Naturalist’s Miscellany

The Naturalist’s Miscellany
by George Shaw
Volume 19

v

HONORABILI ADMODUM

GULIELMO SCOTT,

EQUITI AURATO, &c. &c. &c.

VIRO OPTIMO ET LITERATISSIMO,

hunc
DECIMUM NONUM

NATURÆ VIVARII

FASCICULUM

d. d. d.
GEORGIUS SHAW,
E. NODDER.

r

to
THE RIGHT HONOURABLE

SIR WILLIAM SCOTT,

A GENTLEMAN

of

DISTINGUISHED WORTH AND LITERATURE,

THIS NINETEENTH VOLUME
of the

NATURALIST’S MISCELLANY

is

RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED

by
GEORGE SHAW,
E. NODDER.

v

 

781

Pied Roller

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

CORACIAS VARIA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum cultratum, apice incurvato, basi pennis denudatum.

Lingua cartilaginea, bifida.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 159.

Character Specificus.

Coracias albo nigroque varia, rostro plumbeo.

Coracias varia. C. nigra, alis albo variegatis, dorso postico uropygio corporeque subtus albis, rectri­cibus lateralibus albo terminatis.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 173.

Rarissimam hanc avem primus descripsisse videtur Buffonus, qui natale solum ei statuit novam Guineam. Ostenditur in tabula minor longe magni­tudine naturali, quæ nempe pedalis est, addita quasi uncia. Quinam sint mores, et cui vivendi modo præcipue assuescat avis, incompertum est.

v

the
PIED ROLLER.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, bending a little towards the end; cultrated at the edges.

Nostrils narrow, naked.

Legs generally short: toes divided to their origin; three forwards and one backwards.

Specific Character.

Black-and-White Roller, with lead-coloured beak.

Cassican de la nouvelle Guinée.

Buff. ois. 7. p. 137.

Pl. Enl. 628.

Pied Roller.

Lath. Syn. 1. p. 415.

This very rare bird is, according to Buffon, by whom it appears to have been first described, a native of New Guinea. The plate represents it much reduced in size, its total length being about thirteen inches. Nothing parti­cular seems to be known relative to its manners or history.

782

Short Sun-Fish

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

CEPHALUS BREVIS.

Character Genericus.

Maxillæ osseæ.

Corpus ovatum, postice truncatum, caput piscis simulans.

Character Specificus.

Cephalus brevis. C. corpore suborbiculato.

Tetrodon Mola. T. lævis compressus, cauda truncata, pinna brevissima, dorsali analique annexa.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Diodon Mola. D. corpore lato, cauda truncata.

Bloch ichth. 4. t. 128.

Pisci huic insolita facie, quem ad genus Tetrodontis retulerat Linnæus, Blochiusque ad Diodontis, in opere nostro zoologico institutum est novum genus quod dicitur Cephalus. Maria incolit Europæa, corpore insignis paululum a capite protenso, et quasi derepente abrupto; adeo ut piscis cujuspiam magni truncatum caput, magis quam animal absolutum et perfectum putes. In magnam crescere solet molem, diciturque in maribus nonnullis septentrionalibus in longi­tudinem extendi octopedalem, vel etiam decempedalem; et pondere æquare quingentas libras. Color plerumque fuscus, abdomine et lateribus argentatis. Comedere dicitur præcipue conchylia, et noctu lucem spargere splendide phosphoream.

v

the
SHORT SUN-FISH.

Generic Character.

Jaws bony.

Body terminating abruptly, so as to resemble the head of a fish.

Specific Character.

Sun-Fish with suborbicular body.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 437.

Sun-Fish.

Will. ichth. p. 151.

Short Diodon.

Penn. Brit. Zool.

This highly singular fish, which by Linnæus was considered as a species of Tetrodon, and by Dr. Bloch as a species of Diodon, was by myself stationed, in the work entitled General Zoology, under a new genus named Cephalus. It is a native of the European seas, and is remarkable for the very abrupt shape of its body, which terminating suddenly, at no great distance from the head, gives it rather the appearance of the truncated head of some large fish, than of an animal in its complete state. This fish grows to a very great size, and in some parts of the northern seas is said to have been sometimes seen of the length of eight or ten feet, and of the weight of five hundred pounds. Its general colour is brown, with a silvery cast on the sides and abdomen. It is supposed to feed principally on shell-fish, and is said to exhibit during the night a high degree of phosphoric splendor.

783

Adippe Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO ADIPPE.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes. (Volatu diurno).

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus.

Papilio Adippe. P. alis dentatis luteis nigro maculatis, subtus maculis 23? argenteis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 780.
Nymph. phaler.

Papilio Adippe.

Fuessly Arch. ins. p. 1. pl. 1.

Inter insecta Britannica rariora numeratur Papilio Adippe, cujus larva violarum folia præcipue depascitur, et in chrysalidem mense Maio convertitur, e qua mense Junio erumpit papilio.

v

 

r

ADIPPE.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and commonly terminating in a club-shaped tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal).

Specific Character.

Butterfly with denticulated luteous wings spotted with black, and marked beneath by twenty-three? silvery spots.

Moyen Papillon nacré.

Degeer. ins. 2. p. 193. pl. 1. f. 8. 9.

High brown Fritillary?

Harris Cat. Engl.

The Papilio Adippe is numbered among the rarer British insects: the caterpillar, which feeds principally on the leaves of violets, changes to a chrysalis in the month of May, and gives birth to the complete insect in June.

v

 

784

Long-Fronted Locust

R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

GRYLLUS NASUTUS.

Character Genericus.

Caput inflexum, maxillosum, palpis instructum.

Antennæ setaceæ seu filiformes.

Alæ quatuor, deflexæ, convolutæ: inferiores plicatæ.

Pedes postici saltatorii: ungues ubique bini.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 692.

Character Specificus.

Gryllus capite conico, antennis ensiformibus, corpore viridi.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 692.

Mantis Africana.

Mouff. ins. p. 119.

Roes. ins. 2. t.

In variis Africæ regionibus generatur Gryllus nasutus, cujus veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula.

v

 

r

the
LONG-FRONTED LOCUST.

Generic Character.

Head inflected, armed with jaws, and furnished with feelers.

Antennæ (in most species) setaceous or filiform.

Wings four, deflected and convoluted; the lower ones pleated.

Hind-Legs formed for leaping: claws on all the feet double.

Specific Character.

Green Locust, with conical head, and sword-shaped antennæ.

Long-headed African Locust.

The Gryllus nasutus or Long-fronted Locust, is a native of various parts of Africa, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

785

Aromatic Pigeon

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

C

COLUMBA AROMATICA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum rectum, versus apicem descendens.

Nares oblongæ, membrana molli tumida semitectæ.

Lingua integra.

Character Specificus, &c.

Columba viridi-olivacea, alis nigris, fascia duplici flava.

Columba aromatica. C. viridi-olivacea, dorso castaneo, fascia alarum duplici flavicante et nigra, remigibus nigris, margine flavis.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 599.

In insulis Moluccis præcipue conspicitur Columba aromatica, minor paulo columba communi seu domestica. Insignitur avis alis nigrantibus, marginatis fascia duplici splendide flava alarum tectricibus tam minoribus quam majoribus.

v

 

C2

the
AROMATIC PIGEON.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, descending towards the tip.

Nostrils oblong, half covered by a soft tumid membrane.

Tongue entire.

Specific Character, &c.

Olive-green Pigeon, with black wings marked by a double yellow bar.

Pigeon vert d’Amboine.

Buff. ois. 2. p. 528.

Pl. Enl. 163.

Aromatic Pigeon.

Lath. syn. 2. p. 631.

The aromatic or Amboina Pigeon is found principally in the Molucca islands, and is of somewhat smaller size than the common or domestic pigeon. It is remarkable for the unusual colour of its wings, which are black, ornamented by a double bar of bright yellow; the smaller and larger coverts being tipped with that colour.

v

 

786

Trimaculated Labrus

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

LABRUS TRIMACULATUS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes robusti, subacuti: molares interdum conferti, convexi: labia crassa, duplicata: pinnæ dorsalis radii, in certis speciebus, ramento elongati.

Opercula mutica, squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

Labrus ruber, squamis magnis, maculis tribus nigris ad finem dorsi.

Labrus trimaculatus. L. ruber, maculis duabus utrinque ad basin pinnæ dorsalis, tertiaque inter hanc et caudam.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1294.

Labrus carneus. L. maculis tribus nigris in parte posteriore dorsi.

Bloch ichth. 9. t. 289.

Labrum trimaculatum marium Europæorum incolam, in litoribus etiam nostratibus interdum conspectum, depinxit Pennantus in opere suo zoologico Britannico. Crescit, ut plurimum, in longi­tudinem duodecim seu quindecim unciarum. Variat color, plus nempe seu minus saturatus; quod accidere solet et cæteris contribulibus.

v

 

r

the
TRIMACULATED LABRUS.

Generic Character.

Teeth strong and subacute: the grinders sometimes convex and crowded: lips thick and doubled: rays of the dorsal fin, in some species, elongated into soft processes.

Gill-Covers unarmed and scaly.

Specific Character, &c.

Red Labrus, with large scales, and three black spots towards the end of the back.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 502.

Trimaculated Wrasse.

Penn. Brit. Zool. 3. p. 218.

Der rothe Lippfisch.

Bloch ichth. pl. 289.

This species, which is a native of the European seas, is occasionally observed about our own coasts, and is described by Mr. Pennant in the British Zoology. Its general length is about twelve or fifteen inches, and, like most others of its tribe, it is subject to considerable variation as to the intensity of its colour.

v

 

787

Amphinome Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO AMPHINOME.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

Papilio alis dentatis nigris cæruleo nebulosis, primo­ribus fascia utrinque alba, posticis (subtus) rubro radiatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 779.
Nymph: phaler:

Mer. Surin. t. 7.

Roes. 4. t. 10. f. 1. 2.

Insolitæ pulchritudinis Papilio in tabula depingitur, Americæ australis præcipue Surinamiæ incola. Extat eleganter depictus in splendido opere Dominæ Merian de insectis Surinamensibus, quæ narrat larvam folia depasci Plumeriæ rubræ, et in chrysalidem mense junio converti, unde Julio insequente erumpit papilio.

v

 

r

AMPHINOME.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and commonly terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards.

Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with dentated black wings clouded with blue; the upper pair marked on both sides by a white band; the lower pair radiated beneath with red.

Aubent. Pl. Enl. 92. f. 7. 8.

Mer. ins. Surin. pl. 7.

Cramer ins. 5. pl. 54. E. F.

The highly elegant insect represented on the present plate is a native of South America, and more particularly of Surinam, where its caterpillar, according to Madam Merian, who has figured it in her splendid work on the insects of that country, feeds on the leaves of the Plumeria rubra, and changes into a chrysalis in the month of June, from which in the month of July emerges the complete insect.

v

 

788

Triple-Spined Locust

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

GRYLLUS SQUARROSUS.

Character Genericus.

Caput inflexum, maxillosum, palpis instructum.

Antennæ setaceæ seu filiformes.

Alæ quatuor, deflexæ, convolutæ: inferiores plicatæ.

Pedes postici saltatorii: ungues ubique bini.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 692.

Character Specificus.

Gryllus thorace utrinque articulis tribus trispinosis, elytris viridibus, alis rubris, omnibus nigro punctatis.

Gryllus squarrosus. G. viridis, thorace subarticulato, articulis utrinque tricuspidibus, alis rubris nigro punctatis.

Lin. Mantiss. 553.

Gryllus squarrosus.

Fabr. sp. ins. 1. p. 364.

Drury exot. ins. 1. pl. 49. f. 1.

Varias Africæ regiones incolit Gryllus squarrosus, a Domino Drury in elegantissimo suo opere de insectis exoticis primum descriptus. Tabula insectum magni­tudine vera exprimit.

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r

the
TRIPLE-SPINED LOCUST.

Generic Character.

Head inflected, armed with jaws, and furnished with feelers.

Antennæ, in most species, setaceous or filiform.

Wings four, deflected and convoluted; the lower ones pleated.

Hind Legs formed for leaping: claws on all the feet double.

Specific Character, &c.

Locust with three triple-spined protuberances on each side the thorax; the elytra or upper-wings green, the lower red; all speckled with black.

The triple-spined African Locust.

The present species of Locust, which is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size, is a native of several parts of Africa. It seems to have been first described in the elegant work of Mr. Drury on exotic insects.

v

 

789

Dusky Parrot

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

D

PSITTACUS INFUSCATUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum; mandibula superiore mobili, cera instructa.

Nares in rostri basi.

Lingua carnosa, obtusa, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 139.

Character Specificus, &c.

Psittacus nigricans, subtus purpurascens, remigibus caudaque cæruleis, rectricibus subtus semi-rubris.

Psittacus purpureus. P. atro-fuscus, subtus purpureus, vertice genisque nigris, torque ferrugineo, maculis nigricantibus.

Lath. ind. orn.

Americam Australem, præcipue autem Surinamiam incolit Psittacus purpureus, magni­tudine circiter Columba vulgaris seu domestica. Coloribus interdum leviter variat.

v

 

D2

the
DUSKY PARROT.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked: upper mandible moveable, and furnished with a cere.

Nostrils in the base of the bill.

Tongue fleshy, obtuse, generally entire.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Blackish Parrot, purplish beneath, with the wings and tail blue; the latter half-red beneath.

Little dusky Parrot.

Edw. p. 315.

Lath. ind. orn.

Papegai violet.

Buff. ois. 6. p. 244.

Perroquet varié de Cayenne.

Pl. Enl. 408.

This species is a native of South America, and parti­cularly of Surinam: its general size is that of a common domestic pigeon. In its colours it sometimes varies a little.

v

 

790

Chinese Fistularia

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

FISTULARIA CHINENSIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum cylindricum, apice maxillosum.

Corpus elongatum.

Membr: branch: radiis septem.

Character Specificus, &c.

Fistularia squamosa rufescens, nigro maculata, cauda rotundata mutica.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 97.

Fistularia Chinensis. F. cauda rotundata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 515.

Fistularia edentata, cauda rotundata.

Bloch. ichth. t. 388.

In maribus Indicis præcipue conspicitur Fistularia Chinensis, in longi­tudinem tripedalem vel quadri­pedalem crescens, et vermibus insectisque marinis variis victitans.

v

 

r

the
CHINESE FISTULARIA.

Generic Character.

Snout cylindric: mouth terminal.

Body lengthened.

Gill-Membrane seven-rayed.

Specific Character, &c.

Scaly, rufescent Fistularia, with black spots and simple, rounded tail.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 97.

The Chinese Trumpet-Fish.

This remarkable fish is principally seen in the Indian seas, where it grows to the length of three or four feet, and feeds on various kinds of marine worms and insects.

v

 

791

Cassia Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO CASSIÆ.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

Papilio Cassiæ. P. alis integerrimis fuscis; primoribus posticarumque margine fascia ferruginea, omnibus subtus ocellatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 767.
Dan: Festiv:

Mer. Surin. t. 32.

Surinamiam incolit hic Papilio, ubi larva ejus varias Cassiæ species depascitur, et in chrysalidem mense Maio convertitur, e qua mense Junio erumpit insectum plene formatum.

v

 

r

the
CASSIA BUTTERFLY.

Generic Character.

Antennæ generally thickening towards the extremities, and terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when sitting) erect, and meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with entire, brown wings; the upper pair and the margin of the lower marked by a ferruginous band, and all marked beneath by eye-shaped spots.

Clerk. ic. ins. t. 29. f. 3.

Cramer ins. 9. pl. 106. A.

This species is a native of Surinam, where its caterpillar feeds on various species of Cassia. It changes to a chrysalis in the month of May, from which in June proceeds the complete insect.

v

 

792

Cirrhated Aphrodita

R N—

Notes

r

APHRODITA CIRRHOSA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus repens oblongum, squamis tectum; pedibus utrinque setosis.

Os terminale, cylindricum.

Tentacula duo setacea annulata.

Oculi quatuor.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

Character Specificus, &c.

Aphrodita cirrhosa. A. lineari-attenuata, pedunculis compressis apice bipartitis, squamis vesiculosis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

Aphrodita cirrhosa.

Pall. Misc. Zool. p. 95. t. 8. f. 3.-6.

Hanc speciem ita describit celeberrimus Pallas, in opere cui titulus Miscellanea Zoologica.

“Corpus tenerrimum, longiusculum, lineari-adtenuatum, ex tereti depressiusculum adeoque ad Nereides figura accedens. Pedunculi utrinque triginta-quinque, productiores, compressi, apice bipartiti, portione superiore minore, utraque penicillo ex pilis fulvescen­tibus, in superiori longioribus, in inferiore numerosi­oribus barbata. Squamæ in dorso undecim parium, subrotundæ, areola in anteriore disci parte, supra pedunculos adnatæ margine postico scabriusculæ, fuscoque denticulatæ, in specimine quod descripsi, omnes in vesiculas inflatæ. Cuticula albida atque irridescens huic speciei, teneriorque est quam ulli congenerum.”

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r

the
CIRRHATED APHRODITA.

Generic Character.

Body repent, oblong, in most species covered with scales, and furnished on each side with bristle-shaped feet.

Mouth terminal, cylindric.

Feelers two, setaceous, annulated.

Eyes four.

Specific Character, &c.

Pale, linear Aphrodita, with eleven pair of large rounded, vesicular scales along the back, and compressed feet divided at the tip.

Large-Scaled Aphrodita.

This species is described in the work of Dr. Pallas, entitled Miscellanea Zoologica. The body, says Dr. Pallas, is very tender, lengthened, linear-attenuated, flattish-rounded, and consequently approaching to the form of the genus Nereis. On each side are thirty-five lengthened, compressed feet, divided at the tip, the superior portion smaller, and each bearded by a pencil of subfulvous hairs, longer on the upper portion, but more numerous on the lower. On the back are eleven pair of scales, which are roundish, situated above the feet, rather rough on their hinder margin, and marked with fuscous denticulations. In the specimen described all the scales were inflated into vesicles. The skin in this species is whitish and iridescent, and more tender than in any of its congeners.

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793

White-Headed Kingfisher

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

E

ALCEDO LEUCOCEPHALA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum trigonum, crassum, rectum, longum.

Lingua carnosa, brevissima, plana, acuta.

Pedes gressorii plerisque.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 178.

Character Specificus, &c.

Alcedo viridi-cærulea, alis caudaque nigro-cæruleis, capite corporeque subtus stramineis, rostro rubro.

Alcedo leucocephala. A. ex cæruleo viridis, capite collo et subtus alba, remigibus fuscis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

Insulam Javam incolit formosa hac avis, magni­tudine fere duplo major Alcedine Ispida sive Europæa.

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E2

the
WHITE-HEADED KINGFISHER.

Generic Character.

Bill trigonal, thick, strait, long.

Tongue fleshy, very short, flat, sharp-pointed.

Feet gressorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Blue-green Kingfisher, with blackish-blue wings and tail; the head and under parts straw-coloured.

Martin-Pêcheur de Java.

Pl. Enl. 757.

White-Headed Kingfisher.

Lath. Syn. p. 617.

This beautiful species is a native of the island of Java, and is nearly twice the size of the common European Kingfisher.

v

 

794

Cretan Scarus

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

SCARUS CRETENSIS.

Character Genericus.

Maxillæ osseæ, medio divisæ, margine crenatæ, dentibus connato-conglomeratis.

Character Specificus, &c.

Scarus viridis, subtus flavescens, squamis permagnis, linea laterali ramosa, cauda sublunata.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 393.

Scarus pinna dorsi inermi.

Bloch. ichth. 7. p. 15. pl. 220.

In maribus Europæis atque Indicis conspicitur hic piscis in pedalem crescens longi­tudinem.

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r

the
CRETAN SCARUS.

Generic Character.

Jaws long, divided in the middle, crenated on the edge; the teeth connate and conglomerate.

Specific Character, &c.

Green Scarus, yellowish beneath, with very large scales, ramified lateral line, and sublunated tail.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 393.

Der Griechische Papageyfisch.

Bloch. ichth. 7. pl. 220.

The Cretan Scarus grows to the length of about twelve inches, and is found both in the European and Indian seas.

v

 

795

Double-Pointed Sphinx

R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

SPHINX SATELLITIA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ medio crassiores, seu utraque extremitate attenuate, subprismaticæ.

Alæ deflexæ (volatu graviore vespertino seu matutino).

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 796.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sphinx alis integris griseo-olivaceis fusco nebulosis, primoribus puncto duplici ocellato nigro.

Sphinx Satellitia. S. alis griseo nebulosis, primoribus puncto nigro ocellari sesquialtero, posterioribus basi cinereis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

Sphinx Satellitia.

Fabr. sp. ins. 2. p. 148.

Drury ins. 1. t. 29. f. 1. 2.

Jamaicam incolit Sphinx Satellitia, magni­tudine vera in tabula depicta.

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r

the
DOUBLE-POINTED SPHINX.

Generic Character.

Antennæ subprismatic, thickest in the middle, and attenuated at each extremity.

Wings deflected. Flight generally matutine or vespertine.

Specific Character, &c.

Sphinx with entire olive-grey wings clouded with brown, the upper pair marked by a double ocellated black speck.

The Double-Pointed Hawk-Moth.

Double-Pointed Jamaica Sphinx.

This insect is a native of Jamaica, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

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796

Aculeated Brachionus

R N

Notes

r

BRACHIONUS ACULEATUS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus contractile, testa tectum, ciliis rotatoriis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

Character Specificus.

Brachionus testa oblongo-quadrata, antice quadri­corni, postice bicorni, capite tentaculis setaceis divergentibus.

Detectum est mense Julio in aqua stagnante insigne animalculum quod aucta admodum naturali magni­tudine in tabula depingitur. Motu fertur celerrimo, testa obtectum pellucida, fronte in laminas duas divisa, angulis spina incurva terminatis. Instruitur caput fasciculis pluribus vibrissarum seu setarum divergentium, quæ tamen, non nisi movente se animalculo, visibiles sunt. Cor, prope partem superiorem situm, cordique simil­limum Vorticellæ quæ rotatoria dicitur, pulsu protruditur evidenti et celerrimo. Cætera viscera, non sigillatim cernenda, fusco-flavescunt.

v

 

r

the
ACULEATED BRACHIONUS.

Generic Character.

Body contractile, inclosed in a shell, and furnished at the head with rotatory organs.

Specific Character.

Brachionus with oblong-square shell with four spines in front, two behind, and head furnished with divergent setaceous tentacula.

The remarkable animalcule exhibited in a highly magnified state on the present plate, was discovered in stagnant water in the month of July. It is an animal of very swift motion, and appears covered with a transparent shell of an oblong square shape, divided into two laminæ in front, and terminated at each extremity by a curved spine. The head or upper part is furnished with several groupes or fasciculi of divergent vibrissæ or strait seta­ceous fibres, which are only apparent while the animal is in motion. The heart, which is situated near the upper part, is very apparent, exerts a very quick pulsation, and much resembles that of the Vorticella rotatoria or Wheel-Animal in shape. The other viscera are not separately distinguishable, and are of a yellowish-brown colour.

v

 

797

Purple-Throated Creeper

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

F

CERTHIA GUTTURALIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum arcuatam, tenue, acutum.

Lingua variis varia.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Cauda pennis duodecim.

Lath. ind. orn.

Character Specificus, &c.

Certhia gutturalis. Certhia fusca, fronte viridi, gutture purpureo.

Certhia gutturalis. C. nigricans, gutture viridi-nitente, pectore purpureo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 186.

L’Oiseau brun à bec de Grimpereau.

Buff. ois. 5. p. 525.

Brasiliam incolit Certhia gutturalis, et magni­tudine vera in tabula depingitur.

v

 

F2

the
PURPLE-THROATED CREEPER.

Generic Character.

Bill bent, slender, sharp-pointed.

Tongue differing in different species.

Feet formed for walking.

Tail consisting of twelve feathers.

Specific Character, &c.

Brown Creeper, with green front, and purple throat.

The Purple-Throated Creeper.

Brasilian green-faced Creeper.

Grimpereau du Bresil.

Pl. Enl. 578. f. 3.

The species here represented is a native of Brasil, and is figured in its natural size.

v

 

798

Twisted Tubularia

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

TUBULARIA RAMOSA.

Character Genericus.

Stirps tubulosa, simplex vel ramosa, basi affixa.

Animal terminale, capite tentaculis cristato.

Character Specificus, &c.

Tubularia culmis ramosis, geniculis contortis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1302.

Corallina tubularia gracilis et ramosa, axillis ramulorum contortis.

Ellis Corall. p. 31. t. A. a.

In litoribus Europæis non raro reperitur hoc zoophyton, carens quidem magni­tudine, non tamen elegantia. Adhæret conchis, rupibus, aliisque marinis. Depingitur in tabula tam naturalis moles, quam modice aucta.

v

 

r

the
TWISTED TUBULARIA.

Generic Character.

Stem tubular, simple or branched, fixed by the base.

Animal terminal; the head crested with tentacula.

Specific Character, &c.

Branched Tubularia, with the axillæ of the joints twisted.

Small ramified tubular Coralline.

Ellis Corall. p. 31. pl. 17.

This small but elegant zoophyte is a frequent inhabitant of the European coasts, adhering to rocks, shells, and various other marine substances. It is repre­sented on the plate both in its natural size, and as it appears when moderately magnified.

v

 

799

Subulate Buccinum

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

BUCCINUM SUBULATUM.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, gibbosa.

Apertura ovata, desinens in canaliculum dextrum, cauda retusum.

Labium interius explanatum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1198.

Character Specificus, &c.

Buccinum testa subulata lævi flava, maculis subquadratis duplicatis fuscis.

Buccinum subulatum. B. testa turrita subulata lævi indivisa integerrima.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Rumph. mus. t. 30. f. B.

Bonann. recr. t. 118.

In maribus Indicis invenitur Buccinum subulatum cujus veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula.

v

 

r

the
SUBULATE BUCCINUM.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a slug.

Shell univalve, spiral, gibbous.

Aperture ovate, ending in a channel pointing towards the right.

Interior Lip expanded.

Specific Character, &c.

Buccinum with smooth yellow subulate shell, marked by a double row of squarish brown spots.

Smooth double-spotted Buccinum.

Yellow screw Buccinum.

This shell is an inhabitant of the Indian seas, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

800

Long-Finned Chætodon

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

CHÆTODON TEIRA.

Character Genericus.

Caput parvum. Os exiguum: Dentes conferti, flexiles, setacei.

Membr. branch. radiis tribus ad sex.

Corpus latum, compressum, pluribus fasciatum; pinna dorsi anique basi crassa, carnosa, squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

Chætodon albus, corpore elevato-orbiculari, pinna dorsali analique magnis falcatis longissimis.

Chætodon Teira. C. fasciis tribus nigris, pinna dorsali analique longissimis.

Bloch. ichth. t. 199. f. 1.

Piscibus quos amplectitur genus Chætodon peculiaris quædam sæpius est conformatio: qua tamen in re pauci insigniores illo de quo jam agitur, in maribus Indicis generato; cujus moles interdum ampla esse dicitur, licet parva, ut plurimum, sint specimina quæ videre est in museis Europæis.

v

 

r

the
LONG-FINNED CHÆTODON.

Generic Character.

Head small. Mouth small: Teeth close-set, flexile, setaceous.

Gill-Membrane three, four, five, or six-rayed.

Body broad, compressed, and generally fasciated: dorsal and anal fin thick, fleshy and scaly at the base.

Specific Character, &c.

White Chætodon with high-orbicular body, and large, extremely long, falcated dorsal and anal fin.

Long-Finned Chætodon.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 345.

Many fishes of the genus Chætodon are remarkable for the singularity of their shape: few however will be found to exceed in this particular the species here repre­sented, which is an inhabitant of the Indian seas, and is said to arrive at a considerable size, though the specimens usually seen in Museums are but small.

v

 

801

Masked Owl

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

G

STRIX LARVATA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum, absque cera.

Nares oblongæ, pennis setaceis recumbentibus obtectæ.

Caput grande, auribus oculisque magnis.

Lingua bifida.

Digitus externus retro mobilis.

Character Specificus, &c.

Strix alba, alis subferrugineis, facie nigra.

Strix personata.

Daudin orn. 1. p. 192.

Avem depinximus elegantem, Cayanæ in America australi incolam; quæque fortasse varietas esse possit Strigis perspicillatæ Lathami. In majoribus habetur sui generis, longa nempe quasi viginti uncias.

v

 

G2

the
MASKED OWL.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked, without cere.

Nostrils oblong, covered with recumbent setaceous feathers.

Head, eyes, and ears, large.

Tongue bifid.

Exterior toe moveable backward.

Specific Character, &c.

White Owl, with subferruginous wings and black face.

La Chouette masquée.

Levaill. ois. pl. 44.

The elegant bird here represented is a native of Cayenne in South America, and is perhaps no other than a variety of the Strix perspicillata or Spectacle Owl of Mr. Latham. It is one of the larger birds of the genus, measuring about twenty inches in length.

v

 

802

Lancet-Tailed Acanthurus

Notes

r

ACANTHURUS CHIRURGUS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes parvi, plerisque lobati.

Cauda utrinque aculeata.

Character Specificus, &c.

Acanthurus luteus corpore postice striis transversis fuscis.

Acanthurus Chirurgus.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 379.

Chætodon Chirurgus.

Bloch. ichth. t. 208.

In opere hoc nostro non ita pridem exposuimus qua de causa certas Linnæani generis Chætodontis species, mutato nomine, Acanthuros nuncupavimus. Acanthuri species quæ in tabula ostenditur in maribus nutritur Americanis, raro longior octo seu decem unciis.

v

 

r

the
LANCET-TAILED ACANTHURUS.

Generic Character.

Teeth small, in most species lobated.

Tail aculeated on each side.

Specific Character, &c.

Orange-yellow Acanthurus, with the body crossed on the hind-part by transverse brown stripes.

Lancet Acanthurus.

General Zoology, vol. 4. p. 379.

The reason for placing certain species of the Linnæan genus Chætodon under a separate genus entitled Acan­thurus, has been already explained in the present work. The species of Acanthurus repre­sented on the annexed plate is a native of the American seas, where it is rarely observed to measure more than eight or ten inches in length.

v

 

803

Poplar Sphinx

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

SPHINX POPULI.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ subprismaticæ, utroque fine attenuatæ.

Lingua exserta (plerisque).

Palpi duo reflexi.

Alæ deflexæ.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sphinx alis dentatis griseo-gilvis reversis, posticis basi ferrugineis.

Sphinx Populi. S. alis dentatis reversis, posticis basi ferrugineis, anticis puncto albo.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Sepp ins. 3. p. 3. pl. 1.

Merian Ins. Europ. pl. 37.

Folia populi salicisque depascitur larva Sphingis hujus Britannicæ. In chrysalidem mense Augusto convertitur, e qua Maio vel Junio insequente erumpit ipsa Sphinx.

v

 

r

the
POPLAR SPHINX.

Generic Character.

Antennæ subprismatic, attenuated at each extremity.

Tongue generally exserted.

Feelers two, reflex.

Wings deflected.

Specific Character, &c.

Sphinx with dentated, buff-grey, reversed wings; the lower pair ferruginous at the base.

The Poplar Hawk-Moth.

Degeer ins. 1. pl. 8. f. 5.

Roes. ins. 3. pl. 30.

The Caterpillar of this species, which is a native of our own country, feeds on the leaves of the willow and poplar, changing to a chrysalis in the month of August, out of which in May or June following, emerges the complete Sphinx.

v

 

804

Androgeus Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt. 1807

Notes

r

PAPILIO ANDROGEUS?

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes. (Volatu diurno).

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

Papilio alis dentatis nigro æneis, posticis subtus lunulis rubris cyaneis flavisque.

Fab. spec. ins. 2. p. 8.

Pap. Androgeus?

Cramer ins. 2. t. 16. f. C. D.

Pap. Polydamas?

Lin. Syst. Nat. 747.

Pap. Peranthus?

Cram. t. 204. A. B.

In America australi, præcipue in Surinamia, conspicitur Papilio Androgeus, cujus larva hibiscorum folia depas­citur. In tabula nostra magni­tudine vera una cum larva pupaque ostenditur.

v

 

r

ANDROGEUS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ commonly thickening towards the end into a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with blackish-green brassy wings, the lower pair marked beneath by a verge of red, blue, and yellow crescents.

Mer. Sur. pl. 31.

Kleeman ins. pl. 8.

The present species is a native of South America, and particularly of Surinam, where its caterpillar feeds on the leaves of the genus Hibiscus. The plate represents it in its different states and in its natural size.

v

 

805

Subrosaceous Stare

R. P. Nodder Del. et Scult.

Notes

H

STURNUS SUBROSEUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum subulatum, angulatum, depressum, obtusiusculum: mandibula superiore integerrima, marginibus patentiusculis.

Nares supra marginatæ.

Lingua emarginata, acuta.

Lath. ind. orn.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sturnus griseo-rufescens, subtus subroseus, vertice cristato remigibusque primoribus nigris.

Turdus Pagodarum?

Lath. ind. orn.

Le Martin brame.

Levaill. ois. t. 95.

Testatur Levaillant, hujus avis descriptor, Sturnis subroseis abundare multas Indicas et Africanas regiones; seque ipsum eos conspexisse gregatim collectos. Si habitum generalem spectes, simillima est Turdo roseo, nisi quod colores sint obscuriores. Ipsissima est magni­tudine qua Sturnus vulgaris; quem inter et hanc avem propin­quam esse cognationem suspicatur Levaillant.

v

 

H2

the
SUBROSACEOUS STARE.

Generic Character.

Bill subulate, angular, depressed, somewhat obtuse; the upper mandible entire.

Nostrils marginated above.

Tongue emarginate, sharp-pointed.

Specific Character, &c.

Rufescent-grey Stare, subrosaceous beneath, with black crested crown and black primary wing-feathers.

Le Martin brame.

Levaill. ois. pl. 95.

This bird, according to its describer Levaillant, is very common in many parts of India as well as of Africa, where considerable flights were observed by himself. In its general appearance it seems considerably allied to the Turdus roseus, or Rose-coloured Ouzel, but is of less vivid colours. Mons. Levaillant seems to consider it as approa­ching very nearly to the Starling tribe, and in size it is exactly equal to the common Starling.

v

 

806

Single-Spotted Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Del— Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO SPONDIÆ.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes (volatu diurno).

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Papilio alis denticulatis cæruleis, subtus fuscis, inferioribus macula marginali flava.

Mer. Sur. t. 33.

Eruca papilionis in tabula depicti, quam edacissimam esse asserit Domina Merian, folia depascitur arboris quæ Spondias lutea dicitur. In chrysalidem convertitur ineunte mense Aprili, quo fere exacto, erumpit insectum plene formatum. In Surinamia generatur Papilio Spondiæ; cujus vera magni­tudo una cum eruca et chrysalide in tabula ostenditur.

v

 

r

the
SINGLE-SPOTTED BUTTERFLY.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, ending in a clavated tip.

Wings (when sitting), erect and meeting upward; flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Blue Butterfly, with denticulated wings, brown beneath, with a yellow marginal spot on the lower pair.

Mer. Sur. pl. 13.

The caterpillar of the Butterfly here repre­sented, and which, according to Madam Merian, is of a very vora­cious nature, feeds on the leaves of the Spondias lutea, or American Plum; changing to chrysalis in the beginning of April, and producing the complete insect towards the end of the same month. The plate shews the animal in all its states, and in its natural size. It is a native of Surinam.

v

 

807

Falcated Sparus

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

SPARUS FALCATUS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes validi; Primores in aliis ordine simplici, in aliis duplici, triplici, vel quad­ruplici dispositi.

Molares (plerisque) validi, convexi, læves, in series dispositi, et quasi pavimentum in ore effor­mantes.

Labia crassa: Opercula mutica, squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sparus flavus, pinnis virentibus, dorsali analique subfalcatis.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 409.

Sparus falcatus. S. spinis quatuor in pinna ani.

Bloch. t. 258.

Elegans hæc species maria incolit Americana, ad longi­tudinem pertingens plus bipedalem. Primus eam descripsisse et depinxisse videtur celeberrimus Plumierus.

v

 

r

the
FALCATED SPARUS.

Generic Character.

Teeth strong: Front-teeth in some species disposed in a single row, in others in a double, treble, or quad­ruple row.

Grinders (in most species) convex, smooth, and disposed in ranges, forming a kind of pavement in the mouth.

Lips thick: Gill-covers unarmed, smooth, scaly.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellow Sparus with greenish fins; the dorsal and anal fin subfalcated.

Falcated Sparus.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 409.

This elegant species is a native of the American seas, where it arrives at the length of more than two feet. It seems to have been first described and figured by the celebrated Plumier.

v

 

808

Typhon (beetle)

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

SCARABÆUS TYPHON.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ clavatæ capitulo fissili.

Tibiæ anticæ sæpius dentatæ.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Scarabæus scutellatus niger, thorace tricorni, inter­medio emarginato, capitis cornu erecto recurvo bifido.

Scarabæus Typhon.

Olivier coleopt. Scarab. p. 12. pl. 16. f. 152.

Indiam incolit Scarabæus Typhon, magni­tudine vera in tabula depictus.

v

 

r

TYPHON.

Generic Character.

Antennæ clavated with a fissile or laminated tip.

Middle joints of the fore-legs toothed.

Specific Character, &c.

Black scutellated Beetle, with three-horned thorax, the intermediate one emarginated, and an upright recurved bifid horn on the head.

Typhon.

Oliv. ins. coleopt. Scarab. p. 12. pl. 16. f. 152.

The Scarabæus Typhon is a native of India, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

809

White-Beaked Hornbill

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

I

BUCEROS ALBIROSTRIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum convexum, curvatum, cultratum, magnum, extrorsum serratum: frontis calvaria nuda, osseo-gibbosa.

Nares pone rostri basin.

Lingua acuta, brevis.

Pedes gressorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Buceros subcristatus niger, abdomine albo, fronte ossea antrorsum macula nigra.

Le Calao à bec blanc.

Levaill. ois. nouv. pl. 14.

Speciem hanc, Indiæ incolam, novam esse nec antea descriptam opinatur Levaillant. Ab apice rostri ad extremum caudæ longa est quasi viginti uncias. De modo vivendi nihil compertum est.

v

 

I2

the
WHITE-BEAKED HORNBILL.

Generic Character.

Bill very large, convex, curved, with a large bony frontal prominence: mandibles serrated, the serratures pointing outward.

Nostrils behind the base of the bill.

Tongue sharp, short.

Feet gressorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Subcristated black Hornbill, with white abdomen, and bony front with a black spot on the fore-part.

Le Calao à bec blanc.

Levaill. ois. nouv.

This bird Mons. Levaillant considers as a new species of the genus Buceros. It is a native of India, and measures about twenty inches from the tip of the bill to the end of the tail. Its manners and particular history are at present unknown.

v

 

810

Boar-Tusked Sparus

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

SPARUS VERRES.

Character Genericus.

Dentes validi: primores in aliis ordine simplici, in aliis duplici, triplici, vel quad­ruplici dispositi.

Molares (plerisque) validi, convexi, læves, in series dispositi, et quasi pavimentum in ore effor­mantes.

Labia crassa: opercula mutica, squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sparus albidus, dorso violaceo, pinna caudali rubra, dorsali et anali apice rubris.

Lutianus Verres.

Bloch ichth. t. 255.

Docet Blochius in mari Japonico generari Sparum Verrem, dentibus primoribus magnis et curvatis in utraque maxilla sitis notabilem. In magni­tudinem, ut plurimum, crescit decem seu duodecim unciarum. Cuinam vivendi modo se præcipue assuescat, incertum est.

v

 

r

the
BOAR-TUSKED SPARUS.

Generic Character.

Teeth strong: front teeth in some species disposed in a single row, in others in a double, treble, or quad­ruple row.

Grinders (in most species) convex, smooth, and disposed in ranges, forming a kind of pavement in the mouth.

Lips thick: gill-covers unarmed, smooth, scaly.

Specific Character, &c.

Whitish Sparus, with the back violet, the tail and tips of the dorsal and anal fin red.

Boar Sparus.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 414.

This fish is, according to Dr. Bloch, a native of the Japanese sea, and is remarkable for the large size and curvature of the front teeth in both jaws. Its general length is about ten or twelve inches, but its particular history seems to be in a great degree unknown.

v

 

811

Elk-Horned Stag-Chaffer

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

LUCANUS ALCES.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ clavatæ; clava compressa latere latiore pectinato-fissili.

Maxillæ porrectæ, exsertæ, dentatæ.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Lucanus niger, maxillis exsertis dente medio valid­issimo, apice quadridentatis.

Lucanus Alces. L. mandibulis exsertis apice quadri­dentatis.

Fab. sp. ins. p. 1.

Olivier. entom. 1. p. 8.

Petiv. gazoph. t. 47. f. 15. caput.

Indiam incolit rara hæc Lucani species, et magni­tudine vera in tabula depingitur.

v

 

r

the
ELK-HORNED STAG-CHAFFER.

Generic Character.

Antennæ clavated, with compressed tip, divided into lamellæ on the inner side.

Jaws stretched forwards, exserted, and toothed.

Specific Character, &c.

Black Stag-Chaffer, with exserted jaws, furnished on the middle with a very strong tooth, and four-toothed at the tips.

The Elk-Horned Lucanus.

Black Indian Stag-Chaffer.

This rare species of Lucanus is a native of India, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

812

Magnific Volute

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

VOLUTA MAGNIFICA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa unilocularis, spiralis.

Apertura ecaudata, subeffusa.

Columella plicata, Labio Umbilicove nullo.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Voluta ventricosa trifasciata, albo fuscoque trans­versim varia, columella quadriplicata.

Voluta magnifica. V. testa ovali glabra ventricosa tumida, fasciis latis circumcincta, maculis fasci­arum saturatioribus, anfractibus sex, apertura lunari amplissima ex croceo et aurantio infecta, apice obtuso papillari, basi emarginata, columella quadriplicata.

Chemn. 11. p. 8. t. 174, 175.

E plurimis speciebus quas continet genus Voluta, rarior et elegantior nulla est illa quam depinximus; quas in oceano pacifico australi generata, in Angliam illata est quo tempore circa orbem terrarum primum navigabat celeberrimus Cookius. In tabula nostra magni­tudine circiter tertia parte deminuta exprimitur.

v

 

r

the
MAGNIFIC VOLUTE.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax or Slug.

Shell unilocular, spiral.

Aperture somewhat spreading, simple.

Pillar wreathed or pleated.

Specific Character, &c.

Trifasciated ventricose Volute, with brown and white transverse variegations, and three-pleated pillar.

The magnificent Volute.

Great Southern variegated Volute.

The present shell may justly be numbered among the rarest and most elegant species of the numerous genus to which it belongs. It is a native of the Southern Pacific Ocean, and was brought into this country by the natur­alists who accompanied Captain Cook in his first circum­navigation. The plate represents it about a third less than the natural size.

v

 

813

Pompadour Chatterer

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

K

AMPELIS POMPADORA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum rectum, convexum; mandibula superiore longiore, subincurvata, utrinque emarginata.

Lingua acuta, cartilaginea, bifida.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Ampelis Pompadora. A. purpurea, tectricibus alarum proximis ensiformibus elongatis carinatis nudis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Cotinga purpurea.

Briss. av. 2. p. 347. t. 35. f. 1.

Turdus puniceus.

Pall. adumbr. 99.

Formosissimam hanc avem a Brissono primitus descriptam et depictam, generat America australis, paulo majorem Garrulo Linnæi seu Ampelide Europea. Testatur Vaillantus feminam a mari in hoc differre, quod pars superior multo magis infuscetur, cum inferior alba sit, purpureo suffusa.

v

 

K2

the
POMPADOUR CHATTERER.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, convex; the upper mandible rather longer, subincurvated, emarginated on each side near the tip.

Tongue sharp-pointed, cartilaginous, bifid.

Specific Character, &c.

Purple Chatterer, with white quill-feathers; the coverts nearest the body long, narrow, stiff, and ensiform.

The Pompadour Chatterer.

Edwards, pl. 341.

Le Cotinga Pacapaca.

Levaill. ois. amer. pl. 31.

This highly beautiful bird is a native of South America, and seems to have been first described and figured by the accurate Brisson. In size it is rather superior to the Ampelis Garrulus of Linnæus, or common European Chatterer. The female, according to Mons. Le Vaillant, differs in being of a much browner colour on the upper parts, and white, slightly tinged with purple, beneath.

v

 

814

Middle-Finned Flying-Fish

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

EXOCOETUS MESOGASTER.

Character Genericus.

Caput squamosum: maxillis utroque latere connexis.

Membr: branch: radiis decem.

Pinnæ pectorales maximæ, volatiles.

Character Specificus, &c.

Exocoetus argenteo-cærulescens, pinnis ventralibus in medio abdominis.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 146.

Exocoetus Mesogaster. E. pinnis ventralibus in æquilibrio.

Bloch. ichth. t. 399.

A congeneribus differt Exocoetus Mesogaster situ pinnarum ventralium. In maribus Americanis generatur, et ad longi­tudinem pertingit pedalem, vel etiam sesqui­pedalem.

v

 

r

the
MIDDLE-FINNED FLYING-FISH.

Generic Character.

Head scaly: jaws connected on each side.

Gill-Membrane ten-rayed.

Pectoral fins very large, giving the power of flight.

Specific Character, &c.

Silvery-blueish Flying-Fish, with the ventral fins situated on the middle of the abdomen.

American Flying-Fish.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 146.

The Exocoetus Mesogaster differs from the rest of its congeners in the situation of the ventral fins. It is a native of the American seas, and grows to the length of twelve or eighteen inches.

v

 

815

Junonian Volute

Notes

r

VOLUTA JUNONIA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa unilocularis, spiralis.

Apertura ecaudata, subeffusa.

Columella plicata.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Voluta subventricosa flavescens, maculis subquadratis transversis rufis, spira longi­tudinaliter striata, columella septemplicata.

Voluta Junonia. V. rarissima ovata lævis, maculis quadratis rufescentibus in fundo flavido seriatim stratis nitidissime tesselata et zonata, spira exserta striata, apice semigloboso, basi trans­versim striata, subemarginata, columella septemplicata.

Chemn. 11. p. 16. t. 177.

Rarissimam hanc speciem, in maribus, ut creditur, australibus innatam, jactant perpauca Musea Europea. Primus eam descripsisse videtur Dominus Favanne in opere conchyliologico Domini Argenville, quod auctius edidit. Tabula exprimit magni­tudinem naturalem.

v

 

r

the
JUNONIAN VOLUTE.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax or Slug.

Shell unilocular, spiral.

Aperture somewhat spreading, simple.

Pillar wreathed or pleated.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish subventricose Volute, with squarish transverse rufous spots, longi­tudinally striated spire, and seven-pleated pillar.

Voluta Junonia.

Chemn. 11. p. 16. pl. 177.

Favanne Argenv.

This extremely rare species, which makes its appearance in but very few of the European cabinets, is supposed to be a native of the Southern Pacific, and seems to have been first described by Mons. Favanne, in his enlarged edition of Argenville’s Conchyliology. It is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

816

Goat Moth

R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

v

PHALÆNA COSSUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attennatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ, (volatu nocturno)

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Phalæna cinerea nigro reticulata, alis deflexis, thorace postice fascia atra.

Phalæna Cossus. P. (Bombyx) elinguis, alis deflexis nebulosis, thorace postice fascia, atra, antennis lamellatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

In maximis speciebus Britannicis numeranda Phalæna Cossus e larva exoritur cui facies nec jucunda nec elegans; quæque salictis, quorum in truncis præcipue delitescit, lignum exedendo pestifera est et exitiosa. Odorem præterea spargit teterrimum, quo arbores in quibus sibi sedem elegerit, dignosci possint. Quum ad tertium ætatis annum pervenerit larva, creditur in chrysalidem converti, plerumque mense Maio, postquam se tela seu theca valida e parvulis fibris ligneis suo ipsius glutine conjunctis involverit, cortici ut plurimum arboris inferiori affixa; unde mense Junio e r carcere sese liberat phalæna, e theca nempe protrusa chrysalide ope spiculorum fortium quibus annuli corporis armantur.

Nefas esset de hoc insecto disserenti silentio præterire eximium Lyonetti opus, qui de dissectione larvæ locutus, plures in illa numerat musculos quam in ipso humano corpore. Pari diligentia in singulis ipsius phalænæ partes anatomice inquisivit idem ingeniosus auctor.

v

 

r

the
GOAT MOTH.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually lessening from the base to the tip.

Wings (when sitting) generally deflected. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Grey Moth, with black reticulations, deflected wings, and a black stripe across the hind part of the thorax.

Great Willow-wood Moth.

Goat Moth.

Albin. ins. pl. 35.

Roes. ins. 1. Phal. Cl. 2. pl. 18.

The Phalæna Cossus or Goat Moth, one of the largest of the British Phalænæ, proceeds from a larva or caterpillar of an appearance rather disagreeable than elegant. It resides in the trunks of trees, more particularly of willows; feeding on the wood, and committing great ravages in districts where it abounds. It diffuses a highly unpleasing scent, by which its residence may frequently be known in passing by such trees as are much infested by it. It is generally supposed v to arrive at its third year before it changes to a chrysalis, which usually takes place in the month of May, the animal first enveloping itself in a strong web or covering, formed of particles of wood united by a strong gluten: this web is usually affixed to the bark of the lower part of the tree; and from it, in the month of June, proceeds the complete insect, the chrysalis forcing its way through the web by the assistance of the strong spiculæ with which its segments are surrounded.

It would be unpardonable, in giving the history of this insect, to omit mentioning the celebrated publication of Lyonett, relative to the anatomy of its caterpillar, which, according to that author, is furnished with a far greater number of muscles than the human body itself. The same writer afterwards pursued his researches with equal diligence into the anatomy of the complete insect.

817

Purple-Breasted Chatterer

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

L

AMPELIS COTINGA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum rectum, convexum; mandibula superiore longiore, subincurvata, utrinque emarginata.

Lingua acuta, cartilaginea, bifida.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Ampelis Cotinga. A. nitidissima cærulea, subtus purpurea, alis caudaque nigris.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Cotinga.

Brisson av. 2. p. 340.

Omnium congenerum splendidissima est Ampelis Cotinga, eadem magni­tudine qua Ampelis Pompadora: easdem etiam regiones Americanas incolit. Coloribus interdum insigniter variat.

v

 

L2

the
PURPLE-BREASTED CHATTERER.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, convex; upper mandible rather longer, subincurvated, emarginated on each side near the tip.

Tongue sharp-pointed, cartilaginous, bifid.

Specific Character, &c.

Brilliant blue Chatterer, purple beneath, with black wings and tail.

Le Cotinga du Bresil.

Pl. Enl. 186.

Purple-Breasted Manakin.

Edw. pl. 241.

This, which is the most splendid of the whole genus to which it belongs, is of similar size with the Ampelis Pompadora, and inhabits the same regions. In colour it occasionally varies considerably.

v

 

818

Surinam Sparus

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

SPARUS SURINAMENSIS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes validi; Primores in aliis ordine simplici, in aliis duplici, triplici, vel quad­ruplici dispositi.

Molares (plerisque) validi, convexi, læves, in series dispositi, et quasi pavimentum in ore effor­mantes.

Labia crassa: Opercula mutica, squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sparus subruber, fasciis semidecurrentibus nigris, abdomine subalbente, macula utrinque fusca.

Lutianus Surinamensis.

Bloch ichth. t. 253.

Sparus Surinamensis.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 458.

Maria incolit Americana Sparus Surinamensis, longi­tudine decem vel duodecim uncias æquans.

v

 

r

the
SURINAM SPARUS.

Generic Character.

Teeth strong: Front-teeth in some species disposed in a single row, in others in a double, treble, or quad­ruple row.

Grinders (in most species) convex, smooth, and disposed in ranges, forming a kind of pavement in the mouth.

Lips thick: Gill-covers unarmed, smooth, scaly.

Specific Character, &c.

Reddish Spare, with black semidecurrent bands, and whitish abdomen with a black spot on each side.

Der Steinkahlskopf.

Bloch. ichth. pl. 253.

Surinam Sparus.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 458.

This fish is a native of the American seas, measuring about ten or twelve inches in length.

v

 

819

Talc-Winged Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO PIERA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes. (Volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

Papilio Piera. P. alis oblongis integerrimis hyalinis diaphanis, posticis ocellis binis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Mer. Sur. t. 16.

Roes. Append. t. 6.

Surinamiam incolit Papilio Piera, ubi larva ejus, testante Domina Merian, folia Anacardii occidentalis depascitur.

v

 

r

the
TALC-WINGED BUTTERFLY.

Generic Character.

Antennæ commonly thickening towards the end into a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with oblong, entire, transparent wings; the lower pair marked by two ocellated spots.

Mer. Sur. pl. 16.

Roes. Append. pl. 6.

This insect is a native of Surinam, where its larva or caterpillar, according to Madam Merian, feeds on the leaves of the Anacardium occidentale or American Cashew.

v

 

820

Axillary Madrepore

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

MADREPORA AXILLARIS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Medusa.

Corallium cavitatibus lamelloso-stellatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus.

Madrepora dichotoma, ramis distinctis divaricatis, stellis terminalibus turbinatis; axillaribus compressis; centris dilatatis exesis.

Soland. et Ellis Zooph. p. 153. t. 13. f. 5.

Maria incolit Indica Madrepora axillaris, et magni­tudine vera in tabula depingitur.

v

 

r

the
AXILLARY MADREPORE.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Medusa.

Coral marked by radiating lamellar cavities.

Specific Character, &c.

Dichotomous Madrepore, with distinct divaricated branches; the axillary stars compressed; the terminal ones turbinated; with dilated and excavated centres.

Madrepora axillaris.

Soland. et Ellis Zooph. p. 153. pl. 13. f. 5.

The present species of Madrepore is an inhabitant of the Indian seas, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

821

Superb Chatterer

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

M

AMPELIS SUPERBA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum rectum, convexum; mandibula superiore longiore, subincurvata, utrinque emarginata.

Lingua acuta, cartilaginea, bifida.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Ampelis nitidissima cærulea, subtus purpurea, maculis fulvo-coccineis.

Ampelis Cotinga. Var.?

Edwards av. t. 340.

Levaill. Ois. Amer. pl. 42.

Credi solitum est formosissimam hanc avem eandem esse atque Ampelidem Cotingam Linnæi, nisi quod masculini sit generis. Opinatur tamen Levaillant, vir scientia ornithologica clarissimus, varietatem esse istius avis; cum qua congruit et magni­tudine et natali solo.

v

 

M2

the
SUPERB CHATTERER.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, convex: upper mandible rather longer, subincurvated, emarginated on each side near the tip.

Tongue cartilaginous, sharp-pointed, bifid.

Specific Character, &c.

Brilliant blue Chatterer, deep purple beneath, varied with fulvous-crimson spots.

Purple-Breasted Chatterer. Var.?

The highly elegant and rare bird repre­sented on the present plate, has been generally considered as the male of the Ampelis Cotinga, or Purple-Breasted Chatterer. Mons. Levaillant, however, so well known for his exten­sive information, is inclined to consider it as constituting at least a remarkable variety, if not a distinct species. It inhabits the same regions with the former kind.

v

 

822

Pine Moth

R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

PHALÆNA PINI.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ (volatu diurno).

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Phalæna (Bombyx) elinguis, alis reversis griseis, strigis duabus cinereis, puncto albo triangulari.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 814.

Merian Ins. Europ. t. 22.

Frisch Ins. 10. t. 10.

Rarior longe in Britannia quam in reliqua omni Europa Phalæna Pini folia depascitur pinorum et abietum. Mense Junio, postquam tela sese tenui et quasi ovata involverit, in chrysalidem convertitur; e qua insequente Julio erumpit insectum plene formatum.

v

 

r

the
PINE MOTH.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually lessening from base to tip.

Wings (when sitting) often deflex. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Tongueless Moth, with reversed grey wings, with two cinereous streaks, and a triangular white speck.

Merian. Eur. Ins. pl. 22.

Roes. Ins. 1. pl. 59.

This insect, which is much more common in other European regions than in our own country, feeds, during its caterpillar state, on the leaves of Pine and Fir trees, and changes into a chrysalis in the month of June, first enve­loping itself in a loose oval web; and the Moth makes its appearance in July.

v

 

823

Argus Flounder

Notes

r

PLEURONECTES ARGUS.

Character Genericus.

Oculi ambo in eodem latere capitis.

Corpus compressum, latere altero dorsum, altero abdomen referente.

Character Specificus, &c.

Pleuronectes albidus, maculis rotundis flavis cæruleo marginatis.

Pleuronectes Argus. P. corpore vario, pinna caudæ rotundata.

Bloch. t. 48.

Passer oculatus.

Plumier. Mss.

Maria incolit Americana Pleuronectes Argus, in longi­tudinem pedalem vel sesquipedalem crescens.

v

 

r

the
ARGUS FLOUNDER.

Generic Character.

Eyes both on the same side of the head.

Body compressed; one side representing the back, the other the abdomen.

Specific Character, &c.

Whitish Flounder, with round yellow spots margined with blue.

Argus Flounder.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 319.

The Argus Flounder is an inhabitant of the American seas, and grows to the length of twelve or eighteen inches.

v

 

824

Buckthorn Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO RHAMNI.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes. (Volatu diurno).

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Papilio Rhamni. P. alis integerrimis angulatis flavis: singulis puncto fulvo, subtus, ferrugineo.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Degeer. Ins. 1. t. 15.

Roes. Ins. 3. t. 46.

Folia Rhamni cathartici præcipue depascitur larva hujus papilionis, et in chrysalidem mense Maio conver­titur, e qua mense Junio erumpit Papilio.

v

 

r

the
BUCKTHORN BUTTERFLY.

Generic Character.

Antennæ commonly thickening towards the end into a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with yellow, entire, angulated wings, with a fulvous spot on each, beneath ferruginous.

The Buckthorn Butterfly.

The Brimstone Butterfly.

The caterpillar of the elegant insect repre­sented on the present plate, feeds principally on the leaves of Buck­thorn, changing into a chrysalis in May, and giving birth to the Butterfly in June.

v

 

825

Smyrna Kingfisher

R. P. Nodder Delt. et Sculpt.

Notes

N

ALCEDO SMYRNENSIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum trigonum, crassum, rectum, longum.

Lingua carnosa, brevissima, plana, acuta.

Pedes gressorii plerisque.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 178.

Character Specificus, &c.

Alcedo submacroura ferruginea, alis cauda dorsoque viridi-cæruleis, rostro rubro.

Alcedo Smyrnensis. A. macroura ferruginea, alis cauda dorsoque viridibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 181.

In variis Asiæ Africæque partibus conspicitur hæc species, inter majores hujus generis numeranda; longi­tudine decem vel undecim uncias longi­tudine æquans.

v

 

N2

the
SMYRNA KINGFISHER.

Generic Character.

Bill trigonal, thick, strait, long.

Tongue fleshy, very short, flat, sharp-pointed.

Feet gressorial.

Specific Character.

Longish-tailed ferruginous Kingfisher, with blue-green wings, back, and tail, and red bill.

Smyrna Kingfisher.

Lath. Syn. p. 615.

Great Gambia Kingfisher.

Edwards, pl. 8.

Le Martin-pecheur bleu et roux.

Buff. ois. 7. p. 182.

This beautiful bird is a native of many parts of Asia and Africa, and may be considered as one of the larger King­fishers; measuring about ten or eleven inches in length.

v

 

826

Aya Bodian

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

BODIANUS AYA.

Character Genericus.

Habitus Percæ.

Opercula squamosa, aculeata.

Squamæ (pluribus) læves.

Character Specificus, &c.

Bodianus ruber, abdomine argenteo, operculis unispinosis, cauda lunata.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 570.

Bodianus Aya. B. aculeo ad operculum, pinna caudæ lunata.

Bloch. ichth. 7. t. 227.

Lacus incolit Brasilienses Bodianus Aya, inter conge­neres forte pulcherrimus. In longi­tudinem tripedalem crescit, et in cibis habetur delicatioribus.

v

 

r

the
AYA BODIAN.

Generic Character.

Habit of the genus Perca.

Gill-Covers aculeated.

Scales (in most species) smooth.

Specific Character, &c.

Red Bodian, with silvery abdomen, single-spined gill-covers, and lunated tail.

Bodianus Aya.

Bloch. ichth. pl. 227.

Acara Aya.

Will. ichth. p. 329. pl. x. 7. f. 6.

The fish here represented is an inhabitant of the Brasilian lakes, and is, perhaps, the most beautiful of its congeners. It grows to the length of three feet, and is considered as a very delicate article of food.

v

 

827

Indian Volute

Notes

r

VOLUTA INDICA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa unilocularis, spiralis.

Apertura ecaudata, subeffusa.

Columella plicata.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Voluta Indica. V. testa elongata flava, fasciis tribus macularum fuscarum, columella quadriplicata.

Lin. Gmel. p. 3467.

Cymbium basi coarctata luteum, quad­ruplici ordine macularum nigrescentium fasciatum, quadriplicatum.

Martini conch. 3. t. 72. f. 772. 773.

In maribus Indicis generatur rara hæc Volutæ species, et magni­tudine vera in tabula exprimitur.

v

 

r

the
INDIAN VOLUTE.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax or Slug.

Shell unilocular, spiral.

Aperture somewhat spreading, simple.

Pillar wreathed or pleated.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish oblong Volute, with three bands of irregular brown spots, and four-pleated pillar.

Couronne ethiopique mouchetée.

Knorr. Vergn. 5. pl. 8. f. 1.

The Spotted Indian Volute.

This rare species of Volute is an inhabitant of the Indian seas, and is figured on the annexed plate in its natural size.

v

 

828

Empedocles Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Del. et Scul.

Notes

r

PAPILIO EMPEDOCLES.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Papilio antennis setaceis, alis fuscis luteo striatis stria media latiore, posticis ocellato-caudatis.

Papilio Ægisthus. P. alis fusco luteoque undulatis, ocellis caudalibus subternis.

Lin. Gmel. p. 2240.

Phalæna Lunus. P. (A.) seticornis spirilinguis, alis caudatis fusco luteoque undulatis, ocellis cauda­libus subternis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 810.

Papilio Empedocles.

Cramer. t. 199.

Papilio Lunus.

Cramer. t. 200.?

Surinamiam incolit Papilio Empedocles, et magni­tudine vera in tabula depingitur.

v

EMPEDOCLES.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and commonly terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with setaceous antennæ, brown wings with luteous streams, the middle streak broadest; the lower wings eye-tailed.

Papilio Empedocles.

Cram. t. 199.

Papilio Ægisthus.

Lin. Gmel.

Phalæna Lunus.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

This insect is a native of Surinam, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

r

INDEX.

Pl.
802. Acanthurus Chirurgus.
793. Alcedo leucocephala.
825. —— Smyrnensis.
813. Ampelis Pompadora.
817. —— Cotinga.
821. —— superba.
792. Aphrodita cirrhosa.
796. Brachionus aculeatus.
826. Bodianus Aya.
799. Buccinum subulatum.
809. Buceros albirostris.
797. Certhia gutturalis.
782. Cephalus brevis.
800. Chætodon Teira.
781. Coracias varia.
785. Columba aromatica.
814. Exocoetus mesogaster.
790. Fistularia Chinensis.
784. Gryllus nasutus.
788. —— squarrosus.
786. Labrus trimaculatus.
811. Lucanus Alces.
820. Madrepora axillaris.
783. Papilio Adippe.
787. —— Amphinome.
791. —— Cassiæ.
804. —— Androgeus.
806. —— Spondiæ.
819. —— Piera.
824. —— Rhamni.
828. —— Empedocles.
816. Phalæna Cossus.
822. —— Pini.
823. Pleuronectes Argus.
789. Psittacus infuscatus.
808. Scarabæus Typhon.
794. Scarus Cretensis.
807. Sparus falcatus.
810. —— Verres.
818. —— Surinamensis.
803. Sphinx populi.
795. —— satellitia.
801. Strix larvata.
805. Sturnus subroseus.
798. Tubularia ramosa.
812. Voluta magnifica.
815. —— Junonia.
827. —— Indica.

INDEX.

Pl.
802. Acanthurus lancet-tailed.
792. Aphrodita cirrhated.
808. Beetle Typhon.
826. Bodian Aya.
796. Brachionus aculeated.
799. Buccinum subulate.
783. Butterfly Adippe.
787. —— Amphinome.
791. —— Cassia.
804. —— Androgeus.
806. —— single-spotted.
819. —— talc-winged.
824. —— buckthorn.
828. —— Empedocles.
800. Chætodon long-finned.
813. Chatterer Pompadour.
817. —— purple-breasted.
821. —— superb.
797. Creeper purple-throated.
790. Fistularia Chinese.
823. Flounder Argus.
814. Flying-Fish middle-finned.
809. Hornbill white-beaked.
825. Kingfisher Smyrna.
793. —— white-headed.
786. Labrus trimaculated.
784. Locust long-fronted.
788. —— triple-spined.
820. Madrepore axillary.
816. Moth Goat.
822. —— pine.
801. Owl masked.
789. Parrot dusky.
785. Pigeon aromatic.
781. Roller pied.
794. Scarus Cretan.
810. Sparus boar-tusked.
807. —— falcated.
818. —— Surinam.
795. Sphinx double-pointed.
803. —— poplar.
782. Sun-Fish short.
811. Stag-Chaffer elk-horned.
805. Stare subrosaceous.
798. Tubularia twisted.
812. Volute magnific.
815. —— Junonian.
827. —— Indian.

Printed by B. M‘Millan,
Bow Street, Covent Garden.

Notes and Corrections: Volume 19

Volume 19 of the Naturalist’s Miscellany was published in twelve monthly installments, conjecturally from September 1807 through August 1808. It is “conjecturally” because there has not been a full month-and-year date since the third installment of Volume 13 (November 1801), and no date at all since the fourth installment of Volume 17 (“1805”, probably December). Worse yet, the first visible date in the present volume is “1807”—at the end of the sixth installment, which cannot be earlier than February 1808.

Each installment is 16 pages.

[B]; C; D; E; F (January 1808); G; H; I; K; L; M; N

Midway through this volume, at the end of installment 7 (conjecturally, March 1808), the printer finally and decisively threw out his ct ligatures. And high time, too.

In the final installment, three of four plates are engraved with the wrong number—in fact, with numbers that would have fit the previous installment. Plate 825 is engraved “821”; 826 engraved “822”; Plate 828 engraved “824”. All are correct in the Index.

Coracias Varia, the Pied Roller

may be Cracticus cassicus, the hooded butcherbird. It lives in New Guinea.

Cephalus Brevis, the Short Sun-Fish

is now Mola mola (by way of Linnaeus’s Tetraodon mola), the giant sunfish or ocean sunfish. It lives around most coasts, but especially Europe, North America and Australia. Look at Shaw’s picture—or at any current photo­graph—and you will see that the English names “short” and “giant” are not really contradictory.

This fish grows to a very great size
[If anything, the description is an understatement. Animal Diversity says it is “the largest bony fish, measuring up to 3.1m in length, 4.26m in height, and weighing up to 2235kg”.]

Papilio Adippe, the Adippe (butterfly)

If only Shaw had been talking about Denis & Shiffermuller’s P. adippe (1775), which Linnaeus called P. cydippe! That one is now Argynnis adippe (often referenced as Fabriciana adippe), the high brown fritillary; it lives in Europe. But it is by no means certain that this is the same butterfly as Linnaeus’s original P. adippe.

Gryllus Nasutus, the long-fronted locust

is now Truxalis nasuta. It is most common around the western Mediter­ranean.

Columba Aromatica, the Aromatic Pigeon

is probably the subspecies Treron pompadora aromaticus, the Buru green pigeon. As the name indicates, it lives on Buru, which is one of the Moluccas. The species as a whole extends from South to Southeast Asia, including Indonesia.

Labrus Trimaculatus, the Trimaculated Labrus

is now Labrus mixtus (Linnaeus’s name), the cuckoo wrasse. It lives around the coasts of western Europe, especially the British Isles.

Papilio Amphinome, the Amphinome (butterfly)

is now Hamadryas amphinome, the red cracker. (Really.) It lives in south and central America.

Gryllus Squarrosus, the Triple-Spined Locust

is now Rutidoderes squarrosus. The family to which it belongs, Pyrgo­morphidae, is known collectively as “gaudy grasshoppers”. You can see why.

Psittacus Infuscatus, the Dusky Parrot

may be Pionus fuscus, the dusky or violaceous parrot. It lives in South America.

Lath. ind. orn.
[From here on, references to Latham’s Index Ornithologicus will generally not include a page number.]

Fistularia Chinensis, the Chinese Fistularia

is now Aulostomus chinensis, the Chinese trumpetfish. In spite of the name, it is scattered around most tropical-to-subtropical oceans.

Papilio Cassiæ, the Cassia Butterfly

is probably, but not certainly, Opsiphanes cassiae. It lives in South and Central America.

Aphrodita Cirrhosa, the Cirrhated Aphrodita

is now Gattyana cirrhosa. It lives along most northern coasts, especially around the British Isles.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.
[As with Latham, references to Linnaeus will increasingly often leave out the page number. George Shaw will eventually die in harness, leaving the final volume of the Miscellany unfishished—but that’s almost six years in the future.]

Alcedo Leucocephala, the White-Headed Kingfisher

is probably Halcyon leucocephala, the grey-headed kingfisher. It lives in subsaharan Africa.

Scarus Cretensis, the Cretan Scarus

is now Sparisoma cretense, the parrotfish. It lives around the Mediter­ranean and west Africa.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 393.
[Volume number missing (in both Latin and English).]

Sphinx Satellitia, the Double-Pointed Sphinx

is probably Eumorpha satellitia, the satellite sphinx. It lives in the Americas, especially Central America.

Brachionus Aculeatus, the Aculeated Brachionus

Unknown, though it’s probably a rotifer. Some sources suggest it may be a variant of B. angularis (1851). If so, it is most common in Europe.

[Plate 796]
[This makes two full calendar years (1806, 1807) in which I haven’t been able to find a single date. Well, maybe there wasn’t room, since Plate 796 is also this volume’s token Weirdly Undersized Plate.]

much resembles that of the Vorticella rotatoria or Wheel-Animal
[This only muddies the waters. Genus Vorticella is today limited to “bell animalcules”, which—in spite of their name—are not animals at all, but chromists. There is also a genus Rotatoria, now regularized to Rotaria, which puts us back among the rotifers.]

Certhia Gutturalis, the Purple-Throated Creeper

may be the subspecies Chalcomitra senegalensis gutturalis, where C. senegalensis is the scarlet-chested sunbird. This seems to be the same bird that was formerly known as Cinnyris gutturalis. If so, Shaw’s sources are entirely wrong about its provenance; the species as a whole is African, while the subspecies is scattered around southern Africa.

Tubularia Ramosa, the Twisted Tubularia

is now Eudendrium ramosum, the stick hydroid. It is not a coralline—which would have made it a plant—but a cnidarian. It is scattered along most coasts.

Buccinum Subulatum, the Subulate Buccinum

is now Terebra subulata, the chocolate spotted auger. It lives mainly in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Lin. Syst. Nat.
text has Lyn.
[This exact error has shown up several times before, and will show up several times again. It can hardly be attributed to illegible handwriting, so we will have to call it a brain fart.]

Chætodon Teira, the Long-Finned Chætodon

is now Platax teira, the batfish. It lives mainly in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Strix Larvata, the Masked Owl

If it really is just a variety of Latham’s S. perspicillata, it is now Pulsatrix perspicillata. It lives in South and Central America.

The name, incidentally, gives us the word larva in one of its original, classical senses: an actor’s mask. Daudin’s Strix personata is semantically similar.

varietas esse possit Strigis perspicillatæ Lathami
text has perspillatæ
[The English side has the expected spelling.]

Acanthurus Chirurgus, the Lancet-Tailed Acanthurus

is also known as the black doctorfish. (I was frankly surprised that Shaw didn’t call it “the surgical acanthurus”. Another pre-ICZN name was Acan­thurus phlebotomus.) It lives along the Atlantic coast of the Americas, including the Caribbean.

Since Shaw does not deign to explain why these fishes are called doctors, surgeons, bloodletters (A. phlebotomus) or unspecified lancet-wielders, I had to look it up for myself. They are named for the sharp spines at the base of the tail. One website explains reassuringly that they won’t hurt you unless you bother them.

The reason . . . has been already explained
[In the description of Acanthurus velifer at Plate 547 of Volume 14. In fact Forsskål’s genus Acanthurus (“common surgeonfishes”) was defined some dozen years before Bloch named the doctorfish Chætodon chirurgus.]

Sphinx Populi, the Poplar Sphinx

is now Laothoe populi, the poplar hawkmoth. It lives in Europe.

Papilio Androgeus, the Androgeus (butterfly)

Cramer’s P. androgeus is also known as the Androgeus swallowtail. Linnaeus’s P. polydamas is now Battus polydamas, the gold-rim swallowtail. Both live in South and Central America. The only P. peranthus I can find is not Cramer but Fabricius; it still has that binomial, making it a third swallowtail. Unlike the first two, it lives in Indonesia, especially Java.

[Plate 804] 1807
[Uh-oh. Unless the publisher has been doubling up, the earliest it can possibly be is February 1808. Can we stipulate that this plate was originally planned for an earlier installment—it’s pretty unusual to have two separate articles, with two separate plates, featuring different lepidopterans—and only the number was changed? In the alternative, Richard Nodder engraved it in 1807, giving no thought to publication date, and came back later to fill in the plate number.]

engraved date and signature

Sturnus Subroseus, the Subrosaceous Stare

If it is the same bird as Latham’s Turdus pagodarum, and if Latham got the name from Gmelin, it is probably Sturnia pagodarum, the brahminy starling. It lives in South Asia.

Papilio Spondiæ, the Single-Spotted Butterfly

Unidentified. The plant Spondias lutea seems to be more popular with moth caterpillars, notably the hog caterpillar.

Sparus Falcatus, the Falcated Sparus

is now Bodianus rufus (by way of Linnaeus’s Labrus rufus), the dogfish. It lives in the Caribbean and along the Atlantic coast of the Americas. In earlier volumes we met two different fishes that Shaw assigned to genus Bodianus but which are now classified elsewhere. So this reassigment into the genus seems only fair. But see Sparus Verres in the next installment.

Scarabæus Typhon, the Typhon (beetle)

is now Megasoma gyas (by way of Scarabaeus gyas), one of the rhino­ceros beetles. The genus as a whole is most common in Central America.

With the ending of this installment we bid a final, much-overdue farewell to the ct ligature. It is present in the Character Specificus (larger type), absent in the descrip­tive prose (smaller type):

page image

Buceros Albirostris, the White-Beaked Hornbill

is probably Anthracoceros albirostris, the Oriental pied hornbill, with naming credit to Shaw. It lives in Southeast Asia, including Indonesia.

Sparus Verres, the Boar-Tusked Sparus

If it is the same fish as Bloch’s Lutianus (or Lutjanus) verres, it is now . . . Bodianus rufus, the dogfish, again. And if so, it lives in the Caribbean and along the Atlantic coast of South America.

Lucanus Alces, the Elk-Horned Stag-Chaffer

is probably Odontolabis alces, the moose beetle. It lives in the Philippines.

Under the original Lucanus name, the Stag-Chaffer or Moose Beetle caught the fancy of glass sculptor Wesley Fleming.

Voluta Magnifica, the Magnific Volute

is probably Cymbiola magnifica. It lives along the west coast of Australia.

Columella plicata, Labio Umbilicove nullo.
text has nyllo

albo fuscoque transversim varia, columella quadriplicata.
. missing

maculis fasciarum saturatioribus
text has satturatioribus
[Is the printer in a hurry to finish this installment?]

Ampelis Pompadora, the Pompadour Chatterer

If it is the same bird as Pallas’s Turdus puniceus, it is probably Xipholena punicea, the pompadour cotinga. It lives in South America.

described and figured by the accurate Brisson
[That would be the same Brisson who made a habit of publishing detailed descriptions based purely on a single drawing of a bird he had never personally seen: see the Chinese Cuckow, Plate 277 of Volume 8, the Red-Headed Bee-Eater, Plate 357 of Volume 10, and the Thibetian Peacock, Plate 441 of Volume 11.]

Exocoetus Mesogaster, the Middle-Finned Flying-Fish

is now Parexocoetus mento, the African flying fish. (There must have been something seriously wrong with Bloch’s name, since the official one is fully half a century newer.) In spite of its English name, it is most often seen around Australia and Indonesia.

Voluta Junonia, the Junonian Volute

is now Scaphella junonia, Juno’s volute. It lives around the Caribbean.

stratis nitidissime tesselata et zonata
text has tessulata

Phalæna Cossus, the Goat Moth

is now Cossus cossus. It lives mainly in western Europe.

a larva or caterpillar of an appearance rather disagreeable than elegant
[Took the words right out of my mouth. It looks even more revolting in photographs.]

is furnished with a far greater number of muscles
text has furnished / ed without hyphen at line break

Ampelis Cotinga, the Purple-Breasted Chatterer

is probably Cotinga cotinga, the purple-breasted cotinga. It lives in South America.

Sparus Surinamensis, the Surinam Sparus

is now Geophagus surinamensis, the mother-of-pearl eartheater. It lives in the rivers of South America.

Reddish Spare
[This English spelling will crop up a couple of times in this and the following volume, but will never dislodge the usual “Sparus”.]

Papilio Piera, the Talc-Winged Butterfly

is now Haetera piera, the amber phantom. It lives in South America. (Genus Haetera was proposed by Fabricius in 1807, or approximately five minutes before this installment of the Miscellany was compiled. The early years saw an assortment of misspellings, predictably including Hetera and Hetaera.)

Madrepora Axillaris, the Axillary Madrepore

is now Cyathelia axellaris. It lives around most Asian islands, from Japan to Indonesia.

Ampelis Superba, the Superb Chatterer

Uncertain. 19th-century sources tend to equate it with Ampelis cincta or Cotinga cincta, the banded chatterer, also unidentified. (The banded cotinga, for what it’s worth, is C. maculata.) If it is Ampelis cotinga after all, that takes us back to Cotinga cotinga in the previous installment.

Phalæna Pini, the Pine Moth

is now Dendrolimus pini, the pine-tree lappet. It lives in western Europe.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.
text has attennatæ
[This exact typographical error has cropped up several times in the past. In addition to the n-for-u substitution—a sufficient excuse on its own—there is the nearby “Antennæ” to create further confusion.]

(volatu diurno).
text unchanged: error for nocturno

Flight diurnal.
text unchanged: error for nocturnal
[The matching errors in both Latin and English point to a brain fart on the part of the author. Stereotypy was several decades away, so keeping the individual parts of a description set in type was more trouble than it was worth.]

Pleuronectes Argus, the Argus Flounder

is now Bothus lunatus (by way of Pleuronectes lunatus), the flounder. Apparently Bloch didn’t realize that he and Linnaeus were talking about the same fish. It lives in the tropical-to-subtropical parts of the Atlantic.

Passer oculatus.
[Nice try, Plumier, but Passer was established as a bird genus (Old World sparrows) already in 1760.]

Papilio Rhamni, the Buckthorn Butterfly

is now Gonepteryx rhamni, the brimstone. The colorist goofed; it is light green and looks exactly like a leaf. It lives all over Europe.

The caterpillar of the elegant insect represented
word “the” missing

Alcedo Smyrnensis, the Smyrna Kingfisher

is now Halcyon smyrnensis, the white-throated kingfisher. It lives in the southern parts of Asia, including but not limited to South Asia.

[Plate 825]
[The plate number is engraved “821”, but is indexed correctly.]

Le Martin-pecheur bleu et roux.
[Buffon probably said “bleu et rouge”. But Shaw doesn’t specify what edition he was working from, so I couldn’t find the passage.]

Bodianus Aya, the Aya Bodian

Unknown. (GBIF lists the species as “accepted”, but I don’t believe them). Is it possible he got it mixed up with B. apua (now Mycteroperca venenosa) from the previous volume?

[Plate 826]
[The plate number is engraved “822”, but is indexed correctly.]

inter congeneres forte pulcherrimus
text has pucherrimus

Will. ichth. p. 329.
text has icth.

Voluta Indica, the Indian Volute

is now Melo melo (by way of Voluta melo). It ranges from South to South­east Asia.

Papilio Empedocles, the Empedocles (butterfly)

is probably Nothus empedocles. The genus as a whole lives in South America.

The P. aegisthus listed among synonyms is an entirely different insect, now Graphium agamemnon, the green-spotted triangle butterfly. Phalaena lunus is not as far-fetched as one would think; it is now Nothus lunus, in the same genus as the Empedocles. (Why Linnaeus thought it was a moth is anyone’s guess. More often he was wrong in the other direction, classifying a diurnal moth as a butterfly.)

[Plate 828]
[The plate number is engraved “824”, but is indexed correctly.]

Index
Latin

789.   Psittacus infuscatus.
text has 769

English

813.   Chatterer Pompadour.
text has 797

The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.