Naturalist’s Miscellany

The Naturalist’s Miscellany
by George Shaw
Volume 23

v

VIRO REVERENDO ET ERUDITO

ROBERTO NARES,

UTRIUSQUE SOCIETATIS
TAM REGIÆ QUAM ANTIQUARIÆ

SOCIO, &c. &c. &c.

hunc

VICESIMUM TERTIUM

NATURÆ VIVARII

FASCICULUM

d. d. d.
GEORGIUS SHAW,
E. NODDER.

r

to

THE REV. ROBERT NARES,

F.R. and F.A.S.
ARCHDEACON OF STAFFORD,
CANON RESIDENTIARY OF LICHFIELD,
&c. &c. &c.

THIS TWENTY-THIRD VOLUME
of the

NATURALIST’S MISCELLANY

IS INSCRIBED,

AS A TESTIMONY OF FRIENDSHIP,

by
GEORGE SHAW,
E. NODDER.

v

 

973

Double-Streaked Warbler

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

MOTACILLA DIOPHRYS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum subulatum, rectum; mandibulis subæ­qualibus.

Nares obovatæ.

Lingua lacero-emarginata.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Motacilla ferrugineo-fusca subtus alba, cauda cuneata, stria supra infraque oculos nigra.

Le Double-Sourcil.

Levaill. Av. Afr. t. 128.

Hujus avis ostendit tabula veram et naturalem magni­tudinem. Generant eam partes Africæ interiores. Femina caret striis oculariis nigris.

v

the
DOUBLE-STREAKED WARBLER.

Generic Character.

Bill subulate, strait; mandibles nearly equal.

Nostrils nearly oval.

Tongue jagged or lacerated towards the tip.

Specific Character, &c.

Ferruginous-brown Warbler, white beneath, with cuneated tail, and black stripe above and below the eyes.

Le Double-Sourcil.

Levaill. Ois. Afr. pl. 128.

This bird is represented on the plate in its natural size. It is an inhabitant of the interior parts of Africa. The female is distinguished by the want of the black eye-stripes.

974

Shining Beetle

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

SCARABÆUS MICANS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ clavatæ, capitulo fissili.

Tibiæ anticæ sæpius dentatæ.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Scarabæus viridissimus, nitens, capite subquadrato, cornu frontali bifurco fusco.

Cetonia micans. C. viridis nitens, clypeo porrecto recurvo bifido, tibiis anticis serratis.

Fabr. spec. ins. p. 50.

Africana est hæc Scarabæi species, et magni­tudine vera in tabula depingitur.

v

the
SHINING BEETLE.

Generic Character.

Antennæ divided at the tip or head into several lamellæ.

Tibiæ (or second joints of the fore legs) generally toothed.

Specific Character, &c.

Shining grass-green Beetle, with squarish head, and brown forked frontal horn.

La Cetoine eclatante.

Oliv. Coleopt.

Drury ins. 2. pl. 32. f. 3.

The present species of Beetle is a native of Africa, and is repre­sented in its natural size.

975

Juba Sparus

Drawn & Engraved by Richd P. Nodder.

Notes

r

SPARUS JUBA.

Character Genericus.

Dentes validi: primores ordine simplici, duplici, triplici, vel quad­ruplici dispositi.

Molares (plerisque) validi, convexi, læves, in series dispositi, et quasi pavimentum in ore effor­mantes.

Labia crassa: Opercula mutica, squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sparus Juba. S. argenteus, dorso violaceo, pinnis flavo luteoque variatis, cauda bimaculata.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 431.

Perca Juba. P. maculis duabus brunneis in pinna caudali.

Bloch. ichth. 9. t. 311. f. 1.

Guatucupa Juba.

Marcgr. Bras.

Will. ichth.

Maria incolit Americana Sparus Juba, in bipedalem crescens longi­tudinem.

v

 

r

the
JUBA SPARUS.

Generic Character.

Teeth strong: front-teeth in some species disposed in a single row, in others in a double, treble, or quad­ruple row.

Grinders (in most species) convex, smooth, and disposed in ranges, forming a kind of pavement in the mouth.

Lips thick: Gill-Covers unarmed, smooth, scaly.

Specific Character, &c.

Silvery Sparus, with violet back, fins varied with yellow and orange, and tail marked by two spots.

Juba Sparus.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 431.

Guatucupa Juba.

Marcgr. Jonst. Will. &c.

The Sparus Juba is an inhabitant of the American seas, growing to the length of about two feet.

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976

Nonpareil Cone

Drawn & Engraved by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

r

CONUS GLORIA MARIS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, convoluta, turbinata.

Apertura effusa, longitudinalis, linearis, edentula, basi integra.

Columella lævis.

Character Specificus, &c.

Conus subelongatus subcylindricus albidus, fusco minutim reticulatus, fasciis transversis fusco-luteis.

Conus Gloria maris. C. elongatus, cylindrico-conicus, albus, aurantio-fasciatus, maculis albis trigonis subtilissimis fusco cinctis ad apicem usque reticu­latus; spiræ concavo-acuminatæ anfractibus superioribus nodulosis.

Lamarck Ann. M. Hist. Nat. 15. p. 438.

Gloria maris, testa cylindrica, &c. &c. &c.

Chemn. 10. p. 73. t. 143. f. 1324. 1325.

In rarissimis et pretiosissimis totius generis merito habetur conus cujus veram magni­tudinem ostendit tabula. In maribus generatur Americæ australi adja­centibus.

v

 

r

the
NONPAREIL CONE.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax or Slug.

Shell more or less conic or pyramidal.

Aperture longitudinal, linear, without teeth, entire at the base.

Pillar smooth.

Specific Character, &c.

Subelongated, subcylindric, whitish Cone, with minute brown reticulations, and transverse orange-brown bands.

Gloria maris.

Chemn. 10. pl. 143. f. 1344. 1345.

Lamarck. Ann. M. Hist. Nat. 15. p. 438.

Bruguiere Encycl. pl. 347. f. 7.

This highly beautiful shell, which may be considered as one of the rarest and most valuable of the genus Conus, is a native of the South-American seas, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

977

Violet-Eared Humming-Bird

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculp.

Notes

C

TROCHILUS AURITUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum capite longius, subulato-filiforme, apice subincrassato tubuloso: mandibula superior vaginans inferiorem.

Lingua filiformis, filis duobus coalitis tubulosa.

Pedes graciles, breviusculi, ambulatorii.

Cauda pennis decem.

Character Specificus, &c.

Trochilus rectirostris viridi-aureus, subtus albus, aurium pennis subelongatis violaceis, remigibus nigris, rectricibus lateralibus albis.

Trochilus auritus.

Lath. ind. orn.

Cayanam incolit elegans hæc avis, et magni­tudine vera in tabula depingitur.

v

 

C2

the
VIOLET-EARED HUMMING-BIRD.

Generic Character.

Bill longer than the head, cylindric, slender, with slightly-thickened tip; the upper mandible sheathing the lower.

Tongue filiform, extensile, consisting of two conjoined slips forming a tube.

Legs slender, rather short: feet formed for walking.

Tail consisting of ten feathers.

Specific Character, &c.

Strait-Billed gold-green Humming-Bird, white beneath, with slightly elongated violaceous ear-feathers, black wings, and white lateral tail-feathers.

Oiseau-mouche à oreilles.

Buff. ois.

Viell. pl. 25. 26.

Violet-Eared Humming-Bird.

Lath. syn.

This elegant species is a native of Cayenne, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

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978

Icelandic Scallop

Notes

r

OSTREA ISLANDICA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Tethys.

Testa bivalvis, inæquivalvis, subaurita.

Cardo edentulus, fossula cava ovata striisque lateralibus transversis.

Character Specificus, &c.

Ostrea testa orbiculari subflava vel rubea, fasciis transversis purpureis, auriculis inæqualibus, radiis numerosis.

Ostrea Islandica. O. testa orbiculari, circulis purpureis, radiis centum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3326.

Pecten testa suborbiculari aurita, radiis plano-convexis sulcatis numerosis, alternis minoribus integris, interne crocea.

Fabr. Faun. Groenl. p. 415. No. 416.

In maribus arcticis præcipue reperitur Ostrea Islandica, coloribus non raro varians, Ostrea maxima, ut plurimum, paulo minor.

v

 

r

the
ICELANDIC SCALLOP.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Tethys.

Shell bivalve; valves unequal, subauriculated.

Hinge toothless, with an ovate fossule and transverse lateral streaks.

Specific Character, &c.

Scallop with orbicular yellowish or reddish shell, with transverse purple bands, unequal ears, and numerous rays.

Seb. mus. 3. pl. 87. f. 7.

Knorr Vergn. 1. pl. 4. f. 1. and pl. 5. f. 2.

Lister, pl. 1057. f. 4.?

Gualt. test. pl. 73. R.

The Icelandic Scallop is principally found in the northern seas, often varying considerably in colour: its size is somewhat inferior to that of the common Scallop.

v

 

979

Green-Finned Sparus

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculp.

Notes

r

SPARUS CHLOROPTERUS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes validi: primores ordine simplici, duplici, triplici, vel quad­ruplici dispositi.

Molares (plerisque) validi, convexi, læves, in series dispositi, et quasi pavimentum in ore efform antes.

Labia crassa; opercula mutica, squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sparus viridis, abdomine subflavente, capite fusco cæruleo-lineato.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 451.

Labrus chloropterus. L. dentibus duobus caninis in utraque maxilla, aculeis duobus in pinna ani.

Bloch. ichth. 8. t. 288.

Maria Indica incolit Sparus chloropterus, a Blochio primum descriptus. In pedalem crescit longi­tudinem.

v

 

r

the
GREEN-FINNED SPARUS.

Generic Character.

Teeth strong: front-teeth in some species disposed in a single row, in others in a double, treble, or quad­ruple row.

Grinders (in most species) convex, smooth, and disposed in ranges, forming a kind of pavement in the mouth.

Lips thick: Gill-Covers unarmed, scaly.

Specific Character, &c.

Green Sparus, with yellowish abdomen, and brown head striped with blue.

Green-Finned Sparus.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 451.

Der Grünflosser.

Bloch ichth. pl. 288.

The Green-Finned Sparus is an inhabitant of the Indian seas, and seems to have been first described by Dr. Bloch. It grows to the length of about twelve inches.

v

 

980

Crantor Sphinx

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculp.

Notes

r

SPHINX CRANTOR.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ subprismaticæ, utroque fine attenuatæ.

Lingua exserta (plerisque).

Palpi duo reflexi.

Alæ deflexæ.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sphinx alis fuscis atro maculatis, posterioribus rubris margine atro.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2380.

Fabr. spec. ins. 2. p. 151.

Cramer, t. 104. f. A.

Indiam incolit Sphinx Crantor, cujus veram magni­tudinem ostendit tabula.

v

 

r

CRANTOR.

Generic Character.

Antennæ subprismatic, attenuated at each end.

Tongue (in most species) exserted.

Feelers two, reflex.

Wings deflected.

Specific Character, &c.

Sphinx with brown upper wings spotted with black, and red lower wings bordered with black.

Sphinx Crantor.

Cramer, pl. 104. f. A.

The Sphinx here figured is an inhabitant of India, and is repre­sented in its natural size.

v

 

981

Superb Promerops

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculp.

Notes

D

PROMEROPS SUPERBUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum Upupæ.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Cauda elongata, plerisque cuneata.

Gen. Zool. 8. p. 142.

Character Specificus, &c.

Promerops niger violaceo viridique nitens, pennis scapularibus falcatis aureo-nitentibus, cauda longissima.

Gen. Zool. 8. p. 145.

Upupa superba.

Lath. ind. orn.

Upupa magna.

Lin. Gmel.

Raro innotuit physicis magnificentior avis Promerope superbo, forma et coloribus vix ipsis Paradiseis cedente, quod ad genus a nonnullis, quamvis falso, referri solet. Papuam seu novam Guineam incolit, a Sonneratio primum, ut videtur, descripta. Longitudo ab apice rostri ad extremum caudæ æquat fere quatuor pedes.

v

 

D2

the
SUPERB PROMEROPS.

Generic Character.

Bill as in the genus Upupa.

Feet formed for walking.

Tail lengthened, and in most species cuneated.

Gen. Zool. 8. p. 142.

Specific Character, &c.

Black Promerops with violet and green gloss, falcated golden-shining scapular-feathers, and very long tail.

Gen. Zool. 8. p. 145.

Grand Promerops à paremens frisès.

Buff. Ois.

Grand Promerops.

Lath. Syn.

Le grand Promerops.

Aud. & Viell. Ois. dorès. pl. 8.

This is one of the most magnificent birds yet known to naturalists, and scarcely yields either in elegance of appearance or splendor of colours to the Paradise-Birds themselves, of which it has sometimes been erroneously considered as a species. It is an inhabitant of Papua or New-Guinea, and seems to have been first described by Sonnerat. Its length is nearly four feet from the tip of the bill to the end of the tail.

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983

Western Spider

R. P. Nodder Delt. Sculpt.

Notes

r

ARANEA OCCIDUA.

Character Genericus.

Pedes octo. Oculi octo.

Os unguibus seu retinaculis duobus.

Palpi duo articulati; masculis genitalibus capitati.

Anus papillis textoriis.

Character Specificus, &c.

Aranea fusca, thorace radiatim excavata, tarsis rotundatis ferrugineis.

Roes. ins. 4. Append. Kleem. t. 11.

Invaluit jamdiu apud physicos opinio araneas plerasque majores exoticas meras esse varietates istius speciei quas dicitur aranea avicularia Linnæi. Harum tamen nonnullas verisimilius crediderim ab avicularia revera esse diversas. Quas in tabula juxta veram magni­tudinem ostenditur in America generatur australi, et insulis quibusdam occiduis. Hanc eleganter satis et fideliter depinxit Domina Merian in opere de insectis Surinamensibus, nec non ingeniosus Roeselius qui generalem conscripsit insectorum historiam.

In primo volumine Amænitatum Academicarum (quod opus ductu et auspicio Linnæi editum est) pro certo affirmatur pedes araneæ aviculariæ non duplicem unguem, ut solent pedes aliarum aranearum, sed unicum v tantum genere. Quomodo in errorem non levem inciderit scriptor celeberrimus difficillimum est dicere, nisi pedes individui istius speciminis, de quo ibi disseritur, casu aliquo fuisse mutilatos, et altero ungue privatos. Sed melius forsan erit ipsius authoris verba proferre.

“Ungues pedum, ab auctoribus variis descriptos, studiose quæsivimus. At vero, apices pedum obtusi plane sunt, et denso vellere tecti, latente in pilis parvulo quodam, incurvo et simplici unguiculo, anteriores etiam pedes armante, sed usque adeo minuto, ut, nisi ferreo stilo investigetur, vix appareat. Falli ergo eos oportet, qui binos singulo pedi, et quidem majusculos, ungues tribuunt et appingunt.”

r

the
WESTERN SPIDER.

Generic Character.

Eyes eight. Legs eight.

Mouth furnished with two hooks or holders.

Palpi or Feelers two, the tips of which, (in the males) distinguish the sex.

Abdomen terminated by papillæ or teats, through which the animal draws its thread.

Specific Character, &c.

Brown Spider, with a radiated excavation on the thorax, and rounded ferruginous feet.

Mer. Sur. pl. 18.

It has been usual among naturalists to consider several very large exotic spiders as constituting so many mere varieties of one single species, viz. the Aranea avicularia of Linnæus. It is however more than probable that some at least of these supposed varieties are really distinct species. The particular kind exhibited in its natural size on the present plate, is a native of South-America and some of the West-Indian islands, and has been elegantly and correctly figured by Madam Merian in her work on the Surinam insects, and by the ingenious Roesel in his general history of insects.

v

I cannot omit taking notice of a most extraordinary error in a description given of the Aranea avicularia in the first volume of the Amænitates Academicæ of Linnæus, in which it is expressly affirmed, that the feet of that insect are furnished with only a single claw on each, and not with a pair, as in other spiders. How this very singular mistake could have been committed, is hardly to be conceived, except by supposing that the individual specimen examined for the purpose, happened acciden­tally to be mutilated in this respect.

I have diligently searched (says the writer) for the claws on the feet, described by various authors: the tips of the feet are obtuse, and thickly covered with hair, amidst which is concealed a small, crooked, single claw, but so minute as to be scarcely perceptible unless investigated by the assistance of a needle; and it therefore follows that an error has been committed by those who have described and figured two claws, and those rather large ones, on each foot.

982

Mottled Mackrel

R. P. Nodder.

Notes

r

SCOMBER MACULOSUS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus oblongum, læve, linea laterali interdum carinatum.

Pinnulæ sæpius supra infraque versus caudam.

Gen Zool. 4. p. 577.

Character Specificus, &c.

Scomber supra cæruleo-virescens, maculis numerosis subalternis transversis elongatis nigris.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 592.

Konam.

Russel. Pisc. Ind. t. 135.

Maria incolit Indica Scomber maculosus, magni­tudine scombrum vulgarem Europium superans.

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r

the
MOTTLED MACKREL.

Generic Character.

Body oblong, smooth; sometimes carinated by the lateral line.

Finlets (in most species) above and below towards the tail.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 577.

Specific Character, &c.

Mackrel of a blue-green colour above, with numerous, subalternate, transverse, elongated black spots.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 592.

Konam.

Russel’s Indian Fishes, pl. 135.

The present species is an inhabitant of the Indian seas, and is of larger size than the Common European Mackrel.

v

 

984

Fire Frog

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

RANA IGNEA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus tetrapodum, ecaudatum, nudum.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Rana olivaceo-fusca tuberculata, subtus aurantia cæruleo maculata.

Gen. Zool. 3. p. 116.

Bufo vulgo igneus dictus.

Roes. ran. p. 97. t. 22.

Ranarum Europæarum, si excipias ranam arboream, minima est quæ ignea dicitur, quamque alit Germania, regionesque in medio Europæ sitæ. Variat nonnunquam coloribus, quod et aliis plerisque congeneribus accidit. Amat loca humida et umbrosa, aquasque turbidas et stagnantes, alacri indole, saltu et natatu ipsa rana communi melior.

v

 

r

the
FIRE FROG.

Generic Character.

Body four-footed, without tail, and naked, or without any integument but the skin.

Specific Character, &c.

Olive-brown Frog, beneath orange-coloured spotted with blue.

Gen. Zool. 3. p. 116.

Rana bombina?

Lin. Syst. Nat.

La Sonnante.

Cepede. ov. p. 553. pl. 37.

This, which may be considered as the smallest of the European frogs, except the Rana arborea or tree frog, is a native of Germany and other midland parts of Europe, and, like most of the present genus, varies occasionally in the cast of its colours. It is principally found in damp, shady situations, or in turbid stagnant waters, and is of a remarkably active and lively nature, leaping and swim­ming with equal or even superior celerity to the common frog.

v

 

985

Blue Promerops

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

E

PROMEROPS CÆRULEUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum Upupæ.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Cauda elongata (plerisque cuneata.)

Character Specificus, &c.

Promerops cæruleus, rostro pedibusque nigris.

Gen. Zool. 8. p. 142.

Upupa Indica.

Lath. ind. orn.

Indiam incolit Promerops cæruleus, magni­tudine quasi Upupæ communis Europææ.

v

 

E2

the
BLUE PROMEROPS.

Generic Character.

Bill as in the genus Upupa.

Feet formed for walking.

Tail lengthened, and, in most species, cuneated.

Specific Character, &c.

Blue Promerops, with black bill and legs.

Gen. Zool. 8. p. 142.

Blue Promerops.

Lath. syn. suppl.

Le Promerops bleu.

Aud. et Viell. Prom. pl. 9.

The blue Promerops is a native of India, and is about the size of the Common or European Hoopoe.

v

 

987

Icelandic Scallop

R. P. Nodder Delt. Sculpt.

Notes

r

OSTREA ISLANDICA.
Var.

Character Genericus.

Animal Tethys.

Testa bivalvis, inæquivalvis, subaurita.

Cardo edentulus, fossula cava ovata striisque lateralibus transversis.

Character Specificus, &c.

Ostrea testa orbiculari subflava vel rubea, fasciis transversis purpureis, auriculis inæqualibus, radiis numerosis.

Ostrea Islandica.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

Fabr. Faun. Groenl.

Magnitudine vera exprimitur elegans hæc varietas Ostrea Islandicæ.

v

 

r

the
ICELANDIC SCALLOP.
Var.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Tethys.

Shell bivalve; valves unequal, subauriculated.

Hinge toothless, with an ovate fossule and transverse lateral streaks.

Specific Character, &c.

Scallop with orbicular yellowish or reddish shell, with transverse purple bands, unequal ears, and numerous rays.

Knorr. Vergn. 1. pl. 5. f. 2.

This elegant variety of the Icelandic Scallop is repre­sented in its natural size on the annexed plate.

v

 

986

Golden Holocentrus

Richd. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

HOLOCENTRUS AURATUS.

Character Genericus.

Habitus generis Percæ.

Opercula squamosa, serrata, aculeata.

Squamæ (pluribus) duræ, asperæ.

Character Specificus, &c.

Holocentrus auratus. H. luteus, rubro punctulatus.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 562.

Holocentrus auratus. H. punctatus, aculeis dorsalibus novem.

Bloch. ichth. 7. p. 57. t. 236.

Maria incolit Indica Holocentrus auratus, magni­tudine Percæ vulgaris.

v

 

r

the
GOLDEN HOLOCENTRUS.

Generic Character.

Habit of the genus Perca.

Gill-Covers scaly, serrated, and aculeated.

Scales (in most species) hard and rough.

Specific Character, &c.

Gold-yellow Holocentrus, with red specks.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 562.

Der Goldsogo.

Bloch. ichth. pl. 236.

The Golden Holocentrus is an inhabitant of the Indian seas, and is of the size of the Common European Perch.

v

 

988

Elpenor Sphinx

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

SPHINX ELPENOR.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ subprismaticæ, utroque fine attenuatæ.

Lingua exserta (plerisque).

Palpi duo, reflexi.

Alæ deflexæ.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sphinx alis superioribus corporeque olivaceis roseo-striatis, inferioribus roseis basi nigris.

Sphinx Elpenor. S. alis integris virescentibus, fasciis purpureis variis, posticis rubris basi atris.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Galii palustris folia præcipue depascitur larva pulcher­rimi hujus Insecti, et in chrysalidem mense Augusto conver­titur, unde Mense Maio erumpit ipsa Sphinx.

v

 

r

ELPENOR.

Generic Character.

Antennæ subprismatic, attenuated at each end.

Feelers two, reflex.

Tongue (in most species) exserted.

Wings deflected.

Specific Character, &c.

Sphinx with the upper wings and body olive-coloured, striped with rose-colour; the lower wings rose-coloured with black base.

Roes. ins. 1. pap. noct. pl. 4.

Albin. Engl. Ins. pl. 9.

The Greater Elephant Hawk-Moth.

The Caterpillar of this beautiful Insect feeds principally on the leaves of the white marsh Galium or Bedstraw, and changes to a chrysalis in the month of August, from which in the following May emerges the animal in its perfect state.

v

 

989

African Owl

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

F

STRIX AFRICANA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum, absque cera.

Nares oblongæ, pennis setaceis recumbentibus obtectæ.

Caput grande, auribus oculisque magnis.

Lingua bifida.

Digitus externus retro mobilis.

Character Specificus, &c.

Strix subfusca subtus nivea, cauda fasciis numerosis linearibus albis.

Gen. Zool. 7. p. 278.

Le Choucou.

Levaill. Ois. Afr. t. 38.

Speciem elegantem cernere est in tabula in Africa interiori generatam, quamque primum opinor descrip­sisse Levaillantum. Prodire solet per crepuscula celerrimo volatu, sæpius radens iter prope terram, emissa stridula voce. Femina mari paulo minor est, corpore inferiore minus niveo. Æquat avis longi­tudine quasi decem uncias.

v

 

F2

the
AFRICAN OWL.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked, without cere.

Nostrils oblong, covered with recumbent setaceous feathers.

Head, eyes, and ears large.

Tongue bifid.

Exterior toe moveable backwards.

Specific Character, &c.

Brownish Owl, snow-white beneath, with the tail crossed by numerous linear white bars.

Gen. Zool. 7. p. 278.

Le Choucou.

Levaill. Ois. Afr. pl. 38.

This elegant species, which measures about ten inches in length, and which seems to have been first described by Levaillant, is a native of the interior parts of Africa, appearing only during the twilight; flying with great celerity, skimming at intervals the surface of the ground, and frequently uttering a sharp cry. The female is rather smaller than the male, and of a less pure or snowy white colour on the under parts.

v

 

990

Single-Spotted Sciæna

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

SCIÆNA UNIMACULATA.

Character Genericus.

Caput squamosum.

Pinnæ dorsales duæ, in fossula recondendæ.

Membr. branch. radiis sex.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sciæna argenteo-cinerea flavo lineata, corpore macula utrinque nigra.

Perca unimaculata. P. macula rotunda in latere utroque.

Bloch. ichth. 9. t. 308. f. 1.

Sciæna unimaculata?

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 339.

In maribus Brasiliensibus innascitur Sciæna maculata; nonnunquam tamen fluvios intrat, eo præcipue tempore quo ova solet deponere. In cibis habetur lautioribus, et ad eandem crescit magni­tudinem quam Cyprinus Carpio seu vulgaris. Piscem primus descripsisse videtur Marcgravius, qui Salemam nuncupavit.

v

 

r

the
SINGLE-SPOTTED SCIÆNA.

Generic Character.

Head scaly.

Dorsal fins two, seated in a furrow into which they are occasionally withdrawn.

Gill-Membrane six-rayed.

Specific Character, &c.

Silvery-grey Sciæna, striped with yellow, and marked on each side the body by a black spot.

Salema.

Marcgr. Bras.

Der Fleck.

Bloch. ichth. 9. pl. 308. f. 1.

The present species is a native of the Brasilian seas, occasionally entering rivers, especially during the spawning-season. It is considered as an excellent fish for the table, and arrives at the size of a common Carp. It seems to have been first described by Marcgrave, under the name of Salema.

v

 

991

Pyretus Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO PYRETUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes. (Volatu diurno.)

Character Specificus, &c.

Papilio alis caudatis supra nigris fascia rubra, infra aureo-cæruleis fascia nigra.

Papilio Pyretus.

Cram. t. 144. f. A. B.

Surinamiam incolit bellus hic Papilio, et magni­tudine vera in tabula depingitur.

v

 

r

PYRETUS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and generally terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Tail-winged Butterfly, with the wings black above with a red bar, and gilded-blue beneath with a black bar.

Pyretus.

Cram. pl. 144. f. A. B.

This beautiful Butterfly is a native of Surinam, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

992

Variegated Scallop

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

OSTREA VARIA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Tethys.

Testa bivalvis, inæquivalvis, subaurita.

Cardo edentulus, fossula cava ovata striisque lateralibus transversis.

Character Specificus, &c.

Ostrea albida seu subflava, fasciis transversis irregu­laribus rubris, radiis triginti scabris, auriculis inæqualibus.

Ostrea varia? O. testa æquivalvi, radiis triginti scabris compressis echinatis, uniaurita.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

In maribus Europæis innascitur Ostrea varia, coloribus et magni­tudine multum varians.

v

 

r

the
VARIEGATED SCALLOP.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Tethys.

Shell bivalve, valves generally unequal, subauri­culated.

Hinge toothless, with an ovate fossule and transverse lateral streaks.

Specific Character, &c.

Whitish or yellowish Scallop, variegated with irre­gular transverse red bands, with about thirty rough rays, and unequal ears.

Variegated Scallop.

Penn. Brit. Zool.

Lister 187.

Chemn. 7. pl. 66. f. 633. 634.

Knorr. 1. pl. 19. f. 2. and 2. pl. 18. f. 5.

The Species here represented is a native of the European seas, varying very considerably both in size and colours.

v

 

993

Gorget Paradise-Bird

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt. 34 Tavistock St. Covent Garden.

Notes

G

PARADISEA GULARIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum capistri plumis tomentosis tectum.

Pennæ hypochondriorum plerisque longiores.

Pedes validi, ambulatorii.

Character Specificus, &c.

Paradisea gularis. P. nigra purpureo-nitens, subtus dorsoque aureo-atro-virentibus, gula aureo-cuprea, cauda cuneata longissima.

Gen. Zool. 7. p. 501.

Paradisea gularis. P. purpureo-nigricans, capistro genisque tomentosis, cervice fasciaque pectorali viridi-nitentibus, sub gula lunula aureo-cuprea fulgidissima.

Lath. ind. orn.

Pulcherrimam hanc avem in insulis Moluccis gene­ratam cernere est eleganter depictam in operibus Vielloti et Levaillantii. Convenit huic ingenium modusque vivendi cum reliquis Paradiseis. Longitudo ab apice rostri ad extremum caudæ quasi bipedalis est cum semipede.

v

 

G2

the
GORGET PARADISE-BIRD.

Generic Character.

Bill covered at the base by velvet-like plumes.

Side-Feathers beneath the wings, in most species, extending far beyond the rest of the plumage.

Legs strong: feet formed for walking.

Specific Character, &c.

Black Paradise-Bird, glossed with purple, the back and under parts blackish gold-green, the throat copper-coloured, and the tail extremely long and cuneated.

Gorget Paradise-Bird.

Lath. syn.

Le hausse-col dorè.

Viellot ois. Parad.

This most beautiful bird is an inhabitant of the Molucca isles, and is elegantly figured in the splendid works of Mons. Viellot and Mons. Levaillant. In its manners it resembles the rest of the genus Paradisea, and measures about two feet and a half from the tip of the bill to that of the tail.

v

 

994

Red-Tailed Sparus

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculp.

Notes

r

SPARUS ERYTHROURUS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes validi: primores ordine simplici, duplici, triplici, vel quad­ruplici dispositi.

Molares (plerisque) validi, convexi, læves, in series dispositi, et quasi pavimentum in ore effor­mantes.

Labia crassa: opercula mutica, squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sparus argenteus, dorso subcæruleo, pinnis et præsertim caudæ rubris.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 405.

Sparus erythrourus. S. dentibus minutissimis, radiis decem in pinna ani.

Bloch. ichth. 8. t. 241.

Maria incolit Indica Sparus erythrourus, longi­tudine quasi Spari communis sive Auratæ Linnæi.

v

 

r

the
RED-TAILED SPARUS.

Generic Character.

Teeth strong: front-teeth in some species disposed in a single row, in others in a double, treble, or quad­ruple row.

Grinders (in most species) convex, smooth, and disposed in ranges, forming a kind of pavement in the mouth.

Lips thick: Gill-Covers unarmed, smooth, scaly.

Specific Character, &c.

Silvery Sparus, with blueish back, and red fins, particularly the tail.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 405.

Der Rothschwanz.

Bloch. ichth. 8. pl. 241.

The Red-Tailed Sparus is a native of the Indian seas, and is of the same size as the Sparus Aurata of Linnæus, or Common Gilthead.

v

 

995

Tuberculated Argonaut

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

ARGONAUTA TUBERCULATUS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Sepia.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, involuta, membranacea, unilocularis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1161.

Character Specificus, &c.

Argonauta carina utrinque subdentata, striis lateralibus tuberculatis.

Nautilus tenuis.

Seb. 3. t. 84. f. 4.

Sæpius creditum est Argonautam tuberculatum meram esse varietatem Argonautæ Argus Linnæi, a quo tamen discrepat, striis longi­tudinalibus, quæ in concha visuntur, non planis, sed in tubercula surgentibus. Crescit in eandem magni­tudinem quam Argonauta Argo; fortasse etiam ampliorem. Enutritur in maribus Indicis.

v

 

r

the
TUBERCULATED ARGONAUT.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Sepia.

Shell univalve, spiral, unilocular, very thin.

Specific Character, &c.

Argonaut with the keel denticulated on each side, and tuberculated lateral stripes.

L’Argonaute a grains de riz.

Denys-Montfort. Mollusques. 3. p. 307.

The tuberculated or granulated Paper-Nautilus.

The present shell has been frequently considered as a variety only of the Argonauta Argo of Linnæus, or common Paper-Nautilus, from which it differs in having the lengthened stripes of the shell raised into rows of tubercles. It is a native of the Indian seas, and arrives at a size at least equal to that of the common Paper-Nautilus.

v

 

996

Great Leopard Ermine Moth

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

PHALÆNA OCULATISSIMA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ. (Volatu nocturno.)

Character Specificus, &c.

Phalæna oculatissima. P. (Bombyx) nivea, alis primoribus maculis ocellatis nigris, abdomine supra cæruleo flavoque vario.

Phalæna oculatissima. P. (Bombyx) elinguis, alis subreversis albis; primoribus thoraceque punctis ocellaribus numerosis inæqualibus nigris, dorso cæruleo flavoque variegato.

Abbot. N. Am. Ins. t. 69.

Bombyx ocularia.

Fabr. ins.

Phalænam perelegantem descripsimus, Georgiam, Carolinam, aliasque Americæ septentrionalis regiones incolentem. Depascitur larva folia cerasi sylvestris, helian­themi, aliaque ejusmodi. Depingitur phalæna oculatissima in splendido libro quem conscripsit Abbotus de insectis in America septentrionali generatis.

v

 

r

the
GREAT LEOPARD ERMINE MOTH.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually lessening from base to tip.

Wings (when sitting) generally deflex. (Flight nocturnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

Snow-white Moth, with the upper wings marked by ocellated black spots, and the abdomen varied above with blue and yellow.

Cram. pl. 344. f. D. et Suppl. pl. 41. f. 3.

The elegant Moth here represented is a native of Georgia, Carolina, and other parts of North America, where its caterpillar feeds principally on the leaves of the wild cherry, dwarf sun-flower, &c. It is figured in the splendid work of Mr. Abbot on the Insects of North America.

v

 

997

Minute Warbler

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

H

SYLVIA MINUTA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum subulatum, rectum, tenue; mandibulis subæqualibus.

Nares obovatæ, depressiusculæ.

Digitus exterior medio basi subtus connexus.

Cauda modica.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sylvia olivaceo-cinerea, subtus flavicans, gula albida, alis caudaque subfuscis.

Le Figuier Becque-flenr.

Levaill. ois. Afr. t. 134.

Perexiguam hanc speciem descripsit Levaillantus; a quo cognoscimus in Africa inferiore generari, vescique insectis quæ floribus insident, aliisque ejusmodi. Femina differt a mare coloribus paulo obscurioribus.

v

 

H2

the
MINUTE WARBLER.

Generic Character.

Bill subulate, strait, slender; with nearly equal mandibles.

Nostrils obovate, slightly depressed.

Exterior toe connected towards the base with the middle one.

Tail, in general, of moderate length.

Specific Character, &c.

Olivaceous-grey Warbler, yellowish beneath, with whitish throat, and brownish wings and tail.

Le Figuier Becque-fleur.

Levaill. ois. Afr. pl. 134.

This very small species is described by Mons. Levail­lant, who informs us that it inhabits the inferior parts of Africa, and feeds on minute insects which it collects from flowers, &c. The female differs in being rather more obscure in its colours.

v

 

998

Proserpina Moth

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

PHALÆNA PROSERPINA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ (volatu nocturno.)

Character Specificus, &c.

Phalæna (Attacus) pectinicornis, alis rotundatis nigris, fascia alba; macula subocellari nigra.

Smith. Abbot. N. Am. Ins. t. 50.

Phalæna Maja.

Drury ins. 2. t. 24. f. 3.

Bombyx Proserpina.

Fabr. ent. amend. 4. p. 410.

In America septentrionali, præcipue in Georgia et Virginia generatur Phalæna Proserpina, ubi larva ejus quercuum Americanarum folia depascitur.

v

 

r

PROSERPINA.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually lessening from base to tip.

Wings (when sitting) generally deflex. Flight nocturnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Moth with rounded black wings, with a white bar, and subocellated black spot.

Phalæna Proserpina.

Black Emperor Moth.

Abbot’s N. Amer. insects, pl. 50.

The Moth here represented is a native of North America, and particularly of Georgia and Virginia, where its larva feeds on the leaves of several species of American oak.

v

 

999

Mephitic Toad

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

RANA MEPHITICA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus tetrapodum, ecaudatum, nudum.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Rana olivacea, fusco maculata, verrucis subru­bentibus, linea dorsali sulphurea.

Gen. Zool. 3. p. 149.

Bufo terrestris foetidus.

Roes. Hist. Ran. t. 24.

In variis Europæ partibus generata rana mephitica si manu contrectetur, seu alio quocunque modo lacessatur, foetorem emittere dicitur teterrimum; eundem fere ac si allii succum cum fumo pulveris nitrati commiscueris.

Bufonem Anglicum Natter-Jack inducor ut credam ranæ hujusce esse varietatem, licet inodorus sit. Generatur rana mephitica eodem modo quo cæteri bufones, nec alius est vivendi modus.

v

 

r

the
MEPHITIC TOAD.

Generic Character.

Body four-footed, without tail, and naked, or without any integument but the skin.

Specific Character, &c.

Olive Toad, spotted with brown, with reddish warts, and sulphur-coloured dorsal line.

Mephitic Toad.

Gen. Zool. 3. p. 149.

The present species of Toad is found in several parts of Europe, and is said to diffuse, on being handled, or otherwise irritated, an intolerably fetid odor, somewhat resembling that of a mixture of garlick and gunpowder.

The toad called in our own country by the name of Natter-Jack, and which appears to be a variety of the present species, is not remarkable for any peculiar odor. In its manner of breeding and way of life, it resembles the rest of its tribe.

v

 

1000

Common Carp

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

CYPRINUS CARPIO.
Var.
Macrolepidotus.

Character Genericus.

Os parvum, edentulum. Dentes gutturales.

Membr. branch. triradiata.

Pinnæ ventrales sæpius novemradiatæ.

Character Specificus, &c.

Cyprinus Carpio. C. luteo-olivaceus, pinna, dorsali lata, radio tertio postice serrato.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 180.

Var.

Cyprinus partim nudus, partim macrolepidotus.

Cyprinus Rex.

Bloch. ichth. 1. t. 17.

Per varias Germaniæ regiones spargitur huc illuc notabilis hæc varietas Cyprini communis. Hoc ei insigne est ad distinctionem, quod, cum in aliis corporis partibus insolita sit squamarum magni­tudo, in aliis squamæ omnino nullæ sunt. Cætera cyprino Carpioni vulgari similis est, nisi quod crescere dicitur in majorem molem, et palato melius respondere.

v

 

r

the
COMMON CARP.
Var.
Large-scaled.

Generic Character.

Mouth small and toothless: teeth in the throat.

Gill-Membrane three-rayed.

Ventral fins, in general, nine-rayed.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish-Olive Carp, with wide dorsal fin, with the third ray serrated behind.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 189.

Var.

Carp with the body partly naked, and partly covered with very large scales.

Large-scaled Carp.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 193.

This remarkable variety of the common Carp is found in several parts of Germany, and differs in having some parts of the body naked or scaleless, while the scales on the other parts are of a very unusual size. In other respects it perfectly resembles the common carp, but is said to grow to a larger size, and to be superior as an article of food.

v

 

1001

Paradise Parrot

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

I

PSITTACUS PARADISI.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum, mandibula superiore mobili, cera instructa.

Nares in rostri basi.

Lingua plerisque carnosa, obtusa, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Character Specificus, &c.

Psittacus flavus, marginibus pennarum rubro-aurantiis.

Gen. Zool. 8. p. 501.

Psittacus Paradisi? P. brachyurus luteus, gula ventre rectricumque basi rubris.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Rarum hunc et venustum psittacum in insula Cuba generari creditum est. De quo tamen dubitat Levaillantus, existimatque varietatem esse psittaci Amazonici. Negat porro reperiri posse hodie hanc avem in insula Cuba.

v

 

I2

the
PARADISE PARROT.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked, with the upper mandible moveable, and generally furnished with a cere.

Nostrils in the base of the bill.

Tongue, in most species, fleshy, obtuse, entire.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellow Parrot, with the feathers edged with orange-red.

Gen. Zool. 8. p. 501.

Le Papagai de Paradis.

Buff. ois.

Perroquet de Cuba.

Pl. Enl. 336.

Perroquet jaune ecaillè de rouge.

Levaill. Perr. pl. 137.

The rare and beautiful Parrot here repre­sented is commonly supposed to be a native of the island of Cuba, a circumstance much questioned by Mons. Levaillant, who seems to hold it in doubt whether this supposed species be not rather a variety of the Amazon Parrot. Mons. Levaillant observes further, that no such bird is at present known in the island of Cuba.

v

 

1004

Narrow-Gilled Madrepore

Drawn, Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder. 1812

Notes

r

MADREPORA ABDITA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Medusa.

Corallium cavitatibus lamelloso-stellatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Madrepora subconglomerata, anfractibus stellifor­mibus angulatis obconicis, ambulacris simpli­cibus, lamellis angustis crenato-denticulatis.

Soland. et Ell. Zooph. p. 162. t. 50. f. 2.

Madrepora abdita.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

Circa rupes maris Indici conspicitur Madrepora abdita, cujus veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula.

v

 

r

NARROW-GILLED MADREPORE.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Medusa.

Coral marked by lamellar star-shaped Cavities.

Specific Character, &c.

Subconglomerate Madrepore, with angular obconic foliations, simple undulations, and narrow gills with crenulated teeth.

The present species of Madrepore is found about the rocks of the Indian seas, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

1003

Troilus Butterfly

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

r

PAPILIO TROILUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes. (Volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Papilio alis caudatis nigris, maculis marginalibus flavis; posticis fascia interjecta cærulea maculaque ocellata fulva.

Papilio alis caudatis nigris; primoribus punctis marginalibus pallidis; posticis supra pallido subtus fulvo maculatis, angulo ani fulvo puncto nigro.

Abbot. Ins. Amer. t. 1.

Papilio Troilus. P. alis caudatis nigris; primoribus punctis marginalibus pallidis; posticis subtus maculis fulvis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 746.

Georgiam et Virginiam in America Septentrionali incolit Papilio Troilus. Larva foeniculi rutæque folia depascitur.

v

 

r

TROILUS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ commonly thickening towards the end into a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with black tailed wings marked by marginal yellow spots; the lower pair by an interjected blue band and ocellated fulvous spot.

Papilio Troilus.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Drury Ins. pl. 11. f. 2. 3. 5.

Abbot Ins. Amer. pl. 1.

The Butterfly represented on the present plate is an inhabitant of Georgia and Virginia, where its caterpillar feeds on the leaves of fennel and rue.

v

 

1002

Salient Mackrel

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

SCOMBER SALIENS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus oblongum, læve, linea laterali interdum carinatum.

Pinnulæ sæpius supra infraque versus caudam.

Character Specificus, &c.

Scomber argenteus, dorso viridi-cæruleo, spinis quatuor armato, pinnulis supra infraque octo.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 585.

Scomber saliens. S. aculeis quatuor dorsalibus distinctis.

Bloch. ichth. t. 335.

Maria incolit Americana Scomber saliens, magni­tudine quasi Scombri communis Europæi.

v

 

r

the
SALIENT MACKREL.

Generic Character.

Body oblong, smooth; sometimes carinated by the lateral line.

Finlets (in most species) above and below towards the tail.

Specific Character, &c.

Silvery Mackrel, with blue-green back armed with four spines, and eight pinnules above and below.

Le Sauteur.

Bloch ichth. pl. 335.

This species is an inhabitant of the American seas, and is of the size of the common European Mackrel.

v

 

1005

Harlequin Duck

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

K

ANAS HISTRIONICA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum lamelloso-dentatum, convexum, obtusum.

Lingua ciliata, obtusa.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Anas subnigra, pectore dorsoque griseo-cæruleis, capite albo ferrugineoque striato, collari fasciaque pectorali albis.

Anas fusca albo cæruleoque varia, auribus, temporibus linea gemina, collari fasciaque pectorali albis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Lath. ind. orn.

Americam septentrionalem præcipue incolit Anas histri­onica; in Europæ partibus borealibus interdum conspecta. Magnitudo ejus est quasi Anatis vulgaris Europæa sive Boschadis Linnæi. Femina mare minor colore fere toto fusco, macula tantum auriculari alba differt.

v

 

K2

the
HARLEQUIN DUCK.

Generic Character.

Bill broad and flattened; the edges marked with sharp lamellæ.

Tongue broad, and ciliated at the edges.

Specific Character, &c.

Blackish Duck, with grey-blue breast and back, head striped with white and ferruginous, neck marked by a white collar, and the breast on each side by a white bar.

Harlequin Duck.

Lath. Syn.

Dusky and spotted Duck.

Edw. pl. 99.

The Harlequin Duck is principally an inhabitant of North America, but is sometimes seen in the North of Europe. Its size is nearly that of the Common European Duck. The female, which is smaller than the male, differs in being almost entirely brown, with a white spot on each side the head.

v

 

1006

Archippus Butterfly

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

r

PAPILIO ARCHIPPUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes. (Volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Papilio (Danaus) alis repandis fulvis, venis margineque albo-punctato nigris; primoribus apice maculis fulvis.

Abbot. Ins. Amer. t. 6.

P. Archippus.

Fabr. ent. emend. 4. p. 49.

P. Plexippus.

Cramer, t. 206. f. E. F.

Virginiam et Carolinam incolit Papilio Archippus, cujus larva folia Asclepiadis Curassavicæ præcipue depascitur.

v

 

r

ARCHIPPUS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and generally terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with fulvous wings marked by black veins, and by a black border spotted with white, with a few fulvous spots at the tips of the upper pair.

Papilio Archippus.

Fabr. ent. emend. 4. p. 49.

This elegant insect is a native of Virginia and Carolina. The caterpillar feeds chiefly on the leaves of the Asclepias Curassavica.

v

 

1007

Yellow-Striped Sciæna

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

SCIÆNA FORMOSA.

Character Genericus.

Caput squamosum.

Pinnæ dorsales duæ, in fossula recondendæ.

Membr. branch. radiis sex.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sciæna? cærulea lineis numerosis longi­tudinalibus luteis.

Perca cauda rotundata, spinis dorsalibus novem, corpore oblongo vittato, aculeis tribus ad marginem operculi posterioris.

Russ. Pisc. Ind. t. 129.

Ráhtee Bontoo.

Maria incolit Indica Sciæna formosa, magni­tudine quasi percæ communis sive fluviatilis Linnæi.

v

 

r

the
YELLOW-STRIPED SCIÆNA.

Generic Character.

Head scaly.

Dorsal fins two, seated in a furrow, into which they may occasionally be withdrawn.

Gill-Membrane six-rayed.

Specific Character, &c.

Blue Sciæna? marked by numerous longitudinal deep-yellow stripes.

Rahtee Bontoo.

Russell’s Indian Fishes, pl. 29.

This fish is an inhabitant of the Indian seas, and is nearly of the size of the common European Perch.

v

 

1008

Operculated Sertularia

Drawn Engraved & Published by Richd P. Nodder.

Notes

r

SERTULARIA OPERCULATA.

Character Genericus.

Animal crescens plantæ habitu.

Stirps emittens e cellulis vel denticulis calyciformibus hydras.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sertularia denticulis oppositis mucronatis erecti­usculis, ovariis obovatis operculatis, ramis alternis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Soland. et Ell. Zooph.

Corallina muscosa denticulata procumbens, caule tenuissimo, denticellis ex adverso sitis.

Ell. corall. p. 8. t. 3.

Ray syn. p. 36. No. 13.

Circa litora Britannica satis frequens conspicitur Sertularia operculata, rupibus, ostrearum testis, aliisque marinis adhærens.

v

 

r

the
OPERCULATED SERTULARIA.

Generic Character.

Animal growing with the appearance of a plant.

Stem emitting Polypes from calycular cells or denticles.

Specific Character, &c.

Sertularia with opposite suberect mucronated denti­culations, obovate operculated ovaries, and alternate branches.

Sea-Hair.

Ell. corall. p. 8. pl. 3.

The present species of Sertularia is by no means uncommon on several of the British coasts, adhering to rocks, oyster shells, and other marine substances.

v

 

1009

Chesnut Jacana

RN

Notes

L

PARRA JACANA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum acutum, ad apicem tumidiusculum, basi carunculatum.

Nares subovatæ in medio rostri.

Alulæ spinosæ.

Pedes tetradactyli, fissi; digitis et unguibus rectis, longissimis.

Lath. ind. orn.

Character Specificus, &c.

Parra castaneo-purpurea, capite colloque nigris, remigibus olivaceo-viridibus.

Parra Jacana. P. unguibus posticis longissimis, pedibus viridescentibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Varias Americæ meridionalis regiones incolit Parra Jacana, magni­tudine quasi Tringæ Vanelli.

v

 

L2

the
CHESNUT JACANA.

Generic Character.

Bill sharp, carunculated at the base, and rather tumid at the tip.

Nostrils subovate, situated in the middle of the bill.

Alulets spined.

Feet with very long toes and claws.

Specific Character, &c.

Purple-chesnut Jacana, with black head and neck, and olive-green quill-feathers.

Spur-winged Water-Hen.

Edw. pl. 357.

Le Jacana.

Buff. ois. 8. pl. 16.

Pl. Enl. 322.

Chesnut Jacana.

Lath. syn. 3. p. 241.

This bird is a native of several parts of South America, and is about the size of a Common Lapwing.

v

 

1011

Seven-Clawed Strombus

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

STROMBUS LAMBIS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, latere ampliata.

Apertura labro sæpius dilatato, desinens in canalem sinistrum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1207.

Character Specificus, &c.

Strombus testa albida fusco varia, labro heptadactylo, digitis rectiusculis, fauce lævi subrosea.

Strombus Lambis. S. testæ labro heptadactylo, digitis rectiusculis, fauce lævi.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1208.

Lambis.

Argenville conch. t. 17. f. F.

Cornuta.

Rumph. mus. t. 35. f. E. F.

Maria incolit Indica Strombus Lambis, interdum major quam in tabula depingitur.

v

 

r

the
SEVEN-CLAWED STROMBUS.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax.

Shell univalve, spiral, enlarged on one side.

Aperture generally with a dilated lip, ending in a channel towards the left.

Specific Character, &c.

Strombus with whitish shell varied with brown, seven-clawed lip with straitish claws, and smooth subrosaceous mouth.

Martini 3. pl. 86. f. 855.

Seba 3. pl. 82. f. 2. 3. 5. 16. 17. 20.

Knorr Vergn. 5. t. 4. f. 3.

This shell is a native of the Indian seas, and sometimes arrives at a larger size than repre­sented on the plate.

v

 

1010

Philenor Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO PHILENOR.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes. (Volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Papilio alis caudatis nigris; posticis virescenti-nitidis; subtus maculis septem rubris subocellaribus, basi puncto lutescente.

Smith, Abbot Ins. Amer. t. 3.

Pap. Astenous.

Drury Ins. 1. t. 11. f. 1. 4.

Cramer, t. 208. f. A. B.

Pap. Philenor.

Lin. Mantiss. p. 535.

Virginiam incolit Papilio Philenor, cujus larva folia Aristolochiæ Serpentaria dictæ depascitur.

v

 

r

PHILENOR.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and generally terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with black, tailed wings; the lower pair glossed with green, and marked beneath with seven subocellated red spots, and a yellowish spot at the base.

Philenor.

Abbot’s Amer. Ins. pl. 3.

The present species is a native of Virginia. Its caterpillar feeds on the leaves of the Aristolochia Serpentaria, or Virginian Snakeroot.

v

 

1012

Cochinchina Lophius

Notes

r

LOPHIUS COCINSINENSIS.

Character Genericus.

Caput depressum.

Dentes plurimi, acuti. Lingua dentibus armata.

Corpus crassum.

Pinnæ pectorales brachiatæ.

Character Specificus.

Lophius subflavescens fusco varius, ore cirroso, pinnis pectoralibus elongatis.

In maribus Indicis generatur Lophius cujus naturalem magni­tudinem ostendit tabula. Detectus est prope sinum Turon in ora Cocinsinensi: adhæserat enim carni salitæ, nautis, sicut mos est, ad quoddam tempus in undis demersæ.

Viventem hunc Lophium delineavit vir ingeniosus Gulielmus Alexander, unus e curatoribus Musei Britan­nici, quique Dominum Dominum Macartney in itinere Sinensi comitatus est. Istius ad archetypi similitudinem iconem nostram depingi curavimus.

v

 

r

the
COCHINCHINA LOPHIUS.

Generic Character.

Head depressed.

Teeth numerous, sharp: tongue armed with teeth.

Body thick.

Pectoral fins brachiated.

Specific Character.

Pale yellowish Lophius, with brown variegations, cirrated mouth, and elongated pectoral fins.

The species of Lophius here represented in its natural size, and which appears to be an inhabitant of the Indian seas, was observed near the bay of Turon, on the coast of Cochinchina, adhering to a piece of salted meat, which, according to the usual custom of sailors, had been lowered for some time in the water.

The specimen figured on the annexed plate, is copied from the original drawing of the ingenious Mr. Alexander of the British Museum, who accompanied the voyage of Lord Macartney to China.

v

 

1013

Australasian Thrush

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

M

TURDUS AUSTRALASIÆ.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum tereti-cultratum, mandibula superiore apice deflexo, emarginato.

Nares nudæ, superne membranula semitectæ.

Faux ciliata.

Lingua lacero-emarginata.

Character Specificus, &c.

Turdus flavus, gula pectore alis caudaque nigris.

Le Merle jaune huppé.

Levaill. Ois. Afr. t. 117.

Australasiam incolit hæc avis, magnitudine quasi turdi majoris vulgaris sive viscivori Linnæi.

v

 

M2

AUSTRALASIAN THRUSH.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, obtusely carinated at the top, bending a little at the point, and slightly notched near the end of the upper mandible.

Nostrils oval and naked.

Tongue slightly jagged at the end.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellow Thrush, with black throat, breast, wings, and tail.

Le Merle jaune huppé.

Levaill. Ois. Afr. pl. 117.

This bird is a native of Australasia, and is about the size of the common great or Missel Thrush.

v

 

1014

Large Emerald Moth

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

PHALÆNA PAPILIONARIA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ. (Volatu nocturno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Phalæna (geometra) pectinicornis, alis omnibus viridibus subrepandis, striga sesquialtera pallida.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Roes. 4. t. 18. f. 3.

Folia betulæ et genistæ præcipue depascitur larva elegantis hujus insecti. In chrysalidem mense Junio convertitur, e qua mense Julio erumpit ipsa phalæna.

v

 

r

the
LARGE EMERALD MOTH.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, decreasing in size from base to point.

Wings (when at rest) generally deflected. Flight nocturnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Moth with expanded slightly-dentated green wings, marked by a narrow undulated whitish bar, and the upper pair near the thorax by a smaller secondary bar.

Roes. Ins. 4. pl. 18.

Harris Exp. Engl. Ins. pl. 13. f. 1.?

Fuessli Arch. Ins. pl. 9.

The Caterpillar of this elegant insect feeds principally on the leaves of Birch and Broom; changing to a chrysalis in the month of June, from which in July proceeds the Moth.

v

 

1015

Winged Muscle

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

MYTILUS HIRUNDO.
Var.?

Character Genericus.

Animal Ascidia?

Testa bivalvis, rudis, sæpius affixa bysso, ut plurimum crassiori.

Cardo (in plurimis) edentulus, distinctus, (paucis exceptis) linea subulata excavata longi­tudinali.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

Character Specificus, &c.

Mytilus Hirundo. M. testa lævi, valvulis bilobis, lobo cardinali longiore tenuioreque.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1159.

Avicula.

Rumph. Mus. t. 46. f. G.

Argenv. Conch. t. 22. f. B.

Var. M. Hirundo intus rufescens, extremitate nigra.

Knorr. Vergn. 6. t. 2.

E maribus Indicis extrahitur rara hæc testa, interdum major quam in tabula depingitur.

v

 

r

the
WINGED MUSCLE.
Var.?

Generic Character.

Animal allied to an Ascidia.

Shell bivalve, in some species fastened by a kind of silk or byssus.

Hinge, in most species, toothless.

Specific Character, &c.

Muscle with smooth shell, bilobate valves, and lengthened cardinal lobe.

L’Oiseau.

Argenv. Conch. pl. 22. f. B.

Var. Winged Muscle rufous within, with black extre­mities.

The rare shell here represented is an inhabitant of the Indian seas, and is sometimes of larger size than expressed in the plate annexed.

v

 

1016

Dilated Coralline

Richd P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

CORALLINA DILATATA.

Character Genericus.

Animal? crescens habitu plantæ.

Stirps fixa rami articulati, ramulosi.

Character Specificus, &c.

Corallina ramosa dichotoma, articulis triangulo-dilatatis.

Cellaria Flabellum. C. lapidea articulata ramosa dichotoma, articulis subcuneiformibus uno latere cellulosis.

Soland. et Eliis Zooph. p. 28. t. 4. f. C.

Circa litora Americana præcipue conspicitur Corallina dilatata, altitudine tres vel quatuor uncias æquans.

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r

DILATED CORALLINE.

Generic Character.

Animal? growing in the form of a plant.

Stem fixed; branches jointed and subdivided.

Specific Character, &c.

Branched dichotomous Coralline, with triangularly-dilated joints.

Fan celliferous Coralline.

Soland. et Ellis Zooph. p. 28. pl. 4. f. C.

This species of Coralline is chiefly observed on the American coasts, where it rises to the height of three or four inches.

v

 

1017

Narrow-Crested Falcon

Richd P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

N

FALCO FASTOSUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum, basi cera instructum.

Caput pennis arcte tectum.

Lingua plerisque bifida.

Character Specificus, &c.

Falco fuscus, collo postico ferrugineo, subtus albidus nigro maculatus, vertice pennis lanceolatis cristato.

Falco ornatus?

Daudin av.

Falco superbus?

Gen. Zool. 7. p. 64.

Autour huppè.

Levaill. Ois. Afr. t. 26.

Americam meridionalem præcipue Cayanam incolit hac avis, magni­tudine Falconem palumbarium superans.

v

 

N2

the
NARROW-CRESTED FALCON.

Generic Character.

Beak hooked, furnished at the base with a cere.

Head well covered with feathers.

Tongue, in most species, bifid.

Specific Character, &c.

Brown Falcon, with the hind part of the neck ferru­ginous; beneath whitish, spotted with black; and the head crested with lanceolate feathers.

Autour huppè.

Levaill. Ois. Afr. pl. 26.

Superb Eagle?

Gen. Zool. 7. p. 64.

The present species of Falcon is a native of South America, and particularly of Cayenne. Its size is larger than that of the European Goshawk.

v

 

1018

Eubule Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO EUBULE.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes; (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Papilio alis integerrimis rotundatis luteis margine punctis nigris; subtus puncto gemino ferrugineo argenteo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 764.

Cramer. t. 120. f. E. F.

Edw. t. 304.

Abbot. Ins. Amer. t. 5.

Georgiam et Virginiam incolit Papilio Eubule, ubi larva ejus folia Cassiæ Chamæ-crista dictæ depascitur.

v

 

r

EUBULE.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and generally terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with entire, rounded, deep-yellow wings, marked along the margin with black specks, and beneath by a double ferruginous silvery spot.

Edw. pl. 304.

Cramer, pl. 120. f. E. F.

This Insect is an inhabitant of Georgia and Virginia, where its caterpillar feeds on the leaves of the dwarf Cassia.

v

 

1019

Undulated Labrus

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

LABRUS UNDULATUS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes robusti, subacuti; molares interdum, ut in Sparis, conferti, convexi: labia crassa, duplicata: pinnæ dorsalis radii, in certis speciebus, ramento elongati.

Opercula mutica, squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

Labrus viridis, capite abdomine pinnisque flavis viridi striatis.

Labrus viridis. L. aculeis dorsalibus octo.

Bloch ichth. 8. t. 282.

Labrus undulatus. L. viridis, lineis flavescentibus transversim undulatus, abdomine capiteque flavis viridi striatis.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 496.

E mari Japonico extrahitur Labrus undulatus, longi­tudine, ut plurimum, duodecim uncias æquans.

v

 

r

the
UNDULATED LABRUS.

Generic Character.

Teeth strong and subacute: the grinders sometimes, as in the Spari, convex and crouded: lips thick and doubled: rays of the dorsal fin, in some species, elongated into soft processes.

Gill-Covers unarmed and scaly.

Specific Character, &c.

Green Labrus, with the head, fins, and abdomen yellow striped with green.

Undulated Labrus. Green Labrus, undulated with transverse yellow lines, with the head and abdomen yellow striped with green.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 496.

Labrus viridis.

Bloch. 8. p. 104. pl. 282.

This elegant fish is taken in the Japonese sea, where it arrives at the length of about twelve inches.

v

 

1020

Lamp Murex

Richd P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

MUREX LAMPAS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, exasperata suturis membranaceis.

Apertura desinens in canalem integrum, rectum, seu subascendentem.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1213.

Character Specificus, &c.

Murex testa undique tuberculata ferruginea, fasciis transversis albidis, varicibus suboppositis, apertura subovata intus rufa.

Murex Lampas. M. testa varicibus suboppositis, gibbosa tuberibus longi­tudinaliter tuberculosis, apertura edentula.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1216.

Buccinum majus, &c.

Gualtieri, t. 50. f. D.

Buccinum tuberosum ore croceo.

Martini. 4. t. 128. f. 1236. 1237.

Le Sabot noueux.

Knorr. Vergn. 2. t. 28. f. 1.

Maria incolit Indica Murex Lampas, interdum multo major quam in tabula depingitur.

v

the
LAMP MUREX.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Limax or Slug.

Shell univalve, roughened by membranaceous sutures.

Aperture ending in a strait or subascending channel.

Specific Character, &c.

Murex with ferruginous shell tuberculated on all parts, with whitish transverse bands, nearly opposite protuberances, and subovate mouth rufous within.

Lister, tab. 1023.

Rumph. Mus. t. 28. C. D.

Argenv. Conch. pl. 9. D.

Martini 4. pl. 128. f. 1326. 1327.

This shell is an inhabitant of the Indian seas, and is sometimes found much larger than repre­sented on the present plate.

r

INDEX.

Pl.
983. Aranea Occidua.
1005. Anas histrionica.
995. Argonauta tuberculatus.
976. Conus gloria maris.
1000. Cyprinus Carpio var.
1016. Corallina dilatata.
1017. Falco fastosus.
986. Holocentrus auratus.
1019. Labrus undulatus.
1012. Lophius Cocinsinensis.
1004. Madrepora abdita.
973. Motacilla diophrys.
1020. Murex Lampas.
1015. Mytilus Hirundo var.
978. Ostrea Islandica.
987. —— var.
992. Ostrea varia.
981. Promerops superbus.
985. —— cæruleus.
991. Papilio Pyretus.
1003. —— Troilus.
1006. —— Archippus.
1010. —— Philenor.
1018. —— Eubule.
996. Phalæna oculatissima.
998. —— Proserpina.
1014. —— papilionaria.
1009. Parra Jacana.
993. Paradisea Gularis.
1001. Psittacus Paradisi.
984. Rana ignea.
999. —— mephitica.
974. Scarabæus micans.
990. Sciæna unimaculata.
1007. —— formosa.
1008. Sertularia operculata.
975. Sparus Juba.
979. —— chloropterus.
994. —— erythrourus.
1002. Scomber saliens.
982. —— maculosus.
980. Sphinx Crantor.
988. —— Elpenor.
989. Strix Africana.
1011. Strombus Lambis.
997. Sylvia minuta.
1013. Turdus Australasiæ.
977. Trochilus auritus.

INDEX.

Pl.
995. Argonaut tuberculated.
974. Beetle shining.
991. Butterfly Pyretus.
1003. —— Troilus.
1006. —— Archippus.
1010. —— Philenor.
1018. —— Eubule.
1000. Carp common var.
976. Cone nonpareil.
1016. Coralline dilated.
1005. Duck Harlequin.
1017. Falcon narrow-crested.
984. Frog fire.
986. Holocentrus golden.
977. Humming Bird violet-eared.
1009. Jacana Chesnut.
1019. Labrus undulated.
1012. Lophius Cochinchina.
1004. Madrepore narrow-gilled.
982. Mackrel mottled.
1002. —— salient.
998. Moth Proserpine.
996. —— Great Leopard Ermine.
1014. —— Large Emerald.
1020. Murex Lamp.
1015. Muscle winged var.
989. Owl African.
993. Paradise-Bird Gorget.
1001. Parrot Paradise.
981. Promerops superb.
985. Promerops blue.
975. Sparus Juba.
979. —— green-finned.
978. Scallop Iceland.
987. —— —— var.
992. —— variegated.
980. Sphinx Crantor.
988. —— Elpenor.
990. Sciæna single-spotted.
1007. —— yellow-striped.
1008. Sertularia operculated.
994. Sparus red-tailed.
983. Spider Western.
1011. Strombus seven-clawed.
1013. Thrush Australasian.
999. Toad mephitic.
973. Warbler double-streaked.
997. —— minute.

London: Printed by B. M‘Millan,
Bow Street, Covent Garden.

Notes and Corrections: Volume 23

Volume 23 of the Naturalist’s Miscellany was published in twelve monthly installments, conjecturally from September 1811 through August 1812. It is “conjecturally” because there has not been a full month-and-year date since the third installment of Volume 13 (November 1801), and no date at all since “1810” in the tenth installment of Volume 21 (June, with any luck). In the present volume, the only visible date is “1812” (April, one hopes) in installment 8.

Each installment is 16 pages.

[B]; C; D; E; F (January 1812); G; H; I; K; L; M; N

This volume had more than its share of problems.

First: Volume 23 ties with Volume 18 in having the largest number of binomials I wasn’t able to identify even tentatively: six out of a total of 48.

Second: There were an unusual number of plate-numbering or -positioning problems:

Plate 983 comes before 982, 987 before 986, and 1011 before 1010; plates 1004-1003-1002 are in that order.

Plate 989—the first plate in installment 5—was misnumbered 992, and was indexed accordingly.

Plates 992-994—the last plate in installment 5 and the first two plates in installment 6—were indexed as 993-995, followed by the “real” Plate 995.

Third: In preparing the ebook for this volume, a total of sixteen plates—979, 983, 996, 999-1001 (inclusive), 1004, 1006-1011 (inclusive), 1013, 1015, 1018—were drawn from a different scanned source. They may not match the rest of the book in size or coloring.

And finally: Almost everywhere in the volume, French words are printed with è (e-grave) where é (e-acute) might be expected.

Motacilla Diophrys, the Double-Streaked Warbler

Unidentified. It has been identified with M. ciliata, though this gets us no further.

Scarabæus Micans, the Shining Beetle

is probably Dicronorrhina micans. It lives in central Africa.

Sparus Juba, the Juba Sparus

Unidentified, even with three genera to choose from. Genus Guatucupa doesn’t seem ever to have been recognized; today the name shows up only in the later binomial Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830).

Conus Gloria Maris, the Nonpareil Cone

is now written Conus gloriamaris, the Glory-of-the-Sea cone. It lives mainly in the Philippines.

That’s assuming Shaw is talking about Chemnitz’s C. gloriamaris from 1777. There is also Perry’s gastropod of the same name from 1810, later synonymized with Linnaeus’s Conus textile, the cloth-of-gold cone. That one lives in the Indian Ocean and the south Pacific.

Trochilus Auritus, the Violet-Eared Humming-Bird

is now Heliothryx auritus, the black-eared fairy. It lives in South America.

Ostrea Islandica, the Icelandic Scallop

is probably Chlamys islandica (originally not Ostrea but Pecten islandica). It lives in the Arctic, north Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

Sparus Chloropterus, the Green-Finned Sparus

is now Halichoeres chloropterus, the black-blotched rainbowfish. It ranges from Indonesia to northern Australia.

Sphinx Crantor, the Crantor (sphinx)

may be Eumorpha achemon (by way of Sphinx achemon), the achemon sphinx. If so, it lives in North America.

Promerops Superbus, the Superb Promerops

may be Epimachus fastosus, the black sicklebill. If so, it lives in New Guinea.

Grand Promerops à paremens frisès . . . . Aud. & Viell. Ois. dorès.
[Text unchanged; expected é (acute accent) both times.]

Paradise-Birds themselves, of which it has sometimes been errone­ously considered as a species
[If the Epimachus attribution is correct, it is in the Paradisaeidae family.]

Aranea Occidua, the Western Spider

Unidentified. But since it was pictured by Madam Merian, we can be confident that it did exist—whatever it was.

By this point in the Miscellany, it is attention-catching when an article runs to a second page in both English and Latin.

In primo volumine Amænitatum Academicarum . . . . the first volume of the Amænitates Academicæ of Linnæus
[Spelling unchanged; it’s really Amœnitates or, if you prefer, Amoeni­tates.]

one single species, viz. the Aranea avicularia of Linnæus
[A few years later, Lamarck would put Linnaeus’s Aranea avicularia at the head of its own genus, making it Avicularia avicularia and opening the door to dozens of new species. One of them, you will be pleased to hear, is Avicularia merianae, named in 2017.]

Scomber Maculosus, the Mottled Mackrel

is now Scomberomorus commerson (by way of Scomber commerson), the barred mackerel, because Lacépède got there first. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Gen Zool. 4. p. 577.
[Did Shaw misplace his copy of the Systema Naturae, or did he decide that he could do better than Linnaeus? In early volumes of the Miscel­lany, the description of genus Scomber was consistently taken from “Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 492”; later on the wording becomes arbitrary, and there is often no attribution.]

Rana Ignea, the Fire Frog

If we follow the lead of Roesel, who said it was a toad (Bufo igneus), it is now Bombina bombina (by way of Linnaeus’s Rana bombina), the fire-bellied toad. Its range extends from eastern Europe into central Asia.

Promerops Cæruleus, the Blue Promerops

Unidentified. One mid-19th-century source declares flatly “a fictitious bird”. The name Upupa indica, meanwhile, is cited surprisingly often for a bird which also doesn’t appear to exist.

Ostrea Islandica, the Icelandic Scallop

See notes to Plate 978, above (installment 2 of this volume).

Holocentrus Auratus, the Golden Holocentrus

is now Cephalopholis fulva (by way of Labrus fulvus), the black guativere. It lives in the Caribbean and along the Atlantic coast of South America.

Sphinx Elpenor, the Elpenor (sphinx)

is now Deilephila elpenor, the elephant hawk. It is most common in Europe.

[Plate 988]
[This marks a second calendar year in which I haven’t seen a single date. We’ll call it December 1811.]

Strix Africana, the African Owl

may be Strix woodfordii (sometimes called Ciccaba woodfordii), the African wood owl. If so, it lives in subsaharan Africa. It can’t be Temminck’s S. africana (now Bubo africanus); that wasn’t named until 1821.

[Plate 989]
[The plate is engraved and indexed as 992. I’ve changed it to avoid duplication; the number 992 properly belongs to the last plate in this installment.]

Sciæna Unimaculata, the Single-Spotted Sciæna

If it is the same fish as Bloch’s Perca unimaculata, it is now Archosargus rhomboidalis (by way of Perca rhomboidalis), the brim. It lives in the Caribbean and along the Atlantic coast of South America.

a native of the Brasilian seas, occasionally entering rivers
[WoRMS labels it as both “marine” and “brackish”.]

Papilio Pyretus, the Pyretus (butterfly)

is now Ancyluris meliboeus. (by way of Papilio meliboeus). It lives in South America.

Ostrea Varia, the Variegated Scallop

is now Mimachlamys varia. It lives mainly around the coasts of Europe.

Paradisea Gularis, the Gorget Paradise-Bird

may be Astrapia nigra (by way of Paradisaea nigra), the arfak astrapia. It lives in New Guinea.

[Plate 993] R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt. 34 Tavistock St. Covent Garden.
[Thank you, Richard. That’s very helpful. But what I really want to know is what year and month it is.]

Le hausse-col dorè.
spelling unchanged: expected doré
[Did the printer’s cat spill the é (e-acute) bin?]

Sparus Erythrourus, the Red-Tailed Sparus

is now Gerres erythrourus, the blue-backed silver biddy. Its range extends from South and Southeast Asia to northern Australia.

Argonauta Tuberculatus, the Tuberculated Argonaut

If he means Röding’s A. tuberculatus, it is now Argonauta nodosus. It is scattered across most of the southern hemisphere.

Phalæna Oculatissima, the Great Leopard Ermine Moth

may be Hypercompe scribonia (by way of Phalaena scribonia), the giant leopard moth. It lives in the eastern half of North America.

Sylvia Minuta, the Minute Warbler

is probably Anthoscopus minutus, the Cape or Southern penduline tit, with naming credit to Shaw. It lives in southern Africa.

Phalæna Proserpina, the Proserpina (moth)

If it is the same moth as Drury’s Phalaena maja, it is now Hemileuca maia, the eastern buckmoth. It lives in the eastern half of the United States.

Abbot’s N. Amer. insects, pl. 50.
text has Abbots’

Rana Mephitica, the Mephitic Toad

is now Epidalea calamita (by way of Bufo calamita), the natterjack toad. It lives mostly in continental Europe. Before settling on its current binomial, alternatives included Rana fetidissima, R. portentosa and Bufo cruciata, suggesting that this was never a well-liked batrachian.

somewhat resembling that of a mixture of garlick and gunpowder
[This comparison raises a great many questions.]

The toad called in our own country
[Paragraph break added to agree with Latin side.]

Cyprinus Carpio, the Common Carp (large-scaled variety)

is formally the Aischgrund carp. There are many subspecies, but macro­lepidotus doesn’t seem to be one of them. Thanks to widespread intro­duction, it now lives all over the world, especially in urbanized countries.

Character Specificus, &c.
[Initial C invisible.]

Psittacus Paradisi, the Paradise Parrot

Unidentified. The Miscellany does not have a very strong record when it comes to assigning birds to their proper place of origin. But for what it’s worth, the two parrots associated with Cuba are the Cuban Amazon, Amazona leucocephala leucocephala, and the Cuban parakeet, Aratinga euops. Both are mostly green.

Perroquet jaune ecaillè de rouge.
spelling unchanged: expected ecaillé

Madrepora Abdita, the Narrow-Gilled Madrepore

is now Favites abdita, the larger star coral. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

[Plate 1004] Drawn, Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder. 1812
[Well. Haven’t seen that format in a while. If things have been going according to plan, it is now April.]

Papilio Troilus, the Troilus (butterfly)

is also known as the spicebush swallowtail. It lives in the eastern half of the United States.

Georgia and Virginia
[These happen to be the two places John Abbot lived—first Virginia, later Georgia. He may have been scrupulous about recording only things he had personally seen, and the places where he had personally seen them.]

Scomber Saliens, the Salient Mackrel

is now Oligoplites saliens, the castin leatherjack. It is mainly found along the Atlantic coast of South America.

Anas Histrionica, the Harlequin Duck

is now Histrionicus histrionicus. (How I wish it were called the histrionic duck, or perhaps the drama duck. But one can’t have everything.) It lives in east Asia, North America and to a lesser extent northern Europe.

Papilio Archippus, the Archippus (butterfly)

is probably Limenitie archippus, the viceroy. It is found in all but the westernmost parts of North America.

generally terminating in a clavated tip
text has ge-/gerally at line break

Sciæna Formosa, the Yellow-Striped Sciæna

is now Cephalopholis formosa, the blue-lined coral cod, with naming credit to Shaw. It lives along the coast of South and Southeast Asia.

Maria incolit Indica Sciæna formosa
text has Siæna
[Shaw has been using the same printer—a very good one—since at least Volume 16. Is his health affecting his handwriting, or perhaps interfering with his proof­reading?]

Rahtee Bontoo.
[I don’t know about “rahtee”, but GBIF says its name in Telugu is bontoo.]

Sertularia Operculata, the Operculated Sertularia

is now Amphisbetia operculata. It has an unusual distribution: all around the British Isles—and also at the southern tips of Africa, Australia, and Africa.

Parra Jacana, the Chesnut Jacana

is probably Jacana jacana, the wattled jacana. It is found in most of South America, extending into Central America.

Strombus Lambis, the Seven-Clawed Strombus

is now Lambis lambis, the common spider conch. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Papilio Philenor, the Philenor (butterfly)

is now Battus philenor, the blue swallowtail. It is found in most of the United States and Mexico.

Lophius Cocinsinensis, the Cochinchina Lophius

is now Histrio histrio (by way of Lophius histrio), the frogfish. It lives along most tropical-to-temperate coasts, especially the Atlantic and Caribbean. This is at least the second, if not the third, time we have met this species. Lophius histrio by that name was at Plate 245 of Volume 7; there was also Lophius Marmoratus at Plate 176 of Volume 5, which might be a H. histrio variant.

Dominum Dominum Macartney
[Duplication (at mid-line) in the original. Is this a mistake, or Shaw’s way of distinguishing between a mere Esquire and a full-fledged Lord? In the final volume, Baron Sack has to settle for a single Dominus.]

The specimen figured on the annexed plate
[Line break added to agree with Latin.]

the ingenious Mr. Alexander of the British Museum
text has Alex-/der at line break

Turdus Australasiæ, the Australasian thrush

Unidentified. I doubt he meant Turdus australis (Sparrman 1788), now Petroica australis, the New Zealand robin.

Le Merle jaune huppé.
[Hurrah! The typesetter found his acute accents again.]

Phalæna Papilionaria, the Large Emerald Moth

is now Geometra papilionaria. It lives mostly in Europe.

Mytilus Hirundo, the Winged Muscle

is now Pteria hirundo, the European wing shell. In addition to Europe, it is found along the Atlantic coast of South America.

lobo cardinali longiore tenuioreque.
text has tenuio-reque at mid-line
[The printer originally meant to split the word, and then found he could squeeze it into a single line, but forgot to remove the hyphen.]

Corallina Dilatata, the Dilated Coralline

If it is the same as Ellis & Solander’s Cellaria flabellum, it is probably Menipea flabellum. That makes it a bryozoan, which is to say an animal. If it were a coralline, it would be a plant.

CORALLINA DILATATA.
text has CORRALINA

Falco Fastosus, the Narrow-Crested Falcon

If it is the same as Daudin’s F. ornatus, it is probably Spizaetus ornatus, the ornate hawk-eagle. It lives in South and Central America.

Autour huppè.
spelling unchanged
[Darn. It was nice while it lasted.]

Papilio Eubule, the Eubule (butterfly)

is now Phoebis sennae (by way of Papilio sennae), the cloudless giant sulphur. It lives mainly in North and Central America, extending into South America. Both binomials originated with Linnaeus; did he change his mind, or did he think they were two different butterflies?

Labrus Undulatus, the Undulated Labrus

If it is the same fish as Bloch’s L. viridis, it is now Thalassoma lunare (by way of Linnaeus’s Labrus lunaris), the blue wrasse. It is pretty widely distributed around Asia and Australia. Linnaeus’s L. viridis is an entirely different fish, the green wrasse; it lives mainly in the Mediterranean.

Murex Lampas, the Lamp Murex

is now Charonia lampas, the knobbed triton. It is found on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Eurasia, and the south coast of Australia, though it doesn’t seem to like the Indian ocean.

Index

Plate 989 was engraved and indexed as 992. Plates 992-994 were correctly engraved, but indexed as 993-995. As a result, there are two printed plates 992, two indexed plates 995, and no plate 989. To avoid duplication, I have corrected all four numbers in the Index.

There are also a number of simple typographical errors. All but one are on the Latin side, to be dutifully replicated in next year’s General Index.

Latin

1000.   Cyprinus Carpio var.
text has 100

992.   Ostrea varia.
text has 993

993.   Paradisea Gularis.
text has 994

1008.   Sertularia operculata.
text has Serrularia

975.   Sparus Juba.
text has Sparas
[This misspelling will lead to further complications in the General Index.]

994.   [Sparus] erythrourus.
text has 995

989.   Strix Africana.
text has 992

1013.   Turdus Australasiæ.
text has 1113

English

989.   Owl African.
text has 992

993.   Paradise-Bird Gorget.
text has 994

992.   [Scallop] variegated.
text has 993

988.   [Sphinx] Elpenor.
text has 938

994.   Sparus red-tailed.
text has 995

The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.