Naturalist’s Miscellany

The Naturalist’s Miscellany
by George Shaw
Volume 20

v

HONORATISSIMO VIRO

THOMÆ BARONI ERSKINE,

LEGUM SCIENTIA ET ELOQUENTIA

CLARISSIMO;

ARTIUM INGENUARUM

FAUTORI ET PATRONO,
hunc
VICESIMUM

NATURÆ VIYARII

FASCICULUM
d. d. d.
GEORGIUS SHAW,
E. NODDER.

r

to
THE RIGHT HONOURABLE

THOMAS LORD ERSKINE,

distinguished by

DEEP KNOWLEDGE AND SPLENDID ELOQUENCE,

as well as by

GENERAL DEVOTION TO THE

CAUSE OF LITERATURE AND SCIENCE,

THIS TWENTIETH VOLUME
of the

NATURALIST’S MISCELLANY

is

RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED

by
GEORGE SHAW,
E. NODDER.

v

 

829

Cyanean Crow

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

B3

CORVUS CYANEUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum convexum, cultratum.

Nares pennis setaceis recumbentibus obtectis.

Lingua cartilaginea, bifida.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Corvus subviolaceo-cæruleus, subtus pallidus, capite nigro, cauda longa cuneata, rectricibus apice albis.

Corvus cyaneus. C. cinereus, vertice splendide atro, alis caudaque cyaneis, rectricibus longissimis, intermediis apice albis.

Lin. Gmel.

Corvus cyanus.

Pall. it. 3. p. 694.

Varias Asiæ borealis regiones incolit elegans avis in tabula depicta. Ab apice rostri ad extremum caudæ quasi pedalis est mensura.

v

the
CYANEAN CROW.

Generic Character.

Bill convex, cultrated.

Nostrils covered with recumbent bristly feathers.

Tongue cartilaginous.

Feet formed for walking.

Specific Character, &c.

Subviolaceous-blue Crow, pale beneath, with black head, and long cuneated tail with white tips.

The Cyanean Jay.

The Blue Crow.

The elegant bird represented on the present plate, is a native of several of the northern regions of Asia. Its length is about twelve inches, from the tip of the bill to the end of the tail.

830

African Peacock-Moth

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PHALÆNA TYRRHEA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ. (Volatu nocturno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Phalæna Tyrrhea. P. alis griseis, strigis albis ocelloque centrali nigro pupilla fenestrata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 2407.

Phalæna Tyrrhea.

Cram. 4. t. 40. f. A.

Inter hanc et phalænam Europæam, quæ Junonia dicitur, summa videtur esse affinitas. Eadem fere est utrisque colorum dispositio. Generatur in variis Africanis regionibus. In tabula nostra ostenditur vera magni­tudo.

v

the
AFRICAN PEACOCK-MOTH.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, decreasing in size from the base to the point.

Wings (when at rest) generally deflected.

Flight mostly nocturnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Moth with grey wings, with white streaks and a black central spot with transparent pupil.

The Grey African Peacock-Moth.

The Cape Peacock-Moth.

This insect, in the general disposition of its colours, is much allied to the European species called Phalæna Junonia. It is a native of several parts of Africa, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

831

Pearl Muscle

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

MYTILUS MARGARITIFER.

Character Genericus.

Animal Ascidia?

Testa bivalvis, rudis, sæpius affixa bysso, ut plurimum crassiori.

Cardo (in plurimis) edentulus, distinctus, (paucis exceptis) linea subulata excavata longi­tudinali.

Lin. Gmel.

Character Specificus, &c.

Mytilus testa plana suborbiculata, extus lamellis fusco-virentibus imbricata, intus argenteo-iricolore.

Mytilus margaritiferus. M. testa compresso-plana suborbiculata, basi transversa, imbricata tunicis dentatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Concha margaritifera.

Imperati Nat. p. 905.

Matrix perlarum.

Rumph. mus. t. 47. f. F.

List. conch. t. 223. f. 57.

Concham depinximus qua nulla est in genere testaceo celebratior: quippe cum careat externa venustate, splendet intus summopere argentea, pro variata luce v iricolor. Crassa quoque est, et cum artificiose divisa et polita fuerit, redigitur in substantiam, quæ bacca conchæ, seu vulgariter et minus latine dicitur mater perlarum. Ex hac etiam excerpuntur pulcherrimi isti globuli qui emphatice appellantur perlæ; quique reperiuntur varia magni­tudine, alias inclusi in corpore animalis testam incolentis; alias in testa, liberi tamen et nullis impedi­mentis inhibiti; alias internæ ejus superficiei leviter adhærentes. Ea interdum est magni­tudine Mytilus margaritifer, ut æquet diametros decem vel etiam duodecim uncias. Varia incolit litora marium Indicorum et Americanorum; nullibi tamen major et venustior generatur quam in insula quæ hodie dicitur Ceylon; cujus in sinubus jamdiu institutum est grande et lucrosum perlarum commercium.

r

the
PEARL MUSCLE.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to an Ascidia.

Shell bivalve, in some species fastened by a kind of silk or byssus.

Hinge, in most species, without tooth.

Specific Character, &c.

Muscle with flat suborbicular shell, externally imbri­cated by greenish-brown laminæ, internally silvery-iridescent.

The Pearl-Muscle.

The Nacre-Shell.

The Mother of Pearl Shell.

Bonanni, pl. 1.

Gualtieri, pl. 84.

Argenville, pl. 23. f. A.

The shell represented on the present plate may be considered as the most celebrated of the whole testaceous tribe. It is not distinguished by any attractive external appearance, but is internally of the most splendid silver-colour, accompanied with iridescent variegations. It is of very considerable thickness, and, when properly cut and polished, constitutes the elegant v substance commonly known by the name of mother of pearl. It is in this shell also that the highly beautiful and valuable substances properly and emphatically termed Pearls are produced. They are found of various sizes, sometimes imbedded in the body of the inhabiting animal, sometimes loose in the shell, and sometimes slightly attached or connected to its internal surface. The pearl shell arrives at a very large size, often measuring ten or twelve inches in diameter, and is found about various coasts of the Indian and American seas: the most valuable of all, however, are said to be those of the island of Ceylon, in some of the bays of which the largest and most important pearl fisheries have long been established.

832

Lineated Tetrodon

R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

TETRODON LINEATUS.

Character Genericus.

Maxillæ osseæ, apice divisæ.

Corpus subtus muricatum.

Pinnæ ventrales nullæ.

Character Specificus, &c.

Tetrodon lineatus. T. abdomine fasciis longitudi­nalibus fuscis variato.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 442.

Tetrodon lineatus. T. fasciis longitudinalibus fuscis pallidisque.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Tetrodon ventre prominente, fronte elevata.

Bloch. ichth. t. 141.

Generatur in mari Mediterraneo Tetrodon lineatus; interdum etiam, ut fertur, in Nilo flumine. Hoc ei commune est cum multis congeneribus, ut cutem abdominis ad libitum possit inflare; quæ parvulis aculeis obsita temere arripientium manus pungendo non leviter stimulare et irritare dicitur. Crescit in longi­tudinem octo seu decem unciarum.

v

 

r

the
LINEATED TETRODON.

Generic Character.

Jaws bony, divided at the tip.

Body roughened beneath.

Ventral fins wanting.

Specific Character, &c.

Tetrodon with the abdomen variegated by longi­tudinal brown bands.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 442.

Der gestreifte Stachelbanche.

Bloch. pl. 141.

The striped Globe-Fish.

This fish, which is a native of the Mediterranean sea, is also said to be sometimes found in the river Nile. Like many others of its genus, it has a power of inflating at pleasure the skin of its body, and being covered on the abdomen with numerous small spines, is said to inflict considerable pain on the hands of those who incautiously seize it. It arrives at the length of eight or ten inches.

v

 

833

Great Jacamar

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

C

GALBULA JACAMACIRI.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum rectum, longum, quadrangulare, acutum.

Lingua brevis, acuta.

Pedes scansorii.

Character Specificus, &c.

Galbula cupreo-viridis, subtus ferruginea, capite caudaque viridibus.

Galbula grandis. G. cupreo-aurea, subtus tota ferruginea, capite artubusque viridi-aureis, cauda cuneiformi corpore longiore.

Lath. ind. orn.

Pall. Spic. Zool. 6. p. 10.

Alcedo grandis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

Elegantem hanc avem primus descripsit celeberrimus Pallas, magni­tudine fere parem pico communi viridi; eodem quasi modulo formatam quo Apiaster. Color ferrugineo-viret, non sine cupreo quodam seu aurato splendore. Remiges primores fusci. Cauda viridis. Brasiliensis esse creditur.

v

 

C2

the
GREAT JACAMAR.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, long, quadrangular, sharp-pointed.

Tongue short, sharp.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Copper-green Jacamar, ferruginous beneath, with green head and tail.

Great Jacamar.

Lath. syn. p. 605.

Le Jacammaciri.

Viellot. ois. dor.

This elegant bird was first described by Dr. Pallas. Its size is nearly that of the common green Woodpecker, and its shape that of the Merops Apiaster or Bee Eater. Its colour is ferruginous, with a cast of green, and accom­panied by a golden or coppery lustre: the larger wing-feathers are brown, and the tail green. It is supposed to be a native of Brasil.

v

 

834

Rose Sparus

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

SPARUS ERYTHRINUS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes validi: Primores in aliis ordine simplici, in aliis duplici, triplici, vel quad­ruplici dispositi.

Molares (plerisque) validi, convexi, læves, in series dispositi, et quasi pavimentum in ore effor­mantes.

Labia crassa: Opercula mutica, squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sparus roseus, abdomine argenteo.

Sparus Erythrinus. S. cauda subintegra, corpore rubro.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 469.

Sparus spinis dorsalibus duodecim, ordine dentium maxillarum duplici.

Bloch. 8. t. 274.

Longus, ut plurimum, est Sparus Erythrinus decem seu duodecim uncias. E mari mediterraneo extractus in cibis habetur delicatioribus: sin autem (quod sæpe fit) aluerint eum maria Indica, noxius et insalubris esse dicitur. Verisimile est oriri posse nocendi vim a comesa quadam acri marina substantia.

v

 

r

the
ROSE SPARUS.

Generic Character.

Teeth strong: Front-teeth in some species disposed in a single row, in others in a double, treble, or quad­ruple row.

Grinders (in most species) convex, smooth, and disposed in ranges, forming a kind of pavement in the mouth.

Lips thick: Gill-covers unarmed, smooth, scaly.

Specific Character, &c.

Rose-red Sparus, with silvery abdomen.

Le Pagel.

Bonnaterre Encycl. Ichthyol. t. 49.

Die Rothschuppe.

Bloch. ichth. pl. 274.

This beautiful fish is a native of the Mediterranean sea, where it arrives at the length of ten or twelve inches, and is considered as a delicate article of food. In the Indian seas however, where it is likewise found, it is said to be sometimes highly noxious. This is probably owing to its feeding on some acrimonious marine substances.

v

 

843

Pupal Locust

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

GRYLLUS PUPUS.

Character Genericus.

Caput inflexum, maxillosum, palpis instructum.

Antennæ setaceæ seu filiformes.

Alæ quatuor, deflexæ, convolutæ; inferiores plicate.

Pedes postici saltatorii. Ungues ubique bini.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 692.

Character Specificus, &c.

Gryllus apterus fusco-flavescens, corpore crasso, thorace spinoso.

Gryllus Pupus. G. apterus, thorace spinoso, femoribus punctatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Locusta aptera, thorace spinoso, abdomine tuberculis conicis spinosis.

Degeer 3. p. 453. pl. 39. f. 5.

Præclare exprimitur hoc insectum in operibus Roeselii. Cum tamen nulla sint alarum vestigia, dubitari forsan possit annon ad ætatem pervenerit plenam et adultam. Generatur in Africæ regionibus interioribus.

v

 

r

the
PUPAL LOCUST.

Generic Character.

Head inflected, armed with jaws, and furnished with feelers.

Antennæ (in most species) setaceous or filiform.

Wings four, deflected and convoluted; the lower ones pleated.

Hind-Legs formed for leaping: claws on all the feet double.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish-brown apterous Locust, with thick body, and spiny thorax.

Spiny African Locust.

Eine art einer noch jungen und unausgewachsenen Heuschrecke.

Roes. ins. bel. 2. Heusck. et Grill. t. 6. f. 3.

It seems in some degree doubtful whether this insect, which is admirably figured in the works of Roesel, be in reality arrived at its complete or ultimate state; since it is totally destitute of wings. It is a native of the interior of Africa.

v

 

836

Ethiopic Volute

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

VOLUTA ÆTHIOPICA.
Var.
Marmorata.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa unilocularis, spiralis.

Apertura ecaudata, subeffusa.

Columella plicata.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Voluta Æthiopica. V. testa emarginata ventricosa, spira coronata spinis fornicatis, apice papillari, columella quadriplicata.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Var.

V. flavescens, fasciis anastomozantibus longitudi­nalibus ferrugineis.

In maribus Indicis generatur speciosa hæc Volutæ Æthiopicæ varietas, et magni­tudine vera in tabula exprimitur.

v

 

r

ETHIOPIC VOLUTE.
Marbled Variety.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax or Slug.

Shell unilocular, spiral.

Pillar twisted, or pleated.

Specific Character, &c.

Emarginated, ventricose Volute, with four-wreathed pillar, and spire crowned with spines.

Var.

Yellowish Volute, with anastomosing, longi­tudinal, ferruginous bands.

This beautiful variety of the Ethiopic Volute is a native of the Indian seas, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

837

Red-Bellied Creeper

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

D

CERTHIA ERYTHROGASTRA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum arcuatum, tenue, acutum.

Lingua variis varia.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Cauda pennis duodecim.

Lath. ind. orn.

Character Specificus, &c.

Certhia aureo-viridis, alis caudaque fuscis, abdomine rubro, fascia pectorali chalybea.

Le Soui-Manga a ceinture bleue.

Viellot ois. dor. pl. 10.

In Africa inferiori generatur Certhia erythrogastra, Certhiæ collari seu chalybeæ Linnæi admodum affinis, sed major. In tabula ostenditur vera magni­tudo.

v

 

D2

the
RED-BELLIED CREEPER.

Generic Character.

Bill bent, slender, sharp-pointed.

Tongue differing in different species.

Feet formed for walking.

Tail consisting of twelve feathers.

Specific Character, &c.

Gold-green Creeper, with brown wings and tail, red belly, and steel-blue pectoral band.

Le Soui-Manga a ceinture bleue.

Viellot ois. dor. pl. 10.

This species is an inhabitant of the lower parts of Africa, and is greatly allied to the collared Creeper or Certhia chalybea of Linnæus, but is somewhat larger. The plate represents it in its natural size.

v

 

838

Golden Tench

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

CYPRINUS TINCAUREA.

Character Genericus.

Os parvum, edentulum. Dentes gutturales.

Membr. branch. triradiata.

Pinnæ ventrales sæpius novemradiatæ.

Character Specificus, &c.

Cyprinus Tinca. C. mucosus olivaceo-nigricans, squamis minimis, cauda subintegra.

Var.?

Cyprinus Tincaurea. C. mucosus aurantius, nigro maculatus, pinnis rubris pellucidis, cauda subintegra.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 217.

Cyprinus Tinca-Auratus. C. squamis parvis, pinnis transparentibus.

Bloch. ichth. 1. p. 74. t. 15.

Pulcherrima hac Cyprini Tincæ varietas, si revera varietas, non per se species habenda sit, apud certas Germanicas regiones alitur in aquis per hortos et vireta ductis ut oculos oblectet prætereuntium. Color splendide aurantio-flavus maculis parvulis nigris aspergitur. Pinnæ tenues, ruberrimæ et quasi pellucidæ. Testatur Blochius generari Cyprinum Tincauream præcipue in Silesia et Bohemia.

v

 

r

the
GOLDEN TENCH.

Generic Character.

Mouth small and toothless. Teeth in the throat.

Gill-Membrane three-rayed.

Ventral fins, in general, nine-rayed.

Specific Character, &c.

Mucous, blackish-olive Carp, with very small scales, and nearly-even tail.

Var.?

Golden Tench. Mucous, orange-coloured Carp, with black spots, red pellucid fins, and nearly-even tail.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 217.

Der Goldschley.

Bloch. ichth. pl. 15.

This highly beautiful variety, if such it really be, of the Common Tench, occurs in some parts of Germany, where it is kept as an ornamental fish in the waters of gardens and pleasure-grounds. Its colour is the richest orange-yellow, variegated with small black spots, while the fins are transparent, and of a bright red colour. It is principally found, according to Dr. Bloch, in Silesia and Bohemia.

v

 

839

Automedon Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO AUTOMEDON.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes.

Volatus diurnus.

Character Specificus, &c.

Papilio alis angulato-repandis fuscis purpureo-nitentibus, subtus griseo-variis ocello subanali.

Papilio Automedon. P. alis angulato-repandis fuscis subtus lividiusculis, ocello anguli ani.

Fab. sp. ins. 2. p. 25.

Automedon.

Cram. pap. t. 41. f. A. B.

Americam Australem, præcipue Surinamiam incolit Papilio Automedon, magni­tudine vera in tabula depictus.

v

 

r

AUTOMEDON.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and commonly terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards.

Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with angular-repandous, blackish, purple-glossed wings; varied with brown beneath, and marked near the end of the body by an ocellated spot.

Automedon.

Cramer. 1. pl. 41. f. A. B.

This insect is an inhabitant of South America, and particularly of Surinam, and is repre­sented in its natural size.

v

 

840

Lettuce Madrepore

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

MADREPORA LACTUCA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Medusa.

Corallium cavitatibus lamelloso-stellatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Madrepora sessilis, stellis magnis confertis frondes­centibus; frondibus laciniosis crispatis.

Pall. et zooph. p. 289.

Lin. Gmel. p. 3758.

Concha fungiformis.

Seb. mus. 3. t. 89. f. 10.

Maria incolit Indica rarum hoc Corallium. In Museo Britannico pulchrum asservatur specimen.

v

 

r

the
LETTUCE MADREPORE.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Medusa.

Coral marked by radiating lamellar cavities.

Specific Character, &c.

Sessile Madrepore, with large, crowded, frondescent stars, and laciniated, crisped fronds.

Lettuce Madrepore.

Soland. et Ellis zooph. p. 158.

The rare Coral here represented is a native of the Indian seas. An elegant specimen is preserved in the British Museum.

v

 

[E]

Ob incuriam in disponendis tabulis depictus est nuper in opusculo hoc nostro Gryllus Elephas vice Grylli Pupi Linnæi. Monendus est igitur amicus lector ut icones insectorum aptet descriptionibus.

By an oversight in the insertion of the plates in a preceding Number of this Publication, a figure of the Gryllus Elephas of Linnæus is given instead of the Gryllus Pupus. The reader is therefore requested to transpose the plates of those insects, so as to accom­pany their respective descriptions.

v

 

841

Musical Manakin

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

E2

PIPRA MUSICA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum capite brevius, basi subtrigonum, integer­rimum, apice incurvum.

Pedes gressorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 338.

Character Specificus, &c.

Pipra violaceo-nigra, vertice colloque superiore cæruleis, pectore abdomine crisso uropygioque flavissimis.

Pipra musica. P. nigra, subtus aurantia, fronte uropygioque flavis, vertice nuchaque cæruleis, mento gulaque nigris.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 1004.

Pipra musica. P. nigricans, corpore subtus uropygioque fulvis, gutture genisque nigris, vertice nuchaque cæruleis, fronte flava.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 562.

Perelegantis aviculæ in Cayenna et aliis Americæ australis regionibus generatæ veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula. Plumis vestitur pulcherrimis: tantaque est ei vocis suavitas, ut ipsi lusciniæ cantu par, si non melior, habeatur. Amat præcipue intimos sylvarum recessus.

v

 

r

the
MUSICAL MANAKIN.

Generic Character.

Bill shorter than the head, somewhat triangular at the base, and bent at the tip.

Feet formed for walking.

Specific Character, &c.

Violet-black Manakin, with the crown of the head and upper part of the neck blue, the breast, belly, rump and vent gold-yellow.

L’Organiste.

Buff. ois. 4. p. 290.

L’Organiste de St. Domingue.

Pl. Enl. 809.

This most elegant little bird, which the plate represents in its natural size, is a native of Cayenne and other parts of South America, and is said to be as remarkable for the melody of its song as the beauty of its plumage, equalling, or even, according to some describers, surpassing the nightingale. It is said chiefly to frequent the deep recesses of woods.

v

 

842

Great-Eyed Sparus

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

SPARUS MACROPHTHALMUS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes validi: Primores in aliis ordine simplici, in aliis duplici, triplici, vel quad­ruplici dispositi.

Molares (plerisque) validi, convexi, læves, in series dispositi, et quasi pavimentum in ore effor­mantes.

Labia crassa: Opercula mutica, squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sparus flavescens, roseo longitudinaliter striatus, oculis magnis, dentibus caninis quatuor in maxilla superiore.

Sparus macrophthalmus. S. oculis magnis, dentibus quatuor caninis in maxilla superiore.

Bloch. ichth. 8. t. 272.

Maria incolit Indica Sparus macrophthalmus, magni­tudine quasi Percæ vulgaris Europææ sive fluviatilis Linnæi.

v

 

r

the
GREAT-EYED SPARUS.

Generic Character.

Teeth strong: Front-Teeth in some species disposed in a single row, in others in a double, treble, or quad­ruple row.

Grinders (in most species) convex, smooth, and disposed in ranges, forming a kind of pavement in the mouth.

Lips thick: Gill-Covers unarmed, smooth, scaly.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish Sparus, with rose-coloured longi­tudinal streaks, large eyes, and four canine teeth in the upper jaw.

Great-Eyed Sparus.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 407.

The fish represented on the present plate is an inhabi­tant of the Indian seas, and is of the size of the common European Perch.

v

 

835

Elephant Locust

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

GRYLLUS ELEPHAS.

Character Genericus.

Caput inflexum, maxillosum, palpis instructum.

Antennæ setaceæ seu filiformes.

Alæ quatuor, deflexæ, convolutæ; inferiores plicatæ.

Pedes postici saltatorii. Ungues ubique bini.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 692.

Character Specificus, &c.

Gryllus virescens apterus, fusco rufoque nebulosus, corpore supra spinoso-muricato.

Gryllus Elephas. G. thorace carinato integro, corpore aptero.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 699.

Roes. Locust. t. 6. f. 2.

Caret alis hæc species; id quod et Gryllo Pupo accidit, qui iisdem in regionibus generatur, nempe in interiori Africa. Color est olivaceo-viridis, rubro hinc inde aspersus. Ostendit tabula veram insecti magni­tudinem.

v

 

r

the
ELEPHANT LOCUST.

Generic Character.

Head inflected, armed with jaws, and furnished with feelers.

Antennæ (in most species) setaceous or filiform.

Wings four, deflected and convoluted; the lower ones pleated.

Hind-Legs formed for leaping: claws on all the feet two.

Specific Character, &c.

Greenish apterous Locust, clouded with brown and rufous; the body roughened above with spiny processes.

Variegated wingless Locust.

Rough-bodied African Locust.

This species, like the Gryllus Pupus, is remarkable for the want of wings. Like that insect also it is a native of the interior parts of Africa. Its colour is olive-green, tinged in some parts with red. It is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

844

Galanthis and Maja (butterflies)

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO GALANTHIS
et
PAPILIO MAJA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno).

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

P. Galanthis. P. alis integerrimis phoeniceis, fascia media margineque nigris.

P. Galanthis.

Cram. t. 25. f. D. E.

Alæ subtus rubentes, fasciis lividis.

P. Maja. P. alis denticulatis fusco-aurantiis nigro maculatis, inferioribus subtus virescentibus fascia marginali duplici alba.

P. Maja.

Cram. t. 25. f. B. C.

Affinis Papilioni Paphiæ.

Ostenditur in tabula papilionum duorum vera magni­tudo, quorum qui altius depingitur Surinamiam, qui inferius Greciam incolit.

v

GALANTHIS
and
MAJA.

Generic Character.

Antennæ commonly thickening towards the end into a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Galanthis. Butterfly with entire crimson wings with a middle and marginal black band.

The under surface is reddish with livid bars.

Maja. Butterfly with denticulated dusky-orange wings spotted with black, the lower pair greenish beneath and marked by a double marginal white band.

Allied to Papilio Paphia.

Of the two Butterflies represented in their natural size on the present plate, the upper is a native of Surinam, the lower of Greece.

845

Variegated Cuckow

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

F

CUCULUS DISCOLOR.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum teretiusculum.

Nares margine prominulæ.

Lingua sagittata, plana, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 168.

Character Specificus, &c.

Cuculus discolor. C. fusco-rufescens, crista bifida aurantia, rectricibus duabus exterioribus apiceque caudæ albis.

Cuculus discolor.

Cimelia Physica. t. 51. p. 95.

Pereleganter, ut solet, in tabulis suis miscellaneis Cuculum discolorem depinxit Millerus, in India generari creditum, et Cuculo communi Europæo magni­tudine parem. Nihil adhuc compertum est de moribus modoque vivendi.

v

 

F2

the
VARIEGATED CUCKOW.

Generic Character.

Bill somewhat bending.

Nostrils bounded by a small rim.

Tongue short, pointed.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Dusky-rufescent Cuckow, with bifid orange-coloured crest; the two lateral feathers and tip of the tail white.

Cuculus discolor.

Cim. Phys. t. 51. p. 95.

This bird, which is represented in the elegant miscel­laneous plates of Mr. Miller, is supposed to be a native of India, and is of similar size with the common European Cuckow. Nothing seems to be known of its history or manners.

v

 

846

Poplar Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO POPULI.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes. Volatus diurnus.

Character Specificus, &c.

Papilio populi. P. alis dentatis fuscis albo fasciatis maculatisque; subtus luteis albo fasciatis, maculis cærulescentibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 776.

Roes. ins. append. 1. t. 33. f. 1. 2.

In Mediis Europæ regionibus sæpius conspicitur papilio iste elegantissimus, Britanniam incolentibus prorsus ignotus. Larva folia populi præcipue depascitur; interdum quercus. Mense Junio in chrysalidem conver­titur, unde insequente Julio erumpit ipse papilio.

v

 

r

the
POPLAR BUTTERFLY.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and commonly terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with dentated brown wings barred and spotted with white; beneath luteous with white bands and blueish spots.

Seb. mus. 4. t. 12. f. 25-30.

Roes. ins. 3. t. 33. f. 1. 2. and 4. t. 31. f. 1.2.

This most elegant Butterfly is a native of many of the middle parts of Europe, but has not been observed in our own country. The caterpillar feeds principally on the leaves of the poplar, and sometimes of the oak, and changes to chrysalis in the month of June, from which, in the month of July, proceeds the Butterfly.

v

 

847

Semifasciated Sparus

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

SPARUS SEMIFASCIATUS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes validi: Primores simplici, duplici, triplici, vel quad­ruplici ordine dispositi.

Molares (plerisque) convexi, læves, et quasi pavimentum in ore effor­mantes.

Labia crassa: Opercula mutica, squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sparus semifasciatus. S. fulvus, fasciis semidecur­rentibus subnigris, imo dorso macula rotundata nigerrima, pinnis rubris.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 472.

Anthias striatus. A. macula nigra inter pinnam dorsi et caudæ.

Bloch ichth. 9. p. 109. t. 324.

Maria incolit Americana Sparus semifasciatus, magni­tudine quasi Cyprini Carpionis Europæi.

v

 

r

the
SEMIFASCIATED SPARUS.

Generic Character.

Teeth strong: front-teeth disposed in a single, double, triple, or quad­ruple row.

Grinders (in most species) convex, smooth, and forming a kind of pavement in the mouth.

Lips thick: Gill-covers unarmed, smooth, scaly.

Specific Character, &c.

Fulvous Sparus, with semidecurrent blackish bands, a deep-black round spot at the bottom of the back, and red fins.

Gen. Zool. vol. 4. p. 472.

Der gezeichnete Rothling.

Bloch ichth. 324.

The semifasciated Sparus is an inhabitant of the American seas, and is about the size of the common European Carp.

v

 

848

Netted Madrepore

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculp.

Notes

r

MADREPORA RETEPORA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Medusa.

Corallium cavitatibus lamelloso-stesiatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Madrepora aggregata, stellis angulatis, lamellis filamentosis, parietibus reticulatis denticulatis.

Soland. et Ellis zooph. p. 166. t. 53. f. 5. 6.

Madrepora retepora.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

In maribus Indicis generatur rarum hoc Corallium, magni­tudine vera in tabula depictum.

v

 

r

the
NETTED MADREPORE.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Medusa.

Coral marked by radiating lamellar cavities.

Specific Character, &c.

Aggregate Madrepore, with angular stars, fila­mentous divisions, and reticulated sides.

Netted Madrepore.

Cancellated Madrepore.

This rare species of Madrepore is a native of the Indian seas, and is repre­sented in its natural size.

v

 

849

Military Manakin

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

G

PIPRA MILITARIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum capite brevius, basi subtrigonum, integer­rimum, apice incurvum.

Pedes gressorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 338.

Character Specificus, &c.

Pipra nigra, subtus alba, scapularibus olivaceis, fronte uropygioque coccineis, rectricibus duabus intermediis elongatis.

Eximiam Pipræ speciem depinximus, quam neminem opinamur antea descripsisse. In America australi innas­citur, natali solo plurium congenerum. Ostendit tabula veram magni­tudinem.

v

 

G2

the
MILITARY MANAKIN.

Generic Character.

Bill shorter than the head, somewhat triangular at the base, and bent at the tip.

Feet formed for walking.

Specific Character, &c.

Black Manakin, white beneath, with olive scapulars, scarlet front and rump, and the two middle tail-feathers lengthened.

The beautiful species of Pipra here repre­sented seems to have been hitherto undescribed. Like most others of this genus, it is a native of South America, and is figured in its natural size.

v

 

850

Rottlerian Mackrel

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

SCOMBER ROTTLERI.

Character Genericus.

Caput compressum, læve.

Membr. branchiost. radiis septem.

Corpus læve, linea laterali carinatum.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Scomber argenteo-flavescens, dorso viridi-cæruleo, pinnis pectoralibus lanceolatis rubris, linea laterali late loricata.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 598.

Scomber Rottleri. S. maxilla inferiore prominente, pinnulis decem supra infraque.

Bloch ichth. 10. p. 39. t. 346.

Maria incolit Indica Scomber Rottleri, magni­tudine quasi Scombri communis Europæi.

v

 

r

the
ROTTLERIAN MACKREL.

Generic Character.

Head compressed, smooth.

Gill-Membrane furnished with seven rays.

Body smooth, carinated at the hind part by the lateral line.

Finlets or pinnules (in most species,) towards the tail.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish-silvery Mackrel, with blue-green back, red lanceolate pectoral fins, and widely mailed lateral line.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 598.

Die Rottlersche Mackrele.

Bloch. ichth. 10. pl. 346.

This species is a native of the Indian seas, and is about the same size with the common European Mackrel.

v

 

851

Palmiferous Doris

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

DORIS PALMIFERA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus repens, oblongum, subtus planum.

Os antice subtus.

Anus postice, supra cinctus ciliis.

Tentacula duo, supra corpus antice, intra foramina retractilia.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 1083.

Character Specificus, &c.

Doris cuprea fusco obumbrata, dorso utrinque appendiculis numerosis erectis apice ramosis.

Tritonia Hombergii.

Cuvier ann. m. h. n. tom. 6. p. 354.

Tritonia arborescens?

Cuvier ibid. pl. 6. f. 8-10.

Amphitrite frondosa?

Ascan. act. dronth. 5. p. 555.

De eleganti quod depinximus animali primus disseru­isse videtur Dicquemare in opere cui titulus Journal de Physique. In maribus generatur Europæis; et si faciem universam intuearis, facillime conjicias affinem esse altis multis speciebus quas amplectitur Linnæanum genus Doris. Satius tamen celeberrimo Cuviero visum est, in opere quod inscribitur Annales du Museum v d’Histoire Naturelle, ut instituatur Doridi palmiferæ novum genus, quod ab illo Tritonia dicitur. Color est pure cupreus, fusco hic illic paululum obumbratus; excurrentibus utrinque per dorsi latera palmas totidem minutas non male refer­entibus, appendicibus erectis, quarum singularum ab ore centrali aditus est ad organa respirationis. Doridi palmi­feræ, ut et aliis pluribus congeneribus, motus est tardus, et quasi limacinus. Longum erat octo uncias specimen quod inspexit Dicquemare, quodque in portu qui dicitur Gratiæ, detectum.

v

the
PALMIFEROUS DORIS.

Generic Character.

Body repent, oblong, flat beneath.

Mouth placed below, towards the anterior end.

Vent behind, generally surrounded by a fringe.

Tentacula two or four, seated on the upper part of the body in front, retractile.

Specific Character, &c.

Copper-coloured Doris shaded with brown; the back furnished on each side with numerous upright processes with ramified tips.

Tritonia Hombergii.

Cuvier. Ann. M. H. N. 6. p. 434.

La Palmifere.

Dicquem. Journ. de Physique. 27. p. 262. pl. 2.

This elegant marine animal appears to have been first described by the ingenious Abbé Dicquemare, in the work entitled Journal de Physique. It is an inhabitant of the European seas, and in its general appearance is evidently allied to many other animals of the Linnæan genus Doris. Mons. Cuvier however, v in the Annales du Museum d’Histoire Naturelle, is inclined to consider it as consti­tuting a separate new genus, which he distinguishes by the title of Tritonia. Its colour is that of pure copper, with a few dusky or brownish shades, and along each side of the back is placed a row of upright processes, so formed as to resemble the appearance of Palm-Trees in miniature. Each of these processes is furnished with a central orifice commu­nicating with the organs of respiration. The motion of this species, as in most others of the genus, is slow and snail-like. The individual observed by the Abbé Dicquemare measured eight inches in length, and was taken on the coast of Havre.

852

Cramerian Butterfly

R P N. Del. Sculp.

Notes

r

PAPILIO CRAMERIANUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes. (volatu diurno.)

Character Specificus, &c.

Papilio alis subdenticulatis nigris, maculis albis margine cæruleo-nitentibus, primoribus macula interiore sanguinea.

Papilio Iphigenia.

Cramer t. 67. f. D. E.

Pap. Nerina?

Fabr. sp. ins. 2. p. 98.

In Java generatur elegans hic Papilio, magni­tudine vera in tabula depictus.

v

 

r

the
CRAMERIAN BUTTERFLY.

Generic Character.

Antennæ commonly thickening towards the end into a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with subdenticulated black wings, with white spots edged by a shining-blue margin; the upper wings marked on the inner part by a blood-red spot.

Iphigenia.

Cramer. pl. f. D. E.

This elegant Butterfly is a native of the island of Java, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

853

White-Browed Owl

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

H

STRIX SUPERCILIOSA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum, absque cera.

Nares oblongæ, pennis setaceis recumbentibus obtectæ.

Caput grande, auribus oculisque magnis.

Lingua bifida.

Digitus externus retro mobilis.

Character Specificus, &c.

Strix ferruginea, fascia utrinque superciliari descendente alba.

Strix superciliosa.

Gen. Zool. 7. p. 250.

Americam Australem incolit Strix superciliosa, magni­tudine quasi Strigis Oti Linnæi.

v

 

H2

the
WHITE-BROWED OWL.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked, without cere.

Nostrils oblong, covered with recumbent setaceous feathers.

Head, eyes, and ears large.

Tongue bifid.

Exterior toe moveable backwards.

Specific Character, &c.

Ferruginous Owl, with a descending superciliary white band on each side.

White-Browed Owl.

Gen. Zool. 7. p. 250.

La Chouette à Aigrette blanche.

Levaill. ois. afr. pl. 43.

The species here represented is an inhabitant of South-America, and is about the size of the Strix Otus of Linnæus.

v

 

854

Thazard Mackrel

R P N Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

SCOMBER REGALIS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus oblongum, læve, linea laterali interdum carinatum.

Pinnulæ sæpius supra infraque caudam.

Character Specificus, &c.

Scomber supra cæruleus, subtus argenteus, lateribus flavo striato-maculatis.

Scomber regalis.

Bloch. ichth. t. 333.

In mari Americano præcipue conspicitur Scomber regalis, longi­tudine tres, quatuor, vel etiam sex pedes æquans.

v

 

r

the
THAZARD MACKREL.

Generic Character.

Body oblong, smooth, sometimes carinated by the lateral line.

Finlets (in most species) above and below towards the tail.

Specific Character, &c.

Mackrel with the body blueish above, silvery below, and the sides striped and spotted with yellow.

Le Thazard.

Cepede.

The Thazard Mackrel is a native of the American seas, where it arrives at the length of three, four, or even six feet.

v

 

855

Lace Madrepore

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculp.

Notes

r

MADREPORA PHRYGIA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Medusa.

Corallium cavitatibus lamelloso-stellatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Madrepora conglomerata, anfractibus longissimis angustis, dissepimentis simplicibus lamellosis, lamellis remotiusculis.

Madrepora Phrygia. M. conglomerata, anfractibus longissimis angustis, ambulacris perpendicu­laribus simplicibus, dissepimentis simplicibus laminosis lobulatis, lamellis remotiusculis.

Soland. et Ellis zooph. p. 162. t. 48. f. 2.

In Oceano Pacifico generatur pulcherrimum hoc Coral­lium, et magni­tudine vera in tabula exprimitur.

v

 

r

the
LACE MADREPORE.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Medusa.

Coral marked by lamellar stellated cavities.

Specific Character, &c.

Conglomerate Madrepore, with very long narrow undulations, simple lamellated dissepiments, and rather distant lamellæ.

Lace Madrepore.

This most beautiful Madrepore is a native of the Pacific Ocean, and is repre­sented in its natural size.

v

 

856

Rhodope Moth

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PHALÆNA RHODOPE.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ. (Volatu nocturno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 808.

Character Specificus, &c.

Phalæna alis elongato-ovatis nigris, posticis basi macula magna radiata cærulea.

Zygæna flabellicornis. Z. alis oblongis atris, posticis subcaudatis basi virescentibus.

Fab. sp. ins. 2. p. 163.

Phalæna Rhodope.

Cram. ins. t. 30. f. E.

Chinam incolit pulchra hæc Phalæna, et magni­tudine vera in tabula depingitur.

v

 

r

RHODOPE.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually lessening from the base to the tip.

Wings (when at rest) generally deflected. Flight nocturnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Moth with lengthened-oval black wings; the lower pair marked at the base by a large radiated blue spot.

Phalæna Rhodope.

Cram. ins. pl. 30. f. E.

This beautiful Insect is a native of China, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

857

African Snake-Eater

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

I

SERPENTARIUS AFRICANUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum vulturinum.

Lingua acuminata.

Pedes longissimi.

Character Specificus, &c.

Serpentarius Africanus. S. cinereus, occipite cristato, cauda cuneata, rectricibus mediis elongatis.

Gen. Zool. 7. p. 40.

Sagittarius.

Vosmær monogr. t. 8.

Falco Serpentarius.

Lath. ind. orn.

Lin. Gmel.

Avi quam describere pergimus insignis quadam videtur esse affinitas cum ordinibus duobus Linnæanis, Accipi­tribus nempe et Grallis; quorum alteri rostro et capite simillima est; alteri autem crurum longi­tudine, et habitu corporis. In Africanis generatur regionibus mediis et imis, camporum amatrix aridorum et patentium; pasciturque serpentes et alia reptilia. Magnitudo eadem fere est atque Ardeæ Ciconiæ Linnæi.

v

 

I2

the
AFRICAN SNAKE-EATER.

Generic Character.

Beak vulturine.

Tongue pointed.

Legs very long.

Specific Character, &c.

Ash-coloured Snake-Eater, with the hind-head crested, the tail cuneated, and the middle tail-feathers elongated.

Gen. Zool. 7. p. 46.

The Secretary or Sagittarius.

Phil. Trans. 61. p. 175.

The Snake-Eater.

Memoirs of G. Edwards, p. 34.

Secretary Vulture.

Lath. syn.

The bird which forms the subject of the present plate, is remarkable for exhibiting a strong apparent alliance between the two widely different Linnean orders of Accipitres and Grallæ; having the bill and countenance of the former, with the long legs and general habit of the latter. It is an inhabitant of the middle and lower regions of Africa, where it frequents dry open plains, feeding principally on snakes and other reptiles. Its size is nearly that of a Stork.

v

 

858

Fastigiated Madrepore

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

MADREPORA FASTIGIATA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Medusa.

Corallium cavitatibus lamelloso-stellatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Madrepora dichotoma subfastigiata, ramis subdis­tinctis, stellis omnibus terminalibus subregu­laribus; annotinis compresso-duplicatis.

Soland. et Ellis zooph. p. 152. t. 33.

Madrepora fastigiata. M. caulescens rudis subdicho­toma fastigiata, stellis extus decorticatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1280.

Seb. mus. t. 109. f. 1. t. 110. f. 2. t. 116. f. 4.

Maria incolit Americana Madrepora fastigiata, cuius veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula.

v

 

r

FASTIGIATED MADREPORE.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Medusa.

Coral marked by radiating lamellar cavities.

Specific Character, &c.

Caulescent, rough, subdichotomous, fastigiated Madrepore, with outwardly decorticated stars.

Seb. mus. 3. pl. 109. f. 1. pl. 110. f. 3. pl. 116. f. 4.

The fastigiated Madrepore is a native of the American seas, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

867

Surinam Holocentrus

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

HOLOCENTRUS SURINAMENSIS.

Character Genericus.

Habitus generis Percæ.

Opercula squamosa, serrata, aculeata.

Squamæ (pluribus) duræ, asperæ.

Character Specificus, &c.

Holocentrus subfuscus, nebulis subluteis, capite rubro, operculis anterioribus ciliato-spinosis.

Holocentrus Surinamensis. H. radiis quindecim in pinna ani.

Bloch. ichth. 7. t. 263.

Americæ australis aquas, præcipue Surinamenses incolit piscis in tabula depictus, magni­tudine quasi Cyprini Carpionis.

v

 

r

the
SURINAM HOLOCENTRUS.

Generic Character.

Habit of the genus Perca.

Gill-covers scaly, serrated, and aculeated.

Scales (in most species) hard and rough.

Specific Character, &c.

Brownish Holocentrus, with subluteous clouds, red head, and anterior gill-covers spine-ciliated.

Der Surinamsche Sogo.

Bloch. ichth. pl. 263.

The fish represented on the present plate is a native of the South American waters, and particularly those of Surinam. Its size is that of a common Carp.

v

 

860

Celerio Sphinx

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

SPHINX CELERIO.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ subprismaticæ, utroque fine attenuatæ.

Lingua exserta (plerisque).

Palpi duo reflexi.

Alæ deflexæ.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sphinx fusca, alis superioribus albo-striatis, inferi­oribus rubris venis nigris.

Sphinx Celerio. S. alis integris griseis lineola albo-nigra; inferioribus basi rubris maculis sex.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 800.

Sphinx alis griseis striis albis, posterioribus fuscis maculis sex rubris.

Fabr. sp. ins. 2. p. 151.

In variis Europæ australis partibus generatur elegans insectum quod in tabula depingitur. Depascitur larva præcipue vitis folia: hujus magni­tudinem naturalem nec non chrysalidis et insecti perfecti in tabula nostra depingi curavimus.

v

 

r

CELERIO.

Generic Character.

Antennæ subprismatic, attenuated at each end.

Tongue (in most species) exserted.

Feelers two, reflex.

Wings deflected.

Specific Character, &c.

Brown Sphinx, with the upper wings marked by white streaks; the lower wings red with black veins.

Roes. ins. 4. pl. 8.

Frisch. ins. 13. pl. 1.

This elegant Sphinx inhabits many of the Southern parts of Europe, where its larva or caterpillar feeds principally on the leaves of the vine. It is repre­sented in its natural size on the annexed plate, together with the chrysalis and complete Insect.

v

 

861

Brasilian Momot

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

K

MOMOTA BRASILIENSIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum validum, incurvatum, lateribus dentatum.

Nares tectæ.

Lingua pennacea.

Cauda cuneiformis.

Pedes gressorii.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 140.

Character Specificus, &c.

Momota viridis, subtus gilva, vertice cæruleo macula nigra, rectricibus duabus mediis elongatis.

Ramphastos Momota. R. pedibus gressoriis, rectricibus duabus intimis medio denudatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Momotus brasiliensis. M. viridis, fronte cæruleo-viridi, occipite violaceo, vertice et striga per oculos nigris, rectricibus duabus intermediis longioribus.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 140.

Inter aves quas generat America australis eminet pulchritudine Momota Brasiliensis, corvo Picæ Linnæi magni­tudine fere par. Rectrices duæ intermediæ prope apicem nudantur, ut plurimum, utrinque plumis: v cave tamen credas ita se rem habere constanti naturæ consilio, si pennæ integræ fuerint et illæsæ; reperiuntur enim specimina cauda plene plumigera; sed casu nescio quo sæpius fit ut nuda sit ista pars, et nullis plumis cooperta.

K2

the
BRASILIAN MOMOT.

Generic Character.

Bill strong, incurvated, toothed at the sides.

Nostrils covered.

Tongue feather-shaped.

Tail cuneiform.

Feet gressorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Green Momot, buff-coloured beneath; with blue crown marked by a black spot, and the two middle tail-feathers elongated.

Momot.

Will. orn. p. 298.

Brasilian saw-billed Roller.

Edw. pl. 328.

Brasilian Motmot.

Lath. syn. p. 338.

The Brasilian Momot is one of the most beautiful of the South-American birds, and is nearly equal in size to a Magpie. The two middle tail-feathers are generally bare of webs on each side towards the end, being again plumed at the tips: this however is not the genuine appearance of the feathers in their perfect state, but rather owing to some accidental circumstance occasionally taking place in that part of the plumage; specimens being often observed in which no such partial denudation is visible.

v

 

862

Iris Butterfly

R. P. Nodder

Notes

r

PAPILIO IRIS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes (volatu diurno).

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Papilio alis subdentatis fuscis cæruleo-versicoloribus, fascia interrupta alba.

Papilio Iris. P. alis subdentatis subtus griseis; fascia utrinque alba interrupta; posticis supra uniocel­latis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Roes. ins. 3. t. 42.

Esp. pap. 1. t. 11. f. 1.

In lepidopteris Britannicis pulcherrimus et fere raris­simus est Papilio Iris, qui splendide versicolor alas habet nunc fusco-nigrantes, nunc, pro variata luce, nitidissime purpureo cæruleas. Depascitur larva folia præcipue populea et querna; mense Junio in chrysalidem conver­titur, unde insequente Julio erumpit ipse Papilio.

v

 

r

IRIS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and generally terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with subdenticulated deep-brown wings, with a changeable gloss of blue, and an inter­rupted white band.

The Iris Butterfly, or Purple Emperor.

Harr. aurel. pl. 3.

Sulzer ins. t. 14. f. 6.

Schaeff. icon. t. 52.

The Papilio Iris or Purple Emperor is one of the most elegant as well as one of the rarest of the British Lepid­optera, and is remarkable for the varying lustre of its colours; the wings, when viewed in one direction, appearing of a dark or blackish brown, and when in a different light, of the most splendid purplish blue. The caterpillar feeds chiefly on the leaves of the poplar and oak, and changes into a chrysalis in the month of June, from which in that of July emerges the complete insect.

v

 

863

Dragon Pegasus

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PEGASUS DRACO.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum elongatum. Os sub rostro.

Pinnæ pectorales amplæ: ventrales uniradiatæ.

Corpus depressum, cataphractum, abdomine osseis incisuris articulatum.

Gen. Zool. 5.

Character Specificus, &c.

Pegasus thorace subtetragono, humeris prominen­tibus, abdomine brevi.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 461.

Pegasus draconis. P. rostro conico.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Cataphractus corpore tetragono, brevi, scabro.

Gronov. zoophylac.

Pegasus corpore lato tetragonoque.

Bloch. ichth. t. 209.

In maribus Indicis præcipue conspicitur Pegasus Draco, cujus veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula.

v

 

r

the
DRAGON PEGASUS.

Generic Character.

Snout elongated, mouth beneath.

Pectoral fins large; ventral single-rayed.

Body depressed, mailed, with the abdomen divided into bony segments.

Gen. Zool. 5.

Specific Character, &c.

Pegasus with subtetragonal thorax, prominent shoulders, and short abdomen.

Gen. Zool. 5.

Der See Drache.

Bloch. ichth. pl. 109. f. 1. 2.

Seedrackje, Dragon de mer.

Renard Hist. des Poissons. 2. pl. 11. f. 52.

The fish here figured is a native of the Indian seas, and is repre­sented in its natural size.

v

 

864

Common Frog

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

RANA TEMPORARIA.
Var. rubra.

Character Genericus.

Corpus tetrapodum, ecaudatum, nudum.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Rana temporaria. R. fusco-flavescens, nigro maculata, macula suboculari elongata fusca.

Gen. Zool. 3. p. 97.

Rana temporaria.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Var.

Rana rubra, subtus flava rubro varia, macula subocu­lari elongata fusca.

Elegantem ranæ vulgaris seu temporariæ varietatem depingi curavimus, interdum verno tempore, rarius in autumno visam. Primus eam descripsisse videtur celeber­rimus Roeselius.

v

 

r

the
COMMON FROG.
red variety.

Generic Character.

Body four-footed, without tail, and naked, or without any integument but the skin.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish-brown Frog, spotted with black, with elongated brown patch beneath the eyes.

Gen. Zool. 3. p. 97.

Var.

Red Frog, beneath yellow varied with red, with an elongated brown patch beneath the eyes.

This elegant variety of the common Frog exhibited on the present plate is occasionally seen in spring and autumn, but more frequently in the former. It seems to have been first described and figured by Roesel.

v

 

865

Superb Creeper

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

L

CERTHIA SUPERBA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum arcuatum, tenue, acutum.

Lingua variis varia.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Cauda pennis duodecim.

Lath. ind. orn.

Character Specificus, &c.

Certhia aureo-viridis, alis caudaque fuscis, gula violacea aureo-fasciata, pectore abdomineque phoeniceis.

Le Sougnimbindou.

Aud. et Viell. Certh. t. 22.

Rara et pulchra est Certhiæ species quam ostendit tabula, nec ulli cedit congenerum splendore et elegantia colorum. Depicta primum et descripta fuisse videtur in opere magnifico Audebertii et Vielloti, quibuscum specimen tum temporis in Galliam illatum communicavit Perreinus. Africana est Certhia superba, innata nempe in Malimba. Vera magni­tudo in tabula exprimitur.

v

 

L2

the
SUPERB CREEPER.

Generic Character.

Bill bent, slender, sharp-pointed.

Tongue differing in different species.

Feet formed for walking.

Tail consisting of twelve feathers.

Specific Character, &c.

Gold-green Creeper, with brown wings and tail, violet throat with golden band, and crimson breast and abdomen.

Le Sougnimbindou.

Viell. et Aud. Certh. pl. 22.

The present rare and beautiful species of Certhia, which yields to none of its congeners in the elegance and splendor of its plumage, seems to have been first described and figured in the magnificent work of Messrs. Audebert and Viellot, from a specimen brought into France by Mons. Perrein. It is a native of Malimba in Africa, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

866

Serrated Locust

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

GRYLLUS SERRATUS.

Character Genericus.

Caput inflexum, maxillosum, palpis instructum.

Antennæ setaceæ seu filiformes.

Alæ quatuor, deflexæ, convolutæ; inferiores plicatæ.

Pedes postici saltatorii. Ungues ubique bini.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Gryllus viridis, thorace compresso serrato, abdomine cæruleo.

Gryllus serratus. G. thorace cymbiformi carinato denticulato, capite acuminato, abdomine cæruleo.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

In Africa inferiori generatus Gryllus serratus frequentat promontorium quod Bonæ spei dicitur. In operibus celeberrimi Roeselii eleganter depictus est, antennis tamen nimis longis et gracilibus; quod vitium in icone hac nostra, quæ veram exhibet insecti magni­tudinem, emendari curavimus.

v

 

r

the
SERRATED LOCUST.

Generic Character.

Head inflected, armed with jaws, and furnished with feelers.

Antennæ (in most species) setaceous or filiform.

Wings four, deflected and convoluted; the lower ones pleated.

Hind-Legs formed for leaping: claws on all the feet two.

Specific Character, &c.

Green Locust, with compressed serrated thorax, and green abdomen.

Roes. Gryll. pl. 16. f. 2.

The serrated Locust is an inhabitant of the lower parts of Africa, and by no means uncommon at the Cape of Good Hope. It is well figured in the admirable work of Roesel, but with the antennæ too long and slender; a fault which is rectified in the annexed figure, which shews the animal in its natural size.

v

 

859

Trimaculated Spare

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

SPARUS TRIMACULATUS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes validi: primores in aliis ordine simplici, in aliis duplici, triplici, vel quad­ruplici dispositi.

Molares (plerisque) validi, convexi, læves, in series dispositi, et quasi pavimentum in ore effor­mantes.

Labia crassa: Opercula mutica, squamosa.

Gen. Zool. 6. p. 402.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sparus flavescens, fasciis transversis ferrugineis bifidis, corpore utrinque maculis tribus fuscis.

Sparus Surinamensis. S. aculeis quindecim dorsalibus, linea laterali interrupta.

Bloch. ichth. 8. t. 277. f. 2.

Maria incolit Americana Sparus trimaculatus, et magni­tudine vera in tabula exprimitur.

v

 

r

the
TRIMACULATED SPARE.

Generic Character.

Teeth strong: front-teeth in some species disposed in a single row, in others in a double, treble, or quad­ruple row.

Grinders (in most species) convex, smooth, and disposed in ranges, forming a kind of pavement in the mouth.

Lips thick: Gill-covers unarmed, smooth, scaly.

Gen. Zool. 6. p. 402.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish Spare, with transverse ferruginous bifid bands, and three brown spots on each side.

Der Surinamsche Brassem.

Bloch. ichth. 8. pl. 277. f. 2.

The trimaculated Spare is an inhabitant of the American seas, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

868

Ox-Eye Moth

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PHALÆNA MACROPS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ (volatu nocturno).

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Phalæna (Attacus) seticornis spirilinguis, alis fuscis atro undulatis; superioribus supra ocello ferru­gineo; subtus albo maculatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. tom. 3. p. 225.

Phalæna (Noctua) alis dentatis fuscis nigro undulatis, primoribus macula magna ocellari brunnea.

Lin. Gmel. p. 2529.

Noctua Bubo. N. alis patulis dentatis fuscis, nigro undulatis, anticis macula magna ocellari brunnea.

Fabr. sp. ins. 2. p. 209.

In India conspicitur rara hæc phalæna, cujus veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula.

v

 

r

the
OX-EYE MOTH.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually diminishing from base to tip.

Wings (when at rest) generally deflected. Flight nocturnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Moth with denticulated brown wings with black undulations, a large ferruginous ocellated spot on the upper wings, and both pair spotted beneath with white.

Cramer, pl. 171. f. A. B.

The rare species of Phalæna here repre­sented is a native of India, and is shewn in its natural size.

v

 

869

Whiskered Shrike

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

M

LANIUS MYSTACEUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum rectiusculum, dente utrinque versus apicem, basi nudum.

Lingua lacera.

Digitus exterior basi medio connexus.

Character Specificus, &c.

Lanius niger, corpore subtus caudaque cuneata rubris, fascia pectorali strigaque suboculari albis.

Gen. Zool. 7. p. 298.

Lanius mystaceus. L. fuscus, corpore subtus caudaque rubris, fascia pectoris strigaque sub oculis albis.

Lath. ind. orn. suppl.

Insulas maris australis incolit Lanius mystaceus, cujus magni­tudo est quasi Turdi Merulæ Linnæi.

v

 

M2

the
WHISKERED SHRIKE.

Generic Character.

Bill straitish, with a tooth or small process on each side near the tip.

Tongue jagged.

Outside toe connected to the middle one as far as the first joint.

Specific Character, &c.

Black Shrike, with the body beneath and cuneated tail red, a white bar across the breast, and white streak beneath the eyes.

Gen. Zool. 7. p. 298.

La Pie-griesche rouge à plastron blanc.

Levaill. ois. afr. pl. 65.

The whiskered Shrike is a native of the South-Sea islands. Its size is nearly that of a common blackbird.

v

 

870

Greenish Holocentrus

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

HOLOCENTRUS VIRESCENS.

Character Genericus.

Habitus generis Percæ.

Opercula squamosa, serrata, aculeata.

Squamæ (pluribus) duræ, asperæ.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 553.

Character Specificus, &c.

Holocentrus virescens. H. virescens, nebulis utrinque dorsalibus transversis semidecurrentibus olivaceis, capite flavo-striato.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 555.

Holocentrus virescens. H. radiis viginti quatuor in pinna dorsi, pinna caudæ lunata.

Bloch. ichth. 7. t. 233.

Maria incolit Indica Holocentrus virescens, longi­tudine pedali vel sesquipedali.

v

 

r

the
GREENISH HOLOCENTRUS.

Generic Character.

Habit of the genus Perca.

Gill-Covers scaly, serrated, and aculeated.

Scales (in most species) hard and rough.

Specific Character, &c.

Greenish Holocentrus, with transverse dorsal semidecurrent olivaceous bands, and head streaked with yellow.

Der grünliche Sogo.

Bloch. ichth. 7. pl. 233.

The fish represented on the present plate is a native of the Indian seas, growing to the length of twelve or eigh­teen inches.

v

 

871

Green Frog

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

RANA ESCULENTA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus tetrapodum, ecaudatum, nudum.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Rana olivacea nigro maculata, lineis tribus dorsalibus flavescentibus, abdomine albido.

Gen. Zool. 3. p. 103.

Rana esculenta. R. corpore angulato, dorso transverse gibbo, abdomine marginato.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Rana viridis aquatica.

Roes. hist. ran. p. 53. t. 13, &c.

Major paulo rana temporaria seu communi est rana esculenta. Notabilis præterea est viridi colore, et dorso lineis tribus flavescentibus fasciato. In Europæ calidi­oribus partibus frequentior longe est quam in frigidi­oribus; et eodem fere utitur vivendi modo quo rana vulgaris, nisi quod rarissime in terram progreditur. Apud Gallos mensis apponitur species de qua jam loquimur, femoraque (hæc enim præcipue sapiunt palato,) in deliciis sunt. Cum igitur advenerit opportunum tempus, venit in foro Parisiensi uberrima ranarum copia. Cum his interdum incuria colligentium miscentur bufones vulgares, testibus Daudino et Bosco; quorum alter, v scilicet Boscus, asserit bufones æque esse delicatos atque ipsas ranas; nec alia de causa respui nisi quod de iis præju­dicium sit. Delectantur ranis Viennæ incolæ magis quam ipsi Parisienses: aluntur igitur in vivariis non longe a civitate, ut in propinquo sint quæ habentur lautiores epulæ.

r

the
GREEN FROG.

Generic Character.

Body four-footed, without tail, and naked, or without any integument but the skin.

Specific Character, &c.

Olive-coloured Frog, spotted with black, with three yellowish dorsal lines, and whitish abdomen.

Gen. Zool. 3. p. 103.

The edible Frog.

Penn. Brit. Zool. 3. p. 13.

The green or edible Frog is distinguished from the common frog by its somewhat larger size, its green colour, and particularly by the appearance of three pale yellow lines or stripes running down the back. It is much more common in the warmer than in the colder parts of Europe, and in its general manners resembles the common frog, except that it is but rarely seen on dry ground. In some parts of Europe, and particularly in France, this species is considered as a delicate article of food. For this purpose the thighs alone are used, and infinite numbers of frogs are regularly brought, during the proper season, to the markets of Paris. We are also assured, on the authority of Daudin and Bosc, that, through the carelessness of the gatherers, the v common toad is not unfrequently intermixed with them. Mons. Bosc even asserts that it is in reality equally delicate, and that prejudice alone has hitherto prevented its general use. At Vienna the Frog seems to be a still more favourite article than at Paris; regular froggeries or breeding-ponds being established in the neighbourhood of that city, for the express purpose of supplying the tables of the luxurious.

872

Humming-Bird Sphinx

R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

SPHINX STELLATARUM.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ subprismaticæ, utroque fine attenuatæ.

Lingua exserta (plerisque).

Palpi duo reflexi.

Alæ deflexæ.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sphinx stellatarum. S. abdomine barbato, lateribus albo nigroque variis alis posticis ferrugineis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Merian. Ins. Eur. 2. p. 33. t. 9.

Reaum. ins. 1. t. 12. f. 5. 6.

Roes. ins. phal. 1. t. 8.

In pratis et hortis exacta fere æstate flores nunc hos, nunc illos, supervolitat Sphinx stellatarum, et proboscide tubulata succos extrahit. Dum hoc studio occupatur, trochilis nonnullis minoribus valde similis est; nec defuere historiæ naturalis ignari qui trochilum puta­verint. Depascitur larva folia præcipue Galii, et aliarum plantarum stellatarum; in chrysalidem convertitur mense Julio vel Augusto; e qua nascitur Sphinx mense Augusto vel Septembri. Fit tamen interdum ut per totam hyemem maneant chrysalides, sphinge non exclusa ante Aprilem aut Maium.

v

 

r

the
HUMMING-BIRD SPHINX.

Generic Character.

Antennæ subprismatic, attenuated at each extremity.

Tongue (generally) exserted.

Feelers two, reflex.

Wings deflected.

Specific Character, &c.

Brown Sphinx, with bearded abdomen, sides varied with black and white, and ferruginous lower wings.

The Humming-Bird Sphinx.

Humming-Bird Hawk-Moth.

This elegant insect is often seen during the latter part of summer in fields and gardens, flying rapidly from flower to flower, and extracting their juices with its tubular proboscis: during this action it bears no inconsiderable resemblance to some of the smaller species of Humming-Birds, and instances have not been wanting in which it has been mistaken for such by persons entirely ignorant of natural history. The caterpillar feeds principally on the leaves of Galium and other stellate plants, and usually changes to chrysalis in the month of July or August; the Sphinx appearing in August or September. Some indivi­duals however remain in the chrysalis state during the whole winter, and do not give birth to the Sphinx till the following April or May.

v

 

873

Shining Stare

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

N

STURNUS NITENS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum subulatum, angulatum, depressum, obtusi­usculum: mandibula superiore integerrima, marginibus patentiusculis.

Nares supra marginate.

Lingua emarginata, acuta.

Lath. ind. orn.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sturnus viridis, purpureo cæruleoque nitens, rostro pedibusque nigris.

Turdus nitens?

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Le Nabirop.

Levaill. ois. Afr. t. 89.

Africana est avis quam depinximus, in Caffraria gregatim congregari solita, et, judice Levaillanto, sturnis annumeranda. Cum sol plene effulserit, pulcherrimus est versicolor plumarum nitor. Insectis præcipue vescitur variisque baccis; in imis arborum cavis nidificat, interdum ipsa in humo; ovaque excludit quinque seu sex subcæruleo-viridia. Cedit mari femina colorum splendore et elegantia.

v

 

N2

the
SHINING STARE.

Generic Character.

Bill subulate, angular, depressed, somewhat obtuse; the upper mandible entire.

Nostrils marginated above.

Tongue emarginate, sharp-pointed.

Specific Character, &c.

Green Stare, with blue and purple glosses, and black bill and legs.

Le Nabirop.

Levaill. ois. Afr. pl. 89.

The bird represented on the present plate, and which Mons. Levaillant is inclined to consider as a species of Starling, is seen in vast flocks in some parts of Caffraria in Africa; its changeable plumage appearing to peculiar advantage under the influence of the full sunshine. It feeds principally on insects and various kinds of berries; builds in the lower part of the cavities of trees; sometimes even on the ground; and lays five or six eggs, of a beau­tiful blueish green colour. The plumage of the female bird is less brilliant than that of the male.

v

 

874

Silver-Striped Herring

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

CLUPEA ATHERINOIDES.

Character Genericus.

Mystaces maxillarum superiorum serrati.

Membr. branch. radiis octo. Branchiæ intus setaceæ.

Abdomen acutum, sæpius carinatum.

Character Specificus, &c.

Clupea atherinoides. C. fusca, fascia utrinque longi­tudinali argentea.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 174.

Clupea atherinoides. C. linea laterali argentea.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Clupea stria longitudinali argentea.

Bloch. ichth. t. 408. f. 1.

Maria incolit Indica et Americana Clupea atherinoides, longi­tudine, ut plurimum, decem vel duodecim unciarum.

v

 

r

the
SILVER-STRIPED HERRING.

Generic Character.

Side-Plates of the upper mandible serrated.

Gill-Membrane eight-rayed: gills internally setaceous.

Abdomen sharp, and, generally, serrated.

Specific Character, &c.

Brown Herring, marked on each side by a longi­tudinal silvery band.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 174.

Der Silberstreif.

Bloch. ichth. pl. 408. f. 1.

The Silver-Striped Herring is an inhabitant of the Indian and American seas, measuring about ten or twelve inches in length.

v

 

875

American Frogfish

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

LOPHIUS VESPERTILIO.

Character Genericus.

Caput depressum.

Dentes plurimi, acuti. Lingua dentibus armata.

Corpus crassum.

Pinnæ pectorales brachiatæ.

Character Specificus, &c.

Lophius rostratus. L. depressus subferrugineus, supra tuberculatus, capite rostrato.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 383.

Lophius Vespertilio. L. depressus, capite rostrato.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Rana piscatrix Americana.

Seb. mus. 3. t. 73.

In maribus Austro-Americanis generatus Lophius Vespertilio crescit interdum in longi­tudinem pedalem seu sesquipedalem. Eodem fere utitur vivendi modo quo Lophius vulgaris seu Europæus, latendo nempe in alga, aliisque marinis, piscibus minoribus et vermibus exitium afferens.

v

 

r

the
AMERICAN FROGFISH.

Generic Character.

Head depressed.

Teeth numerous, sharp. Tongue armed with teeth.

Body thick.

Pectoral fins brachiated.

Specific Character, &c.

Depressed, subferruginous Frogfish, tuberculated above, with beaked head.

The Sea Bat.

Brown. Jam. pl. 48. f. 3.

Der Einhornteufel.

Bloch. ichth. pl. 110.

The Lophius Vespertilio, or American Frogfish, is a native of the South-American seas, and arrives at the length of a foot or eighteen inches. In its manners it is said to resemble the European Angler, lying among weeds, &c. and preying on small fishes and worms.

v

 

876

Red Underwing Moth

R. P. N. Sculpt.

Notes

r

PHALÆNA NUPTA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ. (Volatu nocturno.)

Character Specificus, &c.

Phalæna (Noctua) cristata, alis cinerascentibus; inferioribus rubris fasciis duabus nigris, corpore cano subtus albo.

Phalæna Nupta. Ph. Noctua spirilinguis cristata, alis cinerascentibus; inferioribus rubris, fasciis nigris, abdomine cano subtus albo.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Roes. Phal. 1. t. 15.

Folia salicis præcipue depascitur larva pulcherrimæ hujus phalænæ, et in chrysalidem, ut plurimum, mense Julio convertitur, e qua mense Augusto erumpit insectum plene conformatum.

v

the
RED UNDERWING MOTH.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually lessening from base to tip.

Wings (when sitting) generally deflex, (flight nocturnal).

Specific Character, &c.

Crested-Backed Moth, with grey wings; the lower pair red, with two black bars; the body grey above, and white beneath.

The Red Underwing.

Abin. ins. pl. 80.

The caterpillar of this beautiful Moth feeds principally on the leaves of the willow, and generally changes to a chrysalis in the month of July, from which in that of August emerges the complete insect.

r

INDEX.

Pl.
837. Certhia erythrogastra.
865. —— superba.
874. Clupea atherinoides.
829. Corvus cyaneus.
845. Cuculus discolor.
838. Cyprinus Tincaurea.
851. Doris palmifera.
833. Galbula Jacamaciri.
843. Gryllus Pupus.
835. —— Elephas.
866. —— serratus.
867. Holocentrus Surinamensis.
870. —— virescens.
869. Lanius mystaceus.
875. Lophius Vespertilio.
840. Madrepora Lactuca.
848. —— retepora.
855. —— phrygia.
858. —— fastigiata.
861. Momota Brasiliensis.
831. Mytilus margaritifer.
830. Phalæna Tyrrhea.
856. —— Rhodope.
868. —— macrops.
876. —— nupta.
839. Papilio Automedon.
844. —— Galanthus.
844. —— Maja.
852. —— Cramerianus.
862. —— Iris.
846. —— populi.
863. Pegasus Draco.
841. Pipra musica.
849. —— militaris.
871. Rana esculenta.
864. —— temporaria var.
850. Scomber Rottleri.
854. —— regalis.
857. Serpentarius Africanus.
834. Sparus erythrinus.
842. —— macropthalmus.
847. —— semifasciatus.
859. —— trimaculatus.
860. Sphinx Celerio.
872. —— stellatarum.
853. Strix superciliosa
873. Sturnus nitens.
832. Tetrodon lineatus.
836. Voluta Æthiopica.

INDEX.

Pl.
839. Butterfly Automedon.
844. —— Galanthus.
844. —— Maja.
846. —— poplar.
852. —— Cramerian.
862. —— Iris.
829. Crow cyanean.
837. Creeper red-bellied.
865. —— superb.
845. Cuckow variegated.
851. Doris palmiferous.
864. Frog common, var.
871. —— green.
875. Frogfish American.
874. Herring silver striped.
870. Holocentrus greenish.
867. —— Surinam.
833. Jacamar great.
843. Locust pupal.
835. —— Elephant.
866. —— serrated.
861. Momot Brasilian.
830. Moth African Peacock.
856. —— Rhodope.
868. —— Ox-Eye.
876. —— red underwing.
840. Madrepore Lettuce.
848. —— netted.
855. —— lace.
858. —— fastigiated.
841. Manakin musical.
849. —— military.
850. Mackrel Rottlerian.
854. —— Thazard.
831. Muscle pearl.
853. Owl white-browed.
863. Pegasus Dragon.
834. Sparus rose.
842. —— great-eyed.
847. —— semifasciated.
859. —— trimaculated.
857. Snake-Eater African.
869. Shrike whiskered.
860. Sphinx Celerio.
872. —— Humming-Bird.
873. Starling shining.
838. Tench golden.
832. Tetrodon lineated.
836. Volute Ethiopic.

London: Printed by B. M‘Millan,
Bow Street, Covent Garden.

Notes and Corrections: Volume 20

Volume 20 of the Naturalist’s Miscellany was published in twelve monthly installments, conjecturally from September 1808 through August 1809. It is “conjecturally” because there has not been a full month-and-year date since the third installment of Volume 13 (November 1801), and no date at all since the sixth installment of Volume 19. What’s worse, that last date is “1807”—in an installment that cannot be earlier than February 1808.

Each installment is 16 pages.

B; C; D; E; F (January 1809); G; H; I; K; L; M; N

As explained at the beginning of installment 4, Plates 843 and 835—with their accompanying text—are reversed. The sequence of plates in install­ments 2 and 4 is therefore 833, 834, 843, 836; and 841, 842, 835, 844. (Installment 3 is unaffected.) Fortunately the two types of Locust are very distinctive-looking, so there was little risk of confusion. Unfortunately some later reader, perhaps lacking an internet to look up the respective locusts, carefully crossed out all the correct numbers, both on the plates themselves and in the Index, and penciled-in incorrect numbers. (It’s confusing.)

A similar mixup applies to Plates 867 and 859 in installments 8 and 10, leading to the sequences 857, 858, 867, 860; and 865, 866, 859, 868.

Corvus Cyaneus, the Cyanean Crow

If C. cyaneus (Linnaeus’s spelling) and C. cyanus (Pallas’s spelling) are the same bird, it is now Cyanopica cyanus, the azure-winged magpie. It lives in East Asia, in Iberia—and apparently nowhere in between.

[Signature] B3
[Though unusual, this is perfectly correct for the first installment in a volume: the dedication pages take up the first two (unlabeled) leaves.]

Phalæna Tyrrhea, the African Peacock-Moth

is probably Gonimbrasia tyrrhea. It lives in southern Africa.

Antennæ setaceous
second “e” in “setaceous” invisible

the European species called Phalæna Junonia
[As seen at Plates 455 and 456 of Volume 12. Our author coyly refrains from mentioning that nobody but himself ever calls it Ph. junonia.]

Mytilus Margaritifer, the Pearl Muscle

is now Pinctada margaritifera, the Pacific pearl oyster. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Tetrodon Lineatus, the Lineated Tetrodon

If he means Tetraodon Lineatus, it is also known as the coral butterfly. It lives in the interior of Africa.

Der gestreifte Stachelbanche.
[Printed as shown. I am inclined to think he means “Stachelbauch(e)”, but Shaw’s citations are not easy to pin down.]

Galbula Jacamaciri, the Great Jacamar

may be Galbula galbula, the green-tailed jacamar. It lives in South America.

The name “jacamaciri” seems to have originated with Marcgrave in the 1648 Historia Naturalis Brasiliae. Once Shaw incorporated it in a binomial, everyone else was happy to quote him.

Lath. syn. p. 605.
[Part 2 of Volume 1. The bird Shaw equates with “jacamaciri” is actually on pg. 603.]

Sparus Erythrinus, the Rose Sparus

is now Pagellus erythrinus, the becker. It lives in the Mediterranean and along the Atlantic coast of Europe and Africa.

Sparus Erythrinus. S. cauda subintegra
text has Erythrenus

Gryllus Pupus, the Pupal Locus

is now Hetrodes pupus. It lives in South Africa as part of the very large family Tettigonidae, collectively “bush crickets”.

[Plate 843]
[See the author’s explanation, two installments further along.]

Heusck. et Grill.
[It seems as if it ought to be “Heusch.”, but there is a “k” further along in the word Heuschrecken.]

Voluta Æthiopica, the Ethiopic Volute

is now Melo aethiopicus, the crowned baler. It ranges from the Philippines to northern Australia. Seven years ago we saw it at Plate 508 of Volume 13; at that time he spelled the English name “Æthiopian”.

Certhia Erythrogastra, the Red-Bellied Creeper

may be Cinnyris afer, the greater double-collared sunbird. It lives in southern Africa.

greatly allied to the collared Creeper or Certhia chalybea of Linnæus
[Probably Cinnyris chalybeus, the southern double-collared sunbird, which we met at Plate 381 of Volume 10. If so, Shaw is right about the close relationship.]

Cyprinus Tincaurea, the Golden Tench

is now Tinca tinca (by way of Cyprinus tinca), the doctorfish. It is most common in Europe.

Papilio Automedon, the Automedon (butterfly)

is either Eryphanis automedon or E. polyxena, depending on whether Meerburgh or Cramer got there first. It lives in South America.

Volatus diurnus.
text unchanged
[In general, he is content to say Volatu in the ablative.]

Madrepora Lactuca, the Lettuce Madrepore

is now Pectinia lactuca, the carnation coral. It lives around Indonesia and northern Australia.

Pall. et zooph. p. 289.
[Printed as shown. I think he garbled together two citations.]

Maria incolit Indica rarum hoc Corallium.
text has Coralium

Author’s Note

The reader is therefore requested to transpose the plates
[It looks as if my reader—that is, the original owner of the physical book whose scans I used—has already done so. Plate 843, showing Gryllus pupus, appeared two installments ago in place of 835; conversely, Plate 835, showing Gryllus elephas, is in the present installment where 843 is expected. Incidentally, the two locusts aren’t all that closely related: same order, different families. Winglessness may just be a coincidental similarity.]

Pipra Musica, the Musical Manakin

is probably Euphonia musica, the Antillean euphonia. In addition to the Antilles, it is found in South and Central America.

Sparus Macrophthalmus, the Great-Eyed Sparus

is now Dentex macrophthalmus, the large-eyed dentex. It lives along the Atlantic coast of Africa.

Gryllus Elephas, the Elephant Locust

is now Pamphagus elephas. It lives mainly in north Africa. Family Pamphagidae, collectively, is “toad grasshoppers”.

[Plate 835]
[See the author’s explanation, above.]

Papilio Galanthis, the Galanthis (butterfly)

is probably Siderone galanthis. It lives in and around central America.

Papilio Maja, the Maja (butterfly)

Cramer’s P. maja is now Argynnis pandora (by way of Denis & Shiffer­muller’s Papilio pandora), the cardinal. Fabricius’s P. maja, on the other hand, is now Doxocopa agathina (by way of Cramer’s Papilio agathina). The tangle of names is because Cramer got there before Fabricius but after Denis & Shiffermuller. From the pictures and references it’s pretty clear that Shaw is talking about Cramer’s P. maja, not Fabricius’s. It lives mainly in southern Europe.

[Plate 844]
[If this is December, as it should be, I haven’t seen a date in all of calendar year 1808.]

Allied to Papilio Paphia.
[Plate 756 of Volume 18. Since P. paphia is now Argynnis paphia, Shaw is right about the alliance.]

Cuculus Discolor, the Variegated Cuckow

is probably Leptosomus discolor, the cuckoo roller. It lives in Madagascar.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 168.
text has Lyn.

Papilio Populi, the Poplar Butterfly

is now Limenitis populi, the poplar admiral. It is most common in Europe—as usual, excluding Iberia.

Volatus diurnus.
text unchanged
[Whence this sudden dislike for the ablative?]

Sparus Semifasciatus, the Semifasciated Sparus

If it is the same fish as Bloch’s Anthias striatus, it is now Cynoscion striatus. It lives in the Mediterranean and along the Atlantic coast of the Americas. The only source for the Sparus binomial is Shaw himself, not only in the present work but in his General Zoology of a few years earlier.

Madrepora Retepora, the Netted Madrepore

is now Alveopora retepora . . . which in turn is listed as “doubtful” or taxon inquirendum. I believe this is the first time I have found a “doubtful” flag attached to something other than the original binomial.

Lin. Syst. Nat.
text has Lyn.

In maribus Indicis generatur rarum hoc Corallium
text has Coralium

Pipra Militaris, the Military Manakin

is probably Ilicura militaris, the pin-tailed manakin, with naming credit to Shaw. It lives in South America, especially Argentina.

Scomber Rottleri, the Rottlerian Mackrel

is now Megalaspis cordyla (by way of Scomber cordyla), the cordyla scad. It lives along the coast of Africa, Asia and Australia. Though Shaw doesn’t say, “Rottler” is probably Johann Peter Rottler, one of Bloch’s regular suppliers of specimens. Bloch’s binomial would have been a more enduring honor if he had not selected a fish that had already been named by Linnaeus a full quarter-century earlier.

Lin. Syst. Nat.
text has Lyn.

Doris Palmifera, the Palmiferous Doris

If it is the same as Cuvier’s Tritonia hombergii, it still has that binomial. It lives around Scandinavia and the British Isles. Ascanius’s Amphitrite frondosa is a different animal, now Dendronotus frondosus.

Cuvier ann. m. h. n. . . . Cuvier. Ann. M. H. N.
[On the English side Shaw gives the publication’s full name, Annales du Museum d’Histoire Naturelle. Elsewhere in the Miscellany, it is most often cited as Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat., but Shaw doesn’t seem to have been very interested in consistency. Later in the century, standard authorities would acquire standard abbreviations; some of them are listed in William Savage’s Dictionary of the Art of Printing.]

the work entitled Journal de Physique
[George, please stop doing that.]

many other animals of the Linnæan genus Doris
[Today classified as nudibranchs—not just a genus but a whole order of gastropods—otherwise known as Things I Was Never Able To Keep Alive In My Aquarium.]

The individual observed by the Abbé Dicquemare
text has Diquemare

Papilio Cramerianus, the Cramerian Butterfly

If it is the same as Cramer’s P. iphigenia, it is probably the subspecies Hypolimnas bolina nerina (by way of Fabricius’s P. nerina). It lives in Australia and Indonesia. Do not confuse Cramer’s butterfly with Schulze’s P. iphigenia, also from 1775, or Fabricius’s P. iphigenia from two years later. It is not hard to see why Shaw wanted to drop the Iphigenia motif and give it a wholly new name.

Strix Superciliosa, the White-Browed Owl

may be Ninox superciliaris (by way of Strix superciliaris), the white-browed hawk-owl. If so, something got lost in transit, since the name dates only from 1817 and the bird lives in Madagascar. It does, however, fit in with “ois. afr.” in the citations.

S. superciliosa has also been equated with Pulsatrix perspicillata, the spectacled owl—formerly Strix torquata, the downy owl—but this is an entirely different bird. We met it at Plate 801 of Volume 19 under the name Strix larvata.

Scomber Regalis, the Thazard Mackrel

is now Scomberomorus regalis, the cero. It is most common around the Caribbean.

Madrepora Phrygia, the Lace Madrepore

is now Leptoria phrygia, the least valley coral. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

pulcherrimum hoc Corallium
text has Coralium
[I don’t care how many times he repeats the error: it’s still an error.]

Phalæna Rhodope, the Rhodope (moth)

If it is the same as Fabricius’s Zygaena flabellicornis, it is probably Histia flabellicornis. It lives in Southeast Asia, especially Taiwan.

Serpentarius Africanus, the African Snake-Eater

is probably Sagittarius serpentarius, the secretary bird. It is most common in southern and eastern Africa.

Madrepora Fastigiata, the Fastigiated Madrepore

is now Eusmilia fastigiata, the smooth flower coral. It lives around the Caribbean.

Holocentrus Surinamensis, the Surinam Holocentrus

is now Lobotes surinamensis, the Atlantic tripletail. In spite of its English and Latin names, it lives along most tropical-to-temperate coasts, espe­cially in the Indian ocean.

[Plate 867]
[Unlike the 835:843 switch earlier in the volume, our author has nothing to say about the numbering hiccup involving Plates 859 and 867. It is possible that the original owner of the book made a mistake when inserting the plates (two fairly similar-looking fish); I wasn’t able to compare other copies of this volume. But the fish in Plate 867 does look slightly more like Lobotes surinamensis than the one in Plate 859 does. This kind of problem would not have happened in the early years, when every plate had a full month-and-year line.]

Sphinx Celerio, the Celerio (sphinx)

is now Hippotion celerio, the silver-striped hawkmoth. It is most common in Europe, Australia and southern Africa.

Momota Brasiliensis, the Brasilian Momot

If it is the same as Linnaeus’s Ramphastos momota, it is probably Momotus momota, the Amazonian motmot. It lives in South and Central America. Latham’s Momotus brasiliensis—Shaw was not the only one to have trouble with the bird’s grammatical gender—seems to exist only as a container for subspecies.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 140.
[This is the last time a citation from Latham’s Index will include a page reference.]

Papilio Iris, the Iris (butterfly)

is now Apatura iris, the purple emperor. It lives in Europe.

Pegasus Draco, the Dragon Pegasus

is now Eurypegasus draconis (by way of Linnaeus’s P. draconis), the common seamoth. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Gen. Zool. 5.
[Page number missing. It can’t be much less than 461, though, since that’s the page number given in the Character Specificus section (Latin side only).]

Rana Temporaria, the Common Frog

Unchanged. It lives mainly in Europe and west Asia.

Certhia Superba, the Superb Creeper

is probably Cinnyris superbus, the superb sunbird, with naming credit to Shaw (mysteriously dated to 1812, three years in the future). It lives in central Africa.

Gryllus Serratus, the Serrated Locust

is now Prionolopha serrata. It lives in South America.

Sparus Trimaculatus, the Trimaculated Spare

is now Geophagus surinamensis (by way of Sparus surinamensis), the mother-of-pearl eartheater. It lives in South America. If that sounds familiar, it is because we met the same fish at Plate 818 of Volume 19 under the name S. surinamensis. Was Shaw working from two different editions of Bloch’s Ichthyology, one with Sparus and the other with Lutianus? He also seems to have given the fish two separate writeups in his General Zoology.

[Plate 859]
[See notes to Plate 867, above.]

Phalæna Macrops, the Ox-Eye Moth

is probably Eupatula macrops. It lives in southern Africa and in South and Southeast Asia. It is in family Noctuidae, explaining the recurring Noctua motif on the Latin side.

both pair spotted beneath with white
[Surprisingly, the phrase “both pair(s)” occurs nowhere else in the Miscellany, so I wasn’t able to compare usage elsewhere.]

Lanius Mystaceus, the Whiskered Shrike

Unknown. It is possible there was never any such bird.

Holocentrus Virescens, the Greenish Holocentrus

is listed as “doubtful”. Bloch used the name virescens for at least one other fish, but it doesn’t look remotely like Shaw’s picture—and it lives in the Mediterranean, not in India, which is not a likely mistake.

Rana Esculenta, the Green Frog

is either Pelophylax ridibundus (by way of Pallas’s Rana ridibunda from 1771), the marsh frog, or Pelophylax lessonae (by way of Camerano’s Rana lessonae from 1882), the edible frog or pool frog. I do not profess to understand this, but it’s what GBIF says. There exists a Pelophylax escu­lentus, but it is apparently a hybrid of the two. By any name, it lives in Europe extending into central Asia.

Sphinx Stellatarum, the Humming-Bird Sphinx

is now Macroglossum stellatarum, the hummingbird hawkmoth. It lives in Europe.

Sturnus Nitens, the Shining Stare

is probably Lamprotornis nitens, the Cape starling. It lives in southern Africa.

Clupea Atherinoides, the Silver-Striped Herring

is now Pterengraulis atherinoides, the anchovy. Or, at least, an anchovy; this particular species is now limited to the northern coast of South America.

Lophius Vespertilio, the American Frogfish

is now Ogcocephalus vespertilio, the batfish. It lives along the Atlantic coast of the Americas. The genus name really ought to be spelled “Onco-”, but perhaps Fischer von Waldheim, who named it, didn’t know how Greek-to-Latin orthographic transformations work.

Der Einhornteufel.
[“Unicorn devil”, in case anyone wondered.]

Phalæna Nupta, the Red Underwing Moth

is now Catocala nupta, the red underwing. It is most common in Europe.

Index

Note that the pairs of Plates 835:843 and 859:867, with their accom­panying text, are each reversed in the book. Links will lead to the right place, but do not expect to find Plate 835 between Plates 834 and 836.

Latin

860.   Sphinx Celerio.
text has 872

853   Strix superciliosa
index entry missing
[This is not the first time the printer has failed to notice that his Latin and English indexes don’t come out to the same length.]

The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.