Naturalist’s Miscellany

The Naturalist’s Miscellany
by George Shaw
Volume 24

v

VIRO ORNATISSIMO

SAMUELI GOODENOUGH,

EPISCOPO CARLIOLENSI,

hunc
VICESIMUM QUARTUM

NATURÆ VIVARII

FASCICULUM

d. d. d.
GEORGIUS SHAW,
E. NODDER.

r

to

THE RIGHT REVEREND

SAMUEL GOODENOUGH,

LORD BISHOP OF CARLISLE.

THIS TWENTY-FOURTH VOLUME
of the

NATURALIST’S MISCELLANY

IS RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED

by
GEORGE SHAW,
E. NODDER.

v

 

N. B. The reader is requested to correct an error in the Dedication-Page of this Volume, in which the word Carliensi is printed for Carliolensi.

1021

Superb Paradise-Bird

Richd P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

PARADISEA SUPERBA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum capistri plumis tomentosis tectum.

Pennæ hypochondriorum plerisque longiores.

Pedes validi, ambulatorii.

Character Specificus, &c.

Paradisea nigra, corpore utrinque fasciculo aliformi, pennis pectoralibus splendide virentibus, utrinque elongato-divergentibus.

Gen. Zool. 7. p. 404.

Paradisea superba. P. fronte cristata, capite cervice abdomineque viridibus, gula violacea sericea, cauda mediocri cærulescenti-atra.

Lath. ind. orn.

Insulas Moluccenses incolit Paradisea superba. Elegan­tissimam hujus avis iconem publicavit Dominus Levail­lant, in splendido suo opere de Paradiseis. Juxta illam effigiem fideliter delineata est hæc nostra simili­tudo. Vera avis magni­tudo est quasi turdi vulgaris sive musici.

v

the
SUPERB PARADISE-BIRD.

Generic Character.

Bill covered at the base by velvet-like plumes.

Side-Feathers beneath the wings, in most species, extending far beyond the rest of the plumage.

Legs strong; feet formed for walking.

Specific Character, &c.

Black Paradise-Bird, with a wing-like set of feathers on each side of the body, and bright-green pectoral plumes diverging and lengthened on each side.

Gen. Zool. 7. p. 404.

Le Manucode dit le Superbe.

Sonner. voy. p. 157. pl. 96.

Le Manucode noir de la Nouvelle Guinée dit le Superbe.

Buff. ois. Pl. Eul. 632.

Le Superbe.

Viellot Parad.

Levaill. Parad.

The Superb Paradise-Bird is a native of the Molucca islands. It has been figured with peculiar elegance in the splendid publication of Mons. Levaillant on the genus Paradisea; and the representation here given is a faithful copy. The size of the bird equals that of a common Thrush.

1022

Tulip Murex

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

MUREX TULIPA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, spiralis, exasperata suturis membra­naceis.

Apertura desinens in canalem integrum, rectum, seu subascendentem.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1213.

Character Specificus, &c.

Murex testa ventricosa oblonga lævi albida, fasciis longi­tudinalibus fulvis, anfractibus rotundatis, sutura geminata.

Murex Tulipa. M. testa ventricosa oblonga lævi, anfractibus rotundatis sutura geminata, apertura uniplicata, cauda patula striata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1223.

Maria Indica et Americana incolit Murex Tulipa, sæpius major specimine quod in tabula monstratur.

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the
TULIP MUREX.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Limax or Slug.

Shell univalve, roughened by membranaceous sutures.

Aperture ending in a strait or subascending channel.

Specific Character, &c.

Murex with ventricose oblong smooth whitish shell, with longi­tudinal fulvous bands, rounded whirls, and double suture.

The Tulip Murex.

La Tulipe.

Argenv. pl. 10. f. K.

Die Achatbirne.

Martini 4. f. 1286-1291.

The Tulip Murex is an inhabitant of the Indian and American seas, and is frequently much larger than the specimen exhibited on the present plate.

1023

Abilgardian Sparus

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

SPARUS ABILGARDI.

Character Genericus.

Dentes validi: primores ordine simplici, duplici, triplici, vel quad­ruplici dispositi.

Molares (plerisque) validi, convexi, læves, in series dispositi, et quasi pavimentum in ore effor­mantes.

Labia crassa; opercula mutica, squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sparus albidus dorso subfusco, squamis magnis hexagonis.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 412.

Sparus Abilgardi. S. squamis hexagonis.

Bloch. ichth. 8. p. 19. t. 259.

In mari Americano præcipue repertus hic piscis in longi­tudinem sesquipedalem vel bipedalem crescit.

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the
ABILGARDIAN SPARUS.

Generic Character.

Teeth strong: front-teeth in some species disposed in a single row, in others in a double, treble, or quad­ruple row.

Grinders (in most species) convex, smooth, and forming a kind of pavement in the mouth.

Lips thick: gill-covers unarmed, scaly.

Specific Character, &c.

Whitish Sparus, with dusky back, and large hexagonal scales.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 412.

Sparus Abilgardi.

Bloch. pl. 259.

This fish is principally observed in the American seas, and grows to the length of eighteen inches or two feet.

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1024

Ajax Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO AJAX.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes. (Volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Papilio alis caudatis concoloribus flavescentibus, fasciis nigris geminatis; posticis subtus striga diffracta anguloque ani sanguineis.

Smith. Abbot Ins. Amer. t. 4.

Papilio Ajax. P. alis obtuse caudatis concoloribus fuscis; fasciis flavescentibus, angulo ani fulvo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 750.

Georgiam et Virginiam incolit Papilio Ajax, cujus larva Annonæ palustris folia præcipue depascitur.

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AJAX.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and generally terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with yellowish-white tailed wings, marked in a similar manner on both surfaces with double black bands; the lower pair marked beneath and at the inner tips by a broken red stripe.

The Black-Barred Swallow-Tail Butterfly.

Abbot’s N. American Insects, pl. 4.

P. Marcellus.

Cramer Pap. pl. 89. f. G. H.

Edwards, pl. 34.

This insect is an inhabitant of Georgia and Virginia; the caterpillar feeding principally on the leaves of the Annona palustris of Linnæus, or Swamp Papaw.

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1025

Vaillantian Paradise-Bird

Richd P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

C

PARADISEA VAILLANTII.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum capistri plumis tomentosis tectum.

Pennæ hypochondriorum plerisque longiores.

Pedes validi, ambulatorii.

Character Specificus, &c.

Paradisea nigro-violacea, pennis lateralibus decom­positis niveis apice filiformibus longissimis nudis.

Le Nebuleux.

Levaill. Parad.

Pulchre depicta est perelegans hæc avis in splendido opere quod conscripsit Levaillantus: quem tamen in specimen incidisse crediderim cujus rostrum, casu aliquo leviter recurvum, naturæ minus convenerit; idque in tabula nostra emendavimus. In insulis Moluccis generatur.

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C2

the
VAILLANTIAN PARADISE-BIRD.

Generic Character.

Bill covered at the base by velvet-like plumes.

Side-Feathers beneath the wings, in most species, extending far beyond the rest of the plumage.

Legs strong: feet formed for walking.

Specific Character, &c.

Violet-Black Paradise-Bird, with loose-webbed snow-white side-feathers terminating in very long naked filiform shafts.

Le Nebuleux.

Levaill. Parad.

The present species of Paradise-Bird is beautifully figured in the splendid work on that genus published by Mons. Levaillant, whose specimen however seems to have had the bill a little injured by being warped upwards; a particular which is corrected in the present plate. This bird, like the rest of its congeners, is an inhabitant of the Molucca islands.

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1026

Green Jamaica Goatchaffer

R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

CERAMBYX VIRENS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ attenuatæ.

Thorax spinosus aut gibbus.

Elytra linearia.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Cerambyx viridis, thorace utrinque unispinoso, femoribus subferrugineis unidentatis.

Cerambyx virens. C. thorace spinoso, elytris obtusis, corpore viridi, antennis longioribus, femoribus unidentatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

In insula Jamaica generatur Cerambyx virens, et habitu corporis ad similitudinem proxime accedit Cerambycis moschatæ Britannica. Tabula monstrat veram magni­tudinem.

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r

the
GREEN JAMAICA GOATCHAFFER.

Generic Character.

Antennæ attenuated.

Thorax either spinous or gibbous.

Elytra linear.

Specific Character.

Green Cerambyx, with a single spine on each side the thorax, and subferruginous single-spined thighs.

Cerambyx virens.

Oliv. Ins. Ceramb. pl. 11. f. 78.

Cerambyx virens.

Drury Ins. 1. p. 89. pl. 40. f. 1.

The Lady Capricorn.

Browne’s Jamaica, p. 430. pl. 43. f. 8.

This insect is a native of Jamaica, and is very nearly allied to the British species known by the name of the Musk Goatchaffer. The plate represents it in its natural size.

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1027

Nilotic Polypterus

Richd Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

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POLYPTERUS NILOTICUS.

Character Genericus.

Membr. branch. uniradiata.

Pinnæ dorsales numerosæ.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 122.

Character Specificus, &c.

Polypterus viridis, abdomine nigro maculato.

Gen. Zool. 5. p. 122.

Polyptere Bichir.

Geoffroy Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. vol. i. p. 57. pl. 5.

Polypterum Niloticum primus technice et accurate descripsit Dominus Geoffroy; qui auctor est, medium quoddam esse vinculum inter pisces osseos et cartilageos. Si faciem universam spectes, ad genus Esox videtur accedere; ad illas præcipue species quæ squamis præ­duris et veluti osseis instruuntur. Forma longa est et quasi serpentina, capite longis laminis munito, corpore fere cylindrico, squamis duris cooperto. Longus est piscis circiter octodecim uncias. Color thalassinus, abdomine pallidiore. In flumine Nilo generatur, ibique molli sub limo latere solet. In optimis habetur piscibus Niloticis; caro quippe sapida est et tenera. Cutem ægre cultro penetrabilem mos est totam evertere, pisce prius cocto.

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the
NILOTIC POLYPTERUS.

Generic Character.

Gill-membrane single-rayed.

Dorsal fins numerous.

Specific Character, &c.

Green Polypterus, with the abdomen spotted with black.

Polyptere Bichir.

Geoffroy. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. vol. 1. p. 57. pl. 5.

This remarkable fish seems to have been first scien­tifically described by Mons. Geoffroy, who considers it as forming a kind of connecting link between the osseous and cartilaginous fishes. In point of general affinity, it seems most allied to the genus Esox or Pike, and espe­cially to such species as are furnished with strong or bony scales. Its shape is long and serpentiform, the body nearly cylindrical, the head defended by lengthened bony plates, and the body covered with large and strong scales. Its usual length is about eighteen inches, and its colour sea-green, paler, or whitish on the abdomen. It is an inhabi­tant of the river Nile, where it is observed to reside in the soft mud, and is considered as one of the best of the Nilotic fishes, having a tender and savoury flesh; and as it is difficult to open the skin with a knife, it is usual to boil the fish first, and afterwards draw off the skin whole.

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1028

Ventricose Dolphin

Richd Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

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DELPHINUS VENTRICOSUS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes in maxilla utraque.

Fistula in capite.

Character Specificus, &c.

Delphinus nigricans, subtus albus, rostro rotundato, corpore ventricoso.

Epaulard ventru.

Bonaterre, pl. de l’ Encycl. Meth.

Le Dauphin ventru.

Cepede cétacées, p. 311.

Speciem hanc primus descripsit Joannes Hunterus in Actis Anglicis. Crescit interdum in longi­tudinem octo­decim pedum; habitu generali Orcæ quam alii alicui Delphini similior.

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the
VENTRICOSE DOLPHIN.

Generic Character.

Teeth in both jaws.

Spiracle on the head.

Specific Character, &c.

Blackish Dolphin, white beneath, with rounded snout and very large abdomen.

A species of Grampus.

Hunter Phil. Trans. vol. 77. pl. 17.

Le Dauphin ventru.

Cepede cétacées, p. 311. pl. 15. f. 3.

This species was first described by Mr. Hunter in the Philosophical Transactions. It has been observed of the length of eighteen feet, and in general appearance is more nearly allied to the Grampus than to any other kind of Dolphin.

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1029

Gilded Cuckow

Richd P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

D

CUCULUS AURATUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum teretiusculum.

Nares margine prominulæ.

Lingua sagittata, plana, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Cuculus viridi-aureus, subtus albus, capite albo striato, remigibus rectricibusque exterioribus albo maculatis.

Cuculus auratus. C. cauda cuneiformi, corpore supra viridi-aureo subtus albo, capite striis quinque albis, rectricibus duabus extimis latere exteriore omnibus apice albis.

Lath. ind. orn.

Cuculus auratus magnitudine fere alaudæ communis, in Africa generatur interiori. Nomen habet a splendore plumarum: qui tamen plus minusve aureus.

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D2

the
GILDED CUCKOW.

Generic Character.

Bill somewhat bending.

Nostrils bounded by a small rim.

Tongue short, sagittated.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Gold-green Cuckow, white beneath; with the head striped and the exterior quill and tail-feathers spotted with white.

Coucou vert dorè et blanc.

Buff. ois. 6. p. 385.

Coucou verd du Cap de bonne-Esperance.

Pl. Enl. 657.

Gilded Cuckow.

Lath. syn.

This beautiful bird is about the size of a Lark, and is an inhabitant of the lower parts of Africa. In its colours it occasionally varies, exhibiting more or less of the golden brilliancy of plumage from which it derives its name.

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1030

Collared Beetle

Richd Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

SCARABÆUS TORQUATUS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ clavatæ, capitulo fissili.

Tibiæ anticæ sæpius dentatæ.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Scarabæus scutellatus lævis viridis, thorace antice fulvo-ferrugineo, abdomine postice macula duplici argentea.

Scarabæus torquatus.

Drury ins. 3. t. 44. f. 1.

Scarabæum torquatum, in Africa superiori generatum, primus, ni fallor, descripsit Dominus Drury. Tabula monstrat veram magni­tudinem.

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the
COLLARED BEETLE.

Generic Character.

Antennæ clavated with a fissile or laminated tip.

Middle joints of the fore-legs toothed.

Specific Character, &c.

Scutellated, smooth, green Beetle; with the front of the thorax fulvo-ferruginous, and the abdomen marked at the tip by a double silvery spot.

Scarabæus torquatus.

Drury ins. 3. pl. 44. f. 1.

This insect seems to have been first described in the elegant work of the late ingenious Mr. Drury. It is a native of the upper parts of Africa, and is repre­sented in its natural size.

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1031

Officinal Scink

Richd P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

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LACERTA SCINCUS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus tetrapodum, elongatum, caudatum, nudum.

Character Specificus, &c.

Lacerta fusco-flavescens, supra fasciis transversis fuscis, cauda brevi, apice compressa, maxilla superiore longiore.

Gen. Zool. 3. p. 281.

Lacerta Scincus. L. cauda tereti mediocri apice compressa, digitis muticis marginatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Lacerta Scincus, quæ et officinalis dicitur, in variis innascitur orientalibus regionibus; in Ægypto, Arabia, Lybia, Syria satis nota. Amat præcipue loca arida et arenosa, longa septem, octo, vel etiam decem uncias. Totum animal flavo-fusco-pallidum, fasciis plurimis latis, tenebrosis, inter se distantibus, transverse notatum, contegitur modicis squamis levibus glabrisque, quales fere sunt piscium. Nulla est ei nocendi vis. Insectis vescitur. Olim creditum est Scincum variis morbis mederi; quod utpote fabulosum et ineptum respuit hodierna therapeutice.

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the
OFFICINAL SCINK.

Generic Character.

Body elongated, four-footed, tailed; without any secondary integument.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellowish-brown Lizard, with transverse brown bands on the upper part, short tail with compressed tip, and upper jaw longer than the lower.

The Common or Officinal Scink.

The Common or Officinal Scink is a native of many of the Eastern parts of the world, and is common in Egypt, Arabia, Lybia, and Syria. It is usually found in dry sandy soils, and grows to the length of seven, eight, or even ten inches: the whole animal is of a pale yellowish-brown colour, marked by several broad, distant, transverse dusky stripes or bands, and is covered with middle-sized fish-like scales of a smooth and glossy surface. It is an animal of a harmless nature, and supports itself on the various insects which wander about the regions it inhabits. The Scink was once celebrated for its medicinal powers in various disorders; but the more illuminated cast of modern practice seems to have utterly exploded these imaginary virtues.

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1032

Five-Spotted Coryphene

Notes

r

CORYPHÆNA PENTADACTYLA.

Character Genericus.

Caput maxime truncato-declive.

Membr. branch. radiis quinque.

Pinna dorsalis longitudine dorsi.

Character Specificus, &c.

Coryphæna quinque-maculata. C. subfusca, subtus argentea, maculis utrinque versus caput quinque nigris.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 218.

Coryphæna pentadactyla. C. maculis quinis nigris versus caput longi­tudinalibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Coryphæna cauda æquali, pinnæ dorsi radiis 21.

Bloch. ichth. t. 173.

In maribus Indicis innascitur Coryphæna pentadactyla, in pedalem vel sesquipedalem crescens longi­tudinem.

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the
FIVE-SPOTTED CORYPHENE.

Generic Character.

Head sloping suddenly downwards.

Gill-membrane five-rayed.

Dorsal fin the length of the back.

Specific Character, &c.

Brownish Coryphene, silvery beneath, with five black spots on each side towards the head.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 218.

Das Sechsauge.

Bloch. ichth. pl. 173.

This species is an inhabitant of the Indian seas, where it grows to the length of twelve or eighteen inches.

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1033

Red Partridge

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

E

PERDIX RUFA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum convexum, validiusculum.

Nares margine prominulæ.

Orbitæ papillosæ.

Pedes nudi, plerisque calcarati.

Lath. ind. orn.

Character Specificus, &c.

Perdix griseo-cinerea, gula alba lanula nigra, hypo­chondriis nigro-lunulatis, rostro pedibusque sanguineis.

Perdix pedibus calcaratis rostroque sanguineis, gula alba cincta fascia nigra albo-punctata.

Lath. ind. orn.

Tetrao rufus.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Perdix rufa, major paulo perdice cinerea seu vulgari, per varias orbis antiqui partes late sparsa, loca, ut plurimum, incolit sicca, scopulosa, sylvestria, montana. Elegantis hujus avis nullibi major est copia, quam in Græcia, Græcisque insulis: nec carent ea, pro diversitate tamen coeli solique aliquatenus variata, Europæ partes quæ ad septentrionem spectant. In Britannia non generatur. Gregatim incedit; in nonnullis locis etiam catervatim.

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E2

the
RED PARTRIDGE.

Generic Character.

Bill convex, moderately stout.

Nostrils surrounded by a rising margin.

Orbits papillose.

Legs naked, and generally spurred.

Specific Character, &c.

Ash-grey Partridge, with white throat bounded by a black crescent; the sides of the body barred with black crescents, and red bill and legs.

Greek or red Partridge.

Lath. syn.

Red-legged Partridge.

This elegant bird, which is somewhat larger than the common or grey Partridge, is a pretty general inhabitant of the Old Continent, and is principally observed in dry, rocky, woody, and mountainous regions. It is particularly common in Greece and the Grecian islands; and occurs, with some variations, in many of the more northern parts of Europe, but is not a native of our own island. It is of a gregarious nature, and is often seen in vast numbers on the same spot.

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1034

Peacock Sparus

Notes

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SPARUS PAVO.

Character Genericus.

Dentes validi: Primores in aliis ordine simplici, in aliis duplici, triplici, vel quad­ruplici dispositi.

Molares (plerisque) validi, convexi, læves, in series dispositi, et quasi pavimentum in ore effor­mantes.

Labia crassa: Opercula mutica, squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sparus albidus, dorso subfusco, ocello utrinque nigro ad humeros et ad caudæ basin.

Sparus Pavo.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 449.

Perca saxatilis.

Bloch. ichth. t. 300.

Flumina incolit Austro-Americana Sparus Pavo, longi­tudine quasi pedali. In cibis habetur lautioribus.

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the
PEACOCK SPARUS.

Generic Character.

Teeth strong: Front-teeth in some species disposed in a single row, in others in a double, treble, or quad­ruple row.

Grinders (in most species) convex, smooth, and disposed in ranges, forming a kind of pavement in the mouth.

Lips thick: Gill-covers unarmed, smooth, scaly.

Specific Character, &c.

Whitish Sparus, with brownish back, and an ocellated black spot on each side the shoulders and base of the tail.

Peacock Sparus.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 440.

This fish is a native of the South-American rivers, arriving at the length of about twelve inches. It is in considerable esteem as an article of food.

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1035

Idalia Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO IDALIA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes. (Volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Papilio alis primoribus aurantiis nigro maculatis, posterioribus atro-cæruleis gilvo maculatis, subtus maculis argenteis.

Papilio Idalia. P. alis dentatis fulvis nigro maculatis, subtus maculis 37 argenteis, posticis supra cæruleis albo punctatis.

Fabr. sp. ins. 2. p. 109.
Nymph. phaler.

Papilio Idalia.

Drury ins. 1. t. 13. f. 1. 2. 3.

Americæ septentrionalis varias regiones incolit Papilio Idalia, et magni­tudine vera in tabula depingitur.

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IDALIA.

Generic Character.

Antennæ generally thickening towards the extremities, and terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when sitting) erect, and meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with orange upper-wings spotted with black, and blackish-blue under-wings spotted with cream-colour, with silvery spots beneath.

Papilio Idalia.

Fabr. sp. ins. 2. p. 109.

Papilio Idalia.

Drury ins. 1. pl. 13. f. 1. 2. 3.

This insect is a native of many parts of North America, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

1036

Leonine Monkey

R P N

Notes

r

SIMIA LEONINA.

Character Genericus.

Dentes primores utrinque quatuor, approximati.

Laniarii solitarii, longiores, hinc remoti.

Molares obtusi.

Character Specificus, &c.

Simia fusco-olivacea, albido undulata, humeris floc­cosis, facie auribus pedibusque atris, naso albo.

Simia leonina. S. ex olivaceo fuscescens, facie atra, ore albo, dorso striis albo flavescentibus notato.

Humb. Voy. Obs. Zool. &c.

Simiam leoninam, in America australi inferiore et calidiore generatam, primus descripsit celeberrimus Humboldt. A rostri apice ad initium caudæ longi­tudo est quasi septuncialis. Eodem fere utitur vivendi modo quo cæteræ parvulæ simiæ. Color ex olivaceo fuscescit; variantur tamen superiores partes striis seu undulis albescentibus. Cauda totius animalis longi­tudini æqualis est.

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the
LEONINE MONKEY.

Generic Character.

Front-Teeth in each jaw four, placed near together.

Canine-Teeth solitary, longer than the others, distant from the grinders.

Grinders obtuse.

Specific Character, &c.

Brownish-olive Monkey, with whitish undulations, with long-haired shoulders, black face, ears and feet, and white nose.

Le Leoncito.

Humb. et Bonpl. Voy. Obs. Zool. &c.

This very small species of Monkey, which measures about seven inches from the tip of the nose to the begin­ning of the tail, is an inhabitant of the lower and hotter parts of South America, and was first described by the celebrated traveller Mons. Humboldt. In its manners it resembles the rest of the smaller Monkies. Its colour is a brownish-olive, slightly waved or varied with whitish streaks on the upper parts; and the tail is of equal length with the rest of the animal.

v

 

1037

Summer Duck

Richd. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

F

ANAS SPONSA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum lamelloso-dentaturn, convexum, obtusum.

lingua ciliata, obtusa.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Anas crista variegata dependente, pectore castaneo albo-maculato, hypochondriis albo nigroque lunulatis.

Anas Sponsa. A. crista dependente duplici viridi cæruleo alboque varia.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

In America tam septentrionali quam australi generatur formosissima hæc species; nec non in insulis nonnullis Indiæ occidentalis. Migrat huc illuc, mutata coeli temperie. Femina mare minor, fusca, subtus albida, nullo plumarum splendore superbit.

v

 

F2

the
SUMMER DUCK.

Generic Character.

Bill broad and flattened; the edges marked with sharp lamellæ.

Tongue broad, and ciliated at the edges.

Specific Character, &c.

Duck with pendent variegated crest, chesnut breast spotted with white, and side-feathers lunulated with black and white.

The Summer Duck of Catesby.

Edw. pl. 101.

This most beautiful species is an inhabitant of many parts both of North and South America, migrating, according to the diversity of seasons, from one region to another. It is also found in some of the West Indian islands. The female is smaller, of a brown colour, and without any of that gaiety of plumage which so elegantly distinguishes the male.

v

 

1038

Annulated Labrus

R. P. Nodder Sculpt.

Notes

r

LABRUS ANNULATUS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes robusti, subacuti: molares interdum, ut in Sparis, conferti, convexi: labia crassa, duplicata: pinnæ dorsalis radii in certis speciebus ramento elongati.

Opercula mutica, squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

Labrus annulatus. L. pallidus, squamis minutis, fasciis utrinque novendecim fuscis, cauda subtriloba.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 497.

Labre annele.

Cepede.

Maria incolit Indica Labrus annulatus, longi­tudine quasi pedali.

v

 

r

the
ANNULATED LABRUS.

Generic Character.

Teeth strong and subacute: the grinders sometimes convex and crowded: lips thick and doubled: rays of the dorsal fin, in some species, elongated into soft processes.

Gill-Covers unarmed, and scaly.

Specific Character, &c.

Pale Labrus, with minute scales, about nineteen dusky bands on each side, and subtrilobate tail.

Annulated Labrus.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 497.

Labre annelé.

Cepede.

The annulated Labrus is a native of the Indian seas, and measures about twelve inches in length.

v

 

1039

Pandion Sphinx

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

SPHINX PANDION.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ subprismaticæ, utroque fine attenuatæ.

Lingua exserta (plerisque).

Palpi duo reflexi.

Alæ deflexæ.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sphinx alis integris, superioribus olivaceis cano lineatis, inferioribus luteis nigro maculatis.

Sphinx Pandion.

Cram. t. 321. f. A.

Surinamiam incolit Sphinx Pandion, et magni­tudine vera in tabula depingitur.

v

 

r

PANDION.

Generic Character.

Antennæ subprismatic, attenuated at each extremity.

Tongue (generally) exserted.

Feelers two, reflex.

Wings deflected.

Specific Character, &c.

Sphinx with entire wings, the upper pair olive-green, lineated with grey; the lower yellow, spotted with black.

Sphinx Pandion.

Cram. pl. 321. f. A.

This insect is a native of Surinam, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

v

 

1040

Scolopendroid Star-Fish

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

ASTERIAS SCOLOPENDROIDES.

Character Genericus.

Corpus depressum; crusta subcoriacea, tentaculis muricata.

Os subtus, centrale, quinquevalve.

Character Specificus, &c.

Asterias ferruginea, corpore orbiculari, radiis quinque gracilibus spinosis, spinis asperis diametro radii longioribus.

Asterias ciliaris? A. radiata imbricata, radiis utrinque ciliatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Link t. 34. f. 56. & t. 37. f. 65. 66.

Magna est Asteriæ scolopendroidis copia in variis litoribus septentrionalis Europæ; nullibi major quam in oris Britannicis. In numero est minorum specierum. Color generalis fusco-ruber seu ferrugineus, interdum, quod et aliis congeneribus accidit, in fuscum, violaceum, seu virescentem convertitur. Asteriæ aculeatæ conjunctior videtur quam alii alicui; ab hac tamen facile dignosci possit spinis longioribus et asperis.

v

 

r

the
SCOLOPENDROID STAR-FISH.

Generic Character.

Body depressed, covered with a sub-coriaceous crust muricated with tentacula.

Mouth beneath, central, five-valved.

Specific Character, &c.

Ferruginous Star-Fish, with orbicular body and five slender spiny rays; the spines rough, and longer than the diameter of the ray.

Slender-Limbed Spiny Star-Fish.

This, which is among the smaller species of the genus Asterias, is by no means uncommon about the coasts of the northern parts of Europe, and of our own island in particular. Its general colour is dusky red or ferruginous, but, like most others of the genus, it varies; being some­times brown, violet-coloured, or greenish. It seems most allied to the Asterias aculeata, from which it may easily be distinguished by the length and roughness of its spines.

v

 

1041

Numidian Crane

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

G

ARDEA VIRGO.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum rectum, longum, acutum.

Nares lineares.

Lingua acuminata.

Pedes tetradactyli.

Character Specificus, &c.

Ardea cinereo-cærulescens, capite collo pectoreque nigris, crista utrinque postoculari recurvata nivea.

Ardea Virgo. A. superciliis albis postice retrorsumque longe cristatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Asiana et Africana est species de qua jam loquimur, ciconia paulo gracilior, nec tamen multo minor. In Britan­niam non raro defertur: cito mansuescit, et cum custo­dibus init familiaritatem et amicitiam. Eleganter incedit, mire variatis gestibus. Merito numeranda est Ardea Virgo in pulcherrimis congenerum.

v

 

G2

the
NUMIDIAN CRANE.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, long, sharp-pointed.

Nostrils linear.

Tongue pointed.

Feet tetradactylous.

Specific Character, &c.

Blueish-grey Heron, with black head, neck, and breast, and a snow-white recurved crest behind each eye.

Demoiselle Heron.

Lath. syn.

The Demoiselle of Numidia.

Edw. pl. 134.

Dancing, or Numidian Crane.

The present species of Heron is a native of many parts of Asia and Africa, and is about the size of a Crane, but of a somewhat more slender shape: it is not unfrequently brought into this country, where it is easily tamed, and exhibits a considerable degree of attachment to its possessor. It is remarkable for the variety and singular elegance of its attitudes, and may be justly considered as one of the most beautiful birds of the genus to which it belongs.

v

 

1042

Large-Scaled Sciæna

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

SCIÆNA MACROLEPIDOTA.

Character Genericus.

Caput squamosum.

Pinnæ dorsales duæ, in fossula recondendæ.

Membr. branch. radiis sex.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sciæna flava, fasciis transversis fusco-violaceis, pinnis maculatis.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 543.

Sciæna macrolepidota. S. squamis magnis.

Bloch. ichth. 9. p. 35. t. 298.

Maria incolit Indica Sciæna macrolepidota, magni­tudine quasi Percæ communis fluviatilis.

v

 

r

the
LARGE-SCALED SCIÆNA.

Generic Character.

Head scaly.

Dorsal fins two, seated in a furrow, into which they may occasionally be withdrawn.

Gill-membrane six-rayed.

Specific Character, &c.

Yellow Sciæna, with transverse brownish-violet bands, and spotted fins.

Large-scaled Sciæna.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 543.

The large-scaled Sciæna is a native of the Indian seas, and grows to the size of the common or river Perch.

v

 

1043

Great Tortoise-Shell Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO POLYCHLOROS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes. (Volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Papilio alis denticulatis aurantiis, primoribus maculis tribus punctisque quatuor nigris.

Papilio Polychloros. P. alis angulatis fulvis nigro maculatis, primoribus supra punctis quatuor nigris.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Folia ulmi salicisque præcipue depascitur larva hujus papilionis, et in chrysalidem mense Junio convertitur, unde mense Julio erumpit insectum plene formatum.

v

 

r

the
GREAT TORTOISE-SHELL BUTTERFLY.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and generally terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with denticulated orange-coloured wings; the upper pair marked with three large and four small black spots.

Great Tortoise-shell Butterfly.

Alb. ins. pl. 55.

Roes. 1. pl. 2.

Merian ins. Eur. pl. 52.

The caterpillar of this insect feeds principally on the leaves of elm and willow, and changes to a chrysalis in the month of June, from which in July proceeds the Butterfly.

v

 

1044

Amadis Cone

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

CONUS AMADIS.
Var.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, convoluta, turbinata.

Apertura effusa, longitudinalis, linearis, edentula, basi integra.

Columella lævis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1165.

Character Specificus, &c.

Conus testa pyramidata aurantio-fusca, fasciis latis saturatioribus albo variatis punctatisque.

Conus Amadis. C. testa dilute fusca, &c. &c.

Lin. Gmel.

Chemn. 10. t. 142. f. 1322. 1323.

Var. C. testa pyramidata lutea albo varia, fasciis duabus saturatioribus.

Pulcherrimum hoc conchylium, cujus imo colori albo superinjicitur saturatior luteus, varietatem esse credi­derim Coni Amadis. Verisimile est incolam esse maris Indici.

v

 

r

the
AMADIS CONE.
Var.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax or Slug.

Shell more or less conic or pyramidal.

Aperture longitudinal, linear, without teeth, entire at the base.

Pillar smooth.

Specific Character, &c.

Cone with pyramidal orange-brown shell, with two broad deeper bands variegated and speckled with white.

The Amadis Cone.

Conus, &c. &c.

Chemn. 10. t. 142. f. 1322. 1323.

Var. Cone with pyramidal gold-yellow shell varie­gated with white, and with two deeper coloured bands.

The Yellow Admiral.

L’Amadis Jaune.

Knorr. 6. pl. 5. f. 3.

This beautiful shell seems to be a variety of the Conus Amadis, and is distinguished by the peculiar richness of its deep-yellow variegations on a white ground. It is probably a native of the Indian seas.

v

 

1045

White-Necked Goatsucker

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

H

CAPRIMULGUS CAYANUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum modice incurvum, minimum, subulatum, basi depressum.

Vibrissæ ad os serie ciliari.

Rictus amplissimus.

Lingua acuta, integerrima.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 118.

Character Specificus, &c.

Caprimulgus albido-ferrugineus nigro lineatus, gula alba, remigibus caudaque albo nigroque variis.

Caprimulgus Cayanus. C. rufo griseoque varius nigro undulato-lineatus, gula fasciaque alarum alba, temporibus rufis striis quinque nigris.

Lath. ind. orn.

Habenda est hæc avis in elegantioribus sui generis. In America australi generatur, sæpissime in Cayenna. Idem fere est ei ingenium quod caprimulgo Europæo. Vescitur variis insectis, et nocte sola ad volandum utitur.

v

 

H2

the
WHITE-NECKED GOATSUCKER.

Generic Character.

Bill very small, slightly hooked, depressed at the base, and ciliated with bristles.

Gape very wide.

Tongue entire, and sharp-pointed.

Specific Character, &c.

Whitish-ferruginous Goatsucker, with black linea­tions, white throat, and black and white wings and tail.

L’Engoulevent de Cayenne.

Buff. ois. 6. p. 545.

Crapaud-volant variè de Cayenne.

Pl. Enl. 760.

White-necked Goatsucker.

Lath. syn. 2. p. 599.

This bird, which, in point of plumage, may be consi­dered as one of the most elegant of its tribe, is an inhabi­tant of South America, and particularly of Cayenne. In its manners it resembles the European species, flying only by night, and feeding on various insects.

v

 

1046

American Comma Butterfly

Notes

r

PAPILIO C-AUREUM.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ, sursumque conniventes. (Volatu diurno.)

Character Specificus, &c.

Papilio alis angulato-dentatis subcaudatis fulvis nigro maculatis; posticis nigricantibus, subtus C aureo notatis.

Papilio C-aureum. P. alis angulatis fulvis nigro macu­latis; posticis subtus C-aureo notatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Papilio alis dentatis fulvis nigro maculatis; posticis subtus C-aureo notatis.

Smith. Ins. Amer. t. 11.

In Georgia et Virginia generatur Americana hæc species. Larva folia depascitur tiliæ albæ, et in chrysa­lidem Maio convertitur, unde insequente Junio erumpit ipse papilio.

v

 

r

the
AMERICAN COMMA BUTTERFLY.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the end, and terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with angularly-indented fulvous wings spotted with black; the lower pair blackish, and marked beneath with a golden C, or comma-shaped spot.

The American Comma Butterfly.

Smith and Abbot N. Amer. Ins. pl. 11.

The Papilio C-aureum or American Comma Butterfly inhabits Georgia and Virginia, where its caterpillar feeds on the leaves of the white lime-tree, and changes to a chrysalis in the month of May, from which in that of June emerges the complete insect.

v

 

1047

Coro Sciæna

Notes

r

SCIÆNA CORO.

Character Genericus.

Caput squamosum.

Pinnæ dorsales duæ, in fossula recondendæ.

Membr. branch. radiis sex.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sciæna argenteo-cærulescens, dorso subfusco, corpore utrinque striis octo transversis fuscis.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 538.

Sciæna Coro. S. capite nudo, striis octo transversalibus.

Bloch. ichth. 9. t. 307. f. 2.

Corocoro Brasiliensibus.

Marcgr. Bras. p. 177.

Will. ichth. p. 301. t. 38. f. 4.

Maria incolit Brasiliana Sciæna Coro, longa plerumque duodecim vel quindecim uncias.

v

 

r

the
CORO SCIÆNA.

Generic Character.

Head scaly.

Dorsal fins two, seated in a furrow, into which they may occasionally withdraw.

Gill-Membrane six-rayed.

Specific Character, &c.

Silvery-blueish Sciæna, with brownish back, and body marked on each side with eight transverse brown bands.

Sciæna Coro.

Bloch. ichth. pl. 307. f. 2.

The Corocoro of the Brasilians.

The present species of Sciæna is an inhabitant of the Brasilian seas, where it grows to the length of twelve or fifteen inches.

v

 

1048

Cereoid Sertularia

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

SERTULARIA CEREOIDES.

Character Genericus.

Animal crescens plantæ habitu.

Stirps emittens e cellulis vel denticulis calyciformibus hydras.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3844.

Character Specificus, &c.

Sertularia ramosa prolifera, ramulis subcylindricis obtusiusculis.

Cellaria cereoides. C. articulata ramosa, articulis subcylindricis, osculis cellularum undique prominulis.

Soland. et Ellis Zooph. p. 26. t. 5. f. b. B. &c.

Sertularia cereoides.

Lin. Gmel.

Circa litora Africana præcipue conspicitur Sertularia cereoides, altitudine tres vel quatuor uncias æquans.

v

 

r

the
CEREOID SERTULARIA.

Generic Character.

Animal growing with the appearance of a plant.

Stem emitting polypes from calycular cells or denticles.

Specific Character, &c.

Ramified proliferous Sertularia, with subcylindrical subobtuse ramifications.

Torch-Thistle Cell-Coralline.

Sol. et Ellis Zooph. p. 26. pl. 5.

Torch-Thistle or Cereoid Sertularia.

The cereoid Sertularia is principally observed about the coasts of Africa, rising to the height of three or four inches.

v

 

1049

Northern Diver

Published by R. P. Nodder

Notes

I

COLYMBUS GLACIALIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum rectum, acutum, mandibulis lateribus coarctatis.

Nares lineares.

Lingua longa, acuta, basi lateribus denticulata.

Crura compressa. Pedes tetradactyli, compedes, palmati, digito exteriore longiore, postico parvo interiori membranula coadunato.

Cauda brevis, viginti pennis constans.

Lath. ind. orn.

Character Specificus, &c.

Colymbus niger nitens, maculis quadratis albis; subtus albus; collari albo nigro lineato.

Colymbus glacialis. C. pedibus palmatis tetradactylis, capite colloque nigro-violaceo, fascia gulæ cervicisque alba interrupta.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Colymbus maximus Ferroensis seu Arcticus.

Clus. exot. 102.

Worm. mus. 303.

Congenerum maximus Colymbus glacialis alitur fere in omnibus Europæ septentrionalis partibus; brevium, stagnorum majorum, et fluviorum incola. Vescitur piscibus et insectis aquaticis. Anserem superat magni­tudine, longus quasi tres pedes cum dimidio pedis.

v

 

I2

the
NORTHERN DIVER.

Generic Character.

Bill strong, strait, pointed: upper mandible the longest; the edges of each bending inwards.

Nostrils linear; the upper part divided by a small cutaneous appendage.

Tongue long and pointed; serrated on each side near the base.

Legs thin and flat; toes four in number, the exterior longest, the back toe very small, and joined to the interior by a small membrane.

Tail short, consisting of twelve feathers.

Lath. Syn.

Specific Character, &c.

Glossy-black Diver with square white spots; beneath white; with white collar streaked by black lines.

The Northern Diver.

Penn. Brit. Zool.

Lath. synops.

Greatest Speckled Diver or Loon.

Will. orn.

This species, the largest hitherto discovered, is an inhabitant of almost all the northern regions of Europe, v frequenting shallow seas, large lakes, and rivers, and feeding on fish and water-insects. Its size is superior to that of a Goose, measuring near three feet and a half in length.

1050

American Painted Lady Butterfly

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

PAPILIO HUNTERA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes. (Volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Papilio Huntera. P. alis angulatis fulvis albo nigroque variis; posticis subtus albo reticulatis ocellisque duobus.

Smith. Abbot ins. Amer. t. 9.

Papilio Huntera.

Fabr. Entom. emend. 5. 4, 104.

Ob nimiam quæ est inter hunc papilionem et Euro­pæum illum cardui nomine distinctum, non dubitavere Linnæus et alii plurimi physici unam eandamque speciem pronunciare. Aliter tamen censuit Fabricius; et accurate collatis inter se speciminibus, sententiam ejus facile compro­baveris; Americanum enim ab Europæo evidenter discriminant alæ latiores et breviores.

In Georgia et Carolina generatur Papilio Huntera; larva vescitur foliis variarum herbarum quibus nomen Gnaphalium.

v

 

r

THE AMERICAN PAINTED LADY BUTTERFLY.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening at the end, and generally termi­nating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when at rest) meeting upwards. Flight diurnal.

Specific Character, &c.

Butterfly with angulated fulvous wings, variegated with black and white; the lower pair reticulated with white beneath, and marked with two ocellated spots.

American Painted Lady Butterfly.

Smith. Abbot. N. Amer. Ins. pl. 9.

So great is the general similarity between this and the European Butterfly, called Papilio cardui, or Painted Lady, that Linnæus and most other naturalists seem to have considered it as the same species. It has however been regarded as distinct by Fabricius, whose opinion is justified by an accurate collation of the European and American specimens; and, as a general or obvious mark of distinction, it may be observed, that the wings in the American insect are shorter and broader in proportion than in the European kind. It is found in the provinces of Georgia and Carolina, where its caterpillar feeds on different species of Gnaphalium.

v

 

1051

Thick-Leaved Coralline

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder

Notes

r

CORALLINA INCRASSATA.

Character Genericus.

Animal? crescens habitu plantæ.

Stirps fixa. Rami articulati, ramulosi.

Character Specificus, &c.

Corallina incrassata. C. trichotoma articulata, articulis compressis convexo-planis cuneiformibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

Corallina incrassata.

Soland. et Ellis Zooph. p. 111. t. 20. f. d. D.

Ellis Corall. p. 53. t. 25. f. a. b. c.

Circa litora insularum Americanarum non raro conspi­citur Corallina incrassata, cujus veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula.

v

 

r

the
THICK-LEAVED CORALLINE.

Generic Character.

Animal? growing in the form of a Plant.

Stem fixed: branches jointed and subdivided.

Specific Character, &c.

Trichotomous jointed Coralline, with compressed, plano-convex cuneiform joints.

Fleshy Coralline.

Solander et Ellis Zooph. p. 111. pl. 20. f. d. D.

Ellis Corall. p. 53. f. A. a.

This species of Coralline is by no means uncommon on the shores of the American islands, and is repre­sented in its natural size.

v

 

1052

Tortoise-Shell Limpet and Pleated Limpet

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

PATELLA TESTUDINARIA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, subconica, absque spira.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1257.

Character Specificus, &c.

Patella testa integerrima ovata lævi, luteo fuscoque varia, intus subargentea.

Patella testudinaria. P. testa integerrima ovata lævi glaberrima.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1260.

Patella testudinaria. P. testa integerrima acuta lævi glaberrima.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3717.

PATELLA PLICARIA.

Character Specificus, &c.

Patella testa imbricato-radiata alba fusco-nebulosa, margine denticulato, intus alba.

Patella plicaria? P. testa ovata dentata; striis elevatis obtusis triginta undulatis transversim rugosis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3708.

Espece de Patelles doubles étoilées.

Knorr. 3. t. 30. f. 1.

Inter lautissimas hujus generis species numerantur Patella testudinaria et Patella plicaria, quas ambas nutriunt maria Indica et Americana.

v

 

r

the
TORTOISE-SHELL LIMPET.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Limax or Slug.

Shell univalve, subconic, without spine.

Specific Character, &c.

Limpet with perfectly entire, ovate, smooth shell, with brown and yellow variegations, and slightly silvery internal surface.

The Great Tortoise-Shell Limpet.

Bouclier de couleur d’ècaule de Tortuë.

Argenv. pl. 2. f. P.

Knorr. 1. pl. 21. f. 1.

the
PLEATED LIMPET.

Specific Character, &c.

Imbricate-rayed white Limpet, clouded with brown, with toothed margin and white inside.

Brown and white ribbed Limpet.

Espece de Patelles double étoilées.

Knorr. 3. pl. 30. f. 1.

Among the most elegant shells of the present genus may be numbered those repre­sented on the present plate, which are natives of the Indian and American seas.

v

 

1053

Vociferous Goatsucker

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

K

CAPRIMULGUS VOCIFERANS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum modice incurvum, minimum, subulatum, basi depressum.

Vibrissæ ad os serie ciliari.

Rictus amplissimus.

Lingua acuta integerrima.

Character Specificus, &c.

Caprimulgus vociferans. C. griseus, lunula gulari albida, subtus ochraceus fusco lineatus, alis ferrugineis nigro nebulosis.

Caprimulgus vociferus.

Wilson Amer. Orn. 5. pl. 4.

Americæ septentrionalis plerasque regiones æstivo tempore incolit Caprimulgus vociferans. Hunc cum specie diversa confudisse videntur ornithologi. Vocem emittit insigniter resonam, quam montibus et sylvis repercussam si audierint novi advenæ, somnos adimere dicitur nimius et insolitus cantus. Speciem accurate descripsit ingeniosus Wilsonus, a quo discimus interdiu rarissime et non nisi fortuito conspici, vescique, aliorum more congenerum, phalænis majoribus, gryllis, formicis, et insectis quæ plurima reperiuntur in putridis et effoetis arboribus. Admonet porro Wilsonus feminam mari esse minorem seu breviorem, coloribus paulo pallidioribus.

v

 

K2

the
VOCIFEROUS GOATSUCKER.

Generic Character.

Bill very small, slightly hooked, depressed at the base, and ciliated with bristles.

Gape very wide.

Tongue entire, and sharp-pointed.

Specific Character, &c.

Grey Goatsucker, with whitish gular crescent, beneath ochre-coloured with brown lineations, and ferru­ginous wings clouded with black.

Caprimulgus vociferus, or Whip-Poor-Will.

Wilson Amer. Zool. 5. pl. 4.

The present bird, hitherto confounded by ornithologists with a different species, is an inhabitant, during the summer months, of most of the United States of North America, and is remarkable for the loudness of its notes, which, echoing from the woods and mountains, are said to prevent those from sleeping who have not been accus­tomed to the sound. The ingenious Mr. Wilson, in his work entitled American Ornithology, has accurately described this species, and observes, that it is never seen in the day-time, except in particular circumstances; and that its food, like that of the rest of this genus, consists of large moths, grasshoppers and ants, as well as of other insects frequenting old and decaying trees. Mr. Wilson adds, that the female is rather smaller or shorter than the male, and of somewhat paler colours.

v

 

1054

Fuller Beetle

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

SCARABÆUS FULLO.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ clavatæ capitulo fissili.

Tibiæ anticæ sæpius dentatæ.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Character Specificus, &c.

Scarabæus fusco-castaneus, subtus albidus, elytris maculis punctisque irregularibus albis.

Scarabæus Fullo. S. scutellatus muticus, antennis heptaphyllis, corpore nigro pilis albis, scutello macula duplici alba.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Melolontha Fullo. M. testacea albo maculata, scutello macula duplici, antennis heptaphyllis.

Fab. spec. ins. 1. p. 35.

Varias Europæ partes, quibus modica est coeli temperies, frequentat Scarabæus Fullo, in Britannia rarissimus. Tabula ostendit veram magni­tudinem. Mas a femina dignoscitur antennis lamellatis multo majoribus.

v

 

r

the
FULLER BEETLE.

Generic Character.

Antennæ clavated with a fissile or laminated tip.

Middle joints of the fore-legs toothed.

Specific Character, &c.

Chesnut-brown Beetle, whitish beneath, with the wing-sheaths irregularly varied and speckled with white.

The Great Dor, or Fuller Beetle.

The Marbled Beetle.

This elegant insect is a native of many of the temperate parts of Europe, but is very rarely seen in our own island. The plate represents it in its natural size. The male is distinguished from the female by the far larger size of its laminated antennæ.

v

 

1055

Barnacle-Bearing Gorgonia

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

r

GORGONIA LEPADIFERA.

Character Genericus.

Animal crescens plantæ facie.

Hydræ sparsæ e poris lateralibus.

Stirps radicata, cornea, continua, ramosa, basi explanata, cortice obducta.

Character Specificus, &c.

Gorgonia dichotoma, floribus confertis campanulatis squamosis albis.

Gorgonia dichotoma, floribus sparsis confertis reflexis companulatis imbricatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.

Müll. Zool. Dan.

Gorgonia dichotoma, osculis confertis reflexis campanulatis imbricatis, carne squamulis albis obducta, osse in ramulis majoribus testaceo, in minoribus corneo.

Soland. et Ellis Zooph. p. 84. t. 13. f. 1. 2.

Super rupes maris Norvegici præcipue conspicitur Gorgonia lepadifera, altitudine interdum pedali vel etiam bipedali.

v

 

r

the
BARNACLE-BEARING GORGONIA.

Generic Character.

Animal growing with the habit of a Plant.

Polypes scattered from the lateral pores.

Stem fixed, horny, branched, covered with a soft bark.

Specific Character, &c.

Dichotomous Gorgonia, with crowded bell-shaped scaly heads or flowers.

The Barnacle-bearing Gorgon.

Soland. et Ellis Zooph. p. 84. pl. 13. f. 1. 2.

Scaly-flowered Gorgonia.

This species of Gorgonia is principally seen on the rocks of the Norwegian sea, where it grows to the height of twelve inches, or even two feet.

v

 

1056

Indian Kurtus

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder.

Notes

r

KURTUS INDICUS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus latum, utrinque carinatum, dorso elevato.

Membr. branch. radiis duobus.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 185.

Character Specificus, &c.

Kurtus Indicus. K. argenteus, dorso aureo.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 185.

Kurtus Indicus.

Bloch. t. 169.

Maria incolit Indica piscis in tabula depictus, et in longi­tudinem pedalem vel sesquipedalem crescit.

v

 

r

the
INDIAN KURTUS.

Generic Character.

Body broad, carinated both above and below, with greatly elevated back.

Gill-membrane two-rayed.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 185.

Specific Character, &c.

Silvery Kurtus, with gold-coloured back.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 185.

Der Hochrücken.

Bloch. pl. 169.

This fish is a native of the Indian seas, and measures from a foot to eighteen inches in length.

v

 

1057

Southern Apteryx

Drawn Engraved & Published by R Nodder

Notes

L

APTERYX AUSTRALIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum longum, gracile, rectiusculum, basi cera tectum, sulco tubulato laterali utrinque exaratum, apice subtumido subincurvo.

Nares? lineares, inconspicuæ, prope apicem rostri, ad finem sulci tubulati.

Alæ rudimenta tantum, monodactyla, subuncialia, unguiculo terminali.

Pedes compedes, breves, validi, gallinacei, tetradactyli, digito postico subinteriore, brevissimo.

Cauda nulla.

Character Specificus.

Apteryx griseo-ferruginea, rostro pedibusque fusco-flavescentibus.

Novum omnino genus in tabula depingitur, nec ad ordinem aliquem ornithologicum, quem novimus, facile referendum. Nullis certe similius est quam Struthionibus et Gallinis; rostrum tamen ab iis diversum alium vivendi modum indicat. Prope accedit hæc avis ad anseris magni­tudinem; longaque est ab apice rostri ad extremum corporis quasi duos pedes cum semisse. Rostrum ipsum, si ab angulis oris metiris ad extremitatem mandibulæ superioris, sex uncias v et tres quadrantes æquat: si ab initio frontis fiat mensura, quinque uncias et tres quadrantes. Habitu seu facie generali ad Pinguinarias quodammodo accedit, vestitu Casuarium australem magnopere refert. Caput parvum. Collum modicum. Crura, non aliter quam in Pinguinariis sita, brevia et valida, sex uncias a genu ad extremum unguis medii sunt longa. Pedes digitis tribus anticis instruuntur, unicoque brevissimo subinteriore postico; quorum omnes ungue muniuntur valido et acuto, fere unciali illo qui digiti est medii. Tota pedum confor­matio gallinacea est. Nullum est caudæ vestigium; et alarum loco (si fraus absit, nullam enim detegere possum) parvulus utrinque est articulus quasi uncialis, subtus plumis rarissimis marginatus, cujus apex unguem gerit parvulum et subacutum vix quadrante uncie longiorem. Tota avis ferrugineo-pallet, pennarum omnium margi­nibus obscurioribus, quo fit ut fusco commistæ videantur; quæque elongatæ sunt et acuminatæ. Rostrum pedesque fusco-flavescunt; rostrum tamen pallidius.

In Nova Zelandia generatur hæc avis, cujus ab australi ora specimen quod depiximus in Angliam intulit Dominus Barcley, navis Providentiæ dux, et suadente amicissimo Domino Evans, mihi ipsi perhumaniter donavit.

In tabula secunda depinguntur rostrum, ala, pes, penna, juxta naturalem magni­tudinem.

1058

Southern Apteryx (details)

L2

the
SOUTHERN APTERYX.

Generic Character.

Bill long, slender, nearly strait, covered at the base by a cere, marked on each side by a tubular furrow, slightly swelled and bent at the tip.

Nostrils? linear, inconspicuous, near the tip of the bill, at the end of the tubular furrow.

Wings rudiments only, consisting of a single joint or finger, about an inch in length, and terminated by a small claw or spur.

Feet comped, short, strong, gallinaceous, and tetra­dactyle; the hinder or subinterior toe very short.

Tail none.

Specific Character.

Ferruginous-grey Apteryx, with yellowish brown bill and legs.

The bird represented on the present plate constitutes a perfectly new genus, which it is not easy to refer to any of the established ornithological orders. It seems however to approach more nearly to the Struthious and the Galli­naceous tribes than to any other, though the very different form of the beak implies a v different manner of life. The size of this bird is nearly that of a goose, and its length, from the tip of the bill to the extremity of the body, about two feet and a half. The bill, if measured from the corners of the mouth to the tip of the upper mandible, is about six inches and three quarters in length; but if measured from the beginning of the forehead to the tip, about five inches and three quarters. The general habit or appearance of the bird approaches to that of the Penguins; while the plumage bears a strong alliance to that of the brown or New Holland Cassowary. The head is rather small, and the neck of moderate length: the legs, which are situated as in the Penguins, are short and strong, measuring about six inches from the knee to the extremity of the middle claw: the feet have three toes in front, and a very short hind or sub-interior toe; and all are furnished with very strong and sharp claws; that of the middle toe measuring nearly an inch in length. The whole structure of the feet is gallinaceous. There is no appearance of a tail, and in place of wings (unless any art of deception has been practised, of which I cannot discover the least appearance), can only be perceived a small single joint on each side, measuring about an inch in length, slightly fringed on its lower edge by a few straggling plumes, and terminated by a small and sharpish claw or spur, scarcely a quarter of an inch in length. The colour of the whole bird is pale ferruginous, the edges of the feathers, which on all parts are of a lengthened and pointed shape, being of a more dusky cast, and thus giving the appearance of a mixture of brown in the r plumage. The bill and legs are of a yellowish-brown colour, the bill rather paler than the legs.

This curious bird is a native of New Zealand, from the south coast of which it was brought by Captain Barcley of the Providence, by whom, through the kind interposition of my friend W. Evans, Esq. it was presented to myself. The second plate represents, in their natural size, the bill, wing, leg, and a feather of this bird.

v

 

1059

Fringe-Tree Sphinx

Drawn Engraved & Published by Richd P. Nodder

Notes

r

SPHINX CHIONANTHI.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ medio crassiores, seu utraque extremitate attenuatæ, subprismaticæ.

Alæ deflexæ, (volatu graviore vespertino seu matutino).

Character Specificus, &c.

Sphinx grisea fusco varia, alis anticis puncto centrali albo, corpore utrinque maculis tribus fulvis nigro cinctis.

Sphinx Chionanthi. S. alis integerrimis margine postico albo punctatis; primoribus strigis duabus undulatis punctoque albis, abdomine ocellis trium parium fulvis.

Smith. Abbot. ins. Amer. t. 34.

Sphinx rustica.

Fabr. ent. emend. 4. p. 300.

Varias regiones Americanas incolit insectum in tabula depictum. Larva ejus folia Chionanthi Virginiæ folia præcipue depascitur.

v

 

r

the
FRINGE-TREE SPHINX.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickest in the middle, subprismatic, and attenuated at each extremity.

Wings deflected. (Flight strong, and commonly in the evening or morning).

Specific Character, &c.

Grey Sphinx, with dusky variegations, a white central spot on the upper wings, and the body marked on each side by three orange-yellow spots edged with black.

The Fringe-Tree Hawk-Moth.

Smith and Abbot’s Amer. Ins. pl. 34.

The Sphinx Chionanthi or Fringe-Tree Hawk-Moth, is a native of several parts of America. The larva is observed to feed principally on the leaves of the Chionanthus Virginica or Fringe-Tree.

v

 

1060

Chesnut-Shelled Indian Buprestis

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder

Notes

r

BUPRESTIS CHRYSIS.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, subserratæ.

Caput dimidium intra thoracem retractum.

Corpus crassum, postice subacuminatum.

Character Specificus, &c.

Buprestis aureo-viridis nitidissima, thorace punctis numerosis impressis, sterno porrecto, elytris castaneis.

Buprestis Chrysis. B. elytris serrato-tridentatis castaneis, sterno conico porrecto.

Fabr. sp. ins. p. 275.

Confundi non raro solet elegans hæc species cum Buprestide sternicorni, seu aureo-viridi; a qua tamen insigniter discrepat, non modo majori mole, verum etiam colore elytrorum, non aureo-viridium, sed e castaneo læte rubentium. Tabula ostendit veram insecti magni­tudinem. In India generatur Bupresti Chrysis.

v

 

r

the
CHESNUT-SHELLED INDIAN BUPRESTIS.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, slightly serrated.

Head half withdrawn beneath the thorax.

Body thick, slightly pointed behind.

Specific Character, &c.

Brilliant gold-green Buprestis, with the thorax marked by numerous impressed points, porrected sternum, and chesnut wing-sheaths.

Chesnut-shelled Green-gold Buprestis.

The present most elegant species has sometimes been confounded with the Buprestis sternicornis or smaller green-gold Buprestis, from which however it strikingly differs, not only in superior size, but also in the colour of the elytra or wing-sheaths, which in the present insect are of a beautiful reddish chesnut instead of gold-green. It is a native of India, and is repre­sented in its natural size.

v

 

1061

Scaly-Breasted Parrakeet

Drawn Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder

Notes

M

PSITTACUS SQUAMOSUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum, mandibula superiore mobili, plerisque cera instructa.

Nares in rostri basi.

Lingua plerisque carnosa, obtusa, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Character Specificus, &c.

Psittacus macrourus viridis, humeris coccineis, abdomine uropygioque rubropurpureis, pectore squamatim variato.

Psittacus squammosus. P. macrourus viridis, capite collo pectoreque marginibus pennarum aurantiis, humeris coccineis, uropygio abdomineque medio sanguineis.

Lath. ind. orn.

De Surinamia, (ibi enim generatur elegans hæc species) specimen quod depinximus in Britanniam intulit Dominus Sack, et nobiscum perhumaniter communicavit. Miro superbiebat plumarum nitore et varietate.

v

 

M2

the
SCALY-BREASTED PARRAKEET.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked, with the upper mandible moveable, and generally furnished with a cere.

Nostrils in the base of the bill.

Tongue, in most species, fleshy, obtuse, entire.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Long-tailed green Parrakeet, with scarlet shoulders, purple-red belly and rump, and breast marked by scale-shaped variegations.

Wave-Breasted Parrakeet. Var.

Gen. Zool. 8. p. 405.

This elegant species is a native of Surinam: the specimen figured on the present plate, exhibited a greater richness and variety of plumage than is usually seen, and was brought from Surinam by Baron Sack, by whom it was politely communicated.

v

 

1062

Snake Tortoise

Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder

Notes

r

TESTUDO SERPENTINA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus caudatum, lorica ossea aut coriacea superne et inferne, vel squamis superne obtectum.

Oris mandibula superiore inferiorem pyxidum instar claudens.

Character Specificus, &c.

Testudo serpentina. T. testa ovali depressa, trifariam convexa, squamis acuminatis, margine postico rotundato acute serrato.

Schoepf. Test. p. 28. t. 6.

Testudo serpentina. T. pedibus digitatis, testa subca­rinata, postice obtusa, acute quinquedentata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 354.

Testudinem serpentinam alunt plurimæ regiones Americæ tam septentrionalis quam australis, aquas stagnantes incolentem, pisces et animalia aquatica prædantem; libras viginti vel plures pondere æquantem. Color generalis est sordide fusco-castaneus, subtus pallidior.

v

 

r

the
SNAKE TORTOISE.

Generic Character.

Body defended by a bony covering coated by a horny, scaly, or coriaceous integument.

Mouth without distinct or proper teeth; the upper mandible closing over the lower.

Specific Character, &c.

Tortoise with ovate, depressed, triply carinated, sharp-scaled shell, rounded and acutely serrated at the posterior margin.

Snake Tortoise.

Gen. Zool. 3. p. 72.

Serrated Tortoise.

Penn. Arct. Zool. suppl. p. 97.

This species is a native of many parts both of North and South America, inhabiting stagnant waters, growing to the weight of twenty pounds or more, and preying on fish and various other aquatic animals. Its general colour is a dull chesnut brown, lighter or paler beneath.

v

 

1063

Bicarinated Lizard

Engraved & Published by R. P. Nodder

Notes

r

LACERTA BICARINATA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus tetrapodum, elongatum, caudatum, nudum.

Character Specificus, &c.

Lacerta bicarinata. L. cauda compressa, supra bicari­nata mediocri, dorso quadrifariam carinato-striata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 361.

Gen. Zool. 3. p. 212.

Lacertam bicarinatam primus accurate depinxisse videtur Comes de Cepede in opere suo de Amphibiis; qui tamen male eam retulit ad lacertam Dracænam Linnæi. In America australi generatur, sesquipedalis, seu bipedalis.

v

 

r

the
BICARINATED LIZARD.

Generic Character.

Body four-footed, elongated, tailed; without any secondary integument.

Specific Character, &c.

Lizard with four rows of strong carinated scales on the back, and tail of moderate length.

Bicarinated Lizard.

Gen. Zool. 3. p. 212.

This species appears to have been first figured with any degree of accuracy in the work of Count de Cepede on the Amphibia, who however mistook it for the Lacerta Dracæna of Linnæus. It is a native of South America, and arrives at the length of eighteen inches or two feet.

v

 

1064

Common Mackrel

R. P. Nodder Del. Sculpt.

Notes

r

SCOMBER SCOMBER.

Character Genericus.

Corpus oblongum, læve, linea laterali interdum carinatum.

Pinnulæ sæpius supra infraque caudam.

Character Specificus, &c.

Scomber cæruleus, lineis numerosis transversis nigris, abdomine argenteo, pinnulis supra infraque quinque.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 577.

Scomber Scomber.

Lin. Syst. Nat.

Scombrum Scombrum seu communem, in piscium pulcherrimorum numero habendum, generant maria Europæa et Americana. Certa, ut plurimum, observat reditus tempora, et circa certa catervatim glomeratur litora; arctica præcipue; major ibi quam alibi. De longis itineribus quas peragere Scombrum narrant nonnulli auctores, dubitare saltem tutius est, si non in fabulis reponere; multoque verisimilius est immensa agmina, quæ verno tempore oras Europæas modice tepentes frequentant, per hiemem nunquam revera procul a litore aberrasse, sed in molli luto demersa latuisse, et exacto frigore, aperto se pelago iterum commississe.

v

 

r

the
COMMON MACKREL.

Generic Character.

Body oblong, smooth, sometimes carinated by the lateral line.

Finlets (in most species) above and below, towards the tail.

Specific Character, &c.

Blue Mackrel, with numerous transverse black lines, silvery abdomen, and five finlets above and below.

Common Mackrel.

Penn. Brit. Zool.

Gen. Zool. 4. p. 577.

The Common Mackrel, which may be considered as one of the most beautiful of fishes, is a native of the European and American seas; generally appearing at stated seasons, and swarming round particular coasts. It is most plentiful in the northern seas, where it grows to a larger size than elsewhere. The long migrations of the Mackrel, described by some writers, seem at present to be considered as extremely doubtful; and it is rather supposed that the shoals which appear in such vast abundance round the more temperate coasts of Europe in the spring season, were in reality at no great distance during the winter; having merely immersed themselves in the deep and soft mud; from which they arise in a state of restored activity when the frosts are passed.

v

 

INDEX.

Pl.
1037. Anas Sponsa
1057.
1058.
Apteryx Australis
1041. Ardea Virgo
1040. Asterias scolopendroides
1060. Buprestis Chrysis
1045. Caprimulgus Cayanus
1053. Caprimulgus vociferans
1026. Cerambyx virens
1049. Colymbus glacialis
1044. Conus Amadis Var.
1051. Corallina incrassata
1032. Coryphæna pentadactyla
1029. Cuculus auratus
1028. Delphinus ventricosus
1055. Gorgonia Lepadifera
1056. Kurtus Indicus
1038. Labrus annulatus
1063. Lacerta Bicarinata
1031. —— Scincus
1022. —— tulipa
1024. Papilio Ajax
1046. —— C-aureum
1050. —— Huntera
1035. —— Idalia
1043. —— Polychloros
1021. —— superba
1025. —— Vaillantii
1052. Patella testudinaria
—— plicaria
1033. Perdix rufa
1027. Polypterus niloticus
1061. Psittacus squamosus
1054. Scarabæus Fullo
1030. —— torquatus
1047. Sciæna Coro
1042. —— macrolepidota
1064. Scomber Scomber
1048. Sertularia cereoides
1036. Simia Leonina
1023. Sparus Abilgardi
1034. —— Pavo
1059. Sphinx Chionanthi
1039. —— Pandion
1062. Testudo serpentina

INDEX.

Pl.
1057.
1058.
Apteryx, Southern
1030. Beetle collared
1054. —— Fuller
1060. Buprestis Chesnut-shelled Indian
1024. Butterfly Ajax
1046. —— American Comma
1043. —— great Tortoise-shell
1035. —— Idalia
1050. —— Painted Lady
1044. Cone Amadis, var.
1051. Coralline thick-leaved
1032. Coryphene five-spotted
1041. Crane Numidian
1029. Cuckow gilded
1049. Diver northern
1028. Dolphin ventricose
1037. Duck Summer
1026. Goatchaffer green Jamaica
1053. Goatsucker vociferous
1045. —— white-necked
1055. Gorgonia Barnacle-bearing
1056. Kurtus Indian
1038. Labrus annulated
1052. Limpet Tortoise-shell
—— pleated
1063. Lizard Bicarinated
1064. Mackrel common
1036. Monkey Leonine
1022. Murex tulip
1021. Paradise-Bird superb
1025. —— Vaillantian
1061. Parrakeet scaly-breasted
1033. Partridge red
1027. Polypterus nilotic
1047. Sciæna Coro
1042. —— large-scaled
1031. Scink officinal
1048. Sertularia Cereoid
1023. Sparus Abilgardian
1034. —— Peacock
1059. Sphinx Fringe-tree
1039. —— Pandion
1040. Star-fish scolopendroid
1062. Tortoise snake

London: Printed by B. M‘Millan,
Bow Street, Covent Garden.

Notes and Corrections: Volume 24

Volume 24 of the Naturalist’s Miscellany was published in eleven monthly installments, conjecturally from September 1812 through July 1813. It is “conjecturally” because there has not been a full month-and-year date since the third installment of Volume 13 (November 1801), and no date at all since “1812” (April, one hopes) in the eighth installment of Volume 23.

The volume is eleven installments rather than the usual twelve because George Shaw died before completing the work. The General Index includes a handsomely engraved picture of his tomb.

Each installment is 16 pages:

[B]; C; D; E; F (January 1813); G; H; I; K; L (12 pg.); M

Volume 24 features our first mammals since volume 18—two of them, in fact, a cetacean and a primate. Better yet, each of them is in addition to rather than substituting for a bird.

This final volume included a general index for all 24 volumes, 287 installments, 1064 plates. Unfortunately, since Shaw wasn’t around to make last-minute corrections, the index was compiled directly from those earlier volumes’ indexes—mistakes, omissions and all. There was no separate index for volume 24 alone; I have created one using information from the General Index.

Dedication

EPISCOPO CARLIOLENSI
corrected by author from CARLIENSI

VICESIMUM QUARTUM
text has VICECIMUM

Erratum

The exact location of the erratum slip will depend on your copy of the book; in many cases it has probably been lost. The author failed to notice that the Dedication-Page with its embarras­singly visible misspelling of “Carliolensi” . . . also contains the equally glaring error “vicecimum” for “vicesimum”.

Paradisea Superba, the Superb Paradise-Bird

is probably Lophorina superba, the greater superb bird-of-paradise. It lives in New Guinea.

Viellot Parad. / Levaill. Parad.
[Printed on a single line, but they seem to be two separate sources.]

Murex Tulipa, the Tulip Murex

is now Fasciolaria tulipa, the true tulip. It lives around the Caribbean and the adjoining Atlantic coasts.

Sparus Abilgardi, the Abilgardian Sparus

was properly spelled S. abildgaardi, but in any case it is now Sparisoma chrysopterum, the blisterside. It lives around the Caribbean and the adjoining Atlantic coasts. Do not ask me why its official name is ten years younger (1801) than the name Shaw used (1791).

Papilio Ajax, the Ajax (butterfly)

is now Protographium marcellus (by way of Papilio marcellus), the zebra swallowtail. Again, I do not know why Cramer’s name from 1777 takes precedence over Linnaeus’s from 1758. It lives in the eastern half of the United States.

P. Marcellus. / Cramer Pap. pl. 89. f. G. H.
[Printed on a single line, but this seems to be what he meant. Unlike the Murex tulipa earlier in this installment, this time the printer doesn’t even have the excuse of being out of room on the page.]

Paradisea Vaillantii, the Vaillantian Paradise-Bird

Unidentified, whether you spell the genus Paradisea (Shaw’s preference) or Paradisaea (standardized form). Levaillant got an awful lot of species named after him, but I can’t find a bird of paradise among them.

Pennæ hypochondriorum plerisque longiores.
text has hyochondriorum

whose specimen however seems to have had the bill a little injured by being warped upwards; a particular which is corrected in the present plate
[This is pretty nervy when you consider that there is no indication Shaw himself had access to a better specimen. The plate is labeled only Sculp., not Del., implying that Richard Nodder was copying someone else’s picture, give or take a bit of rhinoplasty. Or rhynchoplasty.]

Cerambyx Virens, the Green Jamaica Goatchaffer

is now Plinthocoelium columbinum—a name that is several decades younger than C. virens. It lives in Jamaica.

Polypterus Niloticus, the Nilotic Polypterus

is now Polypterus bichir, the bichir. It lives in central Africa.

a kind of connecting link between the osseous and cartilaginous fishes
[Today it has its own order, Polypteriformes, within the ray-finned-fishes class, Actinopterygii.]

Delphinus Ventricosus, the Ventricose Dolphin

is now Phocoena phocoena (by way of Linnaeus’s Delphinus phocoena), the common porpoise. It is most common around northern Europe, but also lives along both coasts of North America.

Cuculus Auratus, the Gilded Cuckow

is now Colaptes auratus, the Northern flicker. It lives in North America—except the subspecies C. a. rufipileus, the Guadalupe flicker, which has been extinct for over a century.

Coucou vert dorè et blanc.
spelling unchanged

Coucou verd du Cap de bonne-Esperance.
spelling unchanged: expected vert

Scarabæus Torquatus, the Collared Beetle

is probably Mecynorhina torquata. It lives in Africa.

Lacerta Scincus, the Officinal Scinc

is now Scincus scincus, the sandfish skink. It lives in North Africa and the Arabian peninsula.

Coryphæna Pentadactyla, the Five-Spotted Coryphene

is now Iniistius pentadactylus, the five-finger wrasse. It ranges from southern Japan to northern Australia, as well as the African coast of the Indian ocean.

[Plate 1032]
[The plate is both engraved and indexed as 1031, duplicating the previous plate.]

Perdix Rufa, the Red Partridge

If it is the same bird as Linnaeus’s Tetrao rufus, it is now Alectoris rufa, the red-legged partridge. It lives in Europe.

It is of a gregarious nature
text has gregarions

Sparus Pavo, the Peacock Sparus

is now Crenicichla saxatilis (by way of Sparus saxatilis), the pike cichlid. It lives in South America.

Papilio Idalia, the Idalia (butterfly)

is probably Speyeria idalia, the regal fritillary. It lives in the middle parts of North America.

Simia Leonina, the Leonine Monkey

is now Leontocebus fuscus, Lesson’s saddle-back tamarin. It lives in South America. Yet again, a newer name (Lesson, 1840) displaces an older one (Humboldt, 1805); what’s going on?

Anas Sponsa, the Summer Duck

is now Aix sponsa, the wood duck. Today it lives mainly in North America and Europe, though some of its range may be introduced.

Lingua ciliata, obtusa.
text has Linguæ

Labrus Annulatus, the Annulated Labrus

is now Hologymnosus annulatus, the narrow-banded rainbowfish. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Sphinx Pandion, the Pandion (sphinx)

may be Eumorpha phorbas. If so, it lives in South and Central America.

Asterias Scolopendroides, the Scolopendroid Star-Fish

Unknown. And the only A. ciliaris I can find was named in 1837. It’s definitely an echinoderm, but whether it belongs in class Asteroidea (sea stars) or class Ophiuroidea (brittle stars) is anyone’s guess.

It seems most allied to the Asterias aculeata
[Now Ophiopholis aculeata, the crevice brittlestar. For what it’s worth, Müller’s A. ciliata is now Ophiura ophiura, the serpent star, elsewhere in the same class.]

Ardea Virgo, the Numidian Crane

is now Anthropoides virgo, the demoiselle crane. It lives mostly in Eurasia.

Sciæna Macrolepidota, the Large-Scaled Sciæna

is now Ophiocara macrolepidota. It lives in the Indian ocean.

Papilio Polychloros, the Great Tortoise-Shell Butterfly

is now Nymphalis polychloros, the large tortoiseshell. It lives mostly in Europe.

Conus Amadis, the Amadis Cone

Unchanged. It lives along the southern coasts of Asia.

Caprimulgus Cayanus, the White-Necked Goatsucker

If he meant C. cayennensis, it is also known as the white-tailed nightjar. It lives in South and Central America. And if that isn’t what he meant . . . who knows.

Crapaud-volant variè de Cayenne.
spelling unchanged
[And besides, wouldn’t that mean “flying toad”?]

Papilio C-Aureum, the American Comma Butterfly

Linnaeus’s P. c-aureum is now Polygonia c-aureum. It lives in East Asia, including Japan.

The American species is a different butterfly, as discussed as early as 1870 in the Transactions of the American Entomological Society. Shaw’s “American comma butterfly” seems to be Polygonia interrogationis, the question mark. It lives in North America east of the Rockies.

Sciæna Coro, the Coro Sciæna

is listed as “doubtful” at GBIF, while WoRMS doesn’t seem to have heard of it at all. Today the name “corocoro” belongs to Orthopristis ruber, also known as the pigfish or bronze-striped grunt, but it doesn’t look anything like Shaw’s picture.

Sertularia Cereoides, the Cereoid Sertularia

is probably Margaretta cereoides. It is most common around the Mediter­ranean.

Colymbus Glacialis, the Northern Diver

may be Gavia immer, the loon. (Linnaeus’s genus Colymbus was later merged into Forster’s genus Gavia.) It lives everywhere in Europe and North America.

[Plate 1049] Published by R. P. Nodder
[Richard has another discussion with his mother, after which the engraved signatures generally revert to the form that gives him publisher credit.]

subtus albus
text has abus

Clus. exot. 102. / Worm. mus. 303.
[Printed run-in, as if all the same reference. It can’t be because the printer ran out of room on the page; it still spills over to a second line, so it would not have made any difference.]

Papilio Huntera, the American Painted Lady Butterfly

is now Vanessa virginiensis (by way of Papilio virginiensis), the American lady. It is most common in North and Central America, but has also been seen in Europe.

Ob nimiam quæ est inter hunc papilionem et Europæum illum
[Shaw has forgotten a noun—similitudinem, let’s say—but we know what he means.]

the European Butterfly, called Papilio cardui
[Now Vanessa cardui. In spite of Shaw’s prose, it is as common in North America as in Europe.]

Corallina Incrassata, the Thick-Leaved Coralline

is now Halimeda incrassata. It lives in most tropical-to-subtropical oceans, especially around the Caribbean. By any name, it’s a plant.

Patella Testudinaria, the Tortoise-Shell Limpet

is now Cellana testudinaria. It lives around the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Patella Plicaria, the Pleated Limpet

is now Scutellastra barbara (by way of Patella barbara).It lives along the southern tip of Africa.

Caprimulgus Vociferans, the Vociferous Goatsucker

is now C. vociferus, the whippoorwill, though you see the vociferans form just as often—sometimes even on the same page. It lives in the eastern and southern parts of North America. It does not have two heads; blame Richard Nodder for that.

the United States of North America
[This is only the second time in the entire Miscellany that Shaw has admitted the existence of the United States. Back in Volume 8 they were the United British States. The “of North America” part is justified—barely—because the Netherlands were also often known as the United States. Not that he ever does mention the Netherlands, by any name.]

The ingenious Mr. Wilson, in his work entitled American Ornithology
[Impressively, this work was published in 1812, or just last year.]

Scarabæus Fullo, the Fuller Beetle

is now Polyphylla fullo. It is scattered around continental Europe.

Gorgonia Lepadifera, the Barnacle-Bearing Lepadifera

is now Primnoa resedaeformis, the mignonette red tree coral, because at least two people got there before Linnaeus. (The “Barnacle-Bearing” part seems only fair, considering the Duck Barnacle and Goose Barnacle from earlier in the series. But why did Shaw choose to call it, bilingually, the “barnacle-bearing barnacle-bearer”?) It lives around the north Atlantic.

Kurtus Indicus, the Indian Kurtus

is also known as the Indian forehead brooder. It lives around the Bay of Bengal.

[Plate 1056]
[The plate is engraved and indexed as 1055, duplicating the “real” Plate 1055.]

Apteryx Australis, the Southern Apteryx

is also known as the brown kiwi, with naming credit to Shaw in this very work. It lives in New Zealand.

The bird represented on the present plate
[This is the first three-page description since volume 15. (In English, at least; the Latin fits into two pages.) No matter how tired Shaw is getting, no matter how bored the readers, sometimes you just have to spread yourself out.]

It seems however to approach more nearly to the Struthious
[Good call, George. Kiwis and ostriches are both ratites—as are casso­waries, a few sentences further along.]

Sphinx Chionanthi, the Fringe-Tree Sphinx

If it is the same insect as Fabricius’s Sphinx rustica, it is probably Manduca rustica, the rustic sphinx. It lives in the Americas, especially the southern part of North America.

Buprestis Chrysis, the Chesnut-Shelled Indian Buprestis

is now Sternocera chrysis. It lives in south India.

Psittacus Squamosus, the Scaly-Breasted Parrakeet

may be Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus, the scaly-breasted lorikeet. If so, it lives in eastern Australia.

Psittacus squammosus.
spelling unchanged

This elegant species is a native of Surinam
[By now it should be painfully obvious that Shaw’s assertions about where a given animal comes from need to be taken with a large handful of salt. But this particular description seems to have an unusual lot of corroborative detail.]

Testudo Serpentina, the Snake Tortoise

is now Chelydra serpentina, the snapping turtle. It lives in North America.

Lacerta Bicarinata, the Bicarinated Lizard

is now Neusticurus bicarinatus. It lives in South America.

Scomber Scomber, the Common Mackrel

is now Scomber scombrus, the Atlantic mackerel, because apparently there are grammarians lurking in the ICZN. It lives along both coasts of the Atlantic, and in the Mediterranean.

Index

As noted above, this final volume didn’t come with an index of its own. I have created one using the information in the General Index. Fortunately, the only errors are the ones arising from wrongly engraved plate numbers: “1031” for 1032 and “1055” for 1056.

Latin

1032.   [Coryphæna] pentadactyla
[The plate is both engraved and indexed as 1031, duplicating the previous plate.]

1056.   Kurtus Indicus
[The plate is both engraved and indexed as 1055, duplicating the previous plate.]

English

1032.   Coryphene five-spotted
[The plate is both engraved and indexed as 1031, duplicating the previous plate.]

1056.   Kurtus Indian
[The plate is both engraved and indexed as 1055, duplicating the previous plate.]

The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.