Naturalist’s Miscellany

The Naturalist’s Miscellany
by George Shaw
Volume 21

v

SOCIETATI VERNERIANÆ,

IN INCREMENTUM SCIENTIÆ NATURALIS

FAUSTIS,

UTI SPERARE FAS EST,

OMINIBUS

APUD EDENBURGUM INITÆ,

hunc
VICESIMUM PRIMUM

NATURÆ VIVARII

FASCICULUM

d. d. d.
GEORGIUS SHAW,
E. NODDER.

r

to

THE WERNERIAN SOCIETY

of

EDINBURGH,

INSTITUTED FOR THE LAUDABLE PURPOSE

of

PROMOTING THE SCIENCE

of
NATURAL HISTORY,

THIS TWENTY-FIRST VOLUME

of the

NATURALIST’S MISCELLANY

IS INSCRIBED

by
GEORGE SHAW,
E. NODDER.

v

 

877

Fridytutah Parrakeet

R P Nodder Del et Sculpt.

Notes

B3

PSITTACUS RODOCEPHALUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum; mandibula superiore mobili, cera instructa.

Nares in rostri basi.

Lingua carnosa, obtusa, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Psittacus macrourus viridis, capite rosaceo-cærulescente, gula et torque nigris, rectricibus mediis cæruleis apice albidis.

Psittacus rodocephalus.

Museum Leverianum.

Psittacus Ginginianus var β.

Lath. ind. orn.

Psittacum depinximus insolitæ pulchritudinis, a cele­berrimo Vaillanto descriptum et nuncupatum Fridy­tutah; quo etiam nomine distinguitur apud Indos. In Bengala præcipue repertus est; testaturque Vaillantus erratum fuisse usque adhuc de hac avi, quod scilicet non discri­minata fuerit ab alio psittaco, qui huic nostro simillimus, revera tamen diversus est.

v

the
FRIDYTUTAH PARRAKEET.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked: upper mandible moveable, and furnished with a cere.

Nostrils in the base of the bill.

Tongue fleshy, obtuse, generally entire.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Long-tailed Green Parrakeet, with blueish rose-coloured head, black throat and collar, and the two middle tail-feathers blue with whitish tips.

La Perruche Fridytutah.

Levaill. Perr. pl. 74.

The present uncommonly beautiful Parrot has, accor­ding to the celebrated Mons. Levaillant, been hitherto confounded with a different bird, to which it is extremely allied, though, in reality, specifically distinct. Mons. Levaillant describes it under the title of Fridytutah, by which name it is known in its native regions of India. It is said to be chiefly found in Bengal.

878

Orbicular Diodon

Richd. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

DIODON ORBICULARIS.

Character Genericus.

Maxillæ osseæ, indivisæ.

Corpus spinis mobilibus adspersum.

Character Specificus, &c.

Diodon orbicularis. D. corpore rotundo, aculeis brevibus.

Bloch. t. 127.

Diodon Atinga. var. β. γ.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Orbis echinatus seu muricatus.

Ray. Will. &c.

Orbis muricatus.

Clus. exot.

Insigni huic pisci quasi pedalis est longi­tudo. In maribus generatur quæ tropica vocantur, rotundior Diodonte Hystrice, a quo etiam dignoscitur spinis multo brevioribus, quarum latior est basis, quæque cutim reddunt quasi cælatam et reticulatam.

v

the
ORBICULAR DIODON.

Generic Character.

Jaws bony, undivided.

Body beset with moveable spines.

Specific Character, &c.

Diodon with round body and short spines.

Round Diodon.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 435.

Die Stachelkugel.

Bloch. ichth. pl. 127.

This remarkable fish, which grows to about a foot in length, is a native of the tropical seas, and is of a rounder shape than the Diodon Hystrix or Porcupine Diodon, from which it is also distinguished by its much shorter spines, with broader bases, forming a kind of carved, reticular pattern on the skin.

879

Brown-Spotted Locust

Richd. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

GRYLLUS VERRUCIVORUS.

Character Genericus.

Caput inflexum, maxillosum, palpis instructum.

Antennæ setaceæ seu filiformes.

Alæ quatuor, deflexæ, convolutæ: inferiores plicatæ.

Pedes postici saltatorii: ungues ubique bini.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Gryllus verrucivorus. G. thorace subquadrato lævi, alis viridibus fusco maculatis, antennis setaceis longi­tudine corporis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Roes. ins. 2. Locust. t. 8.

Alunt pleræque Europææ regiones Gryllum verruci­vorum æqualem fere magni­tudine Gryllo viridissimo, seu vulgari; et eodem prope utentem vivendi modo. Narrat Linnæus solere Suecos rusticos adhibere hoc insectum in remedium verrucarum, quas manibus impositum ferunt radicitus abedere.

v

 

r

the
BROWN-SPOTTED LOCUST.

Generic Character.

Head inflected, armed with jaws, and furnished with feelers.

Antennæ, in most species, setaceous or filiform.

Wings four, deflected and convoluted; the lower ones pleated.

Hind-Legs formed for leaping: claws on all the feet two.

Specific Character, &c.

Green Locust, with brown spots, smooth squarish thorax, and setaceous antennæ of the length of the body.

The variegated European Locust.

The Gryllus verrucivorus, not uncommon in most parts of Europe, is of nearly equal size with the Gryllus viridis­simus or large green locust, which it also resembles in its general manner of life. In some parts of Sweden, as Linnæus informs us, the country people make use of it as a remedy against warts; suffering the insect to eat off those excrescences from their hands, which by this method, as is pretended, are effectually freed from these blemishes.

v

 

880

Liris Moth

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PHALÆNA LIRIS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ. (Volatu nocturno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Phalæna alis rotundatis concoloribus viridibus, singulis macula magna media subrotunda fenestrata.

Phalæna Liris.

Cram. t. 63. F. et 262. E.

Indiam incolit Phalæna Liris, cujus veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula.

v

 

r

LIRIS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually diminishing from base to point.

Wings, (when at rest) generally deflected. Flight nocturnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Moth with similar-surfaced, rounded, green wings, each marked by a large, roundish, semitrans­parent central spot.

Liris.

Cram. t. 63. F. et 262. E.

This elegant moth is a native of India, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

881

Orange Paradise-Bird

R P Nodder Del Sculpt. 1809

Notes

C

PARADISEA AURANTIA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum capistri plumis tomentosis tectum.

Pennæ hypochondriorum plerisque longiores.

Pedes validi, ambulatorii.

Character Specificus, &c.

Paradisea aurantio-flava, vertice subcristato, capistro gula remigibus exterioribus caudaque nigris.

Oriolus aureus. O. flavo-fulvus, capistro gula tectri­cibus primariis extremitateque rectricum nigris.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Paradisea aurea.

Lath. ind. orn.

De genere ad quod referri debeat hæc avis apud physicos paulum addubitatum est. Qui primus eam descripsit celeberrimus Edvardus Paradiseis annumerat. Inter Oriolos reponere Linnæo placuit, et Oriolum aureum nuncupare. Lathamus vero in præcellenti opere ornithologico restituit eam generi Paradiseo.

In India innascitur Paradisea aurea, eadem fere magni­tudine qua turdus musicus. Cuinam vivendi modo præcipue assuescat, haud satis compertum est.

v

 

C2

the
ORANGE PARADISE-BIRD.

Generic Character.

Bill covered at the base by velvet-like plumes.

Side-Feathers beneath the wings, in most species, extending far beyond the rest of the plumage.

Legs strong: feet formed for walking.

Specific Character, &c.

Orange-yellow Paradise-Bird, with slightly crested head; the frontlet, throat, outsides of the wings, and tail, black.

Golden Bird of Paradise.

Edwards, pl. 12.

Golden Paradise-Bird.

Lath. Synops.

Orange Paradise-Bird.

Gen. Zool. 7. p. 499.

Le Paradis orange.

Viellot Parad. pl. 11. 12.

The proper genus of this bird has been considered as in some degree doubtful among naturalists. The celebrated Edwards, its first describer, regarded it as a Paradisea. Linnæus however placed it among the Orioles, under the title of Oriolus aureus, but Dr. v Latham, in his excellent ornithological work, has again restored it to the genus Paradisea. Its size is that of a Song Thrush, and it is a native of India. Nothing seems to be known of its parti­cular habits or manner of life.

882

Salvelin Trout

R P N. Sculpt.

Notes

r

SALMO SALVELINUS.

Character Genericus.

Caput læve, compressum: lingua cartilaginea.

Dentes in maxillis, lingua.

Membr. branch. radiis quatuor ad decem.

Corpus elongatum, postice pinna adiposa.

Character Specificus, &c.

Salmo griseo-purpurascens, rubro maculatus, abdomine pinnisque inferioribus coccineis.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 59.

Salmo Salvelinus. S. pedalis, maxilla superiore longiore.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Salmo radio primo in pinna ventrali analique albo.

Bloch. ichth. t. 99.

Si Salmonis Salvelini faciem generalem intuearis, simil­limum putes Salmoni Alpino; nec ipsis physicis interdum satis innotuit differentia. In iisdem quoque locis innas­citur quibus Salmo Alpinus; in lacubus scilicet montanis, fluviisque septentrionalis Europe. Longus est duodecim seu quindecim uncias. Caro eadem fere est ac Salmonis Alpini, et æque in deliciis habetur.

v

 

r

the
SALVELIN TROUT.

Generic Character.

Head smooth, compressed: Tongue cartilaginous.

Teeth both in the jaws and on the tongue.

Gill-Membrane from four to ten-rayed.

Body compressed, furnished at the hind part with an adipose fin.

Specific Character, &c.

Purplish-grey Trout, with red spots; the lower fins and abdomen scarlet.

Salvelin Trout.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 59.

Red Char?

Pen. Brit. Zool.

In its general appearance this fish is considerably allied to the Salmo Alpinus or Char, with which indeed it appears to have been sometimes confounded by natur­alists. Like that species it is a native of mountainous lakes and rivers in many of the northern parts of Europe, and arrives at the length of a foot or fifteen inches. In point of delicacy it is considered as equal to the common char.

v

 

883

Crimson Underwing Moth

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PHALÆNA SPONSA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuate.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ. (Volatu nocturno.)

Character Specificus, &c.

Phalæna (Noctua) cristata, corpore alisque subferrugineo-griseis, inferioribus coccineis fasciis duabus nigris.

Phalæna Sponsa. Ph. Noctua spirilinguis cristata, alis griseis, inferioribus sanguineis, fasciis duabus nigris, abdomine undique cinereo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 841.

Roes. ins. 4. t. 19.

Phalænam Nuptam in opusculo hoc nostro nuperrime descripsimus, cui affinis admodum est phalæna de qua jam loquimur: colores tamen sortita est saturatiores, præsertim in alis superioribus. Differentiam revera speci­ficam satis quoque probat diversa larvæ facies. Foliis vescitur quercinis, in chrysalidem mutatur mense Junio, unde mense insequente exoritur phalæna.

v

 

r

the
CRIMSON UNDERWING MOTH.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually lessening from base to tip.

Wings (when at rest) generally deflex, (flight nocturnal.)

Specific Character.

Crested-Backed Moth, with subferruginous-grey body and wings, the lower pair crimson with two black bars.

The Crimson Underwing.

Reaumur ins. 1. pl. 32. f. 1-7.

Roes. ins. 4. pl. 19.

This elegant Moth is extremely nearly allied to the Phalæna Nupta, lately figured in the present work, but is distinguished by a deeper cast of colours, more especially on the upper wings. The different appearance of the larva is also alone sufficient to prove a real specific difference. It feeds on the leaves of the oak; changes to chrysalis in June, and gives birth to the moth in July.

v

 

884

Cærulescent Locust

R. P. Nodder.

Notes

r

GRYLLUS CÆRULESCENS.

Character Genericus.

Caput inflexum, maxillosum, palpis instructum.

Antennæ setaceæ seu filiformes.

Alæ quatuor, deflexæ, convolutæ; inferiores plicatæ.

Pedes postici saltatorii: Ungues ubique bini.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 692.

Character Specificus, &c.

Gryllus fuscus, thorace subcarinato, alis virescenti-cæruleis fascia nigra.

Gryllus cærulescens. G. thorace subcarinato, alis virescenti-cæruleis, fascia nigra.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Roes. 2. t. 21. f. 4.

In Europæ regionibus Australibus præcipue conspicitur Gryllus cærulescens, magni­tudine vera in tabula depictus.

v

 

r

the
CÆRULESCENT LOCUST.

Generic Character.

Head inflected, armed with jaws, and furnished with feelers.

Antennæ (in most species) setaceous or filiform.

Wings four, deflected and convoluted; the lower pair pleated.

Hind-Legs formed for leaping: claws on all the feet two.

Specific Character, &c.

Brown Locust, with subcristated thorax, and blueish-green under wings marked by a black bar.

Roes. ins. 2. pl. 21. f. 4.

Frisch. ins. 9. pl. 1. f 3.

Scop. Carn. 325.

The Cærulescent Locust is principally found in the southern parts of Europe, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

885

Chinese Teal

R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

D

ANAS GALERICULATA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum lamelloso-dentatum, convexum, obtusum.

Lingua ciliata, obtusa.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Anas crista dependente, dorsoque postico utrinque penna recurvata compressa elevata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 206.

Querquedula Sinensis.

Briss. av. 6. p. 450.

In China et Japonia generatur formosissima hæc avis, eadem fere magni­tudine qua Anas Penelope Linnæi. Femina a mare differt corpore supra fusco, pectore albo maculato, abdomine albo.

v

 

D2

the
CHINESE TEAL.

Generic Character.

Bill broad and flattened; the edges marked with sharp lamellæ.

Tongue broad, and ciliated at the edges.

Specific Character, &c.

Duck with pendent crest, and an upright, compressed, recurved feather on each side the lower part of the back.

The Chinese Teal.

Edw. pl. 102.

The Mandarin Duck.

This most beautiful bird is a native of China and Japan, and is nearly equal in size to the common Teal. The female bird is brown above, with whitish abdomen, and the breast marked by white spots.

v

 

886

Great Egger Moth

R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

PHALÆNA QUERCUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attennatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ. (Volatu nocturno).

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Phalæna (Bombyx) elinguis, alis reversis ferrugineis, fascia flava punctoque albo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 814.

Phalæna Quercus. P. alis reversis ferrugineis, striga flava punctoque albo.

Fab. sp. ins. p. 175.

Folia quercus et cratægi præcipue depascitur larva hujus phalænæ, et in chrysalidem mense Junio convertitur, unde mense Julio erumpit insectum plene conformatum.

v

 

r

the
GREAT EGGER MOTH.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually lessening from base to point.

Wings (when at rest) generally deflected. (Flight nocturnal).

Specific Character, &c.

Moth with reversed ferruginous wings marked by a yellow bar and a white spot.

The Great Egger Moth.

Alb. pl. 18.

Roes. phal. t. 35.

The caterpillar of the Moth here repre­sented, feeds principally on the leaves of the oak and the hawthorn, and changes to a chrysalis in the month of June, from which in July emerges the complete insect.

v

 

887

Vimba Carp

R. P. Nodder. Sculpt.

Notes

r

CYPRINUS VIMBA.

Character Genericus.

Os parvum, edentulum.

Dentes gutturales.

Membr. branch. triradiata.

Pinnæ ventrales sæpius novem-radiatæ.

Character Specificus, &c.

Cyprinus Vimba. C. maxilla superiore prominente, pinna ani radiis viginti tribus.

Bloch. ichth. 1. t. 4.

Cyprinus Vimba. C. pinna ani radiis viginti quatuor, rostro nasiformi.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 531.

Cyprinus capito anadromus dictus.

Artedi syn. p. 8. No. 13.

In mari Baltico præcipue conspicitur Cyprinus Vimba, in longi­tudinem sesquipedalem crescens.

v

 

r

the
VIMBA CARP.

Generic Character.

Mouth small and toothless. Teeth in the throat.

Gill-Membrane three-rayed.

Ventral fins, in general, nine-rayed.

Specific Character, &c.

Carp with prominent upper jaw, and twenty-three rays in the anal fin.

Die Zarthe.

Bloch ichth. 1. pl. 4.

The Vimba or Serte.

The fish here represented is principally seen in the Baltic sea, where it grows to the length of about eighteen inches.

v

 

888

Marsyas Butterfly

R. P. N.— Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO MARSYAS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno).

Character Specificus.

Papilio Marsyas. P. alis bicaudatis supra cæruleis; subtus cærulescentibus punctis nigris.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 788.

Pleb. Rur.

Roes. add. t. 5. f. 1. 2.

Edw. av. t. 81.

Americam australem incolit Papilio Marsyas, magni­tudine vera in tabula depictus.

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r

MARSYAS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ gradually thickening towards the upper part, and generally terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with bicaudated wings, of a deep glossy blue above; beneath blueish with black specks.

Kleeman ins. 1. pl. 5. f. 1. 2.

Seb. mus. 4. pl. 5. f. 10.

This elegant Butterfly is a native of South America, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

889

Spotted Kingfisher

R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

E

ALCEDO INDA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum trigonum, crassum, rectum, longum.

Lingua carnosa, brevissima, plana, acuta.

Pedes gressorii plerisque.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 178.

Character Specificus, &c.

Alcedo atro-viridis, alis albo-punctatis, subtus fulva, fascia pectorali nigro-nebulosa.

Alcedo Inda. Alcedo brachyura virens, subtus fulva, fascia pectorali nebulosa.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

In America Australi, præcipue Guiana generatur hæc avis. Tabula illam exprimit magni­tudine vera.

v

 

E2

the
SPOTTED KINGFISHER.

Generic Character.

Bill trigonal, thick, strait, long.

Tongue fleshy, very short, flat, sharp-pointed.

Feet, in most species, gressorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Dark-green Kingfisher with the wings speckled with white; beneath fulvous, with a blackish clouded pectoral band.

The Spotted Kingfisher.

Edwards, pl. 335.

Lath. Synops. p. 642.

The present species of Kingfisher is a native of South America, and particularly of Guiana. The plate represents it in its natural size.

v

 

890

Zebra Sole

R. P. N— Sculpt.

Notes

r

PLEURONECTES ZEBRA.

Character Genericus.

Oculi ambo in eodem latere capitis.

Corpus compressum, latere altero dorsum, altero abdomen referente.

Character Specificus, &c.

Pleuronectes oblongus albidus, fasciis pluribus transversis duplicatis fuscis.

Pleuronectes oculis dextris, fasciis transversis plurimis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

Pleuronectes Zebra.

Bloch. ichth. t. 187.

E maribus Indicis extrahitur Pleuronectes Zebra, in longi­tudinem pedalem vel sesquipedalem crescens. Caro ejus apud Indos in deliciis habetur.

v

 

r

the
ZEBRA SOLE.

Generic Character.

Eyes both on the same side of the head.

Body compressed, one side representing the back, and the other the abdomen.

Specific Character, &c.

Whitish oblong Pleuronectes, with several transverse double brown bands.

The Zebra Sole.

Die bandirte Zunge.

Bloch. ichth. pl. 187.

The Zebra Sole is found in the Indian seas, and arrives at the length of twelve or eighteen inches. It is in consi­derable esteem as an article of food.

v

 

891

Ameiva Lizard

R. P. Nodder. Sculpt. 1809

Notes

r

LACERTA AMEIVA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus tetrapodum, elongatum, caudatum, nudum.

Character Specificus, &c.

Lacerta cærulea, albo nigroque varia, cauda longa verticillata, scutis abdominis triginta.

Lacerta Ameiva. L. cauda verticillata longa, scutis abdominis triginti, collari subtus ruga duplici.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 362.

In variis Americæ regionibus nec non in Insulis Occiduis conspicitur Lacerta Ameiva, magni­tudine et coloribus multum varians.

v

 

r

the
AMEIVA LIZARD.

Generic Character.

Body four-footed, elongated, tailed; without any secondary integument.

Specific Character, &c.

Blue Lizard with black and white variegations, long verticillated tail, and thirty abdominal scuta.

Gen. Zool. 3. p. 237.

Great Spotted Lizard.

Edwards, pl. 203.

Ameiva.

Seb. mus. 1. pl. 88. f. 1. 2.

The Ameiva Lizard is found in many parts of South America, as in several of the West Indian islands, and varies greatly, both in size and colours.

v

 

892

Hypermnestra Moth

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

PHALÆNA HYPERMNESTRA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ. (Volatu nocturno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Phalæna (Noctua) alis superioribus olivaceis fusco reticulatis alboque maculatis, inferioribus luteis nigro marginatis.

Phalæna Hypermnestra.

Cram. t. 323. A. B.

An var. Phal. Maternæ?

Indiam incolit elegans hæc Phalæna, et magni­tudine vera in tabula depingitur.

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r

HYPERMNESTRA.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually diminishing from base to point.

Wings (when at rest) generally deflected. Flight nocturnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Moth with the upper wings olive-coloured, reticu­lated with brown, and spotted with white; the lower wings luteous with black border.

Ph. Hypermnestra.

Cramer. pl. 123. A. B.

Perhaps a variety of Phalæna Materna.

This elegant insect is an inhabitant of India, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

893

Cape Parrakeet

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt. 1809

Notes

F

PSITTACUS CAPENSIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum, mandibula superiore mobili, cera instructa.

Nares in rostri basi.

Lingua carnosa, obtusa, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Psittacus viridis, tectricibus cæruleo variis subtus cæruleis.

Psittacus Capensis. P. viridis, alis supra cæruleo variis, subtus cæruleis, rostro pedibusque rubescentibus.

Lath. ind. orn.

Psittacus Capensis.

Lin. Gmel.

Africas partes inferiores incolit Psittacus Capensis, magni­tudine vera in tabula depictus.

v

 

F2

the
CAPE PARRAKEET.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked; upper mandible moveable, and furnished with a cere.

Nostrils in the base of the bill.

Tongue obtuse, fleshy, generally entire.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Short-tailed green Parrakeet, with the wing-coverts blue beneath, and varied with blue above.

Perruche a ailes bleues.

Buff. ois.

Petite Perruche du Cap de bonne esperance.

Pl. Enl. 455. f. 1.

Blue-winged Parrakeet.

Lath. syn.

The Cape Parrakeet is a native of the lower parts of Africa, and is repre­sented in its natural size on the annexed plate.

v

 

894

Lineated Gurnard

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

TRIGLA LINEATA.

Character Genericus.

Caput magnum, loricatum, lineis scabris.

Opercula spinosa.

Membr. branch. radiis septem.

Digiti (plerisque) liberi ad pinnas pectorales.

Character Specificus, &c.

Trigla lineata. T. rubra, maculis supra fusco-sanguineis, corpore utrinque lineis numerosis transversis.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 626.

Trigla lineata. Trigla transversim lineata.

Bloch. ichth. 10. t. 354.

Mullus imberbis.

Rondel.

Imbriago.

Charlt. onom. zoic.

In mari Mediterraneo præcipue conspicitur Trigla lineata, in longi­tudinem crescens pedalem vel sesqui­pedalem.

v

 

r

the
LINEATED GURNARD.

Generic Character.

Head large, mailed, and marked by rough lines.

Gill-covers spiny.

Gill-membrane seven-rayed.

Finger-shaped processes (in most species) near the pectoral fins.

Specific Character, &c.

Red Gurnard, marked above with dusky-sanguine spots, with the body crossed on each side by numerous perpendicular lines.

Streaked Gurnard.

Penn. Brit. Zool.

Ray syn. pisc.

Der lineirte Seehalme.

Bloch. ichth. pl. 354.

The present species of Gurnard is principally observed in the Mediterranean sea, where it arrives at the length of a foot or eighteen inches.

v

 

895

Pylades Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO PYLADES.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno).

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Papilio alis rotundatis olivaceo-fuscis, superioribus fasciis duabus pallidioribus, inferioribus margine fulvo fusco-maculato.

Papilio Pylades.

Cram. t. 387. A. B.

Americæ regiones Australes incolit Papilio Pylades, et magni­tudine vera in tabula exprimitur.

v

 

r

PYLADES.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and generally terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with olive-brown rounded wings, the upper pair marked by two paler bars; the lower by a fulvous border spotted with brown.

Pap. Pylades.

Cram. pl. 387. A. B.

This insect is a native of the southern parts of America, and is figured in its natural size.

v

 

896

Dotted Cone

R P N— Del Sculpt.

Notes

r

CONUS AUGUR.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, convoluta, turbinata.

Apertura effusa, longitudinalis, linearis, edentula, basi integra.

Columella lævis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Conus albus, lineis numerosis transversis fusco-punctatis, fasciisque duabus undato-maculosis fuscis.

Conus teres, basi acuminata, maculosa, puncturis rufis lineata, maculisque rufescentibus quasi fasciata.

Chemn. 3. t. 58. f. 641.?

An var. Coni Magi Lin.?

E maribus Indicis et præcipue circa littora insulæ Amboynæ extrahitur elegans hæc cochlea, cujus veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula.

v

 

r

the
DOTTED CONE.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Limax or Slug.

Shell more or less conic or pyramidal.

Aperture longitudinal, linear, without teeth, entire at the base.

Pillar smooth.

Specific Character, &c.

White Cone, with numerous brown-speckled transverse lines, and two wavy-spotted brown bands.

Cornet ponctué a fascies.

Knorr. Verg. 5. pl. 13. f. 6.

Conus Augur, or Dotted Cone.

Cat. Portl. p. 44. No. 1046.

The highly elegant shell here represented is an inhabi­tant of the Indian seas, and is particularly found about the coasts of Amboina. It is figured on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

897

Umbrella’d Ampelis

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

G

AMPELIS UMBELLATA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum rectum, convexum; mandibula superiore longiore, subincurvata, utrinque emarginata.

Lingua acuta, cartilaginea, bifida.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Ampelis umbellata. A. nigra, crista verticali pennisque pectoralibus dependentibus violaceo-splendidis.

Cephalopterus ornatus.

Ann. du Mus. d’Hist. Nat. No. 75. p. 235. pl. 15.

Perraram hanc et elegantem avem descripsit ingeniosus Geoffroy in opere cui titulus, Annales du Museum d’Histoire Naturelle. Magnitudo est quasi corvi glandarii Linnæi; color niger, pennis cristæ, illisque quæ a pectore dependent, violaceo-splendidis. In Brasilia generatur. Instituit ei Geoffroy novum genus, cui nomen indidit Cephalopterus. Genus tamen Linnæanum Ampelis satis avi accommodatum et conveniens censui, eamque inter Ampelidas numerare non dubitavi.

v

 

G2

the
UMBRELLA’D AMPELIS.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, a little convex above, and bending towards the point: near the end of the upper mandible a small notch on each side.

Nostrils hid in bristles.

Middle toe closely connected at the base to the outmost.

Pennant.

Specific Character, &c.

Black Ampelis, with the vertical crest and pendent breast-feathers glossed with violet.

The Umbrella’d Chatterer.

Cephalopterus ornatus.

Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. No. 75.

This rare and elegant bird is described by Mons. Geoffroy, in the work entitled Annales du Museum d’Histoire Naturelle. Its size is nearly that of a Jay, and its colour black, the crest and pendent breast-feathers being richly glossed with violet. It is a native of Brasil. Mons. Geoffroy institutes for it a new genus, under the title of Cephalopterus, but as it may without inconvenience be considered as belonging to the Linnæan genus Ampelis, I have taken the liberty of giving it that station in the present work.

v

 

898

Anchor-Toothed Sparus

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

SPARUS ANCHORAGO.

Character Genericus.

Dentes validi: Primores ordine simplici, duplici, triplici, vel quad­ruplici dispositi.

Molares (plerisque) validi, convexi, læves; in series dispositi, et quasi pavimentum in ore effor­mantes.

Labia crassa: Opercula mutica, squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sparus flavescens, fusco transversim fasciatus, pinnis rubris, dentibus curvatis.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 411.

Sparus Anchorago. S. aculeis dorsalibus tredecim, dentibus caninis exsertis.

Bloch. ichth. 8. t. 276.

In maribus Indicis innascitur Spari species quam depinximus. Insignis est illi conformatio dentium, unde et nomen adepta est; iis præcipue quos continet maxilla inferior, introrsum valde incurvatis. Cuinam vivendi modo se assuescat incompertum est.

v

 

r

the
ANCHOR-TOOTHED SPARUS.

Generic Character.

Teeth strong: front-teeth disposed in a single, double, treble, or quad­ruple row.

Grinders (in most species) convex, smooth, and disposed in ranges, forming a kind of pavement in the mouth.

Lips thick: Gill-covers unarmed, smooth, scaly.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish Sparus, with transverse brown bands, red fins, and curved teeth.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 411.

Der Ankerzahn.

Bloch ichth. 8. t. 276.

The present species of Sparus is an inhabitant of the Indian seas, and has obtained its name from the peculiar conformation of its teeth, especially those of the lower jaw, which are strongly incurvated. Nothing of its parti­cular history or habits seems to be known.

v

 

899

Great Lappet Moth

R. P. Nodder Del Sculpt.

Notes

r

PHALÆNA QUERCIFOLIA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ (volatu nocturno).

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Phalæna quercifolia. P. (Bombyx) elinguis, alis reversis semitectis dentatis ferrugineis, margine postico nigris.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Reaum. ins. 2. t. 43.

Roes. ins. 1. t. 41.

Gramina varia, nec non folia rubi salicisque depascitur larva hujus phalænæ. Mense Maio in chrysalidem conver­titur, unde insequente Junio aut Julio erumpit ipsa phalæna.

v

 

r

the
GREAT LAPPET MOTH.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually lessening from base to tip.

Wings (when sitting) generally deflex; (flight nocturnal).

Specific Character, &c.

Moth with reverse half-covered dentated ferruginous under wings, with the hinder margin dusky.

The Great Lappet Moth.

Albin. ins. pl. 16.

Roes. ins. 1. pl. 41.

Reaum. ins. 2. pl. 43.

The caterpillar of this moth feeds on various grasses, as well as on the leaves of the bramble and the sallow. It changes into a chrysalis in May, and in the succeeding June or July gives birth to the complete insect.

v

 

900

Waved Turbo

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

TURBO UNDULATUS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, solida.

Apertura coarctata, orbiculata, integra.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Turbo undulatus. T. testa ovato-convexa longitudi­naliter undulatim strigosa; spira obtusa, fauce argentea.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

Chemn. Conch. 10. p. 297. t. 169. f. 1040. 1641.

Mart. Conch. 1. 29.

Circa littora maris Indici conspicitur pulchra hæc cochlea, et magni­tudine vera in tabula annexa depingitur.

v

 

r

the
WAVED TURBO.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Limax or Slug.

Shell univalve, spiral, solid.

Aperture straitened, orbicular, entire.

Specific Character, &c.

Turbo with ovate-convex, longitudinally undulated and striped shell, with silvery mouth.

Turbo undulatus or Waved Emerald.

Cat. Port. 408.

The beautiful shell represented on the present plate is found on the shores of the Indian seas, and is figured in its natural size.

v

 

901

Ultramarine Kingfisher

R P Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

H

ALCEDO ULTRAMARINA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum trigonum, crassum, rectum, longum.

Lingua carnosa, brevissima, plana, acuta.

Pedes gressorii plerisque.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Alcedo ultramarina. A. cærulea subtus fulva, vertice subcristato transversim nigro-striato, rostro, albido apice fulvo.

Alcedo ultramarina. A. supra cærulea nitens, subtus rufa, gula alba, genis ex rufo pallide purpureis, capite supra subcristato et cæruleo, maculis nigris, superciliis rufis, cauda brevi.

Daudin in Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. vol. 2. p. 443.

Visum est Domino Geoffroy, bellæ hujus aviculæ primo descriptori, speciem novam pronunciare. Si faciem generalem spectes, simillimam putes Alcedini cristatæ, quam in opusculo hoc nostro depinximus. Africana est, Malimbam habens natale solum. Ostendit tabula veram magni­tudinem.

v

 

H2

the
ULTRAMARINE KINGFISHER.

Generic Character.

Bill trigonal, thick, strait, long.

Tongue fleshy, very short, flat, sharp-pointed.

Feet, in most species, gressorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Blue Kingfisher, fulvous beneath, with subcristated crown transversely striped with black, and whitish bill with fulvous tip.

Le Martin-Pêcheur a dos bleu.

Daudin. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat.

This beautiful little bird is considered by Mons. Geoffroy, its first describer, as a new species. In its general appearance it is strongly allied to the Alcedo cristata or Crested Kingfisher, before repre­sented in the present Work. It is a native of Malimba in Africa, and is figured in its natural size.

v

 

902

Long-Necked Aplysia

R. P. Nodder. Sculpt.

Notes

r

APLYSIA CAMELUS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus repens, obvelatum membranis reflexis, clypeo dorsali pulmones obtegente.

Foramen laterale dextrum.

Anus supra extremitatem dorsi.

Tentacula quatuor, anterius sita.

Character Specificus, &c.

Aplysia Camelus. A. albida collo longissimo.

Aplysia Camelus.

Cuvier. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. vol. 2. p. 295.

Quibus in locis præcipue habitet Aplysia Camelus nondum pro certo exploratum est. Verisimile tamen est generari eam in maribus Europæis. Nec satis patet ipsane sit species vera et genuina, an varietas Aplysiæ quæ a Linnæo dicitur Aplysia depilans. A Cuviero descripta est in opere cui titulus “Annales du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle.” Exprimit tabula naturalem magni­tudinem.

v

 

r

the
LONG-NECKED APLYSIA.

Generic Character.

Body repent, covered by reflected membranes, and a dorsal shield over the lungs.

Foramen on the right side.

Vent situated at the extremity of the back.

Tentacula four, situated in front.

Specific Character, &c.

Whitish Aplysia with very long neck.

Aplysia Camelus.

Cuvier in Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. vol. 2.

This Aplysia, which is described by Mons. Cuvier in the Annales du Museum d’Histoire Naturelle, is, probably, a native of the European seas, though its particular resi­dence seems to be unknown; neither indeed is it perfectly clear whether it be a truly distinct species, or a variety only of the Aplysia depilans of Linnæus. It is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

903

Bearded Flounder

Notes

r

PLEURONECTES BARBATUS.

Character Genericus.

Oculi ambo in eodem latere capitis.

Corpus compressum, latere altero dorsum, altero abdomen referente.

Character Specificus, &c.

Pleuronectes barbatus. P. fuscus maculis sparsis griseis, fronte barbata.

Pleuronectes oblongus, maxilla superiore longiore, squamis utrinque asperis, pinnis pectoralibus carens.

Gronov. Zoophylac. No. 225.?

L’Achire barbu.

Cepede Poiss.

Ann. du Mus. d’Hist. Nat. vol. 1. p. 152.

Piscis quem depinximus, mare incolit Indicum et rubrum, longus, ut plurimum, septem vel octo uncias. Primus statuisse videtur Gronovius speciem revera esse novam. Non continetur tamen in Systemate Linnæano.

v

 

r

the
BEARDED FLOUNDER.

Generic Character.

Eyes both on the same side of the head.

Body compressed, one side representing the back, and the other the abdomen.

Specific Character, &c.

Brown Flounder with scattered grey spots and bearded front.

L’Achire barbu.

Cepede. Poiss.

Geoffroy in Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 1. p. 152.

This fish is a native of the Indian and Red seas, measuring seven or eight inches in length. It seems to have been first considered as a distinct species by Gronovius, but does not occur in the Systema Naturæ of Linnæus.

v

 

904

Four-Horned Monoculus

R P N. Sculpt.

Notes

r

MONOCULUS QUADRICORNIS.

Character Genericus.

Pedes natatorii.

Corpus crusta tectum.

Oculi, plerisque, approximati, testæ innati.

Character Specificus, &c.

Monoculus antennis quaternis, cauda recta bifida.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Fabr. spec. ins.

Monoculus cornubus quaternis mobilibus setaceis, corpore ovato, cauda longa recta cylindrica bifida.

Degeer Ins. 7. t. 29. f. 11. 12.

In universo genere species vulgatior nulla est Monoculo quadricorni; quem omnibus anni temporibus cernere est in aquis stagnantibus purioribus, puteis, et reliquis ejusmodi. Magnitudo vix acarum adultum superat: si tamen extrema animalculi membra metiris, octavam unciæ partem interdum longi­tudine æquabit. Femina a mari ovariis, ut plurimum, facile distinguitur, quæ quasi duplices uvarum racemos minutulos repræsentant. Ostendit tabula animalculum microscopice auctum.

v

 

r

the
FOUR-HORNED MONOCULUS.

Generic Character.

Eyes, in most species, approximated, and imbedded in the shell.

Body covered by a crustaceous tegument.

Feet formed for swimming.

Specific Character, &c.

Monoculus with four setaceous antennæ, and strait bifid tail.

Leewenhoek acr. 142. f. 1.

Empl. for Micr. pl. 15. f. 1-4.

Joblot Micr. 2. pl. 14. fig. 6. D.

Baker. Micr. pl. 9. f. 1. 2. &c.

Degeer. Ins. 7. pl. 29. f. 11. 12.

Roes. ins. 3. pl. 98. f. 1. 4.

This may be considered as one of the most common of the genus to which it belongs; occurring during the whole year in the clearer kind of stagnant waters, wells, &c. In the size of its body it scarcely exceeds a large mite, but if measured from the extremities of its limbs, will some­times be found to equal the eighth of an inch in length. The female is, in general, readily distinguished by the remarkable appearance of the ovaries, which bear a resemblance to a double cluster of grapes in miniature. The figure represents the animal as it appears when magnified by the microscope.

v

 

905

Curve-Billed Cuckow

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder. Tavistock Street.

Notes

I

CUCULUS CURVIROSTRIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum teretiusculum.

Nares margine prominula.

Lingua sagittata, plana, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Cuculus nigro-virescens, subtus fusco-ferrugineus, capite cano, genis nudis.

Le Malkoha Rouverdin.

Levaill. Ois. Afr. 225.

Indiam? incolit Cuculus curvirostris, magni­tudine cuculum communem Europæum superans. De modo vivendi nihil compertum est.

v

 

I2

the
CURVE-BILLED CUCKOW.

Generic Character.

Bill somewhat bending.

Nostrils bounded by a small rim.

Tongue short, pointed.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Greenish-black Cuckow, dusky-ferruginous beneath, with grey head and naked cheeks.

Malkoha Rouverdin.

Levaill. Ois. Afr. 225.

This species is probably a native of India, and is somewhat larger than the common European Cuckow. Nothing is known of its habits or manner of life.

v

 

906

Angel Shark

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

r

SQUALUS SQUATINA.

Character Genericus.

Os in anteriore et inferiore capitis parte, dentibus numerosis serratis.

Spiracula utrinque ad latera colli, plerisque quinque.

Corpus oblongum, teretiusculum.

Character Specificus, &c.

Squalus lividus, capite rotundato, ore terminali, naribus cirrosis, pinnis pectoralibus maximis.

Squalus Squatina. S. pinna anali nulla, caudæ duabus, ore terminali, naribus cirrosis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Squalus corpore depresso.

Bloch.

Latior est hæc species reliquis Squalis, generaque Squali et Rajæ vinculo quodam videtur inter se connectere. Alunt eam maria Europæa longam sæpe quinque, sex, vel etiam octo pedes.

v

 

r

the
ANGEL SHARK.

Generic Character.

Mouth, in most species, situated beneath the anterior part of the head, with numerous teeth, disposed in rows.

Spiracles on each side the neck, in most species five in number, of a semilunar shape.

Body oblong, somewhat cylindric.

Specific Character, &c.

Livid Shark, with rounded head, terminal mouth, bearded nostrils, and very large pectoral fins.

The Monk or Angel Fish.

Will. ichth.

Angel-Fish.

Penn. Brit. Zool.

This species may be considered as forming a kind of link between the genera of Squalus and Raja, being of a broader form than the rest of the Shark tribe. It is a native of the European seas, and often arrives at the length of five, six, or even eight feet.

v

 

907

Nilotic Tortoise

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder. Tavistock St.

Notes

r

TESTUDO NILOTICA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus caudatum, lorica ossea aut coriacea superne et inferne, vel squamis superne obtectum.

Oris mandibula superior inferiorem pyxidum instar claudens.

Character Specificus, &c.

Testudo tegmine molli olivaceo albopunctato, pedibus triunguiculatis.

Testudo triunguis. T. pedum unguiculis tribus, dorsi disco rugoso orbiculato, limbo depressiore lævi, naribus in cylindro elevato et ultra caput prominente.

Lin. Gmel.

Forsk. F. Arab.

Trionyx Ægyptiacus.

Geoffroy Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat.

Testudinem quam depinximus, quæque in fluvio Nilo generatur, primus descripsit Forskalius nomine testudinis triunguis. Post detectum hoc specimen prodierunt in lucem aliæ nonnullæ species, huic sane simillimæ, revera tamen diversæ, quas inter et hanc nostram errantes physici nullum discrimen facere soliti sunt. Dominus Geoffroy in Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. retulit hasce testudines ad novum genus, quod vocat v Trionyx; quoniam pedes digitis tantummodo tribus conspicuis instruuntur. Habitu seu facie generali a reliquis differunt: tegmine nempe superiori molliore, coriaceo magis quam corneo seu osseo, nasoque nonnihil mobili et extenso, cujus in extremitate sitæ sunt nares. Rivos et paludes incolunt. Monendus est lector, pedes testudinis Niloticæ, quam in opere suo exhibuit Geoffroy, incuria sculptoris unguibus instrui pluribus quam oportuit: quod vitium in icone hac nostra emendavimus. In longi­tudinem, ut plurimum sesquipedalem aut bipedalem crescit testudo Nilotica.

908

Nilotic Tortoise

R. P. Nodder

r

the
NILOTIC TORTOISE.

Generic Character.

Body defended by a bony covering, coated by a horny, scaly, or coriaceous integument.

Mouth without distinct or proper teeth; the upper mandible closing over the lower.

Specific Character, &c.

Soft-shelled olive-coloured Tortoise, spotted with white, with three-clawed feet.

Le Trionyx d’Egypte.

Geoffroy St. Hilaire. Ann. Mus. H. N.

This tortoise, which is an inhabitant of the river Nile, appears to have been first described by Forskal, under the name of Testudo triunguis. Since the discovery of this species by Forskal, some others have been observed, which, agreeing in many points of resemblance, have been confounded by naturalists with the preceding. Mons. Geoffroy, in the Annales du Museum d’Histoire Naturelle, has instituted for these species a distinct genus, under the title of Trionyx; the feet in such tortoises being furnished with three conspicuous claws only. In point of general character or habit, they differ from others of the genus in the softness of their upper integument, which is rather of a v coriaceous than of a shelly or bony nature, and in having a lengthened and somewhat moveable snout, at the tip of which the nostrils are situated. They are inhabi­tants of rivers and marshes. I must observe, that the figure of the present species given by Mons. Geoffroy, by a mistake of the engraver, represents the feet as furnished with too many claws; a particular which it was necessary to rectify in the present representation. The general length of the animal is from eighteen inches to two feet.

909

Vaillantian Parrakeet

Drawn Engraved & Published by Richd. P. Nodder.

Notes

K

PSITTACUS VAILLANTI.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum; mandibula superiore mobili, cera instructa.

Nares in rostri basi.

Lingua carnosa, obtusa, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Psittacus submacrourus coccineus, vertice femori­busque violaceis, alis cauda lunulaque cervicali viridibus.

La Perruche Phigy.

Levaill. Psitt. t. 64.

Speciei pulcherrima magnitudinem naturalem depin­ximus, insulas incolentis in oceano australi, psittacoque affinis porphyrocephalo, de quo in opusculo hoc nostro tractavimus. Ab eo tamen differt quod saturatior sit color cæruleus verticis, totumque corporis inferioris, femoribus exceptis, a gula ad crissum sit omnino coccineum.

v

 

K2

the
VAILLANTIAN PARRAKEET.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked: upper mandible moveable, and furnished with a cere.

Nostrils in the base of the bill.

Tongue fleshy, obtuse, generally entire.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Crimson Parrakeet, with slightly lengthened tail, violet crown and thighs, and green wings tail and nuchal crescent.

La Perruche Phigy.

Levaill. Per. pl. 64.

This most elegant species, which is repre­sented in its natural size, is a native of the Southern Islands, and is much allied to the Psittacus porphyrocephalus, or Purple-Headed Parrakeet, before figured in the present work. It differs in the darker colour of the blue on the head, as well as in having the whole of the under parts, except the thighs, of an uniform scarlet colour.

v

 

910

Green-Tailed Sparus

Drawn, Engraved, & Published, by Richd. P. Nodder. 1810

Notes

r

SPARUS CHLOROURUS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes validi: Primores in aliis ordine simplici, in aliis duplici, triplici, vel quad­ruplici dispositi.

Molares (plerisque) validi, convexi, læves, in series dispositi, et quasi pavimentum in ore effor­mantes.

Labia crassa: Opercula mutica, squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sparus subflavescens, squamis viridi arcuatis, pinnis viridibus, operculis roseis.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 413.

Sparus chlorourus. S. linea laterali interrupta, pinnis ventralibus in acumen elongatis.

Bloch. ichth. t. 260.

Maria incolit Americana elegans hæc species, in longi­tudinem sesquipedalem vel bipedalem crescens.

v

 

r

the
GREEN-TAILED SPARUS.

Generic Character.

Teeth strong: front-teeth in some species disposed in a single row, in others in a double, treble, or quad­ruple row.

Grinders (in most species) convex, smooth, and disposed in ranges, forming a kind of pavement in the mouth.

Lips thick: Gill-covers unarmed, smooth, scaly.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish Sparus, with large scales crossed by a green band, green fins, and rose-coloured gill-covers.

Green-Tailed Sparus.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 413.

Der Grünschwanz.

Bloch. ichth. pl. 260.

This elegant species is an inhabitant of the American seas, where it grows to the length of eighteen inches or two feet.

v

 

911

Loxa Beetle

Drawn Engraved & Publishd by R. P. Nodder

Notes

r

SCARABÆUS LOXANUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ clavatæ, capitulo fissili.

Tibiæ sæpius dentatæ.

Corpus crassum, compactum.

Character Specificus, &c.

Scarabæus aureo-viridis subtus cupreus, elytris subrugosis, cruribus posticis majoribus, (feminæ maximis mucrone tibiali).

Melolontha chrysochlora.

Latreille in Voyage de Humboldt et Bonpland. 15. f. 1. 2.

Insectum hoc Peruvianum, habitu generali Scarabæo Macropo quem in opusculo hoc nostro descripsimus, simillimum, ab Humboldo detectum est in natali solo. Mas femina longe minor est, cruribus posticis vix majoribus quam solent esse reliqui generis.

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r

the
LOXA BEETLE.

Generic Character.

Antennæ or horns clavate, with a fissile tip.

Legs generally toothed.

Body thick and compact.

Specific Character, &c.

Gold-green Beetle, coppery beneath, with slightly wrinkled wing-sheaths, and large hind-legs, (in the female extremely large, with a tibial spine).

Hanneton Chrysochlore.

Latreille in Humboldt et Bonpland’s Voy. pl. 15. f. 1. 2.

The insect here represented is a native of Peru, where it was observed by Mons. Humbold. In its general appear­ance it is considerably allied to the Scarabæus Macropus or Kanguroo Beetle, before figured in the present work. The male is much inferior in size to the female, and has the hind legs hardly exceeding the general proportion of those parts in the rest of the genus.

v

 

912

Snow-Flake Volute

Drawn & Engraved by R. P. N.

Notes

r

VOLUTA NIVOSA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa unilocularis, spiralis.

Apertura ecaudata, subeffusa.

Columella plicata.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Voluta ventricoso-ovata subferruginea, maculis niveis aspersa, fasciis duabus transversis fuscis nigro-venosis.

Voluta nivosa. V. ovata, maculis niveis adspersa, bifasciata, columella quadriplicata.

Lamarck in Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. No. 27. p. 158.

In oceano antarctico generatur Voluta nivosa, reperta præcipue apud oras Australasiæ. Ostendit tabula veram magni­tudinem.

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the
SNOW-FLAKE VOLUTE.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax or Slug.

Shell unilocular, spiral.

Aperture somewhat spreading, simple.

Pillar wreathed or pleated.

Specific Character, &c.

Ventricose-ovate subferruginous Volute, sprinkled with snow-white spots, and marked by two transverse brown bands with black veins.

Volute neigeuse.

Lamarck in Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. No. 27.

The Snow-Flake Volute is a native of the southern ocean, and is found about the coasts of New Holland in particular. It is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

913

Red-Naped Parrakeet

Drawn Engraved & Published by R P Nodder

Notes

L

PSITTACUS NUCHALIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum; mandibula superiore mobili, cera instructa.

Nares in rostri basi.

Lingua carnosa, obtusa, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Psittacus brachyurus viridis, fronte pectore lunulaque nuchali coccineis.

Psittacus cervicalis? Psittacus viridis, fronte lunula cervicis collo subtus pectoreque coccineis.

Lath. ind. orn.

Le Perroquet Langlois.

Levaill. Psitt. 136.

Elegantem hanc Psittaci speciem omnino esse novam suspicatur Levaillantus, et America Australis esse incolam. Crediderim tamen in Australasia generari. Magnitudo est quasi minoris columbæ domesticæ vulgaris.

v

 

L2

the
RED-NAPED PARRAKEET.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked; upper mandible moveable, and furnished with a cere.

Nostrils in the base of the bill.

Tongue fleshy, obtuse; generally entire.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Short-tailed green Parrakeet, with red front breast and nuchal crescent.

Red-Naped Parrakeet?

Lath. Suppl. p. 66.

Le Perroquet Langlois.

Levaill. Perr. 136.

This elegant species is supposed by Mons. Levaillant to be a species entirely new, or before undescribed, and to be a native of South America. It may however be doubted whether it be not rather a native of New Holland. Its size is that of a small domestic pigeon.

v

 

914

Golden Chætodon

Drawn & Engraved by R. P N—

Notes

r

CHÆTODON AUREUS.

Character Genericus.

Caput parvum: Os exiguum: Dentes conferti, flexiles, setacei.

Membr. branch. radiis tribus ad sex.

Corpus latum, compressum, pluribus fasciatum; pinna dorsi anique basi crassa, carnosa, squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

Chætodon luteus, corpore ovato, pinna dorsali analique magnis, falcato-elongatis, apice viridibus.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 353.

Chætodon aureus. Ch. aureus, aculeo ad os malæ.

Bloch. ichth. t. 193. f. 1.

Seserinus aureus aculeatus, pinnis cornutis.

Plumier. Mss.

Maria incolit Americana Chætodon aureus, in longi­tudinem duodecim vel quindecim unciarum crescens.

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r

the
GOLDEN CHÆTODON.

Generic Character.

Head small: Mouth small: Teeth close-set, flexile, setaceous.

Gill-Membrane three, four, five, or six-rayed.

Body broad, compressed, and generally fasciated: dorsal and anal fin thick, fleshy, and scaly at the base.

Specific Character, &c.

Gold-yellow Chætodon, with ovate body, and large elongated and falcated dorsal and anal fin green towards the extremities.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 353.

La Dorade de Plumier.

Bloch. ichth. pl. 193. f. 1.

The Golden Chætodon is an inhabitant of the American seas, where it arrives at the length of twelve or fifteen inches.

v

 

915

Orange-Tip Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO CARDAMINES.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Papilio alis integerrimis albis; primoribus versus apicem fulvis; posticis subtus viridi nebulosis.

Papilio Cardamines. P. alis integerrimis albis; primoribus medio fulvis; posticis subtus viridi nebulosis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Mer. Ins. Eur. t. 181.

Roes. ins. 1. pap. 2. t. 8.

Papilio Cardamines, in elegantissimis habendus Lepi­dopteris Britannicis, ab eruca viridi exoritur quæ folia brassicæ sylvestris, cardamines, aliarumque plantarum Tetradynamicarum præcipue depascitur. Mense Julio in chrysalidem convertitur, e qua insequente Maio erumpit insectum plene formatum.

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the
ORANGE-TIP BUTTERFLY.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and generally terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with entire, rounded, white wings, the upper pair fulvous towards the tips; the lower pair clouded with green beneath.

The Orange-tip Butterfly, or Lady of the Woods.

This species, which is one of the most elegant of the British Lepidoptera, proceeds from a green caterpillar, which usually feeds on the leaves of the wild cabbage, ladysmock, and other tetradynamic plants. It changes to a chrysalis in the month of July, from which in that of May following emerges the complete insect.

v

 

916

Patulous Gorgonia

Drawn Engraved & Published by R P Nodder 1810.

Notes

r

GORGONIA PATULA.

Character Genericus.

Animal crescens plantæ facie.

Hydræ sparsæ e poris lateralibus.

Stirps radicata, cornea, continua, ramosa, basi expla­nata, cortice obducta.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

Character Specificus, &c.

Gorgonia patula. G. compressa tortuose ramosa subpinnata ruberrima, osculis distichis subro­tundis halone subalbido inclusis, osse subfusco corneo.

Soland. et Ellis zooph. p. 88. t. 15. f. 3. 4.

In maribus Indicis et Americanis generatur Gorgonia patula, et magni­tudine vera in tabula depingitur.

v

 

r

PATULOUS GORGONIA.

Generic Character.

Animal growing with the habit of a plant.

Polypes scattered from the lateral pores.

Stem fixed, horny, branched, covered with a soft bark.

Specific Character, &c.

Compressed, wavy-spreading subpinnated Gorgonia, with roundish, distichous pores, surrounded by a whitish border.

Flat Gorgonia.

Soland. et Ellis zooph. p. 88.

The present species of Gorgonia is a native of the Indian and American seas, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

917

Red-Breasted Parrakeet

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P Nodder.

Notes

M

PSITTACUS HÆMATODUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum; mandibula superiore mobili, cera instructa.

Nares in rostri basi.

Lingua carnosa, obtusa, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Psittacus macrourus viridis, facie cærulea, pectore tectricibusque alarum interioribus aurantio-rubris.

Psittacus hæmatodus. P. macr. viridis, pectore rubro, facie cærulea, lunula cervicis flava.

Lath. ind. orn.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Mantiss. 1771. p. 524.

Amboynam incolit Psittacus hæmatodus. Magnitudo ejus est quasi columbæ minoris domesticæ.

v

 

M2

the
RED-BREASTED PARRAKEET.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked; upper mandible moveable, and furnished with a cere.

Nostrils in the base of the bill.

Tongue fleshy, obtuse; generally entire.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Long-tailed Green Parrot, with blue face, and the breast and under wing-coverts orange-red.

Red-breasted Parrot.

Edw. pl. 232.

La Perruche à face bleue.

Buff. ois.

Levaill. Perr. pl. 47.

The red-breasted Parrakeet is a native of Amboina. Its size is that of a small domestic pigeon.

v

 

918

Galatea Butterfly

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder Tavistock St.

Notes

r

PAPILIO GALATEA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erecte sursumque conniventes. (Volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Papilio Galathea. P. (Nympbalis) alis dentatis albo nigroque variis, subtus primoribus ocello unico, posticis quinque obsoletis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 772.
Nymph. gemmat.

Raj. ins. 116. No. 9.

Roes. ins. 3. t. 37.

Petiv. mus. 3. 3. t. 1. f. 3.

Gramina varia depascitur larva elegantis hujus papilionis, et in chrysalidem mense Maio convertitur, unde mense Junio erumpit insectum plene formatum.

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r

GALATEA.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and generally terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with denticulated black and white wings; the upper pair marked beneath by an obscurely ocellated spot, and the under pair by three.

Galatea, or the Marbled Butterfly.

Schaeff. icon. pl. 98. f. 7. 8. 9.

Wilks 52. pl. 2. 6. 1.

Harris Aurel. pl. 11. f. k. l.

The caterpillar of this elegant butterfly feeds on various kinds of grasses, and changes to a chrysalis in the month of May, from which in that of June emerges the complete insect.

v

 

919

Silver-Eyed Sparus

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

r

SPARUS ARGYROPTHALMUS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes validi: primores in aliis ordine simplici, in aliis duplici, triplici, vel quad­ruplici dispositi.

Molares (plerisque) validi, convexi, læves, in series dispositi, et quasi pavimentum in ore effor­mantes.

Labia crassa: Opercula mutica, squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sparus argyropthalmus. S. flavus, abdomine argenteo, oculis maximis, cauda subcærulea.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 441.

Anthias macropthalmus. A. oculis magnis.

Bloch. ichth. t. 319.

Japoniam incolit Sparus argyropthalmus, magni­tudine quasi Percæ communis Europæ.

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the
SILVER-EYED SPARUS.

Generic Character.

Teeth strong: front teeth in some species disposed in a single row, in others in a double, treble, or quad­ruple row.

Grinders (in most species) convex, smooth, and disposed in ranges, forming a kind of pavement in the mouth.

Lips thick: Gill-covers unarmed, smooth, scaly.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellow Sparus, with silvery abdomen, extremely large eyes, and blueish tail.

Silver-Eyed Sparus.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 441.

Das Grossauge.

Bloch. ichth. pl. 319.

The Silver-eyed Sparus is a native of Japan, and is about the size of the common European perch.

v

 

920

Reticulated Millepore

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

r

MILLEPORA RETICULATA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Hydra.

Corallium poris turbinatis teretibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1282.

Character Specificus, &c.

Millepora reticulata. M. Membranacea reticulata umbilicata turbinato-undulata, hinc porosa pubescens.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1284.

Retepora.

Imper. Nat. 821.

Eschara.

Rondel. aquat. 2. p. 133.

Seb. mus. 3. t. 100. f. 11. et t. 101. f. 5. 6.

Ellis et Soland. zooph. t. 26. f. 5.

Circa littora maris Indici atque Americani conspicitur rara hæc Milleporæ species, cujus veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula.

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the
RETICULATED MILLEPORE.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Polype.

Coral with very numerous cylindric pores.

Specific Character, &c.

Membranaceous reticulated convoluted Millepore, with the upper surface roughened with pores.

Soland. et Ellis zooph. p. 139. pl. 26. f. 5.

The rare species of Millepore here repre­sented, is found about the coasts of the Indian and American seas, and is expressed on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

921

Great-Billed Parrot

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder Tavistock St. Covent Garden.

Notes

N

PSITTACUS MACRORHYNCHOS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum, mandibula superiore mobili, cera instructa.

Nares in rostri basi.

Lingua carnosa, obtusa, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Psittacus brachyurus viridis, alis dorsoque subcæ­ruleis, tectricibus nigris aurantio marginatis, rostro magno rubro.

Psittacus macrorynchos. P. viridis, corpore antice flavo-virescente, dorso cæruleo-viridi, tectricibus alarum nigris flavo-aureo marginatis.

Lath. ind. orn.

Psittacus macrorhynchos. P. brachyurus viridis, subtus in flavum vergens, alis ex cyaneo et viridi mistis, tectricibus nigris.

Lin. Gmel. p. 338.

Papuam variasque insulas australes incolit Psittacus macrorhynchos, magni­tudine quasi psittaci æstivi.

v

 

N2

the
GREAT-BILLED PARROT.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked; upper mandible moveable, and furnished with a cere.

Nostrils in the base of the bill.

Tongue fleshy, obtuse, generally entire.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Short-tailed green Parrot, with blueish back and wings, black wing-coverts edged with orange, and large red bill.

Perroquet à bec couleur de sang.

Buff. ois. 6. p. 222.

Levaill. Perr. pl. 83.

Perroquet de la nouvelle Guinée.

Pl. Enl. 713.

Great-billed Parrot.

Lath. syn. p. 278.

The Great-billed Parrot is a native of Papua and other southern isles, and is of the size of the common Amazons Parrot.

v

 

922

Spurge Sphinx

R. P. Nodder— Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

SPHINX EUPHORBIÆ.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ subprismaticæ, utroque fine attenuatæ.

Lingua exserta (plerisque).

Palpi duo reflexi.

Alæ deflexæ.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sphinx alis superioribus olivaceo gilvoque partitis, inferioribus roseis basi fasciaque nigris.

Sphinx Euphorbiæ. S. alis integris fuscis, vitta superioribus pallida, inferioribus rubra.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Sphinx alis integris griseis, fasciis duabus virescentibus, posticis rufis basi strigaque nigris, antennis niveis.

Fabr. sp. ins. 2. p. 145.

Euphorbias varias Europæas depascitur larva elegans in tabula depicta. In chrysalidem mense Augusto conver­titur, unde insequente Junio erumpit ipsa Sphinx.

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r

the
SPURGE SPHINX.

Generic Character.

Antennæ subprismatic, attenuated at each end.

Tongue (in most species) exserted.

Feelers two, reflex.

Wings deflected.

Specific Character, &c.

Sphinx with the upper wings parted into olive and buff-colour; the lower rose-coloured with black base and band.

Drury ins. exot. 1. pl. 29. f. 3.

Roes. ins. pap. nocturn. pl. 3.

Reaum. ins. 1. pl. 13. f. 1. 4. 5. 6.

The beautiful caterpillar represented on the present plate, feeds on the smaller or European species of the genus Euphorbia. It changes to a chrysalis in the month of August, from which, in the following June emerges the insect in its ultimate form.

v

 

923

Tumbil Salmon

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

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SALMO TUMBIL.

Character Genericus.

Caput læve, compressum: lingua cartilaginea.

Dentes in maxillis, lingua.

Membr. branch. radiis quatuor ad decem.

Corpus elongatum, postice pinna adiposa.

Character Specificus, &c.

Salmo flavescens, fasciis transversis semidecurrentibus rubris, rictu amplo, cauda furcata.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 67.

Salmo Tumbil. S. ordinibus pluribus dentium tenuium.

Bloch. ichth. t. 430.

Maria incolit Indica Salmo Tumbil, in longi­tudinem pedalem vel sesquipedalem crescens.

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r

the
TUMBIL SALMON.

Generic Character.

Head, smooth, compressed: tongue cartilaginous.

Teeth both in the jaws and on the tongue.

Gill-Membrane from four to ten-rayed.

Body compressed, furnished at the hind part with an adipose fin.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish Salmon, with semidecurrent transverse red bands, wide mouth, and forked tail.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 67.

Der Tumbil.

Bloch. ichth. 11. pl. 430.

This species of Salmon is a native of the Indian seas, and grows to the length of twelve or eighteen inches.

v

 

924

Corded Murex

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

r

MUREX LYRATUS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, exasperata suturis membra­naceis.

Apertura desinens in canalem integrum, rectum seu subadsendentem.

Character Specificus, &c.

Murex fusco-flavescens, costis transversis rotundatis subrugosis, fauce violacea, labris incrassatis.

Murex Glomus cereus, seu Cereus conglomeratus, testa transversim sulcata (sulcis latiusculis profundioribus) et costata (costis validis) colore obscure luteo, cauda flexuosa adscendente, labro duplicato, sinuato, subdentato, labio replicato crassiusculo.

Chemn. Conch. X. p. 281. t. 169. f. 1034.

Murex lyratus. M. testa varicibus cingula lævia decus­santibus, apertura ovata.

Lin. Gmel. p. 3531.

Circa litora Australasiæ conspicitur rarissima hæc concha cujus veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula.

v

the
CORDED MUREX.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Slug.

Shell univalve, spiral, roughened by membranaceous sutures.

Aperture ovate, ending in an entire, strait or subas­cending channel.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish-brown Murex, with rounded transverse subrugose ribs, and violaceous mouth with thickened lips.

Der Wachstock.

Chemn. Conch. 10. p. 281. pl. 169. f. 1634.

Ridged Buccinum, &c.

Martyn. univ. conch. 2. t. 43.

The present very rare shell is found about the coasts of Australasia, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

r

INDEX.

Pl.
885. Anas galericulata.
889. Alcedo Inda.
901. —— ultramarina.
897. Ampelis umbellata.
902. Aplysia Camelus.
914. Chætodon aureus.
896. Conus Augur.
905. Cuculus curvirostris.
887. Cyprinus Vimba.
878. Diodon orbicularis.
916. Gorgonia patula.
879. Gryllus verrucivorus.
884. —— cærulescens.
891. Lacerta Ameiva.
920. Millepora reticulata.
904. Monoculus quadricornis.
924. Murex lyratus.
881. Paradisea aurantia.
888. Papilio Marsyas.
895. —— Pylades.
915. —— Cardamines.
918. —— Galatea.
880. Phalæna Liris.
883. —— Sponsa.
886. —— quercus.
899. —— quercifolia.
892. —— Hypermnestra.
890. Pleuronectes Zebra.
903. —— barbatus.
877. Psittacus rodocephalus.
893. —— Capensis.
909. —— Vaillanti.
921. —— Macrorhynchos.
913. —— nuchalis.
917. —— hæmatodes.
923. Salmo Tumbil.
882. —— Salvelinus.
911. Scarabæus Loxanus.
898. Sparus Anchorago.
910. —— chlorourus.
919. —— argyropthalmus.
906. Squalus Squatina.
922. Sphinx Euphorbiæ.
907.
908.
Testudo Nilotica.
894. Trigla lineata.
900. Turbo undulatus.
912. Voluta nivosa.

INDEX.

Pl.
897. Ampelis umbrella’d.
902. Aplysia long-necked.
911. Beetle Loxa.
888. Butterfly Marsyas.
895. —— Pylades.
915. —— orange-tip.
918. —— Galatea.
887. Carp Vimba.
896. Cone dotted.
914. Chætodon golden.
905. Cuckow curve-billed.
878. Diodon orbicular.
903. Flounder bearded.
916. Gorgonia patulous.
894. Gurnard lineated.
884. Locust cærulescent.
879. —— brown-spotted.
920. Millepore reticulated.
880. Moth Liris.
883. —— crimson underwing.
886. —— great egger.
892. —— Hypermnestra.
899. —— great lappet.
889. Kingfisher spotted.
901. —— ultramarine.
891. Lizard Ameiva.
904. Monoculus four-horned.
924. Murex corded.
893. Parrakeet Cape.
909. —— Vaillantian.
917. —— red-breasted.
913. —— red-naped.
877. —— Friditutah.
921. Parrot great-billed.
881. Paradise-bird orange.
923. Salmon Tumbil.
890. Sole Zebra.
906. Shark Angel.
898. Sparus anchor-toothed.
910. —— green-tailed.
919. —— silver-eyed.
922. Sphinx spurge.
885. Teal Chinese.
907.
908.
Tortoise nilotic.
882. Trout Salvelin.
900. Turbo waved.
912. Volute snow-flake.

London: Printed by B. M‘Millan,
Bow Street, Covent Garden.

Notes and Corrections: Volume 21

Volume 21 of the Naturalist’s Miscellany was published in twelve monthly installments, conjecturally from September 1809 through August 1810. It is “conjecturally” because there has not been a full month-and-year date since the third installment of Volume 13 (November 1801), and no date at all since the sixth installment of Volume 19. What’s worse, that last date is “1807”—in an installment that cannot be earlier than February 1808.

The present volume gives more date-and-place information than we’ve seen in years. There’s a clear “1809” in Installments 2 and 4 (October and December, one hopes)—but also in Installment 5, which cannot be earlier than January 1810. Installments 9 and 10 reassuringly say “1810” (May and June, we’ll stipulate).

Better yet, in the eighth installment—conjecturally April 1810—Richard Nodder suddenly discovers the joy of engraved signature lines. The installment’s first plate says “Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder. Tavistock Street”; from there on, most plates give similar information.

page image

Each installment is 16 pages unless otherwise noted.

B; C; D; E; F (January 1810); G; H; I (12 pg.); K; L; M; N

In at least one copy of Volume 21—namely, the copy whose scans I used—installment 6 (signature G, plates 897-900) was bound before installment 5 (signature F, plates 893-896), making it look as if four pairs of Plates were reversed. I have restored the two sets of pages to their proper sequence.

Nos. 896 and 900 in this volume are referenced to a new authority, “Cat. Portl.” In full (courtesy GBIF) this is:

Lightfoot, John. 1786. A catalogue of the Portland Museum, lately the property of the Dutchess Dowager of Portland, deceased: which will be sold by auction, by Mr. Skinner and Co. on Monday the 24th of April, 1786, and the thirty-seven following days, at her late dwelling-house, in Privy-garden, Whitehall; by order of the acting executrix. Skinner and Co., London.: 3-194.

Throughout this volume, the printer tended to omit the expected grave accent in the French preposition à. I haven’t noted the errors individually.

Psittacus Rodocephalus, the Fridytutah Parrakeet

may be Psittacula cyanocephala, the plum-headed or blossom-headed parakeet. It lives in South Asia. The improbable name “Fridytutah” is glossed as Bengali fāriādi tōtā.

[Signature] B3
[We saw the same thing in the previous volume: the dedication pages take up the first two (unlabeled) leaves, making B3 the first regular text page.]

Diodon Orbicularis, the Orbicular Diodon

is now Cyclichthys orbicularis, the balloonfish. It lives along the coast of Africa, Asia and Australia.

Gryllus Verrucivorus, the Brown-Spotted Locust

is now Decticus verrucivorus, the wart-biter. (GBIF lists a string of similar names: Warzenbeißer, vårtbitare, wrattenbijter and so on.) It lives mostly in Europe.

Hind-Legs formed for leaping: claws on all the feet two.
word “feet” missing
[Throughout most of the Miscellany, the author said “claws . . . double”. Suddenly, midway through Volume 20, he decided to say “two” instead. But he still needs to say “feet”.]

Phalæna Liris, the Liris (moth)

is probably Siga liris. It lives in South America.

Paradisea Aurantia, the Orange Paradise-Bird

is probably Sericulus aureus, the flame bowerbird. It lives in New Guinea.

[Plate 881] R P Nodder Del Sculpt. 1809
[Whew. Barring hard evidence to the contrary, we will stipulate that it is October rather than August (as could be implied by the “1807” in Installment 6 of Volume 19).]

Salmo Salvelinus, the Salvelin Trout

is now Salvelinus umbla (by way of Salmo umbla), the lake charr. It lives mostly in southern Europe.

Phalæna Sponsa, the Crimson Underwing Moth

is now Catocala sponsa, the dark crimson underwing. It lives in western Europe.

the Phalæna Nupta, lately figured in the present work
[Plate 876 of Volume 20, just two installments ago. Both moths have since been relocated to genus Catocala. (The recurring nupta or sponsa theme is, I think, a reference to the classical Roman bridal veil, which was red.)]

Gryllus Cærulescens, the Cærulescent Locust

is now Oedipoda caerulescens, the blue-winged grasshopper. It lives in continental Europe.

Anas Galericulata, the Chinese Teal

is now Aix galericulata, the mandarin duck. Shaw doesn’t mention that it was introduced to Europe, including England, as early as 1745. Today you will find it over most of the Northern hemisphere; there are even a few in Australia and South Africa. In its home territory its main threat is habitat loss, while ADW says reassuringly that it tastes bad and is therefore never hunted for food.

Phalæna Quercus, the Great Egger Moth

is now Lasiocampa quercus, the oak egger. It lives in western Europe.

Cyprinus Vimba, the Vimba Carp

is now Vimba vimba, the Baltic vimba. Although most common in Sweden, it is also scattered across central and eastern Europe.

Papilio Marsyas, the Marsyas (butterfly)

is probably Pseudolycaena marsyas, the giant hairstreak or Cambridge blue. The Plate shows a male; Linnaeus’s name was presumably inspired by the coloration of the female. (The satyr Marsyas was flayed after losing a music competition to Apollo. If he had won, it is safe to say he would have met a worse fate.) It lives in South America.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 788.
text has Lyn.
[And now the good news: This is the last time we will encounter this particular error.]

Alcedo Inda, the Spotted Kingfisher

is now Chloroceryle inda, the green-and-rufous kingfisher. It lives in South and Central America.

[Plate 889] R. P. Nodder Sculpt.
[Yay! It has been far too long since we last saw the engraver’s name craftily concealed in a tree branch.]

engraved date and signature

Pleuronectes Zebra, the Zebra Sole

is now Zebrias zebra, the blend-banded sole. It lives in East and Southeast Asia.

Lacerta Ameiva, the Ameiva Lizard

may be Ameiva atrigularis, the Amazon racerunner. (Genus Ameiva was defined already in 1795, but Shaw may not have heard of it.) It lives in South and Central America and around the Caribbean.

[Plate 891] R. P. Nodder. Sculpt. 1809
[Better and better.]

Phalæna Hypermnestra, the Hypermnestra (moth)

may be Eudocima hypermnestra, the fruit-piercing moth. If so, it lives in South and East Asia.

Perhaps a variety of Phalæna Materna.
[Linnaeus’s Ph. materna is now Eudocima materna. It lives in the same places as E. hypermnestra, but also in subsaharan Africa, Australia—and Central America.]

Psittacus Capensis, the Cape Parrakeet

Unidentified.

[Plate 893] R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt. 1809
[At this point it cannot be earlier than January 1810. As in Volume 19, we’ll have to stipulate that the plate was engraved earlier than its scheduled publication date. (This is entirely possible, considering the leftover plates at the end of Volume 24.)]

Trigla Lineata, the Lineated Gurnard

is now Chelidonichthys lastoviza (by way of Trigla lastoviza), the African gurnard. (But why? Pennant’s name was almost 20 years earlier.) It lives along the coast of Africa and Europe, including the Mediterranean.

corpore utrinque lineis numerosis transversis
text has nnmerosis

Der lineirte Seehalme.
spelling unchanged: expected linierte

Papilio Pylades, the Pylades (butterfly)

may be Corybantes pylades. If so, it is not a butterfly but a diurnal moth; in fact the family as a whole, Castniidae, are known as “butterfly moths”. It lives in South America.

Conus Augur, the Dotted Cone

is also known as the augur cone. It lives mainly around the Indian ocean.

Ampelis Umbellata, the Umbrella’d Ampelis

Geoffroy’s Cephalopterus ornatus is also known as the Amazonian umbrella bird. It lives in South America.

I have taken the liberty of giving it that station
[You win some, you lose some.]

Sparus Anchorago, the Anchor-Toothed Sparus

is now Choerodon anchorago, the anchor trunkfish. It ranges from the Philippines to northern Australia.

Molares (plerisque) validi
close-parenthesis missing

Phalæna Quercifolia, the Great Lappet Moth

is now Gastropacha quercifolia, the lappet. It lives mainly in Europe.

Turbo Undulatus, the Waved Turbo

is now Lunella undulata. It lives along the coast of Australia, especially near Tasmania.

Alcedo Ultramarina, the Ultramarine Kingfisher

may be Ceyx pictus, the African pygmy kingfisher. It lives in Africa.

the Alcedo cristata or Crested Kingfisher, before represented
[Way back at Plate 13 of Volume 1.]

Aplysia Camelus, the Long-Necked Aplysia

is now Aplysia fasciata, the banded sea hare. It is most common along the coasts of Europe and North America.

the Aplysia depilans of Linnæus
[Otherwise known as the spotted sea hare.]

Pleuronectes Barbatus, the Bearded Flounder

is listed as “doubtful”. It isn’t even clear whether Shaw’s P. barbatus is the same fish as Bonnaterre’s of the same name.

Cepede. Poiss.
[In both Latin and English, the citations were printed on a single line. Based on other occurrences in the Miscellany, I think they are two separate sources (Cepede and Geoffroy). The same thing will happen several more times in this and the following installment.]

Monoculus Quadricornis, the Four-Horned Monoculus

may be Cyclops strenuus. It lives in Europe and also in northern Asia.

Cuculus Curvirostris, the Curve-Billed Cuckow

is now Zanclostomus curvirostris, the chestnut-reasted malkoha, with naming credit to Shaw. It is found in the Malay peninsula and the western half of Indonesia, neatly illustrating Wallace’s line.

[Plate 905] Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder. Tavistock Street.
[Wow. Thank you, Richard, for that information dump. Wonder how long ago the firm relocated from Newman Street—last named in November 1801—to Tavistock Street?]

probably a native of India
[. . . which raises the question of what it is doing in a work abbreviated Ois. Afr.]

Squalus Squatina, the Angel Shark

is now Squatina squatina, the angel. For those who can’t wrap their brains around “angel shark”, other names include “angel fiddle fish” and “angel puffy fish”. It lives around Europe.

Testudo Nilotica, the Nilotic Tortoise

is now Trionyx triunguis (by way of Forsskål’s Testudo triunguis), the African softshell turtle. It lives in Africa.

Psittacus Vaillanti, the Vaillantian Parrakeet

may be Phigys solitarius, the collared lory. It lives in Fiji—and, apparently, nowhere else.

Hume’s “Doubtful and Invalid Taxa” appendix lists a red-winged parrot (Ps. levaillanti, Rüppell 1835, or Ps. vaillanti, Rüppell 1845), “known only from Rüppell’s inadequate description”. Fortunately the wings of Shaw’s bird are the only part that isn’t red, so we are probably dealing with an unrelated bird. And then there’s the equally unidentifiable “Levaillant’s Lory”, Eos coccinea or Psittaca indica coccinea.

Psittacus porphyrocephalus, or Purple-Headed Parrakeet
[Plate 1 of Volume 1, i.e. the very first selection in the entire Miscellany.]

Sparus Chlorourus, the Green-Tailed Sparus

is now Cheilinus chlorourus, the dotted maori. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans. This is our second example of genus Cheilinus; at Plate 755 of Volume 18 we met the banded maori, then Sparus fasciatus, now Cheilinus fasciatus.

Scarabæus Loxanus, the Loxa Beetle

If it is the same as Latreille’s Melolontha chrysochlora, it may be Chryso­phora chrysochlora, though it cannot be said they look much alike. If so, it lives in South America.

cruribus posticis majoribus
text has curibus

Latreille in Voyage de Humboldt . . . . ab Humboldo detectum est
[If he sees fit to spell Alexander von Humboldt’s name differently in the prose than in the citation—in both languages—there’s not much we can do about it.]

the Scarabæus Macropus or Kanguroo Beetle
[Plate 384 of Volume 10.]

Voluta Nivosa, the Snow-Flake Volute

is now Cymbiola nivosa, the snowy volute. It is most common along the west coast of Australia.

Psittacus Nuchalis, the Red-Naped Parrakeet

No such bird, probably. Hume lists half a dozen alternate names, begin­ning with Latham’s Ps. cervicalis, and concludes by quoting the 1891 Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum: “Dr. Finsch suspects that this is an artificial bird”. The Catalogue itself (Vol. 20, Parrots, appendix “Doubtful Species”) is a little more hopeful:

Dr. Finsch suspects that this is an artificial bird; but it must be remem­bered that the bird was known to Latham long before Levaillant.

“Dr. Finsch” is ornithologist and ethnologist Otto Finsch (1839–1917). His works include the three-volume Die Papageien: Monographisch Bearbeitet, which I find offered on one antiquarian bookseller’s site for $1200AU. He discusses Ps. cervicalis under, predictably, “Dubiöse Arten”. In summary:

Ich halte Ps. cervicalis für ein Artefact, denn es erregt wirklich zu sehr Verdacht, dass man eine so auffallend gefärbte Art nicht mehr gefunden haben sollen.

(“I consider it an artifact, because it is really too improbable that such a strikingly colored variety has never been found again.”)]

Chætodon Aureus, the Golden Chætodon

is now Pomacanthus paru (by way of Chaetodon paru, because Bloch named the same fish twice), yet another marine angelfish. Previous examples appeared in Volume 2 (Plate 57, Chætodon Armatus, now Enoplosus armatus), Volume 8 (Plate 275, Ch. squamulosus, now Holacanthus ciliaris), Volume 12 (Plate 471, Ch. tricolor, now Holacanthus tricolor), and possibly Volume 19 (Plate 800, Ch. teira, now Platax teira). This one lives in the Caribbean and along the Atlantic coast of South America.

Papilio Cardamines, the Orange-Tip Butterfly

is now Anthocharis cardamines, the orange tip. It lives in Europe, extending into western Asia.

[Plate 915] R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.
[This inscription gave me a nasty shock, because—this is really true—I’d only just globally replaced this volume’s remaining signature lines with the new “Drawn Engraved & Published” format. Fortunately it turned out to be a one-off.]

Gorgonia Patula, the Patulous Gorgonia

is probably Subergorgia patula. The genus as a whole lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Psittacus Hæmatodus, the Red-Breasted Parrakeet

is now Trichoglossus haematodus, the coconut lorikeet. It lives in Australia and New Guinea and is, if anything, even gaudier than the picture.

Papilio Galatea, the Galatea (butterfly)

is now Melanargia galathea, the marbled white. It lives in Europe.

Sparus Argyropthalmus, the Silver-Eyed Sparus

If it is the same as Bloch’s Anthias macrophthalmus, it is now Priacan­thus hamrur (by way of Forsskål’s Sciaena hamrur), the bigeye. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Millepora Reticulata, the Reticulated Millepore

Maybe, maybe not. GBIF lists it as “Accepted”—but without any pictures or coordinates—while WoRMS says taxon inquirendum.

Psittacus Macrorhynchos, the Great-Billed Parrot

may be Tanygnathus megalorynchos (by way of Psittacus megalo­rynchos), the great-billed parrot. It really ought to be megalo­rhynchos, but Boddaert couldn’t spell. It lives in the middle parts of Indonesia: east of Wallace’s line, but rare in New Guinea.

Sphinx Euphorbiæ, the Spurge Sphinx

is now Hyles euphorbiae, the spurge hawkmoth. It lives in Europe and a narrow band of North America, straddling the US-Canadian border.

Salmo Tumbil, the Tumbil Salmon

is now Saurida tumbil, the common grinner. It lives along the coasts of the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Caput læve, compressum: lingua cartilaginea.
text has cartileginea

Murex Lyratus, the Corded Murex

is now Neptunea lyrata, the lyre whelk. It lives mainly along the northwest coast of North America, including all around Alaska.

Index
English

883.   [Moth] crimson underwing.
text has 888

891.   Lizard Ameiva.
text has 591

898.   Sparus anchor-toothed.
text has 878

The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.