Naturalist’s Miscellany

The Naturalist’s Miscellany
by George Shaw
Volume 22

v

VIRO ORNATISSIMO

PETRO PRATTINTONO, M. B.

DE BEWDLEY,

IN COMITATU VIGORNIENSI,

hunc
VICESIMUM SECUNDUM

NATURÆ VIVARII

FASCICULUM

d. d. d.
GEORGIUS SHAW,
E. NODDER.

r

to

PETER PRATTINTON, M. B.

of

BEWDLEY,

WORCESTERSHIRE,

THIS TWENTY-SECOND VOLUME
of the

NATURALIST’S MISCELLANY

IS INSCRIBED,

AS A TESTIMONY OF FRIENDSHIP,

by
GEORGE SHAW,
E. NODDER.

v

925

Ceram Lory

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

r

PSITTACUS GARRULUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum; mandibula superiore mobili, cera instructa.

Nares in rostri basi.

Lingua carnosa, obtusa, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Psittacus brachyurus coccineus, humeris maculaque dorsali flavis, alis genibusque viridibus, cauda versus apicem cærulea.

Psittacus garrulus. P. brachyurus ruber, orbitis cinereis, genibus alisque viridibus, rectricibus medietate postica cæruleis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Lorius Moluccensis.

Briss. av. 4. t. 23. f. 1.

Psittacus garrulus, γ.

Lath. ind. orn.

Pulchra hæc Psittaci species æquat fere magni­tudine columbam minorem. Suspicatur Vaillantus varietatem esse Psittaci Domicellæ Linnæi.

v

the
CERAM LORY.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked: upper mandible moveable, and furnished with a cere.

Nostrils in the base of the bill.

Tongue fleshy, obtuse, generally entire.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Sanguine Lory, with yellow shoulders and dorsal spot, green wings and thighs, and tail blue towards the tip.

Scarlet Lory.

Edw. pl. 172.

Ceram Lory var. B.

Lath. syn.

Le Lori Noira.

Buff. ois. 6. p. 127. pl. 6.

Lory des Moluques.

Pl. Enl. 216.

Le Lori-Noira.

Levaill. Perr. pl. 96.

This beautiful species, which is nearly equal in size to a small pigeon, is suspected by Levaillant to be a variety of the Psittacus Domicella of Linnæus, or Purple-capped Lory.

926

Ear Strombus

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

r

STROMBUS AURIS DIANÆ.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, latere ampliata.

Apertura labro sæpius dilatato, desinens in canalem sinistrum.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Strombus flavescens, fusco variegatus, labro antice mucronato, dorso muricato, cauda erecta acuta.

Strombus Auris Dianæ. S. testæ labro antice mucro­nato, dorso muricato, cauda erecta acuta.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Auris Dianæ.

Argenv. conch. t. 17. f. O.

Stromb. Aur. Dian. Var.

Chemn. X. t. 150. f. 1485. 1486.

Maria incolit Indica Strombus Auris Dianæ, et magni­tudine vera in tabula depingitur.

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the
EAR STROMBUS.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Limax.

Shell univalve, spiral, ampliated on one side.

Aperture with the lip generally dilated, and termi­nating in a channel towards the left.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish Strombus, with brown variegations, with the lip mucronated in front, the back muricated, and the beak erect and acute.

Stromb. Aur. Dian. Var.

Cat. Mus. Portl. No. 679. 1452.

Chemn. Conch. X. pl. 156. f. 1485. 1486.

The shell here represented is a native of the Indian seas, and is expressed in its natural size.

927

Rock Murex

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

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MUREX SAXATILIS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, exasperata suturis membranaceis.

Apertura desinens in canalem integrum, rectum seu subascendentem.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Murex testa quinquefariam frondosa, spira contigua, cauda abbreviata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1215.

Argenv. conch. t. 19. f. F.

Seb. mus. 3. t. 77. f. 4. 5. 6.

Var. Mur. saxat. albus, fauce fasciis frondibusque roseis.

Purpura ramosa, (frondibus sex) &c.

Regenf. t. 9. f. 26.

Reperitur murex saxatilis in oris fere omnibus conti­nentis qui vulgo antiquus dicitur. Colores plurimum variant. Expressimus eximiam varietatem, in oris Guineanis detectam, et in splendido Regenfusii opere depictam. Ostendit tabula nostra non veram magni­tudinem, sed quasi in dimidium redactam.

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the
ROCK MUREX.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Limax.

Shell univalve, roughened with membranaceous sutures.

Aperture ending in a strait or subascending channel.

Specific Character, &c.

Murex with five rows of foliations, contiguous spire, and abbreviated beak.

La Chicorée.

Argenv. conch. pl. 10. f. F.

Rumph. mus. t. 20. f. C. 2.

Seb. mus. 3. pl. 77. f. 4. 5. 6.

Var. White Rock Murex, with rose-coloured mouth, bands, and fronds.

Regenf. conch. pl. 9. f. 26.

The Murex saxatilis or Endive Murex, is a general inhabitant of the coasts of the old continent, varying greatly in the cast of its colours. The beautiful specimen exhibited on the present plate is from Guinea, and is figured in the superb work of Regenfus. It is shewn of half the natural size.

v

 

928

Venus Moth

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

r

PHALÆNA VENUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ (volatu nocturno).

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Phalæna alis integerrimis subelongatis ferrugineis, superioribus maculis numerosis argenteis nigro marginatis.

Phalæna Venus.

Cram. pap. t. 280. f. C. D.

Promontorium Bonæ Spei incolit formosissima hæc phalæna, cujus veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula.

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VENUS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually lessening from base to tip.

Wings (when sitting) generally deflex: Flight nocturnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Moth with slightly elongated ferruginous wings, the upper pair marked with numerous silvery spots edged with black.

Venus.

Cramer. pl. 280. f. C. D.

This most elegant insect is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

929

Undulated Pigeon

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

B

COLUMBA UNDULATA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum rectum, versus apicem descendens.

Nares oblongæ, membrana molli tumida semitectæ.

Lingua integra.

Pedes breves, ambulatorii.

Lath. ind. orn.

Character Specificus, &c.

Columba gilva nigro undulata, remigibus nigris, rectricibus latere exteriore albis.

Columba malaccensis.?? C. nigro undulatim lineata, supra cinereo-grisea subtus cinerea, collo lateribus albo, rectricibus fuscis, lateralibus versus apicem albis.

Lath. ind. orn.

Indiam? incolit Columba undulata, inter elegantissimas sui generis merito numeranda. Depingitur in tabula quasi tertia pars veræ mensuræ.

v

 

B2

the
UNDULATED PIGEON.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, descending towards the tip.

Nostrils oblong, half covered by a soft tumid membrane.

Tongue entire.

Legs rather short: feet formed for walking.

Specific Character, &c.

Buff-brown Pigeon, undulated with black, with black quill and tail-feathers, the latter white on the outside.

Malacca Turtle.??

Lath. syn.

La petite Tourterelle de Queda.??

Sonner. Voy. Ind. 2. p. 177.

The undulated Pigeon, which may justly be numbered among the most elegant of its tribe, is a native of India? and is repre­sented about a third part smaller than its natural size.

v

 

930

Silver Trichiure

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

r

TRICHIURUS LEPTURUS.

Character Genericus.

Caput porrectum, operculis lateralibus.

Dentes ensiformes, apice semisagittati.

Membr. branch. radiis septem.

Corpus compresso-ensiforme, cauda subulata aptera.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 90.

Character Specificus, &c.

Trichiurus argenteus, maxilla inferiore longiore.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 90.

Trichiurus Lepturus.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Gymnogaster argenteus compressus, cauda attenuata impinna.

Brown Jam. p. 444. t. 45. f. 4.

Trichiurus maxilla inferiore longiore, dentibus magnis.

Bloch. ichth. 5. p. 55. t. 158.

In maribus Indicis præcipue conspicitur Trichiurus lepturus, longi­tudine duos vel tres pedes æquans.

v

 

r

the
SILVER TRICHIURE.

Generic Character.

Head stretched forwards, with lateral gill-covers.

Teeth ensiform, semisagittate at the tips.

Gill-Membrane seven-rayed.

Body ensiform, compressed, with subulate Unless tail.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 90.

Specific Character, &c.

Silvery Trichiure, with the lower jaw longer than the upper.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 90.

Anguille de la Jamaique.

Bomare dict. vol. 7. p. 7.

Le paille-en-cul.

Bloch. ichth. 5. pl. 158.

The Silver Trichiure is chiefly observed in the Indian seas, and arrives at the length of two or three feet.

v

 

931

Chinese Lantern-Fly

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

r

FULGORA CANDELARIA.

Character Genericus.

Caput fronte producta, inani.

Antennæ infra oculos, articulis duobus; exteriore globoso majore.

Rostrum inflexum.

Pedes gressorii.

Character Specificus, &c.

Fulgora Candelaria. F. fronte rostrata subulata adscendente, elytris viridibus luteo maculatis; alis flavis apice nigris.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 703.

Edw. t. 120.

Roes. ins. 2. t. 30. f. 1. 2. 3.

Sinam incolit Fulgora Candelaria, et magni­tudine vera in tabula depingitur.

v

 

r

the
CHINESE LANTERN-FLY.

Generic Character.

Head produced into an inflated hollow front.

Antennæ beneath the eyes, of two joints, the exterior larger and globose.

Snout inflected.

Feet formed for walking.

Specific Character, &c.

Lantern-Fly with rostrated, subulate, ascendent front, green upper-wings spotted with yellow, and yellow under-wings tipped with black.

Cigale porte-lanterne Chinoise.

Degeer ins. 3. p. 197.

This insect is a native of China, and is repre­sented in its natural size.

v

 

932

Matronula Moth

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

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PHALÆNA MATRONULA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ, (volatu nocturno.)

Character Specificus, &c.

Phalæna alis superioribus fuscis flavo maculatis, inferioribus flavis nigro fasciatis, abdomine rubro nigro maculato.

Phalæna Matronula. P. (Noctua) spirilinguis lævis, alis superioribus griseis exterius flavo maculatis, inferioribus flavis nigro subfasciatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 835.

Roes. ins. 3. t. 39. f. 1. 2.

Germaniæ varias partes incolit hæc phalæna, cujus larva Artemisiæ vulgaris folia comedere dicitur.

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r

MATRONULA.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually lessening from base to tip.

Wings (when at rest) generally deflex; (flight nocturnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

Moth with brown upper wings spotted with yellow; yellow under wings barred with black; and red abdomen spotted with black.

Mer. Ins. Eur. pl. 58.

Wien. Schmetterl. p. 53. n. 5.

The present Moth is a native of various parts of Germany, where its larva is said to feed on the leaves of the Artemisia vulgaris of Linnæus, or Common Mugwort.

v

 

933

Senegal Grous

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

C

TETRAO SENEGALENSIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum conico-incurvum, fornicatum.

Macula supra oculos nuda, papillosa.

Pedes plumosi.

Lath. ind. orn.

Character Specificus, &c.

Tetrao subferrugineus, gula flavicante, alis fusco maculatis, rectricibus duabus mediis elongato-acuminatis.

Tetrao Senegalus. T. pedibus hirsutis testaceus, rectricibus duabus mediis duplo longioribus.

Lath. ind. orn.

Tetrao Senegalus.

Lin. Mantiss. 1771. p. 526.

In illis numeratur speciebus Tetrao Senegalus quæ caudas gerunt acuminatas: rectricibus nempe duabus intermediis longioribus, et in apicem desinentibus: qua in re, ut et in aliis nonuilis, affinis admodum est Tetraoni Alchatæ Linnæi.

In Senegalia generatur et aliis aliquot regionibus Africanis, eadem fere magni­tudine qua Perdix communis.

v

 

C2

the
SENEGAL GROUS.

Generic Character.

Bill conic-incurved, arched.

Spot over the eyes naked, papillose.

Legs feathered.

Specific Character, &c.

Subferruginous Grous, with yellowish throat, wings spotted with brown, and sharp-elongated middle tail-feathers.

La Gelinotte du Senegal.

Pl. Enl. 130.

Senegal Grous.

Lath. syn. 4. p. 749.

This species ranks amongst such of the genus as are furnished with pointed tails, the two middle feathers being elongated and acuminated; in which particular, as well as in some others, it is much allied to the Tetrao Alchata of Linnæus. It is a native of Senegal and some other parts of Africa, and is nearly of the size of a common partridge.

v

 

934

Cape Moth

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

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PHALÆNA CAPENSIS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexas. (Volatu nocturno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Phalæna (Bombyx) alis griseo-fuscis strigis albis flavisque, ocelloque fenestrato marginato.

Phalæna Cytherea. P. (Bombyx) alis concoloribus griseis, strigis cinereis ocelloque fenestrato.

Lin. Gmel.

Bombyx Cytherea.

Fab. sp. ins.

Phal. Capensis.

Cram. t. 302. f. A. B.

Perelegantis insecti veram magnitudinem depinximus, quod in Africa inferiori generatum sedem sibi præcipuam selegit Bonas Spei promontorium.

Non omnibus idem est et constans color: flava enim sunt nonnulla specimina magis quam fusca, fasciis albis multo minus conspicuis. Larva fusca esse dicitur, maculis minutulis viridi-flaventibus et quasi auratis aspersa.

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the
CAPE MOTH.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually diminishing from base to tip.

Wings (when sitting) commonly deflex. Flight gener­ally nocturnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Moth with grey-brown wings, each marked by white and yellow stripes, and by an eye-shaped spot surrounded with those colours.

Cram. pl. 302. f. A. B.

The beautiful insect here represented in its natural size is an inhabitant of the lower parts of Africa, and is not uncommon at the Cape of Good Hope. It varies consi­derably in the cast of its colours, the prevailing colour being rather yellow than brown in some particular specimens, while the white streaks are much less conspi­cuous. The larva is said to be of a brown colour, freckled with minute greenish specks which appear of a golden lustre.

v

 

935

Zebra Mackrel

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

r

SCOMBER FASCIATUS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus oblongum, læve, linea laterali interdum carinatum.

Pinnulæ sæpius supra infraque versus caudam.

Character Specificus, &c.

Scomber subargenteus, dorso subfusco, corpore fasciis transversis angustis subduplicatis fuscis.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 587.

Scomber fasciatus.

Bloch. ichth. t. 341.

In maribus Indicis generatur Scomber fasciatus, longi­tudine quasi pedali vel sesquipedali.

v

 

r

the
ZEBRA MACKREL.

Generic Character.

Body oblong, smooth, sometimes carinated by a lateral line.

Finlets (in most species) above and below, towards the tail.

Specific Character, &c.

Subargenteous Mackrel, with brownish back, and body marked by narrow transverse subduplicate brown bands.

Zebra Mackrel.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 587.

Die Bandirte Mackrele.

Bloch. ichth. pl. 341.

The Zebra Mackrel is found in the Indian seas, where it arrives at the length of a foot or eighteen inches.

v

 

936

Pine Sertularia

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

r

SERTULARIA PINASTER.

Character Genericus.

Flores Hydræ.

Stirps radicata, fibrosa, nuda, articulata: articulis unifloris.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sertularia simplex pinnata, pinnis alternis, vesiculis ovato-quadrangulis, angulis mucronatis, ore tubuloso.

Sertularia Pinaster. S. simplex pinnata, pinnis alternis, denticulis oppositis basi cauli appressis, apice tubulosis incurvis, ovariis secundis majoribus ovato-quadrangulis, angulis mucronatis, ore tubuloso.

Soland. et Ellis Zooph. p. 55. t. 6. b. B.

Circa litora Americana conspicitur Sertularia Pinaster, et magni­tudine vera in tabula depingitur.

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r

the
PINE SERTULARIA.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Hydra or Polype.

Stem rooted, fibrous, naked, jointed; a single polype-head proceeding from each joint.

Specific Character, &c.

Pinnated Sertularia, with alternate pinnules, and ovate-quadrangular vesicles with mucronated corners and tubular mouth.

Sea-Pine Coralline.

Soland. et Ellis Zooph. p. 55. pl. 6. f. b. B.

The species of Sertularia here figured is a native of the American coasts, and is repre­sented in its natural size.

v

 

937

Blue-Tipped Lory

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

D

PSITTACUS CÆRULEATUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum; mandibula superiore mobili, cera instructa.

Nares in rostri basi.

Lingua carnosa, obtusa, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 139.

Character Specificus, &c.

Psittacus subbrachyurus coccineus, cauda subpur­purea, scapularibus apice cæruleis, tectricibus remigibusque secundariis apice nigris.

Lori à franges bleues.

Levaill. Perr. pl. 93.

Judice Levaillant, nova est perelegans hæc avis nec prius descripta. Eadem fere est magni­tudine qua columba minor domestica, et in insulis Moluccis generatur.

v

 

D2

the
BLUE-TIPPED LORY.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked: upper mandible moveable, and furnished with a cere.

Nostrils in the base of the bill.

Tongue fleshy, obtuse, generally entire.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Shortish-tailed Crimson Lory, with purplish tail, scapulars tipped with blue; coverts and secon­dary quills with black.

Lori à franges bleues.

Levaill. Perr. pl. 93.

This most elegant bird is considered by Mons. Levail­lant as a species before undescribed. Its size is that of a small domestic pigeon, and it is a native of the Molucca islands.

v

 

938

Agarista Moth

Drawn Engraved & Publishd by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

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PHALÆNA AGARISTA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ, (volatu nocturno).

Character Specificus, &c.

Phalæna alis crenatis fuscis subferrugineo undulatis, medio ocellatis; inferioribus subtus violaceo suffusis.

Phalæna Agarista.

Cram. pl. 170.

Ob summam, quæ huic est cum Phalæna odora Linnæi similitudinem, pro certo pronuntiare non ausim sitne istius varietas, an species revera diversa. Differt tamen a phalæna quæ odora vocatur, quod alarum pagina inferior colore imbuta sit violaceo. Generat eam America australis.

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AGARISTA.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually lessening from the base to the tip.

Wings (when sitting) generally deflected. Flight nocturnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Moth with crenated brown wings, with subferru­ginous undulations and an eye-shaped central spot; the lower pair shaded with violet beneath.

Agarista.

Cram. pl. 170.

The Moth represented on the present plate is so nearly allied to the Phalæna odora of Linnæus, that it may be doubted whether it be not rather a variety of that insect than a species truly distinct. It differs however in the cast of colour on the under surface of the wings, which have a strong tinge of violet. It is a native of South America.

v

 

939

Vosmerian Sparus

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

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SPARUS VOSMERIANUS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes validi: Primores in aliis ordine simplici, in aliis duplici, triplici, vel quad­ruplici dispositi.

Molares (plerisque) validi, convexi, læves, in series dispositi, et quasi pavimentum in ore effor­mantes.

Labia crassa: Opercula mutica, squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sparus rubro-purpureus, fascia utrinque longi­tudinali flava, pinna dorsali analique violaceis.

Anthias Vosmæri. A. stria aurea prope lineam lateralem.

Bloch. ichth. t. 321.

Maria incolit Indica Sparus Vosmerianus, magni­tudine Percæ vulgaris seu fluviatilis Linnæi.

v

 

r

the
VOSMERIAN SPARUS.

Generic Character.

Teeth strong: front-teeth disposed in a single, double, triple, or quad­ruple row.

Grinders (in most species) convex, smooth, and forming a kind of pavement in the mouth.

Lips thick. Gill-covers unarmed, smooth, scaly.

Specific Character, &c.

Purplish-red Sparus, with a longitudinal yellow stripe on each side, and violet dorsal and anal fin.

Der Vosmersche Röthling.

Bloch. ichth. pl. 321.

The Vosmerian Sparus is an inhabitant of the Indian seas, and is of the size of a Common Perch.

v

 

940

Purple Alcyonium

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

r

ALCYONIUM EXOS?

Character Genericus.

Animal plantæ forma crescens.

Stirps fixa, gelatinosa, spongiosa, vel coriacea.

Superficie cellulosa, poris seu osculis stellatis pertusa, hydras tentaculatas oviparas exserentibus.

Character Specificus, &c.

Alcyonium coriaceum rubro-purpureum, supra palmatum.

Alcyonium exos? A. stirpe arborescente coriacea coccinea, superne ramosa, papillis stellatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1293.

Fungus Amanita marinus.

Barr. icon. 1203. 1204. f. 1.

In multis litoribus Europæis reperitur Alcyonium exos. Adhæret, ut plurimum, rupibus et aliis marinis. Color est rubro-purpureus, in diversis speciminibus plus minus saturatus. Variat quoque magni­tudine: specimen enim quod depinximus vix altius erat tribus quatuorve unciis, cum nonnullis altitudo plus quam dupla sit. Figuræ minores, quas continet tabula, ostendunt partem animatam zoophyti, polypos nempe, varie dispositos, et aucta paululum magni­tudine; nec non unum e tentaculis, seu brachiis multo auctius.

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r

PURPLE ALCYONIUM.

Generic Character.

Animal growing in the form of a plant.

Body fixed; fleshy, gelatinous, spongy, or coriaceous.

Surface cellular, with star-shaped openings, from which are extended polype-shaped oviparous heads.

Specific Character, &c.

Purple-red coriaceous Alcyonium, palmated above.

L’Alcyon exos.

Spix. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. vol. 13. p. 451. pl. 33.

The present species is found adhering to rocks and other marine substances on various European coasts. Its colour is a purplish red, more or less bright in different individuals. In size it varies also; sometimes, as in the present specimen, not exceeding the height of three or four inches, while in others it arrives at more than double that stature. The smaller figures on the plate represent the polype, or animal part of the zoophyte, somewhat magni­fied, and in different positions, together with a single tentaculum or arm more considerably magnified.

v

 

941

Pondicherry Vulture

R. P. Nodder Sculp.

Notes

E

VULTUR PONTICERIANUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum rectum, apice aduncum, basi cute tectum.

Caput plerisque impenne, antice nuda cute.

Lingua carnosa, sæpius bifida.

Collum retractile.

Pedes validi, unguibus modice incurvatis.

Character Specificus, &c.

Vultur niger, fronte setosa, collo denudato, utrinque ab auribus caruncula longi­tudinali, pectore utrinque albo-plumato.

Vautour de Pondicherry.

Daudin. Ann. Mus. 1. p. 285.

Vautour Royal de Pondicherry.

Sonnerat voy. ind. 2. p. 182. pl. 104.?

Indiam incolit hæc avis, magnitudine quasi anseris vulgaris.

v

 

E2

the
PONDICHERRY VULTURE.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, hooked at the base, and covered at the base by a cere or skin.

Head, in most species, bare of feathers, and covered in front by a naked skin.

Tongue fleshy, and generally bifid.

Neck retractile.

Feet strong, with moderately crooked claws.

Specific Character, &c.

Black Vulture, with bristly front, naked neck with a longi­tudinal caruncle descending from the ears on each side, and white downy feathers on each side the breast.

Vautour de Pondicherry.

Daudin Ann. Hist. Nat. 1. p. 285.

The present species is an inhabitant of India, and is about the size of a common goose.

v

 

942

Blue-Headed Labrus

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculp.

Notes

r

LABRUS CYANOCEPHALUS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes robusti, subacuti; molares interdum conferti, convexi: labia crassa, duplicata: pinnæ dorsalis radii, in certis speciebus, ramento elongati.

Opercula mutica, squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

Labrus subargenteus, capite cæruleo, pinnis subfuscis, cauda rotundata.

Labrus cyanocephalus. L. capite cæruleo, linea laterali interrupta.

Bloch. ichth. 8. t. 286.

In maribus Americanis? conspicitur Labrus cyano­cephalus, pedali fere longi­tudine.

v

 

r

the
BLUE-HEADED LABRUS.

Generic Character.

Teeth strong and subacute: grinders sometimes convex and crowded: lips thick and doubled: rays of the dorsal fin, in some species, elongated into soft processes.

Gill-Covers unarmed and scaly.

Specific Character, &c.

Subargenteous Labrus, with blue head, and rounded tail.

Der Blaukopf.

Bloch. ichth. 8. pl. 286.

The Blue-headed Labrus is found in the American? seas, measuring nearly twelve inches in length.

v

 

943

Tufted-Topped Coralline

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

CORALLINA FASCICULATA.

Character Genericus.

Animal? crescens habitu plantæ.

Stirps fixa: rami articulati, ramulosi.

Character Specificus, &c.

Corallina stirpe simplici membranacea rugosa, fasci­culo terminali ramuloso.

Corallina Peniculum. C. stipite simplici membranaceo ruguloso, ramis fasciculatis fastigiatis dichotomis articulatis.

Soland et Ellis. Zooph. p. 127. t. 7. f. 5. 6. & t. 25. f. 1.

Super rupes insularum Americanarum crescit Corallina fasciculata, cujus veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula.

v

 

r

the
TUFTED-TOPPED CORALLINE.

Generic Character.

Animal? growing in the form of a plant.

Stem fixed: branches jointed, subdivided.

Specific Character, &c.

Coralline with simple membranaceous wrinkled stem, terminated by a branched fascicle.

Mop Coralline.

Soland. et Ell. Zooph. p. 127. pl. 7. f. 5. 6. & pl. 25. f. 1.

The tufted-topped Coralline is found growing on the rocks of the American islands, and is repre­sented in its natural size on the annexed plate.

v

 

944

Pacific Volute

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

VOLUTA PACIFICA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa unilocularis, spiralis.

Apertura ecaudata, subeffusa.

Columella plicata.

Character Specificus, &c.

Voluta subelongata ferrugineo-flavescens, venis longi­tudinalibus nigricantibus undulata, anfractibus tuberculatis, columella quinqueplicata.

Voluta Arabica. V. testa emarginata, anfractibus tuberculatis, columella quadriplicata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

Circa litora antarctica maris pacifici conspicitur rara hæc volutæ species, et magni­tudine vera in tabula depingitur.

v

 

r

the
PACIFIC VOLUTE.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax or Slug.

Shell unilocular, spiral.

Aperture somewhat spreading, simple.

Pillar wreathed or pleated.

Specific Character, &c.

Subelongated yellowish-ferruginous Volute, undulated with longi­tudinal blackish veins, with tuberculated spire, and five-wreathed pillar.

Die Sudseeische Wilde Musik.

Martini Conchyl. 11. p. 21. pl. 178. f. 1713, 1714.

The rare species of Volute here represented, is found about the southern coasts of the Pacific. The plate shews it in its natural size.

v

 

945

Crimson Chatterer

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

F

AMPELIS PHOENICEA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum convexum; mandibula superiore longiore, subincurvata, utrinque emarginata.

Lingua acuta, cartilaginea, bifida.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Ampelis phoenicea, capite subcristato, remigibus caudaque nigris.

Coracias militaris. C. phoenicea, remigibus caudaque nigris.

Museum Leverianum. No. 2. t. 3.

Formosissima hæc avis, magnitudine fere corvina, tota splendide phoenicea est, exceptis alis caudaque nigris, humerorumque oris crissoque albidis. Pennæ totius avis, præter remiges caudamque, fibratæ et quasi sericæ, cum ventum sit ad occiput, in parvulam cristam eriguntur. In eximio opere quod de avibus rarioribus Indicis Ameri­canisque composuit Levaillant, inter Ampelidas numeratur avis quam descripsimus.

v

 

F2

the
CRIMSON CHATTERER.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, convex; the upper mandible rather longer, subincurvated, emarginated on each side near the tip.

Tongue sharp-pointed, cartilaginous, bifid.

Specific Character, &c.

Crimson Chatterer, with slightly crested head, and black wings and tail.

Crimson Roller.

Museum Leverianum. No. 2. pl. 3.

Le Grand Cotinga.

Levaill. ois. Amer. & Ind. pl. 25.

This beautiful bird is scarcely inferior in size to a common crow, and is entirely of the richest and deepest crimson, except on the wings and tail, which are black: the edge of the shoulder is covered by a few whitish plumes, and the vent is of similar colour: the feathers on the whole bird, except on the wings and tail, are of a fibrous and silky texture, and on the back part of the head are elongated into a slight crest. In the excellent work of Mons. Levaillant on the rarer birds of India and America, it is considered as a species of Ampelis.

v

 

946

Annular Madrepore

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

MADREPORA ANNULARIS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Medusa?

Corallium cavitatibus lamelloso-stellatis.

Character Specificus, &c.

Madrepora aggregata, stellis teretibus æqualibus margine elevatis, interstitiis plano-concavis radiatis.

Soland. et Ellis Zooph. p. 169. t. 53. f. 1. 2.

Madrepora Astroites?

Pall. Zooph. 320.

An var. M. radiatæ?

Circa litora Maris Indici conspicitur Madrepora annu­laris, cujus veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula.

v

 

r

ANNULAR MADREPORE.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Medusa.

Coral marked by lamellar star-shaped cavities.

Specific Character, &c.

Aggregate Madrepore, with round equal stars elevated on the margin, and plano-concave radiated interstices.

Madrepora Astroites?

Pall. Zooph.

Madrepora cavernosa?

Lin. Gmel.

This Madrepore is found about the coasts of the Indian sea, and is repre­sented in its natural size.

v

 

947

Monodactyle Lizard

Notes

r

LACERTA MONODACTYLA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus tetrapodum, elongatum, caudatum, nudum.

Gen. Zool. 3. p. 183.

Character Specificus, &c.

Lacerta corpore caudaque longissimis verticillatis, pedibus subulatis monodactylis.

Lacerta anguina? L. cauda verticillata extremo rigidula, corpore striato, pedibus adactylis subulatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Vermis serpentiformis ex Africa?

Seb. 2. t. 68. f. 7. 8.

Lezard monodactyle.

Cepede. Ann. Mus. No. 11.

Censet celeberrimus Cepede novam esse hanc speciem, nec antea descriptam. Tanta tamen affinitate conjungi videtur Lacertæ quadrupedi Linnæi, ut pro certo affir­mare non ausim de vera differentia. Creditur in Africa generari.

v

 

r

the
MONODACTYLE LIZARD.

Generic Character.

Body four-footed, elongated, tailed; without any secondary integument.

Gen. Zool. 3. p. 183.

Specific Character, &c.

Lizard with very long verticillated body and tail, and subulated monodactyle feet.

Anguine Lizard? Lizard with long body, extremely long tail, and subulated adactyle feet.

Gen. Zool. 3. p. 308.

This animal is considered by the Count de Cepede as constituting a new and hitherto undescribed species. It seems however to approach so very nearly to the Lacerta anguina of Linnæus, as to make it doubtful whether it be really distinct from that animal. It is supposed to be a native of Africa.

v

 

948

Erminia Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO ERMINIA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes. (Volatu diurno).

Character Specificus, &c.

Papilio alis superioribus nigris albo maculatis, inferioribus cæruleis, (fem: cupreis;) omnibus subtus ocellatis griseo-nebulosis.

Papilio Erminia.

Cram. t. 196. A. B. & 241. A. B.

Indiam incolit Papilio Erminia, et magni­tudine vera in tabula depingitur.

v

 

r

ERMINIA.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and commonly terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with black upper-wings spotted with white; blue under-wings, (copper-coloured in the female;) all marked beneath with an eye-shaped spot, and clouded with grey-brown.

Erminia.

Cramer. pl. 196. A. B. and pl. 241. A. B.

This insect is a native of India, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

949

Doubtful Motacilla

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

G

MOTACILLA DUBIA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum subulatum, rectum, mandibulis subæ­qualibus.

Nares obovatæ.

Lingua lacero-emarginata.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Motacilla? olivacea, subtus flava, vertice fascia pectorali caudaque nigris, gula alba.

La Cravate blanche.

Levaill. Ois. Afr. pl. 115.

Non satis constat sitne hæc avis Motacillis an Turdis annumeranda. Depingitur in celeberrimo Vaillantii opere, crediturque eam in India generari. Tabula monstrat veram magni­tudinem.

v

 

G2

the
DOUBTFUL MOTACILLA.

Generic Character.

Bill subulate, with nearly equal mandibles.

Nostrils obovate.

Tongue jagged or lacerated towards the tip.

Specific Character, &c.

Olivaceous Motacilla, yellow beneath, with black crown, pectoral bar and tail, and yellow throat.

La Cravate blanche.

Levaill. Ois. Afr. pl. 115.

It is not perfectly clear whether this bird should be referred to the genus Motacilla, or whether it should not rather be considered as a species of Thrush. It is figured in the work of Mons. Levaillant, and is supposed to be a native of India. The plate represents it in its natural size.

v

 

950

Snake-Skin Snail

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

HELIX PELLIS SERPENTIS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, subdiaphana, fragilis.

Apertura coarctata, intus lunata seu subrotunda, segmento circuli dempto.

Character Specificus, &c.

Helix Pellis serpentis. H. testa subcarinata fasciis flammeis rubris albisque picta, subtus punctis quadrifariam cincta, apertura fimbriata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 3020.

Helix Pellis Serpentis.

Mart. & Chemn. 11. p. 268. t. 208. f. 2046. 2047.

List. Conch. t. 66. f. 64.

Petiv. gazoph. t. 156. f. 1.

Ostenditur in tabula vera magnitudo elegantis cochlea, ad helices terrestres referenda. De patria ambigitur: crediderim tamen orbis occidui esse incolam.

v

 

r

the
SNAKE-SKIN SNAIL.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Slug.

Shell spiral, sub-pellucid.

Aperture semilunar.

Specific Character, &c.

Subcarinated Snail, varied with red and white flame-like bands; beneath marked with four rows of specks, and with bordered opening.

Helix Pellis Serpentis.

Mart. & Chemn. 11. p. 268. pl. 208. f. 2046. 2047.

Helix undata.

Cat. Mus. Port. p. 177.

Limacon dit la peau de serpent.

Favanne cat. rais. p. 6. No. 16.

The elegant shell here figured is repre­sented in its natural size: it belongs to the division of Land Snails, but its native region is not certainly known. It is however probable that it is a West-Indian shell.

v

 

951

Atys Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO ATYS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes. (Volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

P. alis bicaudatis nigris, basi macula magna cærulea radiata, posterioribus subtus virentibus.

Papilio Atys.

Cram. t. 259. f. E. F.

Surinamiam incolit hic Papilio, et magni­tudine vera in tabula depingitur.

v

 

r

ATYS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and commonly terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Black double-tailed Butterfly, with a large radiated blue spot at the base of the wings; the lower pair green beneath.

Papilio Atys.

Cram. pl. 259. f. E. F.

This insect is a native of Surinam, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

952

Flexuous Madrepore

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

MADREPORA FLEXUOSA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Medusa.

Corallium cavitatibus lamelloso-flexuosis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1272.

Character Specificus, &c.

Madrepora flexuosa. M. fasciculata, ramis cylin­draceis striatis scabriusculis flexuosis, hinc coalescentibus, stellis concavis, lamellis æqualibus.

Soland. et Ellis Zooph. p. 151. t. 31. f. 5. 6.

Madrepora flexuosa.

Pall. zooph. 315. No. 184.

Madrepora cæspitosa?

Lin. Syst. Nat.

In maribus Indicis generatur Madrepora flexuosa, cujus veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula.

v

 

r

the
FLEXUOUS MADREPORE.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Medusa?

Coral marked by lamellar flexuous or star-shaped cavities.

Specific Character, &c.

Fasciculated Madrepore, with cylindric striated, roughish, flexuous branches, coalescing on one side, and with concave stars with equal lamellæ.

Madrepora flexuosa.

Soland. et Ell. zooph. p. 151. pl. 31. f. 6.

The present species of Madrepore is a native of the Indian seas, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

953

Portorico Woodpecker

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

H

PICUS PORTORICENSIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum polyedrum, rectum, apice cuneato.

Nares pennis setaceis recumbentibus obtectæ.

Lingua teres, lumbriciformis, longissima, mucronata, apice retrorsum aculeata setis.

Pedes scansorii.

Character Specificus, &c.

Picus supra niger, subtus sanguineus, fronte super­ciliis uropygioque albis.

Daudin. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 2. p. 286. pl. 51.

Novam omnino et adhuc incognitam censet hanc avem qui primus descripsit Daudinus. In insula Portorico generatur, unde nomen adepta est. Magnitudo est quasi merulæ vulgaris, seu turdi merulæ Linnæi. Femina a mari differt coloribus minus vividis, remigibusque secundariis albo marginatis.

v

 

H2

the
PORTORICO WOODPECKER.

Generic Character.

Bill polyedral, strait, wedge-shaped towards the tip.

Nostrils covered by recumbent setaceous feathers.

Tongue worm-shaped, very long, sharp-pointed, and edged towards the tip with reversed bristles.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Black Woodpecker, blood-red beneath, with white front brows and rump.

Pic de Portorico.

Daud. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 2. p. 286. pl. 51.

This bird is considered by its describer Mons. Daudin as a new and hitherto unobserved species. It is a native of the island of Portorico, and is about the size of the common Blackbird. The female differs in being somewhat less vivid in point of colours, and in having the middle or shorter quill-feathers edged with white.

v

 

954

Pine-Leaved Gurnard

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

TRIGLA PINI.

Character Genericus.

Caput magnum, loricatum, lineis scabris.

Opercula spinosa.

Membr. branch. radiis septem.

Digiti (plerisque) liberi ad pinnas pectorales.

Character Specificus, &c.

Trigla rubra, digitis ternis, corpore utrinque lineis numerosis transversis convexis.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 627.

Trigla pini. T. linea laterali lamellata.

Bloch ichth. 10. t. 355.

Speciei quam depinximus, quamque primus descripsit celeberrimus Blochius, nomen specificum datum est a similitudine quam habent foliis pini numerosi isti processus a linea laterali utrinque excurrentes. Magni­tudine fere æqualis est Triglæ Gurnardi Linnæi.

v

 

r

the
PINE-LEAVED GURNARD.

Generic Character.

Head large, mailed, and marked by rough lines.

Gill-Covers spiny.

Gill-Membrane seven-rayed.

Finger-shaped processes (in most species) near the pectoral fins.

Specific Character, &c.

Red Gurnard, with triple fingers, and body marked on each side by numerous transverse convex lines.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 627.

Der Fichtenzweig.

Bloch. ichth. 10. pl. 355.

The present species, first described by Dr. Bloch, has obtained its specific title from the resemblance which the numerous narrow processes on each side the lateral line bear to pine-leaves. The size of this fish is nearly equal to that of the common grey Gurnard or Trigla Gurnardus of Linnæus.

v

 

955

Bolina Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO BOLINA.
Var?

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes. (Volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Papilio alis dentatis nigris, subtus fusco-olivaceis, primoribus maculis duabus, posterioribus solitaria albido-violaceis.

Papilio Lissianassa.

Cram. t. 205. A. B.

Amboinam incolit hic Papilio, cujus veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula.

v

 

r

BOLINA.
Var?

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and commonly terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with denticulated black wings, olive-brown beneath; the upper pair marked by two, the lower by a single whitish-violet spot.

Papilio Lissianassa.

Cram. 205. A. B.

This insect is a native of Amboina, and is repre­sented in its natural size.

v

 

956

Pellucid Medusa

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

MEDUSA PELLUCENS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus gelatinosum, orbiculatum, depressum.

Or subtus, centrale.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1090.

Character Specificus, &c.

Medusa hyalina, lineis obscurioribus radiata, brachiis quatuor centralibus, tentaculis numerosis fili­formibus marginalibus.

Medusa pellucens.

Act. Angl. 1810. p. 262. t. 14. f. 3.

In oceano Atlantico generatur elegans hæc species, major sæpe quam in tabula depingitur; atque ex iis est quæ lucem super mare noctu diffundunt. Ex hac ipsa, de qua jam agitur, spargitur interdum splendor phos­phoreus, qui tantum non hebetet et obtundat intuendum oculos. Eximii speciminis quod selegit Josephus Banksius delineata est icon, cujus ad similitudinem pulcherrime exsculpta est Medusa pellucens in volumine postremo Actorum Anglicorum.

v

 

r

the
PELLUCID MEDUSA.

Generic Character.

Body gelatinous, orbicular, (commonly) depressed.

Mouth central, beneath.

Specific Character, &c.

Hyaline Medusa, radiated by somewhat darker streaks, with four central arms, and numerous filiform marginal tentacula.

Medusa pellucens.

Phil. Trans. 1810. p. 262. pl. 14. f. 3.

This elegant Medusa, which often arrives at a much larger size than repre­sented on the annexed plate, is a native of the Atlantic ocean, and is one of those species which contribute to the luminous appearance so frequently observed at sea during the night. So vivid indeed is the phosphoric splendor exhibited by the present species, as almost to fatigue and dazzle the eye of the spectator. It is elegantly figured in the last Volume of the Philosophical Transactions, from a drawing taken from a specimen observed by Sir Joseph Banks.

v

 

957

Sharp-Tailed Warbler

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

I

MOTACILLA OXURA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum subulatum, rectum; mandibulis subæqualibus.

Nares ovatæ.

Lingua lacero-emarginata.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Motacilla ferruginea, subtus flavescens, rectricibus acuminatis.

Le Figuier acutipennes.

Levaill. Ois. Afr. p. 140. pl. 133.

In Africa interiori generatur hæc avicula, ibique eam primus detexisse videtur Levaillant, locorum umbro­sorum prope aquas amatricem. Notat Levaillant hanc solam se vidisse Africanam quæ pennas in cauda gerat acuminatas, scapo nempe paululum ultra apicem excurrente.

v

 

I2

the
SHARP-TAILED WARBLER.

Generic Character.

Bill subulate, (or awl-shaped), strait; the mandibles nearly equal.

Nostrils nearly oval.

Tongue jagged or lacerated towards the tip.

Specific Character, &c.

Ferruginous Warbler, yellowish beneath, with pointed tail-feathers.

Le Figuier acuti-pennes.

Levaill. Ois. Afr. 3. p. 140. pl. 133. f. 1. 2.

This little Bird is an inhabitant of the interior parts of Africa, where it seems to have been first observed by Mons. Levaillant, frequenting shady places near waters. Mons. Levaillant tells us that it is the only African bird he has yet seen with pointed tail feathers, i.e. so formed that the shaft or mid-rib of each feather extends a little beyond the tip.

v

 

958

Porcine Scorpæna

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

SCORPÆNA PORCUS.

Character Genericus.

Caput magnum, aculeatum, cirrosum, obtusum, squamis nudum, subcompressum: Oculi vicini.

Dentes maxillis, palato, faucibusque.

Membr. branch. radiis septem.

Corpus torosum. Pinna dorsalis unica, radiis anteri­oribus spinosis.

Character Specificus, &c.

Scorpæna fusca nigro variata, cirris ad oculos naresque.

Gen. Zool. 3. p. 267.

Scorpæna Porcus. S. cirris ad oculos naresque.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Scorpæna squamis parvis, maxilla inferiore imberti.

Bloch ichth. t. 181.

Non paucos alit mare Mediterraneum Scorpænas Porcos, in litoribus præcipue degentes, inter algam et saxa piscibus minoribus et insectis marinis insidiantes. Crescere plerumque solet Scorpæna Porcus in longi­tudinem pedalem, seu pedalem cum quadrante.

v

 

r

the
PORCINE SCORPÆNA.

Generic Character.

Head large, aculeated, cirrhose, obtuse, without scales, subcompressed: Eyes placed near each other.

Teeth in the jaws, palate, and throat.

Gill-Membrane seven-rayed.

Body fleshy: dorsal fin single, with the rays of the fore-part spiny.

Specific Character, &c.

Brown Scorpæna, variegated with black, with cirri at the eyes and nose.

Porcine Scorpæna.

Gen. Zool. 3. p. 200.

Der kleinschuppige Drakenkopf.

Bloch. ichth. pl. 181.

This fish is by no means an uncommon inhabitant of the Mediterranean sea, where it chiefly frequents the shores, lying in ambush among weeds, stones, &c. and preying on the smaller fishes and sea insects. Its general length is about twelve or fifteen inches.

v

 

959

Inflated Buccinum

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder Tavistock St.

Notes

r

BUCCINUM INFLATUM.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, gibbosa.

Apertura desinens in canaliculum dextrum cauda retusum.

Labium interius explanatum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1198.

Character Specificus, &c.

Buccinum ventricosum sulcatum albidum, fasciis transversis interruptis ferrugineis, labio interiore granulato.

Buccinum cassideum tesselatum.

Martini-Chemn. vol. 11. p. 76. t. 186. f. 1792. 1793.

Elegantem Buccini speciem depinximus in maribus Indicis et Africanis innasci creditam. Ostendit tabula veram speciminis magni­tudinem.

v

 

r

INFLATED BUCCINUM.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Slug.

Shell univalve, spiral, gibbous.

Aperture ovate, ending in a channel pointing towards the right.

Inner Lip expanded.

Specific Character, &c.

Whitish, ventricose, furrowed Buccinum, with trans­verse, interrupted, ferruginous bands, and granulated inner lip.

The Peacock Buccinum.

Peacock Helmet.

This elegant species of Buccinum is supposed to be a native of the Indian and African seas, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

960

Hyphinoe Moth

Drawn & Engraved by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

r

PHALÆNA HYPHINOE.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ, (volatu nocturno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Phalæna (Bombyx) alis cæruleis, primoribus flavo maculatis et marginatis.

Phalæna Hyphinoe. Ph. alis cæruleis, primoribus flavo maculatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

Cram. t. 154. f. B.

Fabr. sp. ins. 2. p. 181.

Amboinam incolit Phalæna Hyphinoe, et magni­tudine vera in tabula depingitur.

v

 

r

HYPHINOE.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually lessening from the base to the tip.

Wings (when sitting) generally deflected. Flight nocturnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Moth with blue wings, the upper pair spotted and bordered with yellow.

Hyphinoe.

Cram. pl. 154. f. B.

The Moth figured on the present plate is a native of Amboina, and is repre­sented in its natural size.

r

 

961

Watchful Thrush

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

K

TURDUS PERSPICAX.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum tereti-cultratum: mandibula superiore apice deflexo, emarginato.

Nares nudæ, superne membranula tectæ.

Faux ciliata.

Lingua lacero-emarginata.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Turdus cinereo-cærulescens, subtus ferrugineo-flavescens, remigibus caudaque nigricantibus.

L’Espionneur.

Levaill. Ois. Afr. t. 103.

Turdum depinximus tum magnitudine tum coloribus turdo saxatili Linnæi simillimum, in Africa orientali et inferiori generatum. Descripsit eum Levaillant in eleganti opere de avibus Africanis; a quo accepimus insigni esse præditum oculorum acie, miraque in devitandis hostibus solertia; quorum motus adeo diligenter et accurate observare dicitur, ut specimen scloppeto confectum non sine dolis multaque moræ patientia parari possit.

v

 

K2

the
WATCHFUL THRUSH.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, obtusely carinated at top, bending a little at the point, and slightly notched near the end of the upper mandible.

Nostrils oval.

Tongue slightly jagged at the end.

Specific Character, &c.

Blueish ash-coloured Thrush, yellowish ferruginous beneath, with blackish wings and tail.

L’Espionneur.

Levaill. Ois. Afr. pl. 103.

The present species of Thrush, which is considerably allied both in size and colours to the Turdus saxatilis of Linnæus, is an inhabitant of the Eastern and lower parts of Africa, and is not uncommon about the mountains of the Cape of Good Hope. Mons. Levaillant, by whom it is described in his elegant work on the Birds of Africa, informs us that it is remarkable for the quickness of its sight, and the happy dexterity with which it withdraws itself from the pursuit of its enemies, being perpetually on the watch, and observing all the motions of those who intrude on its retreats; so that it requires the utmost patience and attention in order to obtain a specimen by means of the gun.

v

 

962

Contorted Sertularia

Drawn & Engraved by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

r

SERTULARIA CONTORTA.

Character Genericus.

Animal crescens plantæ habitu.

Stirps emittens e cellulis vel denticulis calyciformibus hydras.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3844.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sertularia filiformis ramosa, pedunculis contortis.

Corallina filiformis ramosa, pedunculis calyculorum contortis.

Ell. Corall. tab. 38. f. 3.

Corallina procumbens, &c.?

Ell. Corall. p. 21. t. 12. f. 18. a. A. C.?

Corallina dichotoma?

Lin. Syst. Nat.

In variis Britannicis et Europæis litoribus adhæret parva hæc Sertularia rupibus, conchis, et reliquis ejus­modi, longa duas, tres, vel plures uncias. In tabula nostra exprimitur magni­tudo tam aucta quam vera, ut clarius pateant characteres specifici.

v

 

r

the
CONTORTED SERTULARIA.

Generic Character.

Animal growing with the appearance of a plant.

Stem emitting Polypes from calycular cells or denticles.

Specific Character, &c.

Branched filiform Sertularia, with twisted footstalks.

Corallina filiformis, &c.

Ell. Corall. pl. 38. f. 3.

This small Sertularia is found adhering to rocks, shells, &c. on various parts of the British and other European coasts, and grows to the length of two or three inches or more. It is repre­sented on the present plate in its magni­fied as well as natural appearance, in order the more clearly to shew the distinctive characters of the species.

v

 

963

Scarlet Tiger Moth

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

PHALÆNA DOMINULA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ. (Volatu nocturno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Phalæna (Noctua) alis atro-viridibus maculis albo-flavescentibus, inferioribus corporeque rubris nigro-maculatis.

Phalæna Dominula. Phalæna (Noctua) spirilinguis, alis atris sericeis, maculis alboflaves­centibus; inferioribus rubris nigromaculatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 834.

Folia cynoglossi urticæque præcipue depascitur larva puchræ hujus phalænæ. In chrysalidem mense Maio plerumque convertitur, e qua mense Junio erumpit insectum plene formatum.

v

 

r

the
SCARLET TIGER MOTH.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually lessening from base to tip.

Wings (when sitting) generally deflex. Flight nocturnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Moth with black-green upper wings spotted with yellowish white, and red under wings and body spotted with black.

Albin. ins. pl. 22.

Merian Ins. Eur. 2. pl. 38.

Roes. Ins. 3. pl. 47.

The Caterpillar of this beautiful Moth feeds principally on the leaves of nettle and houndstongue; generally changing into chrysalis in the month of May, from which in the month of June emerges the complete insect.

v

 

964

Drawn & Engraved R. P. Nodder.

Notes

r

TURBO NAUTILEUS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, solida.

Apertura coarctata, orbiculata, integra.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Turbo testa complanata subpellucida subfusca, cristis dorsalibus transversis acuminatis.

Turbo nautileus. T. testa planiuscula, anfractibus annulatis dorso cristatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1241.

Parva hæc sed elegans turbinis species ab ingenioso Röeselio primum, ut opinor, depicta et descripta est. Aquas incolit stagnantes. Ostendit tabula tam veram quam auctam magni­tudinem. Vultu est ambiguo: habitu nempe seu facie generali helices complanatas referens; cum character peculiaris seu essentialis, apertura nempe plene orbiculata, conveniat turbini Linnæano.

v

 

r

the
NAUTILOID TURBO.

Generic Character.

Animal snail-shaped.

Shell univalve, spiral.

Aperture orbicular.

Specific Character, &c.

Turbo with pale-brown semitransparent flattened shell, with a series of dorsal transverse pointed crests.

Ammonshorn.

Röes. vol. 4. p. 599. pl. 97. f. 7.

The small but elegant species of Turbo repre­sented on the present plate, both in its natural size and as it appears when magnified, is a frequent inhabitant of stagnant waters, and seems to have been first described and figured by the ingenious Röesel. It may be considered as a kind of ambiguous species; having the general habit of the flat-shelled Snails, with the peculiar or essential character of a Linnæan Turbo; viz. a perfectly rounded opening.

v

 

965

Rufous-Breasted Warbler

Drawn & Engraved by Richd Nodder.

Notes

L

MOTACILLA PECTORALIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum subulatum, rectum; mandibulis subæqualibus.

Nares obovatæ.

Lingua lacero-emarginata.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Motacilla olivaceo-cinerea, pectore uropygio caudaque (rectricibus duabus mediis exceptis) rufis, genis nigris, superciliis albis.

Le Janfrederic.

Levaill. Ois. Afr. t. 111.

Partes Africæ inferiores incolit Motacilla pectoralis, et magni­tudine vera in tabula depingitur.

v

 

L2

the
RUFOUS-BREASTED WARBLER.

Generic Character.

Bill subulate, strait; mandibles nearly equal.

Nostrils nearly oval.

Tongue jagged or lacerated towards the tip.

Specific Character, &c.

Cinereous-olive Warbler, with rufous breast, rump and tail, (except the two middle feathers), black cheeks, and white brows.

Le Janfrederic.

Levaill. Ois. Afr. pl. 111.

The Rufous-breasted Warbler is an inhabitant of the lower parts of Africa, and is repre­sented on the annexed plate in its natural size.

v

 

966

Rough Bullhead

R. P. Nodder. Delt Sculpt.

Notes

r

COTTUS SCABER.

Character Genericus.

Caput corpore latius, spinosum: Oculi verticales, membrana nictitante instructi.

Membr. branch. radiis sex.

Corpus (plerisque) alepidotum, versus caudam attennatum.

Pinnæ dorsales (plerisque) duæ.

Character Specificus, &c.

Cottus subfuscus squamosus, fasciis transversis fuscis, capite striis longi­tudinalibus serratis, linea laterali aculeata.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 259.

Cottus scaber. C. capite striis, corpore squamis serratis, linea laterali elevata.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Cottus linea laterali aculeata.

Bloch. ichth. t. 159.

Maria incolit Indica Cottus scaber, longi­tudine, ut plurimum, pedali vel sesquipedali.

v

 

r

the
ROUGH BULLHEAD.

Generic Character.

Head broader than the body, spiny. Eyes vertical, and furnished with a nictitating membrane.

Gill-Membrane six-rayed.

Body (in most species) without scales, attenuated towards the tail.

Dorsal fins (in most species) two.

Specific Character, &c.

Brownish scaly Bullhead, with transverse brown bands; head marked with longi­tudinal serrated streaks; and spiny lateral line.

Rough Bullhead.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 259.

The Cottus scaber or rough Bullhead, is an inhabitant of the Indian seas, it is generally seen of the length of a foot or eighteen inches.

v

 

967

Puss Moth

Drawn & Engraved by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

r

PHALÆNA VINULA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ, (volatu nocturno).

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Phalæna corpore lanuginoso albo nigro punctato, alis albidis, superioribus nigro striatis.

Phalæna Vinula. P. Bombyx elinguis albida nigro-punctata, alis subreversis fusco venosis stria­tisque.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Originem ducit Phalæna Vinula ab eruca insolitæ pulchritudinis, quæ folia salicum præcipue depascitur, et in chrysalidem mense Augusto plerumque convertitur, unde insequente Maio erumpit ipsa Phalæna.

v

 

r

the
PUSS MOTH.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually lessening from base to tip.

Wings (when sitting) generally deflected.

Flight nocturnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Moth with downy white body spotted with black; and whitish wings, the upper pair streaked with black.

Vinula, or Puss-Moth.

Albin. ins. pl. 11.

Roes. ins. 1. pl. 19.

The Moth represented on the present plate, proceeds from an uncommonly beautiful caterpillar, which feeds chiefly on the leaves of willows, and generally changes to a chrysalis in the month of August, from which in the following May emerges the complete insect.

v

 

968

Long-Snouted Langaya

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

LANGAYA NASUTA.

Character Genericus.

Scuta abdominalia.

Annuli caudales.

Squamæ terminales.

Character Specificus, &c.

Langaya maxilla superiore rostrata.

Langaya nasuta.

Gen. Zool. 3. p. 571.

Langaha.

Bruguiere Journ. de Physique, 1784.

Constat hucusque genus Langaya ex unica specie, discrepatque a reliquo serpentino genere quod annulata sit caudæ superior pars eodem fere modo quo corpus Amphisbænæ, squamata autem sit extrema pars, ut fieri solet in genere Anguis. Primus eam descripsisse videtur Dominus Bruguiere in opere quod dicitur Journal de Physique anni millesimi septingentesimi octogesimi quarti. Insulam incolit Madagascariam Langaya nasuta, eamque formidare dicuntur incolæ utpote periculose venenatam.

v

 

r

the
LONG-SNOUTED LANGAYA.

Generic Character.

Abdominal Plates.

Caudal Rings.

Terminal Scales.

Specific Character, &c.

Langaya with the upper jaw produced in form of a snout.

Snouted Langaya.

Gen. Zool. 3. p. 571.

Langaha.

Cepede ovip. 2. p. 469.

The genus Langaya, consisting at present of a single species only, differs from all the rest of the Serpent tribe, in having the upper part or beginning of the tail, marked into complete rings or circular divisions, resembling those on the body of the genus Amphisbæna, while the extreme or terminal part is covered with small scales, as in the genus Anguis. The Langaya nasuta or long-snouted Langaya, is a native of Madagascar, and seems to have been first described by Mons. Bruguiere in the Journal de Physique for the year 1784. It is said to be much dreaded by the natives of Madagascar, who consider it as of a highly poisonous nature.

v

 

969

Thoracic Warbler

Drawn & Engraved by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

M

MOTACILLA THORACICA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum subulatum, rectum; mandibulis subæ­qualibus.

Nares obovatæ.

Lingua lacero-emarginata.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Motacilla griseo-olivacea, subtus subflavescens, gula alba, loris fasciaque pectorali nigris.

Le Plastron noir.

Levaill. Ois. Afr. pl. 123.

Partes Africæ interiores incolit Motacilla thoracica, et magni­tudine vera in tabula depingitur.

v

 

M2

the
THORACIC WARBLER.

Generic Character.

Bill subulate, strait; mandibles nearly equal.

Nostrils nearly oval.

Tongue jagged or lacerated towards the tip.

Specific Character, &c.

Greyish-olive Warbler, yellowish beneath, with white throat and black lores and pectoral band.

Le Plastron noir.

Levaill. Ois. Afr. pl. 123.

The Thoracic Warbler is an inhabitant of the interior parts of Africa, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

970

Long-Armed Polype

R. P. Nodder Del. et Sculpt.

Notes

r

HYDRA LONGIMANA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus elongatum, tubulatum.

Os cinctum brachiis seu tentaculis retractilibus.

Character Specificus, &c.

Hydra subfusca, corpore postice attenuato, tentaculis longissimis.

Hydra fusca? H. tentaculis suboctonis longissimis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1320.

Species de qua jam agitur, Hydris viridi fuscaque rarior, ab iis facile dignoscitur corpore postico multo tenuiore, et tentaculis longioribus; quæ ad extremum extensa æquant quinque vel sex uncias, vix araneo crassiora, in apices tamen desinentia paulo ampliores. Utitur eodem fere vivendi modo quo reliqui congeneres aquarum dulcium incolæ, et non solum in stagnis versatur, sed etiam præponere iis videtur parvulos rivulos. Color communis est fusco-pallidus. Non semper certus est et constans tentaculorum numerus; sunt enim octo, novem, duodecim, vel etiam tredecim.

Quæ in medio est tabulæ nostræ figura ostendit animalculum modice auctum. A reliquis cognoscas veram magni­tudinem.

v

 

r

the
LONG-ARMED POLYPE.

Generic Character.

Body lengthened, tubular.

Mouth surrounded by contractile arms or tentacula.

Specific Character, &c.

Pale-brown Polype, with the body attenuated behind, and extremely long arms.

Baker Hist. Pol. p. 22.

Roes. Hist. Pol. pl. 85.?

The present species of Polype, which is somewhat less common than the green and the deep brown Polype, is distinguished by the more attenuated appearance of the hinder part of the body, as well as by the far greater length of the arms or tentacula, which, when fully extended, often measure not less than five or six inches in length, at which time they appear almost of the tenuity of a spider’s thread, and terminate in a slight enlargement at the tip.

In its general manners and history this species resembles the rest of the fresh-water Polypes, and is found not only in stagnant waters, but in small rills or streams which have a moderate current, and which it rather seems to prefer. Its general colour is a pale v brown, and in the number of its arms it varies from eight or nine to twelve or thirteen.

The middle or principal figure on the annexed plate represents the animal moderately magnified: the rest exhibit the natural size.

971

Rhombic Salmon

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

SALMO RHOMBEUS.

Character Genericus.

Caput læve, compressum: Lingua cartilaginea.

Dentes in maxillis, lingua.

Membr. branch. radiis quatuor ad decem.

Corpus elongatum, postice pinna adiposa.

Character Specificus, &c.

Salmo rhombeus. S. rufescens, abdomine argenteo serrato, cauda nigro marginata.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 75.

Salmo rhombeus. S. abdomine serrato, pinna anali caudalique basi margineque nigris.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 514.

Salmo abdomine serrato.

Bloch. ichth. t. 383.

Flumina incolit Surinamensia Salmo rhombeus, in magnam sæpe crescens molem, pedes nempe duos vel tres longi­tudine æquans.

v

 

r

the
RHOMBIC SALMON.

Generic Character.

Head smooth, compressed: Tongue cartilaginous.

Teeth both in the jaws and on the tongue.

Gill-Membrane from four to ten-rayed.

Body compressed, furnished at the hind part with an adipose fin.

Specific Character, &c.

Rufescent Salmon, with silvery, serrated abdomen, and tail edged with black.

Rhombic Salmon.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 75.

Der Sagèbauch.

Bloch. ichth. pl. 383.

The Rhombic Salmon is an inhabitant of the rivers of Surinam, where it is often seen of very large size, measuring two or three feet in length.

v

 

972

Cream-Spotted Tiger Moth

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

PHALÆNA VILLICA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ (volatu nocturno.)

Character Specificus, &c.

Phalæna alis superioribus nigris albo-flavente maculatis, inferioribus luteis nigro maculatis.

Phalæna (Bombyx) spirilinguis? alis deflexis atris, maculis octo albidis, inferioribus flavis nigro-maculatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Larva polyphaga Phalænæ Villicæ folia urticæ, plantaginis, alsines, aliarumque plantarum depascitur, in chrysalidem mense Maio plerumque sese convertens, unde mense Junio erumpit insectum plene formatum.

v

the
CREAM-SPOTTED TIGER MOTH.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually lessening from base to tip.

Wings (when sitting) generally deflex. Flight nocturnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Moth with black upper wings spotted with cream-colour, and yellow lower wings spotted with black.

The Cream-Spotted Tiger Moth.

Alb. ins. pl. 21.

Roes. 4. pl. 28. 29.

Ream. 1. pl. 31.

The Caterpillar of this Moth is of a polyphagous nature, feeding on the leaves of nettle, chickweed, plantain and several other vegetables. It generally changes into a chrysalis in the month of May, from which, in the month of June emerges the complete insect.

r

INDEX.

Pl.
940. Alcyonium exos.
945. Ampelis phoenicea.
959. Buccinum inflatum.
929. Columba undulata.
943. Corallina fasciculata.
966. Cottus scaber.
931. Fulgora candelaria.
950. Helix pellis serpentis.
970. Hydra longimana.
942. Labrus cyanocephalus.
947. Lacerta monodactyla.
968. Langaya nasuta.
946. Madrepora annularis.
952. —— flexuosa.
956. Medusa pollucens.
957. Motacilla oxura.
965. —— pectoralis.
969. —— thoracica.
949. —— dubia.
927. Murex saxatilis.
951. Papilio Atys.
948. —— Erminia.
955. —— Bolina.
928. Phalæna Venus.
932. —— Matronula.
934. —— Capensis.
938. —— Agarista.
960. —— Hyphinoe.
963. —— Dominula.
967. —— Vinula.
972. —— Villica.
953. Picus Portoricensis.
925. Psittacus garrulus.
937. —— cæruleatus.
971. Salmo rhombeus.
958. Scorpæna Porcus.
935. Scomber fasciatus.
936. Sertularia Pinaster.
962. —— contorta.
939. Sparus Vosmerianus.
926. Strombus Auris Dianæ.
933. Tetrao Senegalensis.
930. Trichiurus lepturus.
961. Turdus perspicax.
964. Turbo nautileus.
954. Trigla pini.
944. Voluta Pacifica.
941. Vultur Ponticerianus.

INDEX.

Pl.
940. Alcyonium purple.
959. Buccinum inflated.
966. Bullhead rough.
948. Butterfly Erminia.
951. —— Atys.
955. —— Bolina.
943. Coralline tufted-topped.
945. Chatterer crimson.
933. Grous Senegal.
954. Gurnard pine-leaved.
931. Lantern-Fly Chinese.
968. Langaya long snouted.
942. Labrus blue-headed.
947. Lizard monodactyle.
937. Lory blue-tipped.
925. —— Ceram.
935. Mackrel Zebra.
946. Madrepore annular.
952. —— flexuous.
956. Medusa pellucid.
928. Moth Venus.
932. —— Matronula.
934. —— Cape.
938. —— Agarista.
960. —— Hyphinoe.
963. —— scarlet Tiger.
967. —— Puss.
972. —— cream-spot Tiger.
927. Murex rock.
929. Pigeon undulated.
970. Polype long-armed.
971. Salmon rhomboid.
958. Scorpæna porcine.
962. Sertularia contorted.
936. —— Pine.
950. Snail snake-skin.
939. Sparus Vosmerian.
926. Strombus ear.
961. Thrush watchful.
930. Trichiure silver.
964. Turbo nautiloid.
944. Volute Pacific.
941. Vulture Pondicherry.
949. Warbler doubtful.
957. —— sharp-tailed.
965. —— rufous-breasted.
969. —— thoracic.
953. Woodpecker Portorico.

London: Printed by B. M‘Millan,
Bow Street, Covent Garden.

Notes and Corrections: Volume 22

Volume 22 of the Naturalist’s Miscellany was published in twelve monthly installments, conjecturally from September 1810 through August 1811. It is “conjecturally” because there has not been a full month-and-year date since the third installment of Volume 13 (November 1801), and no date at all since “1810” in the tenth installment of Volume 21 (June, with any luck). In a Newtonian reaction to that previous volume’s information dump, plates in the present volume contain no visible dates at all.

Each installment is 16 pages.

[A]; B; C; D; E (January 1811); F; G; H; I; K; L; M

This volume shares a record with Volumes 12 and 13, though it isn’t an especially admirable one: each of the three has no less than eight binomials—mostly birds—that can only be tentatively identified.

Plates 962 and 963—the second and third plates in installment 10—are engraved “958” and “939”, duplicating the real 958 and 939, but are indexed correctly.

Dedication

E. Nodder
[Although Richard Nodder has been listing himself as publisher on engraved plates since the middle of the previous volume, his mother Elizabeth will continue to enjoy the prime real estate of the Dedication page.]

Psittacus Garrulus, the Ceram Lory

is now Lorius Garrulus, the chattering lory. It lives in central Indonesia, including Seram.

suspected by Levaillant to be a variety of the Psittacus Domicella of Linnæus, or Purple-capped Lory
[Now L. domicella, the purple-naped lory. Same genus, different species.]

Strombus Auris Dianæ, the Ear Strombus

is now Euprotomus aurisdianae, the Diana conch. It is most common along the Pacific coast of Asia and Australia.

Murex Saxatilis, the Rock Murex

is now Hexaplex duplex (by way of Purpura duplex, 1798), the duplex murex. (Linnaeus’s name has to be older; there must have been something wrong with it.) It lives along the west coast of Africa.

Phalæna Venus, the Venus (moth)

is probably Leto venus. It lives at the southern tip of Africa.

Columba Undulata, the Undulated Pigeon

may be Geopelia striata (by way of Columba striata). It lives throughout Australia, Southeast Asia, and the islands of the southern Pacific and Indian oceans.

a third part smaller than its natural size
[The Latin side seems to say “a third of its natural size”.]

Trichiurus Lepturus, the Silver Trichiure

is otherwise known as the Atlantic cutlassfish. In spite of the name, it is found all over the world except in the Arctic and Antarctic.

Fulgora Candelaria, the Chinese Lantern-Fly

is now Pyrops candelaria (by way of Linnaeus’s earlier Cicada candelaria.) It lives in East and Southeast Asia.

Phalæna Matronula, the Matronula (moth)

is now Pericallia matronula. It lives in a narrow east-west band extending from central Europe and the Baltic, through central Asia, to Japan.

Tetrao Senegalensis, the Senegal Grous

is now Pterocles senegallus (by way of Linnaeus’s Tetrao senegalus, give or take an ell), the spotted sandgrouse. It ranges from North and East Africa, through the Arabian peninsula, to western South Asia.

much allied to the Tetrao Alchata of Linnæus
[now Pterocles alchata, so he is right about the “much allied”.]

Phalæna Capensis, the Cape Moth

may be Eutricha capensis or Pachypasa capensis, the Cape lappet. (If entomologists can’t agree on a genus, who am I to take sides?) By any name, it lives in South Africa.

Scomber Fasciatus, the Zebra Mackrel

is now Seriola fasciata, the amberjack. It lives in the Atlantic and Caribbean, especially around North America.

Sertularia Pinaster, the Pine Sertularia

is now Diphasia margareta (by way of Sertularia margareta). Ellis and Solander may not have noticed that someone else had already used the name S. pinaster for a different cnidarian, three years earlier. It lives along the coasts of Europe and northern Africa, especially around the British Isles.

Psittacus Cæruleatus, the Blue-Tipped Lory

may be Eos bornea (by way of Psittacus borneus), the red lory. In spite of Linnaeus’s name, it is found only in the eastern parts of Indonesia, on the other side of Wallace’s Line.

Phalæna Agarista, the Agarista (moth)

is probably Ascalapha odorata, the black witch. It lives in the Americas, especially Mesoamerica.

it may be doubted whether it be not rather a variety of [Phalæna odora]
[Yup. The switch between odora and odorata—both forms are attested—is just one of those things.]

Sparus Vosmerianus, the Vosmerian Sparus

is probably Scolopsis vosmeri, the monocle bream. It lives mainly along the coast of the Indian Ocean.

Alcyonium Exos, the Purple Alcyonium

may be Alcyonium palmatum, Mediterranean sea-fingers, or A. glome­ratum, red fingers. Both have an array of other names ranging from “sea hand” to “dead man’s fingers”—as did A. digitatum, which we met at Plate 326 of Volume 9. A. palmatum lives around the Mediterranean, A. glome­ratum around the British Isles.

Fungus Amanita marinus.
[This presupposes a very broad interpretation of “fungus Amanita”.]

Vultur Ponticerianus, the Pondicherry Vulture

may be Sarcogyps calvus (by way of Vultur calvus), the red-headed vulture. It is the only member of its genus, so when it goes—its conservation status is Critically Endangered—the whole genus goes. For now, it lives in South and Southeast Asia.

[Plate 941] R. P. Nodder Sculp.
[Richard must have lost a fight with his mother. With rare exceptions, it’s back to “Del. et Sculpt.”—no mention of publishing—from here on.]

Labrus Cyanocephalus, the Blue-Headed Labrus

is now Halichoeres cyanocephalus, the yellowcheek wrasse. It lives along the Atlantic coast of the Americas, including the Caribbean.

Corallina Fasciculata, the Tufted-Topped Coralline

is now Chamaedoris peniculum. It isn’t a coralline—it isn’t even in the same phylum—but it is a plant, our first one since Volume 16. It ranges from the Caribbean to the Atlantic coast of South America.

Voluta Pacifica, the Pacific Volute

is now Alcithoe arabica (by way of Voluta arabica). Do not ask where Gmelin got “arabica”; it is only found around New Zealand.

Die Sudseeische Wilde Musik.
spelling unchanged
[Martini and Chemnitz probably really said “Südseeische” with an umlaut.]

Ampelis Phoenicea, the Crimson Chatterer

If it is the same as Coracias militaris, it is probably Haematoderus militaris, the crimson fruit crow, with naming credit to Shaw—not here, but back in 1792. It lives in South America. Ampelis phoenicea by that name has been equated with Campe­phaga phoenicea, the red-shouldered cuckoo­shrike, though they don’t look anything alike; compare Plate 252 of Volume 7.

Madrepora Annularis, the Annular Madrepore

is now Orbicella annularis. It lives in the Caribbean.

Madrepora Astroites?
text has Astroites.? with double punctuation
[In any case, it’s a different animal.]

An var. M. radiatæ?
[Wrong again. M. radiata is now Montastrea cavernosa (by way of Linnaeus’s Madrepora cavernosa, the name given on the English side).]

Lacerta Monodactyla, the Monodactyle Lizard

is now Chamaesaura anguina (by way of Lacerta anguina), the Cape snake lizard. More exactly, it is the subspecies C. a. anguina. It lives in southern Africa.

Lacerta anguina?
[This time the answer is Yes, they are the same.]

conjungi videtur Lacertæ quadrupedi
text unchanged: error for Lacertæ anguinæ

Papilio Erminia, the Erminia (butterfly)

is probably Apaturina erminia. If so, it lives in Indonesia.

(Volatu diurno).
text has durno

Antennæ thickening towards the end
[ABBYY FineReader decided that this italicized word—which it has met several hundred times before—should be read as “/internet”, complete with leading slash. Really.]

Motacilla Dubia, the Doubtful Motacilla

may be Pachycephala pectoralis (by way of Muscicapa pectoralis), the Australian golden whistler. It lives in and around Australia.

It is not perfectly clear
[His uncertainty is justified, since Pachycephalidae ended up as a family of their own. More distant relatives include crows, birds of paradise, and shrikes.]

Helix Pellis Serpentis, the Snake-Skin Snail

Shaw has understandably mixed up two different H. pellis serpentis. Gmelin’s, named in 1791, is now Solaropsis pellis­serpentis. Chemnitz’s, named in 1795, is Solaropsis undata, because his gastropod—unlike Gmelin’s—is the same as Lightfoot’s Helix undata from 1786 (source glossed as Cat. Mus. Port.). Both live in South America.

Papilio Atys, the Atys (butterfly)

is now Atlides atys. It lives in and around Central America.

Madrepora Flexuosa, the Flexuous Madrepore

If it is the same animal as Linnaeus’s M. caespitosa, it is now Cladocora caespitosa, the caespitose tube coral. It lives in the Mediterranean.

Picus Portoricensis, the Portorico Woodpecker

is probably Melanerpes portoricensis, the Puerto Rican woodpecker. As advertised, it lives in Puerto Rico and nowhere else.

In insula Portorico generatur
text has Por-/tico at line break

Trigla Pini, the Pine-Leaved Gurnard

is now Chelidonichthys cuculus (by way of Linnaeus’s Trigla cuculus), the east Atlantic red gurnard. It lives along the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts of Europe, extending to the Azores.

Papilio Bolina, the Bolina (butterfly)

is now Hypolimnas bolina. Its range covers a swath from South Asia to New Zealand. Cramer’s P. lisianassa is the subspecies P. bolina lisianassa, found in Ambon and adjoining islands.

Papilio Lissianassa
[Cramer’s actual spelling was Lisianassa with a total of three esses.]

Medusa Pellucens, the Pellucid Medusa

Unidentified, though the binomial crops up sporadically for another half-century. The Linnaean genus Medusa is no longer in use, so all we can say is that it’s a jellyfish, class Scyphozoa in phylum Cnidaria.

atque ex iis est quæ lucem super mare noctu diffundunt
text has est / est at line break

cujus ad similitudinem pulcherrime exsculpta est
text has simi-/tudinem at line break

Motacilla Oxura, the Sharp-Tailed Warbler

Unidentified. The species name really ought to be oxyura—a form that shows up in many other binomials—though this is the least of its problems. The name “sharp-tailed warbler” has also been applied to Motacilla acuti­penna—substituting Latin for Greek—which leads to an equal dead end. The coloring of Shaw’s picture does look a bit like Pseudo­colopteryx acuti­pennis, the subtropical doradito. But this is probably coincidence, since the bird was named in 1873 and lives in South America.

Scorpæna Porcus, the Porcine Scorpæna

is otherwise known as the black scorpion fish. It is most common in the Mediterranean.

Buccinum Inflatum, the Inflated Buccinum

is now Semicassis granulata (by way of Buccinum granulatum), the grooved helmet. It is most common around the Americas, especially on the Atlantic and Caribbean coasts.

Buccinum granulatum was described in 1778 by Born—whose work must have been on Shaw’s bookshelf, as it has been listed many times in the sources (Born. Mus. Cæs. Vind. test., Born. test. Mus. Cæs. Vind. and other permutations to taste). Perhaps Shaw misplaced the book; it hasn’t been mentioned since Volume 16.

Phalæna Hyphinoe, the Hyphinoe (moth)

is probably Xyleutes hyphinoe. The genus as a whole is most common in Africa and Southeast Asia.

[Plate 960]
[The plate number is engraved backward. Or, if you want to split hairs: it is engraved forward, left-to-right, causing it to come out backward in print. Richard’s signature line faces the right way, though.]

Turdus Perspicax, the Watchful Thrush

may be Monticola explorator (by way of Turdus explorator), the sentinel rock thrush. It lives in South Africa.

specimen scloppeto confectum
text has scloppo

Sertularia Contorta, the Contorted Sertularia

has been equated with Gonothyraea loveni (first named in 1859), though I’m darned if I can see why. Shaw’s two possible synonyms, Corallina procumbens and C. dichotoma, are equally unidentifiable. But, since he says it is found in England, he is probably conflating a number of different species.

[Plate 962]
[The plate is engraved “958”, but is correct in the Index.]

Corallina dichotoma?
text has dichotoma.? with double punctuation

Phalæna Dominula, the Scarlet Tiger Moth

is now Callimorpha dominula, the scarlet tiger. It lives in Europe.

[Plate 963]
[The plate is engraved “939”, but is correct in the Index.]

Turbo Nautileus, the Nautiloid Turbo

is now Armiger crista (by way of Nautilus crista), the star gyro. Linnaeus seems to have named the same gastropod twice. It is most common in Europe, excluding Iberia. (Query: If a snail can swim the English Channel, cross the Alps and navigate the Baltic, why can’t it climb the Pyrenees?)

ab ingenioso Röeselio . . . . Röes. vol. 4. . . . the ingenious Röesel
[I don’t know why Shaw has suddenly lost his grip on the spelling of “Roesel”, after getting it right for more than 21 volumes (since the middle of Volume 1, when he gave us “Roësel”). In the very next installment, he will once again remember how to spell it.]

Motacilla Pectoralis, the Rufous-Breasted Warbler

may be Cossypha caffra (by way of Motacilla caffra), the Cape robin-chat. If so, it lives in southern Africa.

Cottus Scaber, the Rough Bullhead

is now Grammoplites scaber, the flathead. It is mainly found along the coasts of South and East Asia.

is an inhabitant of the Indian seas, it is generally seen
[Comma splice unchanged.]

Phalæna Vinula, the Puss Moth

is now Cerura vinula. Names in other languages tend to focus on its tail: Grosser Gabelschwanz, Grande Queue-Fourchue and similar. It lives in western Europe, again excluding Iberia.

Langaya Nasuta, the Long-Snouted Langaya

is now Langaha madagascariensis. As the name indicates, it lives on Madagascar.

Motacilla Thoracica, the Thoracic Warbler

is probably Apalis thoracica, the bar-throated apalis, with naming credit to Shaw. (He was not the first to describe it, but he was the first to give it a binomial.) It lives in southern Africa.

Hydra Longimana, the Long-Armed Polype

Unidentified. If it is the same animal as Linnaeus’s Hydra fusca—Shaw seems to think it isn’t—it is now Hydra oligactis, the brown hydra, because Pallas got there first. It lives in various parts of Europe.

The present species of Polype
[In the entire volume, this is the only article—in either language—that runs to a second page. George Shaw did love his marine invertebrates.]

The middle or principal figure on the annexed plate
“l” in “plate” invisible

Salmo Rhombeus, the Rhombic Salmon

is now Serrasalmus rhombeus, the black piranha. It lives in South America. Genus Serrasalmus was defined by Lacépède in 1803, several years before this volume of the Miscellany came out; Shaw must have been behind in his reading. (And why did he think it was a salmon? They aren’t even in the same order.)

Der Sagèbauch.
text unchanged
[I would really like to call it a flyspeck, but at full size it is an absolutely unambiguous grave accent.]

Phalæna Villica, the Cream-Spotted Tiger Moth

is now Arctia villica, the cream-spot tiger. It lives in Europe, extending into west Asia.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ (volatu nocturno.)
close-parenthesis missing

Ream. 1. pl. 31.
text unchanged: error for Reaum.

Index
Latin

928.   Phalæna Venus.
text has 228

The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.