the end, and sharp-pointed.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellow FINCH, with black front, wings, and tail.

The American GOLDFINCH.

Catesb. Carol. 1. pl. 43.

The GOLDEN FINCH.

Penn. Arct. Zool. 2. p. 371.

The Fringilla tristis is a native of several parts of North America, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

750

Pagre Sparus

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

SPARUS PAGRUS.

Character Genericus.

Opercula squamosa, mutica.

Dentes validi, Molares (plerisque) convexi, læves, in series dispositi.

Character Specificus, &c.

SPARUS roseus, maculis duabus nigris utrinque ad opercula.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 408.

SPARUS PAGRUS. S. rubescens, cute ad radicem pinnarum dorsi et ani in sinum producta.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 409.

Sparus radio ultimo pinnæ dorsi anique cute incluso.

Bloch ichth. 8. p. 50. t. 267.

Alitur Sparus Pagrus in mari Mediterraneo, Septen­trionali, et Atlantico. Intrat etiam interdum majores fluvios. In eam crescit magni­tudinem, ut non raro pondo sit octo vel decem. In cibis habetur lautioribus. Hoc habet commune cum aliis multis piscibus, quod colore nonnihil variet: ut plurimum tamen rubet.

v

 

r

the
PAGRE SPARUS.

Generic Character.

Gill-Covers scaly, unarmed.

Teeth strong; in most species convex, smooth, and disposed in rows.

Specific Character, &c.

Rose-red SPARUS, with two black spots on each side near the gill-covers.

The Red Gilthead.

Penn. Br. Zool. 3. p. 212.

PAGRE.

Rondel. Hist. Poiss. 1. p. 127.

PAGRE SPARUS.

Gen. Zool. 6. p. 408.

The Pagre Sparus is an inhabitant of the Mediterranean, Atlantic, and Northern seas, and sometimes enters the larger rivers. It grows to a considerable size, often weighing eight or ten pounds, and is considered as a delicate fish for the table. In colour, like many other fishes, it occasionally varies, but is generally red.

v

 

751

Goliath Beetle

Notes

r

SCARABÆUS GOLIATHUS.
Var.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ clavatæ, capitulo fissili.

Tibiæ sæpius dentatæ.

Corpus crassum, compactum.

Gen. Zool. 6. p. 19.

Character Specificus, &c.

Scarabæus scutellatus, thorace inermi, clypeo bifurco.

Fabr. sp. ins. 1. p. 14.

SCARABÆUS GOLIATHUS. S. scutellatus, thorace inermi, capite rostro bifurco.

Lin. Mantiss. 530.

Cetonia Goliathus.

Oliv. ins. 1. fig. 33.

Scarabæi Goliathi in opere hoc nostro antea depicti varietatem repræsentavimus a priore illo coloribus tantummodo discrepantem. Monstratur in tabula insectum quasi tertia parte imminutum. Generatur in variis partibus Africanis.

v

 

r

the
GOLIATH BEETLE.

Generic Character.

Antennæ or Horns clavate, with a fissile tip.

Legs generally toothed.

Body thick and compact.

Gen. Zool. 6. p. 19.

Specific Character, &c.

Scutellated BEETLE, with unarmed thorax and forked head.

Fork-Headed BEETLE.

Nat. Miscell. 3. p. 80.

Goliathus.

Drury ins. 1. pl. 31. & 3. pl. 40.

The Scarabæus Goliathus has before been figured in the present work. The variety here repre­sented differs only in colour from the preceding. It is a native of several parts of Africa, and is reduced on the plate to about a third smaller than its natural size.

v

 

752

Bindweed Sphinx

R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

SPHINX CONVOLVULI.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ medio crassiores, seu utraque extremitate attenuatæ, subprismaticæ.

Alæ deflexæ, (volatu graviore vespertino seu matu­tino.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 796.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sphinx alis integris canis fusco nebulosis, inferioribus nigro fasciatis, abdomine roseo cingulis nigris.

SPHINX CONVOLVULI. S. alis integris: posticis nigro fasciatis margine postico albo punctatis, abdo­mine rubro cingulis atris.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 798.

Merian. ins. Europ. t. 75. f. 2.

Roesel. phal. 1. t. 7.

Arcta admodum affinitate conjungitur formosa hæc species cum Sphinge ligustri Linnæi; qua tamen, (in Anglia saltem) multo est rarior. Larva convolvuli sepii Linnæani folia præcipue depascitur, et mense Junio sub humo occulta in chrysalidem convertitur, e qua mense Septembri erumpere solet ipsa Sphinx.

v

 

r

the
BINDWEED SPHINX.

Generic Character.

Antennæ subprismatic, thickest in the middle, and attenuated at each extremity.

Wings deflected. Flight generally matutine or vespertine.

Specific Character, &c.

SPHINX with even, grey wings, clouded with brown; the lower pair barred with black; the abdomen rose-coloured with black bands.

The BINDWEED SPHINX, or Convolvulus Hawk-Moth.

This beautiful species is extremely nearly allied to the Sphinx ligustri or Privet-Sphinx, but is (at least in England) a much rarer insect. The caterpillar feeds principally on the leaves of the common bindweed, and, retiring under ground in June, changes to a chrysalis, out of which in September emerges the complete insect.

v

 

753

Rufous Woodpecker

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

F

PICUS RUFUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum polyedrum, rectum, apice cuneato.

Nares pennis setaceis recumbentibus obtectæ.

Lingua teres, lumbriciformis, longissima, mucronata, apice retrorsum aculeata setis.

Pedes scansorii.

Character Specificus, &c.

Picus flavo-rufescens, undulis transversis nigris, alis caudaque saturatioribus.

PICUS RUFUS. P. rufus nigro-undulatus, alis cauda corporeque subtus saturatioribus.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 241.

PICUS RUFUS. P. rufus nigro undulatus.

Lin. Syst. Gmel. 1. p. 432.

Pulcherrimam pici speciem American australis incolam juxta veram magni­tudinem repræsentavimus. More congenerum prædatur insecta, et sedem sibi quærit in cavis arborum.

v

 

F2

the
RUFOUS WOODPECKER.

Generic Character.

Bill polyedral, strait, wedge-shaped towards the tip.

Nostrils covered by recumbent setaceous feathers.

Tongue worm-shaped, very long, sharp-pointed, and edged towards the tip with reversed bristles.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish-rufous Woodpecker, transversely undulated with black; the wings and tail deeper than the rest.

Rufous Woodpecker.

Lath. syn. 1. p. 594.

Pic roux.

Buff. ois. p. 36.

Pl. Enl. 694. f. 1.

The present highly elegant species of Woodpecker is a native of South America, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size. Like the rest of its tribe it feeds on insects, and inhabits the hollows of trees.

v

 

754

Seriated Madrepore

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

MADREPORA SERIATA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Medusa.

Corallium cavitatibus lamelloso-flexuosis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1272.

Character Specificus, &c.

MADREPORA SERIATA. M. ramulosa, ramis attenuatis acuminatis, stellis longi­tudinaliter seriatis; margine superiore porrecto, fornicato, ciliato.

Soland. et Ellis Zooph. p. 171. t. 31. f. 1. 2.

MADREPORA SERIATA.

Pall. Zooph. 336.

In maribus Indicis generatur Madrepora seriata, crescitque interdum in altitudinem quindecim vel etiam octodecim unciarum. Color communiter albus est, substantia dura seu quasi lapidosa.

v

 

r

the
SERIATED MADREPORE.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Medusa.

Coral marked with lamellar flexuous or star-shaped cavities.

Specific Character, &c.

Madrepore with attenuated, pointed branches; the stars disposed in rows; the superior edge of each star projecting, arched, and ciliated.

Slender-branched Madrepore.

Madrepora seriata.

Soland. et Ellis Zooph. p. 31.

The Madrepora seriata is a native of the Indian seas, and occasionally arrives at the height of fifteen or eigh­teen inches: its general colour is white, and substance hard or strong.

v

 

755

Fasciated Sparus

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

SPARUS FASCIATUS.

Character Genericus.

Opercula squamosa, mutica.

Dentes validi, Molares (plerisque) convexi, læves, in series dispositi.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sparus elongato-subquadratus albidus, subnigro transverse fasciatus, pinnis nigro marginatis.

SPARUS FASCIATUS. S. corpore fasciato, linea laterali interrupta.

Bloch. ichth. 8. p. 15. t. 257.

Insignit Sparum fasciatum squamarum magni­tudo, nec non colorum æqualis et concinna dispositio. Alitur in maribus Indicis et Americanis, et interdum fere bipedali est longi­tudine. Caro in cibis habetur lautioribus.

v

 

r

the
FASCIATED SPARUS.

Generic Character.

Gill-covers scaly, unarmed.

Teeth strong; in most species convex, smooth, and disposed in rows.

Specific Character, &c.

Lengthened subquadrate Sparus, with transverse dusky bands, and fins edged with black.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 412.

This species, so remarkable for the large size of its scales and the regular distribution of its colours, is an inhabitant of the Indian and American seas, where it grows to the length of nearly two feet. It is said to be in good esteem as a table fish.

v

 

756

Paphia Butterfly

Notes

r

PAPILIO PAPHIA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes (volatu diurno.)

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO PAPHIA. P. alis dentatis luteis nigro-maculatis; subtus lineis argenteis transversis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 785.

Papilio alis dentatis fulvis nigro-maculatis; subtus fasciis argenteis.

Lin. Syst. Gmel. p. 2332.
Nymph. phalerat.

In pulcherrimis lepidopterorum Britannicorum merito haberi possit Papilio Paphia, prope silvas, ut plurimum, visendus. Larva urticas depascitur, et mense Junio in chrysalidem convertitur, unde insequente Julio erumpit papilio.

v

 

r

PAPHIA.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and commonly terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with denticulated fulvous wings spotted with black, and marked beneath with silvery bands.

The Great Wood Fritillary.

The Silver-banded Fritillary.

The Papilio Paphia may be considered as one of the most elegant of the British lepidoptera. It is principally seen in the neighbourhood of woods, where its larva feeds on nettles, changing into chrysalis in the month of June, and the fly appearing in that of July.

v

 

757

Crested Pintado

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

G

NUMIDA CRISTATA.

Character Genericus.

Caput callo vel pennis cristatum.

Palearia carunculata ad latera capitis.

Character Specificus, &c.

Numida collo subnudo cærulescente, capite pennis cristato.

Numida nigra albo maculata, vertice cristato, collo cærulescente subtus sanguineo.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 622.

NUMIDA CRISTATA.

Pall. spic. zool. 4. p. 15. t. 2.

Generatur hæc avis in Africa interiori, minor paulo Numida Meleagridi, seu illa quæ dicitur communis Pintado. Distinguit a reliquis speciem collum prope nudum cum capite cristato. Quod in tabula ostenditur specimen in Angliam illatum a domino Seaforth, perhu­maniter nobiscum communicavit vir honora­tissimus Carolus F. Greville, regiæ majestati Britannicæ e conciliis secretioribus.

v

 

G2

the
CRESTED PINTADO.

Generic Character.

Head furnished with a horny or feathery crest.

Wattles, hanging on each side the head.

Specific Character, &c.

Pintado with nearly naked blueish neck, and head crested with feathers.

CRESTED PINTADO.

Lath. syn. 2. p. 688.

The bird here represented is an inhabitant of the interior parts of Africa, and is of somewhat smaller size than the Numida Meleagris of Linnæus or Common Pintado. It is distinguished as a species by having the neck nearly bare, and the head furnished with a feathered crest. The present specimen was brought into England by Lord Seaforth, and was politely communicated by the right honourable Charles Fulke Greville.

v

 

758

Golden Beetle

R. P. Nodder. Sculpt.

Notes

r

SCARABÆUS AURATUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ clavatæ, capitulo fissili.

Tibiæ sæpius dentatæ.

Corpus crassum, compactum.

Character Specificus, &c.

SCARABÆUS aureo-viridis subdepressus, segmento abdominis primo lateribus unidentato.

SCARABÆUS AURATUS. S. scutellatus muticus auratus, segmento abdominis primo lateribus unidentato, clypeo planiusculo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 557.

Insectum hoc eximiæ pulchritudinis magni­tudine fere æquale est scarabæo vulgari, seu stercorario Linnæi: formæ tamen est paulo depressioris, colorisque splen­didissime aureo-viridis, qui etiam interdum prope inferiorem elytrorum partem lineis aliquot transversis albidis leviter notatur. Non infrequens est apud nos formosa hæc species quamdiu duraverit æstas calidior; quo tempore varias plantas floresque solet supervolitare. Larva plerumque degit vel in cavis arborum, vel in terra levi siccaque juxta radices; nonnunquam etiam in tumulis quos congesserint formicæ: nec nisi post exactos circiter tres annos in chrysalidem convertitur; e qua brevi tempore erumpit Scarabæus.

v

 

r

the
GOLDEN BEETLE.

Generic Character.

Antennæ or horns clavate, with a fissile tip.

Legs generally toothed.

Body thick and compact.

Specific Character, &c.

Subdepressed gold-green Beetle, with the first segment of the abdomen furnished on each side with a prominent tooth.

The Green Garden-Beetle.

The Scarabæus auratus or Golden Beetle is a species of peculiar beauty, and is about the size of the common black or garden beetle, but of a somewhat flatter shape, and of a most brilliant golden-green colour, sometimes marked towards the lower part of the wing-sheaths by a few transverse whitish streaks. This elegant animal is not uncommon during the hottest part of summer, frequen­ting various plants and flowers. Its larva or caterpillar is commonly found in the hollows of trees, or among the loose dry soil at their roots; and sometimes in the earth of ant-hills. It remains about three years before it changes to a chrysalis, out of which in a short time afterwards emerges the complete insect.

v

 

759

Guttulated Labrus

Notes

r

LABRUS GUTTULATUS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes robusti subacuti: molares, interdum, conferti, convexi: labia crassa, duplicata: pinnæ dorsalis radii, in certis speciebus, ramento elongati.

Opercula mutica, squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

Labrus albo confertim guttatus, dorso subfusco, squamis minutis.

Labrus guttatus. L. maculis rotundis, radiis muticis.

Bloch. ichth. 8. t. 287. f. 2.

Maria incolit Indica pulcherrimus hic piscis, et magni­tudine vera in tabula depingitur.

v

 

r

the
GUTTULATED LABRUS.

Generic Character.

Teeth strong and subacute: the grinders sometimes convex and crowded: lips thick and doubled: rays of the dorsal fin, in some species, elongated into soft processes.

Gill-covers unarmed and scaly.

Specific Character, &c.

Labrus with numerous round white spots, brownish back, and minute scales.

GUTTULATED LABRUS.

General Zoology, 4. p. 524.

This beautiful fish is an inhabitant of the Indian seas, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

760

Variegated Hydrachna

Dr S. Del. R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

HYDRACHNA GEOGRAPHICA.

Character Genericus.

Caput, thorax et abdomen unita.

Palpi duo articulati.

Pedes octo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

Character Specificus, &c.

HYDRACHNA globosa, glabra, nigerrima, coccineo maculata.

HYDRACHNA GEOGRAPHICA. H. nigra sphærica, maculis quatuor punctisque coccineis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2939.

Müll. Zool. dan. prodr. 2270.

Aquas incolit stagnantes puriores Hydrachna geogra­phica, specierum omnium hactenus detectarum sine dubio formosissima. In tabula nostra exprimitur tam vera quam aucta magni­tudo. Insecta prædatur minora aqua­tica, ut solet reliquum genus, natansque motu fertur strenue incitato.

v

 

r

the
VARIEGATED HYDRACHNA.

Generic Character.

Head, thorax, and abdomen united.

Feelers two, articulated.

Legs eight.

Specific Character, &c.

Subglobular, smooth, jet-black Hydrachna, with scarlet spots.

Great variegated HYDRACHNA.

Crimson-spotted Hydrachna.

The Hydrachna geographica, by far the most beautiful of all the species yet discovered, is an inhabitant of the clearer kind of stagnant waters, and is repre­sented on the plate both in its natural size and magnified. Like the rest of its congeners, it preys on the smaller aquatic insects, and swims with a peculiar degree of vigour and celerity.

v

 

761

Silent Tanager

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

H

TANAGRA SILENS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum conicum, acuminatum, emarginatum, basi subtrigonum, apice declive.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 313.

Character Specificus, &c.

Tanagra olivacea, subtus albida, capite utrinque albo fasciato, humeris flavis.

TANAGRA SILENS. T. viridis, capite subtusque incana, superciliis vitta oculari fasciaque jugulari nigris.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 432.

In America australi generatam Tanagram silentem numerosiorem habet Guiana. Discrepant mores a reliquis congeneribus: amans enim solitudinis latibulum sibi quærit in densissimis sylvis. Ab apice rostri ad extremum cauda quasi septuncialis est mensura.

v

 

H2

the
SILENT TANAGER.

Generic Character.

Bill conic, acuminated, somewhat inclining towards the point; upper mandible slightly ridged, and notched near the tip.

Specific Character, &c.

Olive Tanager, whitish beneath, with the head banded on each side with white, and yellow shoulders.

Oiseau silentieux.

Buff. ois. 4. p. 304.

Tangara de la Guiane.

Pl. Enl. 742.

This species is a native of South America, and is parti­cularly found in Guiana. In its manners it differs from the rest of the Tanagers, being a bird of a solitary nature, and inhabiting the deepest recesses of the woods. It usually measures about seven inches from the tip of the bill to the extremity of the tail.

v

 

762

Brasilian Labrus

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

LABRUS BRASILIENSIS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes robusti, subacuti: molares, interdum, conferti, convexi: labia crassa, duplicata; pinnæ dorsalis radii, in certis speciebus, ramento elongati.

Opercula mutica, squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

Labrus flavus, dorso lunulis cæruleis, pinna dorsali analique cæruleo striatis.

LABRUS BRASILIENSIS. L. pinna dorsi anique lineata.

Bloch ichth. 8. t. 280.

Maria incolit Americana pulcherrimus hic piscis, in pedalem vel sesquipedalem crescens longi­tudinem.

v

 

r

the
BRASILIAN LABRUS.

Generic Character.

Teeth strong and subacute: the grinders sometimes convex and crowded: lips thick and doubled: rays of the dorsal fin, in some species, elongated into soft processes.

Gill-covers unarmed and scaly.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellow Labrus, with the back marked by blue crescents, and the dorsal and anal fin with blue stripes.

BRASILIAN LABRUS.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 497.

Der brasilianische Lippfisch.

Bloch. ichth. 8. pl. 280.

This beautiful fish is an inhabitant of the American seas, and arrives at the length of twelve or eighteen inches.

v

 

763

Granulated Locust

Notes

r

GRYLLUS MORBILLOSUS.
Var.

Character Genericus.

Caput inflexum, maxillosum, palpis instructum.

Antennæ setaceæ seu filiformes.

Alæ quatuor, deflexæ, convolutæ: inferiores plicatæ.

Pedes postici saltatorii: ungues ubique bini.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 692.

Character Specificus, &c.

GRYLLUS MORBILLOSUS. Gryllus thorace quadrato rubro verrucoso, elytris fuscis albo punctatis, alis rufis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 700.

Seb. mus. 4. t. 70. f. 7, 8.

Roes. ins. 2. t. 18. f. 6.

Insectum, cujus iconem suppeditavit præclarum Roeselii opus, idem ferme putant auctores atque gryllum morbillosum Linnæi. In hoc tamen ab eo differt quod alæ superiores olivaceo-virent, maculis nullis albis, sed plurimis luscis aspersæ. Africam incolit inferiorem; nec carere eo dicuntur quædam etiam Americæ australis regiones.

v

 

r

the
GRANULATED LOCUST.
Var.

Generic Character.

Head inflected, armed with jaws, and furnished with feelers.

Antennæ, in most species, setaceous or filiform.

Wings four, deflected and convoluted; the lower ones pleated.

Hind-Legs formed for leaping: claws on all the feet double.

Specific Character, &c.

Locust with square, red, warted thorax, brown wing-cases spotted with white, and red wings.

The Spotted Cape Locust.

The present species, which is copied from the work of the admirable Roesel, is generally quoted by entomo­logical writers as the Gryllus morbillosus of Linnæus. It differs however in the colour of the upper wings, which, instead of being spotted with white, are of an olive-green, with very numerous dusky specks. It is a native of the lower parts of Africa, but is said to occur also in some parts of South-America.

v

 

764

Pectinated Mite

Dr S. Delt. R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

ACARUS PECTINATUS.

Character Genericus.

Pedes Octo.

Oculi duo, ad latera capitis.

Tentacula duo, articulata, pediformia.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1022.

Character Specificus, &c.

Acarus ovatus albidus, capite subacuminato, tenta­culis crassissimis apice pectinatis.

Æqualis fere magnitudine est species de qua jam agitur Acaro vulgari seu Sironi Linnæi; locorum prope eorun­dem incola: cum tamen longe sit rarior, eo, ut opinor, non antea descripta est.

v

 

r

the
PECTINATED MITE.

Generic Character.

Legs eight.

Eyes two, situated on each side the head.

Feelers two, jointed, leg-formed.

Specific Character, &c.

Ovate whitish Mite, with subacuminated head, and very thick chelated tentacula with pectinated tips.

The present species of Acarus is about the size of the common domestic Mite or Acarus Siro of Linnæus, and is found in similar situations: it is however a much rarer animal, and seems to have been hitherto undescribed.

v

 

765

Silken-Feathered Chatterer

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

I

AMPELIS MAYNANA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum rectum, convexum: mandibula superiore longiore, subincurvata, utrinque emarginata.

Lingua acuta, cartilaginea, bifida.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 297.

Character Specificus, &c.

Ampelis nitida cærulea, gula violacea, pennis capitis collique angustatis.

Ampelis Maynana. A. nitida cærulea, gula violacea.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 298.

Ampelis nitida cærulea, gula violacea, remigibus intus albis.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 365.

Americæ Australis partes calidiores incolit Ampelis Maynana. Magnitudine Turdo iliaco paulo inferior est.

v

 

I2

the
SILKEN-FEATHERED CHATTERER.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, a little convex above, bending towards the point: notched on each side near the tip of the upper mandible.

Tongue sharp-pointed, cartilaginous, bifid.

Specific Character, &c.

Shining-Blue Chatterer, with violet-purple throat; the head and neck covered with narrow feathers.

The Silky Chatterer.

Lath. synops. 2. p. 96.

Le Cotinga des Maynas.

Briss. av. 2. p. 341.

Le Cotinga à plumes soyeuses.

Buff. ois. 4. p. 447.

This highly elegant species is a native of the hotter parts of South America. Its size is somewhat inferior to that of a Redwing.

v

 

766

Three-Bristled Trichoda

Dr S. Delt. R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

TRICHODA TRISETA.

Character Genericus.

Vermis nudo oculo inconspicuus, pellucidus, altera parte crinitus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

Character Specificus, &c.

Trichoda subovata hyalina interaneis fuscis, seta unica barbata antica, et duabus posticis.

Animalculum quod depinximus nemo, ut opinor, antea descripsit. Ut clare et distincte conspici possit et exami­nari, microscopio opus est.

Detectum est mense Junio in aqua stagnanti et turbida. Pellis, seu theca externa, conchæ bivalvi non longe absimilis, pellucida admodum est; intestinorum autem color fuscus. Movet se animalculum quasi subsultim, seu impetu quodam subitaneo.

v

 

r

the
THREE-BRISTLED TRICHODA.

Generic Character.

Animalcule inconspicuous to the naked eye, beset on one part with hairs.

Specific Character, &c.

Subovate hyaline Trichoda, with brown intestines, a single bearded bristle in front, and two behind.

The animalcule here figured appears to have been hitherto undescribed. It is distinctly visible by the assis­tance of the microscope only, and was discovered in turbid stagnant water in the month of June.

The exterior covering, which has some appearance of a bivalve shell, is perfectly transparent, but the intestines are of a brown colour. The motions of this animalcule are generally performed by sudden starts or springs.

v

 

767

Violaceous Millepore.

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

MILLEPORA VIOLACEA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Hydra.

Corallium poris turbinatis teretibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1282.

Character Specificus, &c.

Millepora violacea, in plano ramosa, ramulis tereti-compressis, sutura marginali porosa.

Millepora Violacea. M. in plano ramosa, ramulis ascendentibus flexuosis tereti-compressis, sutura porosa marginem ambiente.

Soland. et Ellis zooph. p. 140.

Super rupes maris Indici conspicitur Millepora violacea, magni­tudine vera in tabula depicta.

v

 

r

the
VIOLACEOUS MILLEPORE.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Polype.

Coral with very numerous cylindric pores.

Specific Character, &c.

Flat, branching, violet-coloured Millepore, with subcompressed branches margined with pores.

Violet-Coloured Millepore.

Soland. et Ellis zooph. p. 140. pl. 26. f. 3.

The Violaceous Millepore is found on the rocks of the Indian Ocean, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

768

Flying Scorpæna

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

SCORPÆNA VOLITANS.

Character Genericus.

Caput magnum, aculeatum, cirrosum, obtusum, squamis nudum, subcompressum: Oculi vicini: Dentes maxillis, palato, faucibusque.

Membr. branch. radiis septem.

Corpus torosum. Pinna dorsalis unica, radiis anterioribus spinosis.

Character Specificus, &c.

Scorpæna fusco flavoque fasciata, pinnis pectoralibus maximis violaceis albo guttatis.

Scorpæna volans. S. pinnis pectoralibus trunco longioribus.

Bloch. ichth. t. 184.

Gasterosteus volitans. G. spinis dorsalibus tredecim, cirris senis, pinnis pectoralibus corpore longioribus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 491.

In maribus Indicis et Americanis generatur Scorpæna, forma singulari magis quam pulchra insignis. Attingit interdum longi­tudinem plus pedalem. Hoc ei commune est cum exocoetis, et aliis nonnullis piscibus, quod pinnis magnis pectoralibus quasi alis supra aquas elata, per breve tempus volitare possit, et hoc modo hostium assultus non raro eludere.

v

 

r

the
FLYING SCORPÆNA.

Generic Character.

Head large, aculeated, cirrhose, obtuse, without scales, subcompressed: Eyes placed near each other: Teeth in the jaws, palate, and throat.

Gill-Membrane seven-rayed.

Body fleshy: Dorsal-Fin single, with the rays of the fore-part spiny.

Specific Character, &c.

Scorpæna variegated with brown and yellow trans­verse bands, with very large violet-coloured pectoral fins spotted with white.

Flying Scorpæna.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 277.

The Scorpæna volitans, or Flying Scorpæna, more remarkable for its singularity than its beauty, is a native of the Indian and American seas, and has been sometimes seen of the length of more than twelve inches. Like the Exocoeti, and some other fishes, it possesses the power of using its large pectoral fins for the purpose of short occasional flight over the surface of the water, and thus frequently eludes the pursuit of its enemies.

v

 

769

Blue-Green Parrot

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

K

PSITTACUS INCERTUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum, mandibula superiore mobili, cera instructa.

Nares in rostri basi.

Lingua carnosa, obtusa, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 139.

Character Specificus.

Psittacus brachyurus viridi-cæruleus, humeris subtus scapularibusque rubris, cauda flava.

Obs. Remiges subtus nigræ.

Psittaci speciem, de qua jam agitur, satis ad discrimi­nationem a nullo auctore descriptam fuisse arbitror. Major est psittaco pullario Linnæi, longi­tudine quasi septunciali. Habitu est robusto magis quam delicato; et specimen (unde ipsa avi quarta parte minor delineata est similitudo) provectioris fuisse ætatis crediderim: quod satis probat mandibula superior plus solito elongata. In India generari creditur. Vixit avis quam descripsimus novenos annos in aviario dominæ Read.

v

 

K2

the
BLUE-GREEN PARROT.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked: upper mandible moveable.

Nostrils round, placed in the base of the bill.

Tongue fleshy, broad, blunt at the end.

Legs short; feet scansorial.

Specific Character.

Short-tailed blue-green Parrot, with the shoulders beneath, and scapular-feathers red; the tail yellow.

The present species of Parrot does not appear to have been distinctly described by any ornithological writer. In size it considerably exceeds the Psittacus pullarius of Linnæus, measuring about seven inches in length. Its general habit is rather distinguished by an appearance of strength than delicacy, and the specimen from which the figure, (reduced about one fourth in size) is taken, appears to have been of advanced age, as the considerable elongation of the upper mandible seems to prove. This bird is supposed to be a native of India, and was in the possession of Lady Read, with whom it lived during the space of nine years.

v

 

770

Fork-Headed Chamæleon.

R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

LACERTA FURCIFRONS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus tetrapodum, elongatum, caudatam, nudam.

Character Specificus.

Lacerta fusca, fronte bifida, abdominis lateribus flavo maculatis.

Cameleon bifurque.

Brongniart, B. Soc. Phil. No. 36.

Cum in opere quod edidimus zoologico prætermissa fuerit hæc chamæleontis species, iconem ejus e libro Daudinii de amphibiis desumptam in tabulam nostram transtulimus.

Lacertam furcifrontem primus descripsisse videtur Jacobus Parsonsus in actorum philosophicorum volumine quinquagesimo. Si habitum generalem spectas, summa ei videtur esse affinitas cum chamæleonte communi; nisi quod capitis peculiaris sit conformatio, corpusque non virescat, sed supra fusco-nigricet, infra pallidius. Plantæ aurantiæ sunt; lateraque abdominis variata serie duplici macularum parvarum flavarum et rotundarum, in longi­tudinem ducta. Insignem hanc lacertam in insulis Indicis generari compertum est.

v

 

r

the
FORK-HEADED CHAMÆLEON.

Generic Character.

Body four-footed, elongated, tailed; without any secondary integument.

Specific Character.

Brown Chamæleon, with bifid front, and yellow spots on each side the abdomen.

Le Cameleon nez-fourchu.

Daud. Buff. Sonnin. rept. p. 217.

Chameleon, &c. Pars. Phil. Trans. vol. 54.

This remarkable species of Chamæleon having been omitted in the work entitled General Zoology, I here introduce its figure from Mons. Daudin’s history of the Amphibia. The first description of this animal seems to have been published by Dr. Parsons, in the fiftieth volume of the Philosophical Transactions. In its general appear­ance it is allied in the highest degree to the common Chameleon, but differs in the extraordinary form of its head, and in the colour of the body, which, instead of being green, as in that species, is of a dusky or blackish brown above, and paler beneath: the soles of the feet are orange-coloured, and the sides of the abdomen are varie­gated by a double longi­tudinal row of small, round, yellow spots. It is a native of the Indian islands.

v

 

771

Cup Vorticella

G. S— Delt. R. P. Nodder. Sculpt.

Notes

r

VORTICELLA CYATHUS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus contractile, nudum, ciliis rotatoriis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3874.

Character Specificus.

Vorticella corpore infundibuliformi subhexagono, ciliis quatuor exsertis.

Quod in tabula exprimitur animalculum, ope micro­scopii summopere auctum, ad genus Linnæanum Vorticellæ summo jure pertinere arbitror. Dubitari tamen possit annon antea descriptum fuerit. Forma non longe distat a similitudine infundibuli; parsque superior leviter hexagona dividitur intus in sex quasi cellulas seu cavitates. Ab ore protruduntur quatuor tentacula acuta; et in centro visibilia sunt duo breviora. Animalculum pellucide pallens fusco-flavescit: intestinorum longe saturatior est color. Motu fertur alacri validoque; et hoc commune habet cum multis congeneribus, quod ad libitum contrahere possit et occludere hiatum sive corporis partem superiorem: quo in actu depingitur in tabulæ figura secunda, quasi pyriforme.

v

 

r

the
CUP VORTICELLA.

Generic Character.

Body contractile, naked, furnished with rotatory organs.

Specific Character.

Vorticella with subhexagonal cup-shaped body, and four exserted cilia.

The animalcule represented as highly magnified on the present plate belongs most properly to the Linnæan genus Vorticella: it may be doubted however whether it has ever before been described. Its form somewhat resembles a funnel, and the superior part is of a slightly hexagonal shape, divided internally into six cells or cavities. Four sharp tentacula are protruded from the opening, and two smaller are visible in the central part. The colour of this animalcule is a very pale, transparent, yellowish brown, the intestines appearing of a much darker cast. Its motions are swift and vigorous, and it possesses the power, like many others of this genus, of contracting at pleasure the upper part or mouth, in which state it assumes a pear-shaped form, as repre­sented by the second figure.

v

 

772

Imperial Locust

R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

GRYLLUS DUX.

Character Genericus.

Caput inflexum, maxillosum, palpis instructum.

Antennæ quatuor, deflexæ, convolutæ: inferiores plicatæ.

Pedes postici saltatorii: ungues ubique bini.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 692.

Character Specificus.

Gryllus viridis, thorace carinato scabro, elytris olivaceis, alis rubris nigro maculatis et marginatis.

Gryllus Dux. G. thorace carinato scabro, elytris viridibus, alis rufis fusco maculatis.

Fab. sp. ins. 1. p. 362.

Magnitudine et facie generali simillima est hæc species gryllo cristato Linnæi, de quo in opere hoc nostro antea disseruimus. Ab eo tamen differt, quod alæ inferiores pulcherrime rubræ, nigroque marginatæ, maculis plurimis nigris et quasi sagittatis decorentur. Americam incolit australem gryllus dux, nec ulla videtur ejus extitisse descriptio nisi in elegantissimo Druryi opere de insectis exoticis.

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the
IMPERIAL LOCUST.

Generic Character.

Head inflected, armed with jaws, and furnished with feelers.

Antennæ in (most species) setaceous, or filiform.

Wings four, deflected and convoluted; the lower pair pleated.

Hind-Legs formed for leaping: claws on all the feet two.

Specific Character.

Green Locust, with rough, keeled thorax, olive-brown wing-sheaths, and red wings spotted and edged with black.

Gryllus Dux.

Drury ins. 2. pl. 44.

This superb insect in size and general appearance is very nearly allied to the Gryllus cristatus, or Great Egyptian Locust, before figured in the present work, from which it differs in having the lower wings of a beautiful red colour, edged with black, and marked with numerous arrow-shaped spots of the same colour. It is a native of South-America, and seems to have been first described in the elegant work of Mr. Drury.

v

 

773

Francolin

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

L

TETRAO FRANCOLINUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum convexum, breve.

Macula prope oculos nuda, aut papillosa, aut plumis rarius tecta.

Character Specificus.

Tetrao ferrugineo nigroque varius, abdomine gulaque atris.

Tetrao Francolinus. T. pedibus nudis calcaratis, abdo­mine gulaque atris, cauda cuneata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 275.

Perdix Francolinus. P. calcarata, corpore vario, abdo­mine gulaque atris, cauda cuneata.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 644.

Varias Europæ calidioris regiones incolit Tetrao Franco­linus, magni­tudine quasi Perdicis vulgaris sive cinereæ.

v

 

L2

the
FRANCOLIN.

Generic Character.

Bill convex, short.

Spot near the eyes, either naked, granulated, or but sparingly covered with feathers.

Specific Character.

Ferruginous Partridge, with black variegations, abdomen and throat black, and cuneated tail.

The Francolin Partridge.

Le Francolin.

Buff. ois. p. 438.

Pl. Enl. 147. 148.

The Francolin.

Edwards pl. 240.

The elegant bird here represented is a native of many of the warmer parts of Europe. Its size is that of a common Partridge.

v

 

774

Silver-Haired Monkey

R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

SIMIA ARGENTATA.

Character Genericus.

Dentes primores utrinque quatuor, approximati.

Laniarii solitarii, longiores, hinc remoti.

Molares obtusi.

Character Specificus, &c.

Simia alba, facie auriculisque rubris, cauda castanea.

Simia argentata. S. caudata imberbis exalbida, facie rubra, cauda fuscescente.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 41.

Contribulium pulcherrima est species quam depin­ximus. Magnitudo est quasi communis sciuri. Color albus; partibus corporis superioribus subflavo levissime tinctis. Facies internaque aurium superficies splendide miniata. Cauda castanea. Americam incolit australem Simia argentata; unde multis abhinc annis in Europam transtulit Condaminus unicum specimen quod exstat apud Europæos, quodque in Museo asservatur Parisiorum.

v

 

774b

Silver-Haired Monkey

R P N— Sculpt.

r

the
SILVER-HAIRED MONKEY.

Generic Character.

Front-Teeth in each jaw four, placed near together.

Canine-Teeth solitary, longer than the others, distant from the grinders.

Grinders obtuse.

Specific Character.

White Monkey, with the face and insides of the ears red, and the tail chesnut-coloured.

Le Mico.

Buff. Quadr. 15. p. 121. pl. 18.

Fair Monkey.

Pennant Quadr.

This species may be considered as the most beautiful of its tribe. Its size is that of a common squirrel, and its colour white, with a very slight cast of pale yellow on the upper parts: the face and insides of the ears are of a vermilion red, and the tail of a deep chesnut-colour. It is a native of South America, from whence the only specimen yet seen in Europe, and which is preserved in the Paris Museum, was many years ago imported by Mons. Condamine.

v

 

775

Galeated Brachionus

R P N. Sculpt.

Notes

r

BRACHIONUS GALEATUS.

Character Genericus.

Animalculum nudo oculo inconspicuum, contractile, testa tectum.

Character Specificus.

Brachionus pellucidus, corpore elongato, capitis clypeo transverse ovato, cauda apice bifida.

Neminem opinor insigne hoc animalculum antea descripsisse. Aquas incolit stagnantes mense Junio. Pellucidum admodum est, et tantæ velocitatis, ut in microscopio ægre possit examinari, donec guttula incar­cerans evaporata fuerit. Caput subtriangulum est, rostro obtuso, oculisque duobus nigris; super quos sita est seta tenuissima, antennis insecti non absimilis. Totum caput quasi theca contegitur eximie pellucida. Cauda qua corpori inseritur geniculata, deinceps in setas duas seu furcas flexiles dividitur. Ostenditur animalculum in tabula summopere auctum. A Brachiono lamellari Mülleri species revera diversa est, quamvis ad ejus similitudinem proxime videatur accedere.

v

 

r

the
GALEATED BRACHIONUS.

Generic Character.

Animalcule inconspicuous to the naked eye, with contractile body, covered by a shell.

Specific Character.

Pellucid Brachionus, with lengthened body, head with transversely oval shield, and tail bifid at the tip.

This remarkable animalcule, which seems to have been hitherto undescribed, is an inhabitant of stagnant waters in the month of June. It is extremely transparent, and so swift as to be with difficulty kept in view till the small drop in which it lies confined, while under examination by the microscope, begins to evaporate. The head is of a subtriangular shape, with an obtuse snout and two black eyes, above each of which is situated a fine bristle, resembling the antenna of an insect. The whole head seems covered by a kind of shell or case of extreme transparency. The tail is jointed at its insertion to the body, and soon afterwards divides into two branches or flexible forks. This animalcule is repre­sented on the plate as magnified to a very high degree. It seems to approach nearest to the Brachionus lamellaris of Müller, but is a distinct species.

v

 

776

Sable Moth

R. P. Nodder Del et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PHALÆNA ODORA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ (Volatu nocturno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 808.

Character Specificus.

Phalæna alis crenatis fuscis, subferrugineo undulatis, superioribus ocello nigro luteo marginato.

Phalæna odora. P. pectinicornis spirilinguis, alis crenatis nebulosis; superioribus ocello unico; inferioribus sesquialtero.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 811.

Americam australem insulasque occiduas incolit insignis hæc phalæna, cujus veram magni­tudinem exprimit tabula.

v

 

r

the
SABLE MOTH.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually decreasing from base to point.

Wings (when at rest) generally deflected. Flight nocturnal.

Specific Character.

Moth with crenated dark-brown wings with subferruginous undulations; the upper pair marked by a black eye-shaped spot with luteous margin.

Drury ins. 1. pl. 3. f. 1.

This magnificent Moth is a native of South America and the West Indian islands. The plate represents it in its natural size.

v

 

777

Black-Capped Pigeon

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

M

COLUMBA MELANOCEPHALA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum rectum, versus apicem descendens.

Nares oblongæ, membrana molli tumida semitectæ.

Lingua integra.

Character Specificus.

Columba viridis, capite cano, occipite nigro, gula crissoque flavis, rectricibus utrinque tribus rubris.

Columba melanocephala. C. viridis, capite ciner­ascente, occipite nigro, gula abdomine imo crissoque flavis, rectricibus tribus exterioribus purpureo-coccineis.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 610.

Indiam insulasque Indicas incolit formosa hæc avis, columba vulgari sive domestica paulo minor.

v

 

M2

the
BLACK-CAPPED PIGEON.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, descending towards the tip.

Nostrils oblong, half covered by a soft tumid membrane.

Tongue entire.

Specific Character.

Green Pigeon, with grey head black behind, throat and vent yellow, and three of the tail-feathers on each side red.

Turvert.

Buff. ois. p. 555.

Black-capped Pigeon.

Lath. syn. 2. p. 654.

This beautiful bird is a native of India and the Indian islands, and is somewhat smaller than the common domestic pigeon.

v

 

778

Apua Bodian

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

BODIANUS APUA.

Character Genericus.

Habitus Percæ.

Opercula squamosa, non serrata, aculeata.

Squamæ (pluribus) læves.

Character Specificus.

Bodianus ruber, dorso maculis, corpore punctis nigris, pinnis nigro marginatis.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 572.

Bodianus Apua. B. aculeis septem in pinna dorsi, unicoque ad operculum.

Bloch ichth. 7. p. 37. t. 229.

In rivis et circa littora Brasiliæ præcipue conspicitur Bodianus Apua. In longi­tudinem plusquam pedalem crescit, et in cibis habetur lautioribus.

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r

the
APUA BODIAN.

Generic Character.

Habit of the genus Perca.

Gill-Covers scaly, not serrated, aculeated.

Scales (in most species) smooth.

Specific Character.

Red Bodian, with the back spotted, the body speckled, and the fins edged with black.

Apua Bodian.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 573.

Pirati Apua.

Marcgr. Bras. p. 157.

The fish here represented is principally found about the coasts and in the rivers of Brasil. It grows to more than twelve inches in length, and is numbered among the most delicate fishes for the table.

v

 

779

Blue-Tipped Dragon-Fly

R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

LIBELLULA CÆRULATA.

Character Genericus.

Os maxillosum, maxillis pluribus.

Antennæ brevissimæ.

Alæ extensæ.

Cauda maris hamoso-forcipata.

Character Specificus.

Libellula corpore gracili longissimo, alis pellucidis, macula prope apicem magna atro-cærulea.

Libellula cærulata.

Drury ins. exot. 3. t. 50. f. 1.

In America australi generatur Libellula cærulata, et magni­tudine vera in tabula exprimitur.

v

 

r

the
BLUE-TIPPED DRAGON-FLY.

Generic Character.

Mouth furnished with several jaws.

Antennæ very short.

Wings four, extended.

Tail (in the male) hook-forcipated.

Specific Character.

Dragon-Fly with very long slender body, and pellucid wings marked near the tip by a large blackish-blue spot.

Drury ins. 3. pl. 50. f. 1.

The blue-tipped Dragon-Fly is a native of South-America, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

780

Granulated Cuttle

R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

SEPIA GRANULATA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus carnosum, vagina excipiente pectus, ad cujus basin tubus.

Brachia (præter bina tentacula pedunculata in plerisque) octo, interius adspersa cirris verrucosis.

Os inter brachia, terminale, corneum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3149.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sepia corpore granulato, brachiis longissimis, dorso oculisque appendiculis cutaneis.

Octopus corpore tuberculis sparsis granulato, cotyledonibus crebris biserialibus.

Lamarck mem. hist. nat. Par. an. 7. p. 20.

Sepiæ speciem depinximus Sepiæ octopodiæ Linnæi valde affinem, marium Europæorum incolam, descrip­tamque a Montforto in historia, quam edidit, Mollus­corum; quæ scilicet pars est naturalis historiæ a Buffono conscriptæ, a Sonnino autem continuatæ. Extat ipsis­simum specimen in Museo Principis Arausiaci, quod jam penes est Parisios. De vivendi modo, cui præcipue assuescat animal, nihil pro certo compertum est: crediderim tamen convenire mores moribus Sepiæ octopodiæ.

v

the
GRANULATED CUTTLE.

Generic Character.

Body fleshy, sheathing the breast, which is furnished at its base with a tubular opening.

Arms eight, and, in most species, two pedunculated tentacula, beset with numerous suckers or acetabula.

Head short: Eyes large: Mouth resembling a parrot’s beak.

Specific Character.

Cuttle with granulated body, very long arms, and cutaneous appendages at the back and eyes.

Le Poulpe fraisé.

Monfort. Hist. Mollusq. 3. p. 5.

The present species of Sepia, which is much allied to the common eight-armed Cuttle-Fish, is a native of the European seas, and is described by Mons. Denys-Montfort in his History of Mollusca, (forming a part of the continuation of Mons. Sonnini’s edition of Buffon’s Natural History.) The specimen itself is preserved in the Museum of the Prince of Orange, now at Paris; but nothing seems to be known relative to the particular history of the animal, which in its modes of life, in all probability, resembles the Sepia octopodia.

r

INDEX.

Pl.
764. Acarus pectinatus.
748. Alcyonium Schlosseri.
765. Ampelis Maynana.
775. Brachionus galeatus.
778. Bodianus Apua.
742. Caligus piscinus.
777. Columba melanoptera.
734. Cypræa testudinaria.
741. Falco communis.
749. Fringilla tristis.
743. Gryllus viridissimus.
747. —— monstrosus.
763. —— morbillosus.
772. —— Dux.
760. Hydrachna geographica.
759. Labrus guttulatus.
762. —— Brasiliensis.
770. Lacerta furcifrons.
779. Libellula cærulata.
754. Madrepora seriata.
767. Millepora violacea.
736. Monoculus cyprinaceus.
746. Mullus maculatus.
757. Numida cristata.
740. Onchidium Typhæ.
744. Papilio Antiopa.
756. —— Paphia.
735. Phalæna imperatoria.
776. —— odora.
753. Picus rufus.
737. Psittacus coccineus.
769. —— incertus.
758. Scarabæus auratus.
751. —— Goliathus.
745. Scolopax Helias.
774. Simia argentata.
780. Sepia granulata.
768. Scorpæna volitans.
739. Sphinx Ficus.
752. —— Convolvuli.
750. Sparus Pagrus.
755. —— fasciatus.
738. Spongia palmata.
761. Tanagra silens.
733. Tinamus variegatus.
773. Tetrao Francolinus.
766. Trichoda triseta.
771. Vorticella Cyathus.

INDEX.

Pl.
748. Alcyonium Schlosserian.
778. Bodian Apua.
775. Brachionus galeated.
758. Beetle golden.
751. —— Goliath.
744. Butterfly Antiopa.
756. —— Paphia.
742. Caligus fish.
765. Chatterer silken-feathered.
734. Cowry tortoise.
780. Cuttle granulated.
770. Chamæleon fork-headed.
779. Dragon-Fly blue-tipped.
741. Falcon common.
749. Finch golden.
773. Francolin.
760. Hydrachna variegated.
759. Labrus guttulated.
762. —— Brasilian.
743. Locust green.
763. —— granulated.
747. —— spiral-winged.
772. —— imperial.
737. Lory Indian.
754. Madrepore seriated.
767. Millepore violaceous.
764. Mite pectinated.
736. Monoculus carp.
735. Moth imperial.
776. —— sable.
774. Monkey silver-haired.
740. Onchidium limacine.
777. Pigeon black-capped.
757. Pintado crested.
769. Parrot blue-green.
745. Snipe Caurale.
768. Scorpœna flying.
750. Sparus Pagre.
755. —— fasciated.
739. Sphinx Fig-tree.
752. —— Bindweed.
738. Sponge palmated.
746. Surmullet spotted.
733. Tinamou variegated.
761. Tanager silent.
766. Trichoda three-bristled.
771. Vorticella Cup.
753. Woodpecker rufous.

Printed by B. M‘Millan,
Bow Street, Covent Carden.

Notes and Corrections: Volume 18

Volume 18 of the Naturalist’s Miscellany was published in twelve monthly installments, conjecturally from September 1806 through August 1807. It is “conjecturally” because there has not been a full month-and-year date since the third installment of Volume 13 (November 1801), and no date at all since the fourth installment of Volume 17 (“1805”, probably December). In the present volume, I couldn’t find any dates at all.

Each installment is 16 pages.

[A]; B; C; D; E (January 1807); F; G; H; I; K; L; M

Volume 18 ties with Volume 23 in having the largest number of binomials I wasn’t able to identify: six out of a total of 48. That includes three now-unidentifiable “animalcules” in the later install­ments. Going by their originally assigned genera, two would now be chromists—one of several kingdoms Linnaeus hadn’t thought of. A third is a rotifer, making it still an animal.

The two pictures of the Silvery-Haired Monkey, Simia Argentata, are both numbered 774, and the Index does not say that there are two of them. The second-to-last installment of this volume therefore has five plates.

Tinamus Variegatus, the Variegated Tinamou

is probably Crypturellus variegatus. It lives in South America. In the course of looking it up, I learned that it has an intestinal parasite of its very own, the nematode Heterakis inglisi (named in 1993). Yuk.

vertice nigro
text has verlice

Cypræa Testudinaria, the Tortoise-Shell Cowry

is now Chelycypraea testudinaria. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Porcelaine a ecaille de tortue.
[There probably ought to be some accents, but that’s how it was printed.]

Phalæna Imperatoria, the Imperial Moth

is probably Eacles imperialis (by way of Drury’s Ph. imperialis). It lives in North America and, to a lesser extent, South America.

Monoculus Cyprinaceus, the Carp Monoculus

is now Cyclops cyprinaceus, with naming credit to Shaw—not from the present article but way back in 1789. It’s a freshwater copepod or water flea.

This elegant species
[This English description is the only article in the entire volume that runs even to two pages, let alone three or more as in volumes past.]

Psittacus Coccineus, the Indian Lory

Unknown, in spite of its wide array of common names—scarlet lory, blue-breasted lory, crimson parrot—and binomials—Psittacus Coccineus, Ps. indicus, possibly Ps. variegatus. Some sources point toward genus Eos or genus Lorius, both concentrated in New Guinea, but this gets us no further. Just to hammer the point home, Hume lists a Levaillant’s Lory, variously Eos coccinea or Psittaca indica coccineus, under “Doubtful and Invalid Taxa”.

Spongia Palmata, the Palmated Sponge

is now Isodictya palmata, the common palmate sponge. It lives in most northern oceans.

Sphinx Ficus, the Fig-Tree Sphinx

is probably Pachylia ficus. It lives in South and Central America, extending into Mexico and Florida.

Onchidium Typhæ, the Limacine Onchidium

Unchanged. It lives in South and Southeast Asia.

extremely nearly allied to that of Limax
[Assuming for the sake of discussion that “they’re both gastropods” counts as extremely nearly allied.]

a large species of Typha, called Typha elephantina
[Indian reed-grass. Wonder why he assumes we know this—or at least know that it’s a plant?]

Falco Communis, the Common Falcon

may be Falco peregrinus, the peregrine, or one of its many subspecies.

Caligus Piscinus, the Fish Caligus

Müller’s Caligus curtus (1785) and Linnaeus’s Monoculus piscinus (1758)—assuming that’s what Fabricius meant—are the same animal, now synonymized to Caligus curtus. (Ours not to reason why.) It lives in the north Atlantic. Slabber’s Oniscus lutosus, on the other hand, is now Cecrops lutosus, elsewhere in order Siphono­stomatoida.

Calige des poisons.
text unchanged: expected poissons

the species of Monoculus described in a preceding number of the present work
[The Carp Monoculus was two installments ago, at Plate 736.]

Gryllus Viridissimus, the Green Locust

is now Tettigonia viridissima, the great green bush-cricket. It lives in Europe.

Papilio Antiopa, the Antiopa (butterfly)

is now Nymphalis antiopa, the Camberwell beauty. It lives in Europe and North America.

Scolopax Helias, the Caurale Snipe

If it is the same as Pallas’s Ardea helias, it is now Eurypyga helias, the sun bittern. It lives in South and Central America.

[Plate 745]
[If the engraved plate had a date, it is lost in the gutter. Otherwise, this marks a full calendar year, 1806, with no inkling of a date.]

Pall. Nord. beytr. / Lin. Gmel. p. 640.
[Printed on a single line, but they seem to be two separate citations. The printer has done this a few times before when he ran out of room on the page.]

Mullus Maculatus, the Spotted Surmullet

is now Pseudupeneus maculatus, the copper pilot. It lives in the Caribbean and along the Atlantic coast of the Americas. (The genus name is derived from Cuvier’s Upeneus, hence the unexpected u.)

Gryllus Monstrosus, the Spiral-Winged Locust

is now Schizodactylus monstrosus. It lives in Asia.

alis apice contortuplicatis
[I didn’t think this could possibly be a word, but Messrs. Lewis and Short assure me it is so.]

Alcyonium Schlosseri, the Schlosserian Alcyonium

is now Botryllus schlosseri, the golden star tunicate. It lives along most coasts, especially in the northern hemisphere—and around Australia.

Fringilla Tristis, the Golden Finch

is now Spinus tristis, the American goldfinch. As its name indicates, it lives all over North America. We previously met it at Plate 361 of Volume 10.

Sparus Pagrus, the Pagre Sparus

is now Pagrus pagrus, the sea bream. It lives along most Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts.

Scarabæus Goliathus, the Goliath Beetle

is now Goliathus goliatus. It lives in west Africa.

The Scarabæus Goliathus has before been figured
[At Plate 80 of Volume 3, under the name Fork-Headed Beetle, with binomial spelled S. goliatus.]

Sphinx Convolvuli, the Bindweed Sphinx

is now Agrius convolvuli, the convolvulus hawkmoth. It lives almost everywhere in the eastern hemisphere, but especially Europe.

utraque extremitate attenuatæ, subprismaticæ.
text has attennatæ

volatu graviore vespertino seu matutino
text has quaviore
[As the volumes roll on, it becomes increasingly obvious that George Shaw’s handwriting is slipping. Or possibly it was bad all along and he is getting less careful about proofreading.]

extremely nearly allied to the Sphinx ligustri or Privet-Sphinx
[As seen at Plate 443 of Volume 11.]

Picus Rufus, the Rufous Woodpecker

Unidentified, but possibly something in genus Celeus. 19th-century sources tend to call it Celeus rufus, a name that doesn’t match up with any current binomial. The genus is most common in South and Central America, though some species live in Southeast Asia instead.

Madrepora Seriata, the Seriated Madrepore

The only matching binomial I can find is Ehrenberg’s from 1834. That one is now Acropora seriata; take it or leave it.

Sparus Fasciatus, the Fasciated Sparus

is now Cheilinus fasciatus, the banded maori. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Papilio Paphia, the Paphia (butterfly)

is now Argynnis paphia, the silver-washed fritillary. It lives in Eurasia, especially Europe and Japan.

Numida Cristata, the Crested Pintado

may be Guttera pucherani, the crested guinea fowl. It lives in subsaharan Africa. (But what happened between Latham and 1861?)

illatum a domino Seaforth
text has “domino domino”

Scarabæus Auratus, the Golden Beetle

is now Cetonia aurata, the rose chafer. It lives in Europe—as usual, excluding Iberia.

Labrus Guttulatus, the Guttulated Labrus

is now Halichoeres argus (by way of Labrus argus, because Bloch changed his mind about what to call it), the Argus wrasse. It lives around Southeast Asia and Indonesia.

Hydrachna Geographica, the Variegated Hydrachna

Unchanged. It lives mostly around Europe.

Tanagra Silens, the Silent Tanager

has been equated with Arremon silens and hence, by logical extension, with Arremon taciturnus, the pectoral sparrow. If so, it lives in South America.

Labrus Brasiliensis, the Brasilian Labrus

is now Halichoeres brasiliensis, the Brazilian wrasse. As the name indicates, it lives along the coast of Brazil.

Gryllus Morbillosus, the Granulated Locust

is now Phymateus morbillosus, the milkweed locust, with many subspecies. It lives in South Africa.

Acarus Pectinatus, the Pectinated Mite

Unknown. (And that was all she wrote.)

the common domestic Mite or Acarus Siro
[Also known as the flour mite.]

Ampelis Maynana, the Silken-Feathered Chatterer

is probably Cotinga maynana, the plum-throated cotinga. It lives in South America.

[Plate 765]
[There was a time when bird plates could be relied upon to carry a complete date-and-signature line. That time is long past; this time I don’t find so much as the engraver’s initials.]

Trichoda Triseta, the Three-Bristled Trichoda

Unknown, and therefore no naming credit to Dr. S. Today, genus Trichoda is neither an animal nor a plant but a chromist.

[Plate 766]
[The plate is engraved 767, duplicating the following plate, but is indexed as 766.]

Millepora Violacea, the Violaceous Millepore

is now Distichopora violacea. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Super rupes maris Indici conspicitur
text has Sufer

Scorpæna Volitans, the Flying Scorpæna

is now Pterois volitans, the butterfly cod. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans, and in the Caribbean.

Psittacus Incertus, the Blue-Green Parrot

If Shaw himself isn’t sure, how can anyone else be? That’s assuming the name was intended as a placeholder for “some kind of parrot”, and not a binomial meaning “parrot with identity issues”.

Lacerta Furcifrons, the Fork-Headed Chamæleon

is now Furcifer bifidus (by way of Brongniart’s name, Chamaeleo bifidus). It lives on Madagascar.

Vorticella Cyathus, the Cup Vorticella

Unknown. Today, genus Vorticella—like genus Trichoda in the previous installment—is ranked with the chromists.

figura secunda, quasi pyriforme.
final . missing

Gryllus Dux, the Imperial Locust

is now a subspecies, Tropidacris cristata dux (by way of Linnaeus’s Gryllus cristatus). It lives in Central America.

before figured in the present work
[Plate 251 of Volume 7.]

Tetrao Francolinus, the Francolin

is now Francolinus francolinus, the black francolin. It lives in south and west Asia.

Simia Argentata, the Silver-Haired Monkey

is now Mico argentatus, the silvery marmoset. It lives in South America. This volume’s sole mammal comes with two separate pictures, though there is a suspicious similarity between them. There will not be another mammal until Volume 24.

[Plate 774, Plate 774]
[Yes, there are two of them. Fortunately, this will have no effect on future numbering and indexing; it just means we get a bonus plate.]

Brachionus Galeatus, the Galeated Brachionus

Unknown. Today genus Brachionus is a rotifer. That means it is still an animal, unlike the preceding installments’ two maybe-chromists.

[Plate 775]
[Every volume of the Miscellany features at least one improbably small plate. This is the one for Volume 18.]

the Brachionus lamellaris of Müller
[Now Squatinella lamellaris, another rotifer.]

Phalæna Odora, the Sable Moth

is probably Ascalapha odorata, the black witch, involving some early confusion between Odora and Odorata. It lives all over the Americas.

Columba Melanocephala, the Black-Capped Pigeon

may be Ptilinopus melanospilus, the black-naped fruit dove. It lives in Indonesia.

Bodianus Apua, the Apua Bodian

is now Mycteroperca venenosa (by way of Linnaeus’s Perca venenosa), the arigua. It is most common in and around the Caribbean.

Libellula Cærulata, the Blue-Tipped Dragon-Fly

is probably Megaloprepus caerulatus. It lives in Central America.

Sepia Granulata, the Granulated Cuttle

is now Octopus vulgaris, the common Atlantic octopus. It has been seen in other oceans as well.

This cephalopod has a convoluted naming history. Its current binomial is credited to Cuvier, 1797. The name Shaw uses, Sepia granulata, originated with Bosc, 1792, who also tried S. rugosa; a year earlier, Gmelin called it S. octopus. Why this did not result in the animal being officially named Octopus octopus must remain a mystery.

in all probability, resembles the Sepia octopodia
[Linnaeus’s name from 1758, not to be confused with Gmelin’s S. octopus from 1791.]

Index

Plates 759 and 760 are reversed in the Index. Since the plates are in the expected order—759 before 760—in the main text, I’ve treated the Index entries as errors.

Simia argentata, the Silver-Haired Monkey, actually has two Plates, both numbered 774.

As always, the Index was alphabetized as shown.

Latin

760.   Hydrachna geographica.
text has 759

759.   Labrus guttulatus.
text has 760

777.   Columba melanoptera.
text unchanged: error for melanocephala
[In earlier volumes we have had both a Psittacus Melanopterus and a Sparus Melanopterus, so perhaps Shaw—or his printer—went on autopilot.]

English

751.   [Beetle] Goliath.
text has Goliah

760.   Hydrachna variegated.
text has 759

759.   Labrus guttulated.
text has 760

768.   Scorpœna flying.
text unchanged: error for Scorpæna

The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.