REVERENDISSIMO IN CHRISTO PATRI,
CULTU OMNI ET OBSERVANTIA,
D. D. D.
FREDERICUS P. NODDER.
THE MOST REVEREND FATHER IN GOD,
by divine providence,
ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY,
&c. &c. &c.
THIS THIRD VOLUME
The NATURALIST’S MISCELLANY
WITH THE MOST PROFOUND HUMILITY, INSCRIBED,
HIS GRACE’S MOST DEVOTED SERVANTS,
FREDERICK P. NODDER.
Rostrum arcuatum, tenue, subtrigonum,
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 184.
CERTHIA COCCINEA, alias caudaque nigris, rostro pallido.
Gmel. Syst. 1. p. 470.
Lath. Ind. orn. p. 282.
Certhia Coccinea, in insulis Sandvicensibus copiosissima, rostrum gerit prælongum, incurvum et pallidum: tota avis coloris est læte rubri, exceptis alis caudaque nigris: tabula illam exprimit magnitudine naturali: interdum utrinque juxta humeros macula alba
Bill slender, incurvated, sharp pointed.
Tongue differing in shape in the different species.
Legs moderately stout.
Toes placed three before, and one behind; back toe large: claws hooked and long.
Linnæus. Latham. Pennant.
SCARLET CREEPER, with black wings and tail, and pale bill.
HOOK-BILLED RED CREEPER.
Lath. Synops. 1. p. 704.
The Scarlet Creeper is a native of the Sandwich Islands, where it is extremely numerous. The bill in this species is very long, hooked, and of a pale colour. The whole bird is of a vivid red, except the wings and tail, which are black. In some individuals a white spot appears on each side the shoulders.
Corpus tetrapodum, ecaudatum, nudum.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 354.
RANA PALPEBRIS CONICIS.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 356.
BUFO CORNUTUS s. Spinosus Virginianus.
Seb. 1. t. 72. f. 1. 2.
Laur. amph. p. 25. n. 2.
Qui quæstioni respondere vellet, quidnam animal effinxerit natura deformissimum? vix hæreret ranam cornutam quasi exemplum insolitæ turpitudinis seligere; quæ sane vel ipsa Pipa seu Surinamensi foedior est et monstrosior. Non possumus illam non horrescere et aversari frontem intuentes quasi cornua gerentem, summas nempe palpebras in mucronem callosum productas, orisque immodicam amplitudinem, hiatumque ultra solitum immanem. Rarissima est rana cornuta. Americam v Septentrionalem inhabitat, et in Virginia potissimum invenitur. Color generalis est fusco-virescens, fasciis latis albicantibus longitudinalibus per dorsum ductis. Cutis quoque corporis superioris tuberculis aculeatis contecta est. Crura fusco transversim fasciata sunt.
Body four-footed, naked, without tail.
Lin. Syst. Nat.
FROG with horned eyelids.
Should inquiry be made, which is the ugliest animal yet known to exist? the creature here represented might perhaps with justice be proposed as an answer: an animal of such prodigious deformity as even to exceed in this respect the Surinam toad, or Rana Pipa. What gives an aspect so peculiarly forbidding to the present species is the horned appearance of the front, which is caused by a sharp-pointed elongation of the upper part of each eyelid into a callous process resembling a horn: to this may be added the excessive width of the mouth, which exceeds that of every other known species of Rana. This animal is extremely rare, and is a native of some parts of North America. It is principally found in Virginia. Its general colour v is a greenish brown, with broad longitudinal stripes of whitish on the back, and the skin on the upper part of the body is covered with a kind of spiny tubercles: the legs are transversly fasciated with brown.
Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.
Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes. (Volatu diurno.)
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.
PAPILIO alias dentatis atris concoloribus: posticis disco communi aurato.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 748.
Clerk. ic. t. 22. f. 1.
Fabr. Spec. Ins. 2. p. 10.
Papilionem Helenam, vix ab ullis exoticis pulchritudine superatum, distinguit aterrimus et quasi holosericus alarum color; quarum fibræ virgis nonnullis pallidioribus et cinereis notantur. Alis utrisque inferioribus summum decus affert macula amplissima insigniter aureo-flava, venisque nigris pulcherrisme striata. Americam australem incolit Papilio Helena, et præcipue in Surinamia invenitur.
The Antennæ, or Horns, thickening towards the upper part, and generally terminating in a knob, or club-shaped tip.
The Wings (when sitting) erect, and meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)
BLACK BUTTERFLY with both surfaces alike; the disk of the lower wings of a brilliant gold colour.
The Papilio Helena, one of the most beautiful of the exotic butterflies, is distinguished by the deep velvet black of its wings, which are marked by a few lighter or greyish stripes accompanying the fibres; while the lower wings are each ornamented by a very large spot or patch of the richest golden-yellow, traversed by several veins of black. It is a South-American insect, and is principally found at Surinam.
Rostrum curvatum, compressum, carinatum.
Lingua apice laciniata.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 182.
MEROPS RUBER, fronte, gula, uropygioque cæruleis, rectricibus duabus intermediis longioribus.
Quanquam Meropi Brasiliensi Lathami affinis admodum sit hæc avis, adeo tamen coloribus discrepat, ut pro distincta specie jure habeatur. Illam igitur diverso nomine signavi. In Museo Britannico asservatur pulchrum specimen unde delineata est hæc nostra figura.
Bill curved, compressed, carinated, and sharp pointed.
Tongue (generally) laciniated at the tip.
Feet gressorial, i.e. three toes forward and one backward; and the three lower joints of the middle toe closely joined to those of the outmost.
RED BEE-EATER, with front, throat, and rump, blue; and the two middle tail-feathers longer than the rest.
The colours of this bird differ so much from those of the Merops Brasiliensis of Mr. Latham, to which it is yet extremely nearly allied, as to justify its being regarded as a distinct species. I have therefore called it by a different title. The beautiful specimen from which the present figure was taken is preserved in the British Museum.
Corallium cavitatibus lamelloso-stellatis.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1272.
MADREPORA simplex acaulis convexa, subtus plerumque concava, interdum convexa et pedunculata.
Clus. exot. 125. f. 1.
Buch. hist. 3. p. 801. f. 1, 2.
Cum anteactis temporibus, dormiret recentiorum philosophorum curiosa sedulitas, quæ jam fere per totum orbem feliciter diffunditur; nugis et fabellis anilibus sæpius credebatur, vetuitque plurimorum hominum hebes incuria ut vel ampla esset speciminum supellex, vel etiam nactorum plena et genuina descriptio. In plantis igitur et animalibus indies erratum est. Radix filicis in septentrionali Asia satis vulgaris naturam cum quadrupede participare censebatur, vocabaturque communiter v agnus vegetabilis. Gryllorum certæ species exoticæ quibus alæ sunt amplæ, virides, et venosæ, folia animata habebantur: nec defuere qui serio et pertinaciter asseruerunt arborum quarundam Indicarum et Americanarum, simul ac deciderant folia, subito alis pedibusque gaudentia circa ipsam arborem volitare. Corallium quoque, seu Madreporam in tabula depictam, fungum esse, sive agaricon in lapidem conversum opinabantur tunc temporis physici. Ignoscendum est sane huic errori potius quam aliis multis, cum Madrepora agarico simillima plerosque spectatores (exceptis paucis, quibus res penitus scrutari cordi est) posset decipere. Comperti sunt tandem in India Orientali, ubi frequentior est Madrepora, seduli examinatores, esse eam fulcrum seu habitaculum substantiæ gelatinosæ et animatæ, forma ad Medusas ut vocantur, orbiculatas et depressas accedentis. Efficit animal mirandum hoc domicilium, materiem calcariam glutinosam ab omni corporis parte copiose exprimendo; ita ut sulci seu depressiones in Madrepora, lamellis totidem acutis et radiatis in ipsius animalis corpore respondeant; quod cum sit tenerrimum, aeri expositum in meram pelliculam paucis horis decrescit, nec nisi in aqua marina, qua nascitur, probe potest examinari. In nonnullis speciminibus ex parte inferiore, seu concava, proles minor varia protruditur. In India præcipue Orientali invenitur Madrepora Fungites, crescitque interdum ad magnitudinem sex unciarum in diametro, interdum vix unam superat. Color albus non caret elegantia, totaque superficies exterior tuberculis minutimmis leviter exasperatur. Lamellarum margines interrupto ordine serrate sunt.
The Animal resembling a Medusa.
The Coral marked by lamellated star-shaped cavities.
MADREPORE with rising or convex laminæ above, generally concave and papillose beneath, and sometimes footstalked.
Before that spirit of inquiry which characterizes the modern cultivators of natural history began to diffuse itself in Europe, innumerable errors were committed in the histories both of animals and vegetables, while the general neglect with which the major part of mankind regarded subjects of this nature, still increased the difficulty of obtaining proper specimens and descriptions of several of the most curious and interesting productions of nature. The root of a species of fern, not uncommon in the northern parts of Asia, was supposed to partake of the nature of a quadruped, and was dignified by the title of the vegetable lamb. Some of the locust tribe with large green veiny wings were believed v to be animated leaves; and there were not wanting those who were ready to vouch the certainty of the leaves which fell from several trees in India and America becoming suddenly furnished with legs and wings, and soon after fluttering round the branches of the tree which gave them birth; while the coral which forms the subject of the present plate was regarded as a species of petrified mushroom. It must be confessed that of all erroneous ideas this was one of the most plausible; for so very striking is the general resemblance which this coral bears to the genus Agaricus, that it is impossible not to be forcibly impressed with the similarity of the structure. From observations, however, which have been made in those parts of India where it is commonly found, it appears to be the production of an animal of a soft or gelatinous nature, and which bears a general affinity to the shape of the orbicular depressed Medusæ or Sea-Blubbers. The animal forms this curious fulcrum or habitation by secreting a copious deposition of calcarious matter from every part of its body, and the fulci or furrows in the Madrepore answer to so many sharp radiated laminæ of the creature’s body. So tender is this animal, that it collapses and shrinks to a mere pellicle when exposed for some hours to the air; so that it is only in the sea-water that it can be viewed to advantage. Some specimens of this Madrepore are proliferous, or have young productions of the same form growing from several parts of the concave or lower surface. The Madrepora Fungites is found of various sizes, from an inch to six inches in diameter. Its colour is an elegant white, and every part of the r external surface is roughened by small protuberances, and the edges of the lamellæ or gills are irregularly serrated. It is principally found on the coasts of the East Indies.
Antennæ clavatæ capitulo fissili.
Tibiæ anticæ sæpius dentatæ.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 541.
SCARABÆUS scutellatus, thorace inermi, clypeo bifurco.
Fabr. Spec. Ins. tom. 1. p. 14.
Drur. Ins. 1. tab. 31. & 3. tab. 40.
Voet. Scar. tab. 22. fig. 51.
Scarabæus Goliatus, sui generis fere rarissimus, Africam incolit, præcipue Guineam. Coloribus variat; thorace interdum roseo nigris lineis variato, elytrisque purpureo-ferrugineis; interdum tum thorace tum elytris albido-flavescentibus, nigro interstindris. In elegantissimo opere Domini Drury prima depicta est hæc scarabæi species.
Antennæ divided at the tip, or head, into several lamellæ.
Tibiæ, or second joints of the fore-legs, generally toothed.
BEETLE with plain thorax striped with black, and forked head.
The Scarabæus Goliatus, one of the rarest of its genus, is a native of Africa, and is principally found in Guinea. It is a species which varies much in colour; some specimens having the thorax rose colour, striped with black, and deep-ferruginous or purple-brown elytra, or wing-cases, while in other specimens both thorax and elytra are of a dull yellowish white, or cream-colour, striped and varied with black. This curious insect was first figured in the elegant work of Mr. Drury.
Rostrum subulato-filiforme, apice tubulato, capite longius: Mandibula superior vaginans inferiorem.
Lingua filiformis, filis duobus coalitis tubulosa.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 189.
TROCHILUS curvirostris fuscus, vertice, gula, pectore, humerisque, viridi-aureis, abdomine rubro, genis cyaneis.
Lath. ind. orn. p. 308.
Gmel. Syst. Nat. p. 490.
Trochilus Multicolor, variis ditissimus coloribus, inter rarissimas sui generis species habetur. Depingitur figura nostra a specimine pulcherrimo quod suppeditavit Museum Britannicum. Americam Australem incolit hæc avicula.
Bill slender, tubular, the upper mandible sheathing the lower.
Tongue very long, missile; formed of two conjoined cylindric tubes.
Toes three forward, one backward.
Curve billed brown Humming-Bird, with gold-green crown, throat, breast, and shoulders, red belly, and blue cheeks.
Lath. Synops. 2. p. 760.
The Trochilus Multicolor, or Harlequin Humming-Bird, so remarkable for the diversity of its colours, is one of the rarest of its genus. The figure here represented is taken from the beautiful specimen in the British Museum. This bird is a native of South America.
Stirps lapidea, rigida.
Flores Hydræ e poris lateralibus.
ISIS stirpe corallina æquali continua, striis obsoletis obliquis, ramis vagis.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1288.
Bauh. pin. 366.
Ellis. Zooph. p. 90.
Isis nobilis, seu Corallium vulgare rubrum, e substantiis illis marinis est quæ, communi fere physicorum recentium consensu, ab animalibus hydras seu polypos quodammodo referentibus effingi creduntur. Degunt hæc animalia in cavitatibus istis quæ in cortice corallii molli et subereo frequenter conspiciuntur; eorumque vestigia paulatim distantia punctisque similia in superficie etiam durissima imprimuntur, omnibus corallii ipsius ramusculis striis longitudinalibus ab ipsa basi extrinsecus notatis. Fatendum sane est non mediocri fide opus esse ut omnia Lithophyta ab animalibus incolentibus v revera et omnino formari persuasum habeamus. Cum vero nostrum non sit notissimas Domini Ellisii observationes in dubium vocare, gaudeant volumus lectores suis sententiis, statuantque ipsi an inter animalia an vegetabilia substantias hasce satius sit numerare: ad utraque enim miro modo videntur pertinere. Notandum est specimina corallii rubri, quo formosiora videantur, cortice exteriore, ut plurimum, denudari. Depingitur igitur ramulus cortice obductus juxta ipsam naturam. Fig. 2.
The Coral having the habit or appearance of a plant.
The Stem, or internal part, differing in the different species, and generally either of a horny or a stony appearance.
The cortical part soft, and inhabited by animals resembling polypes.
BRIGHT-RED STONY-BRANCHED CORAL, with longitudinal striæ.
COMMON RED CORAL.
The Isis nobilis, or common red Coral, is one of those numerous submarine productions which, by the almost general consent of modern naturalists, are regarded as the fabrication of animals resembling polypes, which reside in the cavities so constantly seen in the soft or cortical part of the coral; and the impressions or vestiges of which are visible even on the surface of the hard part the coral itself; being generally seated at distant intervals, and appearing like small impressed spots, while v the whole coral, throughout all its ramifications, is marked externally by longitudinal striæ proceeding from the very base itself. It must be candidly confessed that a good share of philosophical faith is necessary to reconcile us to the idea of all the coral tribe being entirely the work of animals: yet as we cannot presume to controvert the well-known observations of Mr. Ellis, we shall leave our readers to their own opinions, and at perfect liberty to regard these curious substances either as belonging to the animal or vegetable kingdom, to both of which they seem to be strangely allied. It is necessary to observe that the specimens of red coral as generally seen, have, in order to increase the beauty of their appearance, been deprived of their cortical or exterior coat. A branch in its natural state, or with its exterior coat, is represented fig. 2. in the annexed plate.
Corpus tetrapodum, caudatum, nudum.
LACERTA cauda longa carinata, corpore maculis transversis variis.
Tam prope accedit hæc lacerta ad illius similitudinem quam Linnæus nomine Monitoris descripsit, ut dubium forsan sit an species vere sit distincta, seu illius tantum varietas. Corpus uncias circiter quindecim longum est, caudaque multo longior. Color niger est, notis, striisque flavis, imparibus, per corpus transverse discurrentibus. Super crura sunt series transversæ macularum rotundarum, caudaque fasciis latis nigris flavisque alternatim interstinguitur. In nonnullis speciminibus color flavus pallidior multo est quam in aliis, et fere albescens. Plurima hujus lacertas specimina novissimis a Nova Hollandia navigiis in Angliam illata sunt.
Body four-footed, tailed, naked.
LIZARD with long carinated tail, the body transversely variegated.
This Lizard approaches so extremely near to the Lacerta Monitor of Linnæus, or Monitory Lizard, as to make it doubtful whether it be not in reality a variety of that species. The body is about fifteen inches in length, and the tail is considerably longer. The animal is of a black colour, variegated with yellow marks and streaks of different shapes, and running in a transverse direction. On the legs are rows of transverse round spots; and on the tail broad alternate bars of black and yellow. In some specimens the yellow is much paler than in others, and nearly white. Several specimens of this species were brought from New Holland during the late voyage from Botany Bay.
Macula prope oculos nuda, papillosa.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 273.
TETRAO VIOLACEO-NIGRICANS, viridi suffusus, alis fusco-ferrugineis, crista compresso-erecta ferrugineo-rubente.
LE ROULOUL DE MALACCA.
Son. Voy. Ind. vol. 2. p. 174. pl. 100.
Genus Tetrao numerosum varias species complectitur quæ nominibus perdicum, urogallorum, coturnicum, &c. communiter vocantur; pertinetque ad divisionem gallinaceam, quæ scilicet continet omnes illas aves quæ forma vivendique modo ad gallum gallinaceum plus minus accedunt. Tetraonum plures exotici sunt; maxima pars extra Europam nutritur. Species de qua jam loquimur, ut sileamus inusitatum colorem, generis sui est rarissima. Notandum præterea est characteres illi esse incertos; ut ad genus Columbæ non minus quam Tetraonis pertinere videatur; præsertim si specimen exsiccatum inspicias. Figura hæc nostra ab ipsa ave viva fideliter depicta est. Palpebris peculiare quoddam est; v margo nempe crenis parvulis ruberrimis et exstantibus ornatus. Crista quoque mollissima et quasi serica. Peninsulam Malaccam, variasque Indiæ Orientalis insulas inhabitat Tetrao Porphyrio. Observandum est in aliquibus speciminibus, (maribus fortasse,) exstare in basi frontis setas aliquot nigras, quæ in hoc specimine defuere. Notandum quoque est hanc avem, quamvis in genere adeo diverso, in multis similem esse Cuculo Persæ Linnæi.
Eyes (generally) bounded, either above or on one side, by a granulated red skin.
Bill convex, short, and strong.
VIOLACEOUS-BLACKISH PARTRIDGE with a cast of green, ferruginous-brown wings, and compressed, upright, ferruginous-red crest.
Lath. Syn. vol. 2. p. 622.
The numerous genus Tetrao, comprehending all the species of Grous, Partridge, Heathcock, &c. belongs to the order called Gallinæ, or such as in their general characters and appearance make some approach to the common Cock, or Phasianus Gallus of Linnæus. By far the major part of the Tetraones are exotic birds; and indeed most of them are extra-European birds. The present species, exclusive of its unusual colour and peculiar elegance, is likewise remarkable for being one of the rarest of the genus: it is also to be observed, v that from a kind of ambiguity in its appearance, it may seem to bear almost as much affinity to the genus Columba as to that of Tetrao; and indeed in a dried specimen it is not easy to decide with absolute precision to which genus it should with the greatest propriety be referred. The present figure was taken from the living bird, and exhibits with great fidelity its several characters. The eyelids are singularly formed; being regularly surrounded by a series of rising crenatures of the most vivid scarlet. The crest also, which is of a structure peculiarly delicate, adds greatly to the beauty of the bird. It is a native of Malacca, and some of the East-Indian islands. It should be observed that in some specimens, (perhaps males,) a certain number of long, black, rising bristles appear, seated at the base of the front: these in the present specimen were wanting. It may be added, that notwithstanding the difference of its genus, this bird bears a striking affinity with the Cuculus Persa of Linnæus.
Oculi verticis duo contigui, duo laterales.
Frons antennis pediformibus.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1028.
PHALANGIUM abdomine obovato depresso, chelis lævibus: digitis pilosis.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1028.
CHELIFER abdomine lineis transversis.
Geoffr. Paris. 2. p. 618.
Roesel. 3. Supl. t. 64.
Animalculum hoc, physicis diu cognitum, diversis temporibus ad diversa genera retulerunt entomologi. Laboriosus celeberrimusque Swammerdamus quasi scorpionis speciem descripsit. Idem fecit Roeselius. Quanquam in editione duodecima Systematis Naturæ Linnæus in genere Phalangii posuerit, in Fauna tamen Suecica ab eodem auctore conscripta, inter acaros numeratur. Ingeniosus Degeer genus illi distinctum nomine v Cheliferi instituit. Fabricius denique in Systemate Entomologico iterum ad genus Scorpii amandavit, cui fortasse conjunctius est quam ulli alii. Magnitudine multum variat hoc insectum: quæ enim in Anglia inveniuntur specimina, multo minora sunt quam in Sebæ, Swammerdami, et Roeselii operibus depicta. Figura microscopica in hac nostra tabula accuratissime delineatur. Altera quæ disjungitur, caput et thoracem amplitudine admodum aucta ostendunt, ut partes pectinatæ appareant; quæ quamvis situ diversæ, formam tamen fere eandem habent ac in scorpiis. Figura 1. magnitudinem naturalem insecti, ut in Anglia conspicitur, monstrat. Accusat hoc insectum Linnæus, sed (ut mihi videtur,) injuria, cutim interdum penetrandi, papulamque magnitudine pisi, summo cum dolore excitandi. Circa parietes antiquos, ut plurimum invenitur, et interdum inter papyram, &c. conspicitur. Inter insecta quoque rariora non immerito numeratur.
Two vertical and two lateral Eyes.
Antennæ resembling legs.
PHALANGIUM with obovate depressed abdomen, and smooth chelæ, slightly hairy at the tips.
This little insect, which has long been known to naturalists, has been occasionally referred to very different genera. The celebrated and laborious Swammerdam has described it as a species of Scorpion. In the works of Roesel it is also regarded as a Scorpion. In the twelfth edition of the Systema Naturæ of Linnæus it is ranked under the genus Phalangium; while in the Fauna Suecica of the same author it is made an Acarus. The ingenious Degeer institutes for it a separate genus under the name of Chelifer. Lastly Fabricius in his Systema Entomologiæ has remanded it to the genus Scorpio, to which perhaps it is more nearly allied than to any other. This insect seems to vary considerably in size; those v which are found in our own country being much smaller than the representations given by Swammerdam, Roesel, and Seba. The microscopical figure in the annexed plate is executed with the greatest accuracy. The separate figure represents the head and thorax very much magnified, in order to shew the pectinated parts, which though differing in situation, are nearly of the same form as in scorpions. Fig. 1. shews the natural size of the English specimens. Linnæus accuses it (I believe most unjustly,) of sometimes getting under the skin, and raising a painful tumour. It is generally found on old walls, and sometimes amongst papers, &c., and is not a very common insect.
Annuli trunci caudæque.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 392.
AMPHISBÆNA annulis trunci circiter 223; caudæ 16.
Generis Amphisbænæ perpaucæ quæ noscuntur species a plerisque serpentibus tantum differunt, ut eas primo visu vermes potius quam angues putemus: squamis enim penitus carent, quarum in loco corpus cingunt annuli seu spatia circularia æque distantia, quæ striis innumeris in longitudinem ductis decussantur. Caput in areas paucas dividitur, squamis majoribus in pleroque colubrino genere non absimiles; caudaque non sensim attenuata, sed vix a proportione cæteri corporis recedens, apiceque valde obtuso seu rotundato. Orta est ab hac forma vulgaris opinio, Amphisbænæ duo esse capita, unum scilicet in utraque extremitate: cum enim oculi adeo minuti sint ut primo visu non distinguantur, eo fit ut inter caput et oppositum extremum ambiguum sit discrimen. Hujus generis species maxima est Amphisbæna alba; ob colorem pallidulum, gilvum v scilicet, seu fere album, sic nominata. Colore tamen est interdum pulcherrime roseo, qualis in tabula depingitur. Non raro pedali est longitudine. Americam incolit et plane innocuus est serpens.
The whole animal marked by annuli or circular segments.
AMPHISBÆNA with the annuli of the body amounting to about 223; of the tail 16.
The animals of the genus Amphisbæna, which contains but very few species, differ so much from the major part of the serpent tribe, as to be almost liable, on a cursory view, to be mistaken for worms rather than snakes; being totally destitute of scales; instead of which the whole animal is marked with equidistant annuli, or circular spaces surrounding the body, and decussated by an infinite number of longitudinal divisions or striæ. The head is marked with a few large divisions or spaces analogous to the large scales in the major part of the genus Coluber; and the tail, instead of tapering gradually, is scarce distinguishable from the proportion of the rest of the body; and is extremely obtuse or rounded. This peculiarity of shape in the genus Amphisbæna, gave rise to the erroneous idea of the Amphisbæna being furnished with a head at each extremity: v for as the eyes are very small, and at first view inconspicuous, the head bears no striking mark of distinction from the opposite extremity. The largest species of this genus, is the Amphisbæna alba; so called from its colour; which is a very pale cream-colour, or nearly white: it sometimes however occurs of a beautiful rose-colour, in which state it is represented on the annexed plate. The Amphisbæna alba is frequently seen of at least a foot in length. It is a native of America, and is perfectly harmless.
Caput maxilla superiore terminatum rostro ensiformi.
XIPHIAS pinna dorsi latissima, appendicibus pectoralibus acuminatis longissimis.
Marcgr. bras. 1. 4. c. 15. p. 171.
Monstrum fortasse nullum hoc insignius generat oceanus vel Indicus vel Pacificus. Si rostrum spectemus peracutum et velut ensiforme, Xiphiæ communi physicis optime cognito affine putemus: cum tamen ab illo variis notis discrepet, speciem omnino diversam habeamus necesse est. Longitudo illi est viginti pedum; interdum multo major. Piscem hunc primus descripsit Marcgravius in historia sua Brasiliensi, qui etiam figuram addidit, certe non elegantem, quæ tamen ipsum animal satis accurate exprimit. Color generalis est sub-cæruleo-argenteus, dorso superiori, capite, caudaque exceptis, quæ insigniter fusca sunt. Pinna dorsi magna fusco-pallescit, maculis rotundatis plurimis nigerrimis v notata. Specimen ipsissimum, quo forsan nullum pulchrius et perfectius, unde figura hæc nostra delineata est, in Museo Britannico asservatur, cui dono dedit illustris ille physicus Josephus Banks, Baronettus; ad quem tribus circiter abhinc annis, venerunt literæ a Præfecto navis Indicæ, robur fere incredibile piscis describentes, asserentesque illum, densam et solidam navis carinam rostro penitus transfixisse. Mortem ipsi Xiphiæ conscivit ictus violentia. Fauste admodum evenit non potuisse piscem rostrum reducere; quod si fecisset, perdita esset navis immissa aqua. Rostrum ipsum ligno infixum in Museo Britannico conspici potest. Non solum maria Indica et Australia, sed etiam Septentrionalia incolit Xiphias Platypterus. Fertur eum balænis esse inimicissimum, cumque iis sæpius acerrime pugnare. Notatu dignum est loqui Plinium de navibus Xiphia perfossis; quod tamen inter fabulas veterum physicorum semper habitum est. Cum vero ita se rem revera habere intra annos variis exemplis certissime compertum sit, probabile est Plinium, inscium licet, de hac ipsa specie locutum esse, quæ tunc temporis a Xiphia communi minus accurate distincta est.
Head furnished with a sword-shaped snout or upper jaw.
Body without apparent scales.
SWORD-FISH with extremely broad back-fin, and very long sharp-pointed thoracic appendages.
Amongst the monsters of the deep which inhabit the Indian and Pacific oceans, the fish here represented is one of the most remarkable. From the appearance of the long and sharp-pointed process of the head, it appears, on a cursory view, very nearly allied to the Sword-fish, already so well known to naturalists. It differs, however, in several particulars, from the common or European Sword-fish, and can by no means be regarded as the same species. This extraordinary fish is found of the length of twenty feet, or sometimes much longer. It was first described by Marcgrave, in his History of Brasil, who has illustrated his description by a figure, which, though not possessing any degree of elegance, is yet sufficient v to ascertain the animal. The general colour of this fish is a silvery blueish white, except on the upper part of the back, the head, and the tail, which are of a deep brown. The back-fin is of a pale brown, finely spotted with roundish marks of deep black. The skin is smooth, and without any appearance of scales. The specimen from which the present figure was taken, is an uncommonly fine one: perhaps the most complete and perfect ever seen in Europe. It is now in the British Museum, to which collection it was presented by Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. President of the Royal Society. About three years ago a letter was sent to the President, from the captain of an East-Indiaman, accompanied by an account of an astonishing instance of the powerful strength which this fish occasionally exerts: the bottom of the said ship having been pierced through by a fish of this species, in such a manner that the sword or snout was completely imbedded or driven through, its whole length, and the fish killed by the violence of the effort. A most singularly fortunate circumstance for the preservation of the vessel! which, had the fish been enabled to have withdrawn its snout, must inevitably have foundered in consequence of the leak. The wood, together with the sword imbedded in it, is now in the British Museum. This fish is found not only in the Brasilian and East-Indian seas, but also in the Northern ocean. It is said to be a great enemy to whales, with which it is reported to have frequent combats! It is remarkable that Pliny mentions the circumstance of the Sword-fish being able to transfix vessels; which has generally been regarded as one of those exaggerations r so frequent in the works of the ancient naturalists; but as the present fish is well known to possess this power, (several other equally-well authenticated accounts having been received within these few years,) it is surely no improbable supposition, that Pliny, though not conscious of the difference, in reality spoke of this very species, which at that time was doubtless confounded with the common Sword-fish.
Corpus tetrapodum, caudatum, nudum.
LACERTA FUSCA, subtus pallidior, linea dorsuali albida, super caput furcata, digitis unguiculatis, subtus, lamellatis.
Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. p. 1067.
Rarissima est hæc lacerta, nec certum est annon adhuc unquam descripta sit. Inter species Linnæanas frustra requiritur, nec non in numeroso horum animalium agmine quæ suppeditat Thesaurus Sebæ. Quantum colligere possum a speciminibus quæ egomet inspexi, longa est, ut plurimum, sex uncias, interdum ad novem pertingens. Color est languide fusco-flavescens, ochræ similis, subtus pallidior. Cauda gilva notis longitudinalibus fuscis variatur. Per dorsi longitudinem late discurrit linea insignis albo-gilva, quæ ab utroque latere capitis furcæ instar, divaricat; extremitatibus oculis tenus protensis. Cutis tuberculis, præsertim versus caudam, levitur exasperatur, quæ minutissima cum sint, non nisi attento oculo conspici queant. Simillima v est illi hæc species quam Linnæus nomine Gecko distinxit. In figura nostra exhibetur animal magnitudine ipsius speciminis; sed in figura 1. augetur paululum pars inferior pedis, ut transversæ lamellæ clarius distinctiusque inspiciantur.
Body four-footed, tailed, naked.
BROWN LIZARD, paler beneath, with a white dorsal line forked over the head, and unguiculated feet, lamellated beneath.
This species of Lacerta is extremely rare, and it may be doubted whether it has yet been described. It certainly is not a Linnæan species, nor does it occur in the numerous collection of Seba. The size of the specimens which I have examined is rather small, viz. from about six to nine inches in length. The colour is a soft yellowish brown, paler beneath; the tail is cream-coloured, varied with longitudinal marks of brown, and on the back of the animal is a very remarkable white, or rather cream-coloured broad line, which divides on each side the top of the head in the manner of a fork, the extremities of each division just reaching to the eyes. The skin of this Lizard, when closely examined, is slightly exasperated, especially towards the tail, with minute tubercles, but they are so extremely small that they are not perceptible without a close examination. The feet are transversely lamellated beneath. v The species to which this animal seems to bear the greatest affinity is the Lacerta Gecko of Linnæus. The figure here given represents it of its natural size; and at fig. 1. is represented the under part of one of the feet, rather larger than nature, in order to shew with greater distinctness the transverse lamellæ with which it is furnished.
Rostrum aduncum: mandibula superiore mobili, cera instructa.
Nares in rostri basi.
Lingua carnosa, obtusa, integra.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 139.
PSITTACUS submacrourus viridis, fronte maculaque postoculari coccineis, vertice cærulescente.
Valde affinis P. pacifico. Lath. Syn. 1. p. 252.
Novæ Hollandiæ est incola perpulchra hæc Psittaci species, et inter alias plurimas aves physicis Europæis nuperrime innotuit. Magnitudo est quasi parvi Turturis.
Bill hooked. Upper mandible moveable.
Nostrils round, placed in the base of the bill.
Tongue fleshy, broad, blunt at the end.
Legs short. Toes formed for climbing, viz. two backward and two forward.
Linnæus and Pennant.
GREEN PARRAKEET with lengthened tail, front and spot behind the eye crimson, and blueish crown.
N. B. This species is extremely nearly allied to the Pacific Parrot of Latham. vol. 1. p. 252.
The beautiful Parrakeet figured on this plate is a native of New Holland, and is one of the numerous new species of birds very lately made known to the naturalists of Europe. Its size is that of a small turtle.
Rostrum planiusculum: apice dilatato, orbiculato, plano.
Pedes tetradactyli, semipalmati.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 231.
PLATALEA corpore sanguineo.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 231.
Briss. Av. 5. p. 356. t. 30.
PLATALEA brasiliensis AJAJA dicta.
Marcgr. bras. 204.
Plataleæ leucorodiæ Linnæi, seu communi, corporis forma simillima est eximia hæc avis; coloribus autem longe discrepat: universa enim, exceptis rostro pedibusque, pulcherrime rosea est, alarum parte superiori dorsoque phœniceis. Fertur autem ætate grandior pleneque et perfecte plumata, tota esse penitus læte phœnicea, vel etiam coccinea; collumque inferius torque seu cingulo nigro ornari. Rostrum fusco-pallet. Crura fere nigricant. Vivit eodem modo quo Platalea communis, v seu leucorodia, littora nempe locaque aquosa quærens, animaliaque minora, ranas scilicet, vermes, et alia ejusmodi depascens. Americam incolit Australem.
Bill flattish, with dilated, orbicular, flat tip.
Feet 4-toed, semi-palmated.
SPOONBILL with crimson plumage.
SPATULE couleur de rose.
Buff. pl. enl. n. 165.
Lath. Syn. 3. p. 16.
This elegant bird, which is a native of South America, in its general shape bears a near resemblance to the Platalea leucorodia of Linnæus, or common Spoonbill, but differs widely in color; the whole bird, except the beak and legs, being generally of a fine full rose-colour, which on the upper part of the wings and the back, deepens almost into crimson. It is said however, that the bird, when advanced in age, and in full perfection of plumage, is entirely of a vivid crimson, or even scarlet, with the addition of a black circle or collar round the lower part of the neck. The bill is of a v pale brown: the legs blackish. In its manner of life it resembles the European or common Spoonbill; frequenting the shores and watery places, and feeding on the smaller aquatic animals, as frogs, worms, &c.
Corpus crusta tectum.
Oculi (plerisque) approximati, testæ innati.
MONOCULUS testa antica convexa lunata, cauda triquetro-subulata.
MONOCULUS testa convexa sutura lunata: postica dentata, cauda subulata longissima.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1057.
Clus. exot. l. 6. c. 14. p. 128.
Bont. jav. l. 5. c. 31.
Monoculum dicitur hoc genus, quod oculi, ut plurimum, sibi invicem adeo appropinquant, ut primo intuitu unicus esse oculus videantur. Aliquarum tamen specierum oculi, et præsertim ejus de qua jam agitur, sunt alter ab altero valde remoti. Animal quod repræsentat tabula, omnium proculdubio est maximum, quotquot inter insecta numerare hodiernis visum est physicis: est enim illi corpus, extra caudam, interdum bipedale in longitudinem. Linnæus dicit “insectorom omnium v facile maximum.” Oceanum Indicum incolit, et, (ut fertur) bina plerumque simul conspiciuntur, scilicet mas et prope natantes. Pleræque hujus generis species parvula sunt insecta in aquis dulcibus viventia, quorum multa adeo sunt minuta, ut inter animalcula microscopica numerentur. Qui intimas et minus cognitas Naturæ partes scrutari solent, et innumera animalculorum agmina quibus aquæ scatent, attentius examinare, ii sane summa cum voluptate conspiciant necesse est varias hujus generis species, quæ sine ope microscopii vix videndæ, characteribus tamen genericis plane demonstrant certissimum esse illis cum ingenti et gigantea specie de qua jam loquimur, cognationis vinculum. Hæc animalcula mensibus æstivis in omnibus fere aquis stagnantibus facillime reperiuntur; eorum etiam nonnulla a scriptoribus microscopicis, Bakero præcipue, non sane eleganter, satis tamen accurate delineantur, et exempla sunt miræ quoad magnitudinem differentiæ quam in ejusdem generis animalibus non possumus non observare.
Huic descriptioni Monoculi Polyphemi non abs re sit addere, quod tunica oculi externa, quæ in aliis insectis e convexitatibus innumeris basi hexagona inclusis constat, in hoc, attestante Domino André (Phil. Trans. t. 72.) e corpusculis plurimis conicis sit conflata. Possit etiam observari quod oculi multarum parvularum Monoculi specierum, ab oculis aliorum insectorum structura et aspectu differunt, et velut e pluribus ocellis seu globulis tunica communi contentis, componi videntur. Notandum præterea est genus Monoculi generi Cancri (quod astacos omnes et cancros includit) valde esse affine.
Feet formed for swimming.
Body covered by a crustaceous shell.
Eyes (in most species) approximated, fixed in the shell.
MONOCULUS with the anterior part of the shell lunated, and long, triangular, sharp-pointed tail.
The INDIAN MONOCULUS, MOLUCCA CRAB, or KING-CRAB.
The name Monoculus was bestowed on this genus of insects from the circumstance of the eyes being generally seated so near each other, as, upon a cursory view, to appear as if single. In some species however, (as in the present,) it happens that they are really very remote from each other. Of all the animals which modern naturalists have agreed to distinguish by the appellation of Insects, the creature figured on this plate is by far the largest yet known; specimens being sometimes seen of two feet in length, exclusive of the tail. Linnæus v calls it “insectorum omnium facile maximum.” It is a native of the Indian ocean, and is said to be generally found in pairs, or male and female swimming together. Most of the species of Monoculus are small fresh-water insects, and some of them even belong to the tribe of microscopic animalcules. To those who are accustomed to penetrate into the less conspicuous provinces of Nature, and to investigate the legions of animated beings with which the waters in particular are peopled, it must afford a pleasing entertainment to view several species of this genus, which though scarce perceptible without the assistance of the microscope, yet with respect to their generic characters, bear the most striking resemblance to the gigantic species just . These minute Monoculi are very common animalcules, and may be found in the summer months in almost all stagnant waters. Some of them are figured, (though not very elegantly, yet with sufficient exactness,) in Baker’s works on the microscope, and may serve as curious examples of the wonderful disparity of size which sometimes takes place in animals of the same genus.
To what has been said of the Monoculus Polyphemus, I should not omit to add, that the eyes in this animal, according to the observations of Mr. André, (Phil. Trans. vol. 72.) consist of a great number of very small cones, in which respect they differ from those of most other insects, in which the outward coat of the eye is composed of innumerable slight convexities, each bounded by an hexagonal outline. It may be proper to add, that the eyes of most of the smaller species of r Monoculi differ in their structure and appearance from those of the generality of insects, and seem composed of a number of smaller eyes or globular parts united by the same external tunic. It may also be observed that the genus Monoculus is very nearly allied to that of Cancer, which contains the Crab and Lobster tribe.
Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato capitatæ.
Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque cpnniventes, (volatu diurno.)
PAPILIO alis caudatis nigris, disco cæruleo radiante; posticis subtus ocellis septem.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 748.
Fabr. spec. ins. 2. p. 13.
Clerk. ic. t. 23.
Cram. pap. 11. t. 121.
Insolitæ pulchritudinis est Ulysses. Alæ sunt nigerrimæ et quasi holosericæ; area autem seu pars media plaga magna cærulea impletur, cum ad oras pertigerit radiata. Exemplo est hoc insectum papilionum caudatorum, in quibus scilicet alæ posticæ in processus seu quasi caudas excurrunt. Asiæ est incola Ulysses. In quibusdam speciminibus color alarum fuscus est potius quam niger. Superficies inferior nigra est, prope apices rufo tincta; alarumque posticarum oræ serie macularum ocellatarum cæruleo-rufescentium, albo nigroque fimbriatarum, decorantur.
Antennæ or Horns thickening towards their extremity, and generally terminating in a knob, or club-shaped tip.
Wings (when sitting) erect, and meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)
BUTTERFLY with tailed black wings, the middle-part blue and radiated, with 7 ocellated spots on the under surface of the lower wings.
This is an insect of uncommon beauty. The wings are of the deepest velvet black, while the area or middle part of each is possessed by a very large bed of the most exalted blue that can possibly be conceived, and which terminates in a radiated manner round the edges. This insect also affords an example of the caudated papilios, in which the lower wings are furnished with a pair of appendages resembling tails. It is an Asiatic insect. The ground-colour in some specimens is rather brown than black. The under surface is black, tinged v with rufous near the tips, and the edges of the lower pair are ornamented by a series of large ocellated spots of a reddish colour tinged with blue, and edged with black and white.
Rostrum aduncum: mandibula superiore mobili, cera instructa.
Nares in rostri basi.
Lingua carnosa, obtusa, integra.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 139.
PSITTACUS macrourus varius, capite gula pectore crissoque coccineis, dorso nigro flavo-viridi undulato, alis caudaque cæruleis.
Rostrum pallidum. Pedes nigricantes. Rectrices duæ intermediæ virides.
A Nova Hollandia nuperrime illata est hæc avis, et jam primo depingitur. De splendido ejus ornatu speciatim disserere supervacaneum foret, cum figura varios colores exquisite ostendit. Magnitudine et forma generali psittaco superbo seu Pennantii simillima est.
Bill hooked. Upper mandible moveable.
Nostrils roundish, placed in the base of the bill.
Tongue fleshy, broad, blunt at the end.
Legs short. Toes formed for climbing, viz. two forward and two backward.
LONG-TAILED VARIEGATED PARROT, with head throat breast and vent crimson, back black undulated with yellow-green, blue wings and tail.
The two middle tail-feathers are green.
This bird is a species hitherto undescribed; having been very lately brought from New Holland. To particularize the richness of its robe would be unnecessary; the figure accurately shewing all its variegations of colour. In size and general form it is strongly allied to the Pennantian Parrot.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 275.
COLUBER subolivaceo-ferrugineus, nigro irroratus, maculis dorsalibus pallidis nigro circumscriptis, fascia laterali undulata pallida.
Abdomen pallide ochraceum fuliginoso-maculatum.
Scuta abdom: 127.
Squam: subcaud: circiter 32.
Inter species hucusque ignotas numerandus est Coluber nasicornis. E numero est dirorum istorum serpentum quorum morsus in calidioribus mundi partibus, mortem inferre solet celerem et luctuosam. Si totum fere genus serpentinum horrescunt plurimi homines in hujusmodi investigationibus minus versati, quanto majori metu putemus illos percuti, qui in vivum hunc colubrum inopinato inciderint; quem totum horrificum deformat vultus præter modum torvus et atrox. Cornua enim gerit duo magna et acuminata, (non, qualia sed super nasum seu summum v maxillæ superioris sita. Erecta propemodum sunt, paulum tamen retro flectuntur, extrinsecusque ab utroque latere. Non omnino cornea sunt, sed quodammodo flexibilia, forma fere triangulari sive triquetra. Longa sunt circiter dimidium unciæ, et a basi utraque exstat squama dura ejusdem fere formæ cum ipsis cornubus; quo fit, ut duo quasi minora cornua exurgere videantur. Os illi, ut aliis venenatis serpentibus, telis tubulatis duobus utrinque munitur, quæ, cum maxima sint, vulnus sævissimum possunt infligere. Horum minora sunt postica. Longus est Coluber nasicornis uncias circiter triginta quinque. Coloris est fusco-flavescentis, maculis parvulis nigricantibus creberrime irrorati. Per totam dorsi longitudinem, magnis intervallis, decurrit series macularum fusco-flavescentium, majoribus nigris immersarum; protenditurque per utraque latera a capite ad caudam fascia angusta, ochracea, acute flexuosa, cujus pars inferior seu ventri proxima, nigrior multo est quam reliquum corpus. Venter obscure ochraceus est, seu cinereo-flavus, labeculis variis nigricantibus notatus; sparguntur insuper per totum corpus huc, illuc, maculæ plurimæ diversæ magnitudinis. Cauda tenuis brevisque pro corpore. Squamæ asperæ duræque et insigniter carinatæ. Caput squamis parvis tegitur, parsque superior maculam habet permagnam fuscam, utrinque in processus acuminatos excurrentem. Latera capitis plumbeo, seu cinereo colore cinguntur. Caput ipsum latum et depressum, genæque fusco et flavicante variæ.
Captum fuisse putem hunc serpentem cum jam exuvias depositurus esset; squamæ quippe exteriores a r subjacentibus facile separantur, quæ, hoc facto, lucidiores videntur; immo circa ventrem fere albescunt, maculis nigrioribus notatæ. Colubrum nasicornem accepit Dominus Edvardus Jenkins in oppido vulgo dicto Charles-Town in Carolina Australi degens, a navarcha e Guinea profecto, illoque nuperrime Museum Britannicum ditavit. Notum esse eum creditur in interiori Africa.
Transverse Lamellæ under the abdomen.
Broad alternate Scales under the tail.
OLIVE-BROWN SNAKE, freckled with blackish, with a row of pale dorsal spots surrounded by black, and a flexuous pale fascia on the sides.
The abdominal plates are 127. The subcaudal scales about 32.
The belly is of a pale olive-colour with dusky spots.
The snake here represented must be considered as a species hitherto unknown, and adds to the number of those malignant reptiles whose bite, in the hotter regions of the globe, proves the dreadful forerunner of a speedy and painful death. If at first glance of most of the serpent-tribe an involuntary sort of horror and alarm is so often felt by those who are unused to the examination of these animals, how much greater dread must the unexpected view of the species here exhibited be supposed to inflict? when to the general form of the creature v is superadded the peculiar fierceness and forbidding torvity with which nature has marked its countenance; distinguished by the very uncommon appearance of two large and sharp-pointed horns, situated, (not as in the Cerastes, above the eyes,) but on the top of the nose, or anterior part of the upper jaw. They stand nearly upright, but incline slightly backwards a little outwards on each side, and are of a substance not absolutely horny, but in some degree flexible. Their shape is somewhat triangular or three-sided. They are about half an inch in length, and at the fore-part of the base of each stands an upright strong scale, of nearly the same shape with the horn itself, and thus giving the appearance of a much smaller pair of horns. The mouth is furnished with extremely large and long fangs or tubular teeth, situated as in other poisonous serpents, and capable of inflicting the most severe wounds: two of these fangs appear on each side of the mouth, of which the hinder pair are smaller than the others. The length of this animal is about thirty-five inches. Its colour is a yellowish olive-brown, very thickly sprinkled all over with minute blackish specks. Along the whole length of the back is placed, at considerable distances, a series of yellowish-brown spots or marks, each of which is imbedded in a patch of black; and on each side the body, from head to tail, runs an acutely flexuous or zig-zag line or narrow band, of an ochre-colour. This band is bounded beneath by a much deeper or blacker shade than on the rest of the body. The belly is of a dull ochre-colour or cinereous yellow, freckled with spots and r markings of blackish. Besides these there is a number of black spots of different sizes here and there dispersed over the whole snake. The tail is somewhat thin and short in proportion to the body. The scales of this snake are harsh and stiff, and are very strongly carinated. The head is covered with small scales, and is on its upper part marked by a very large longitudinal patch of brown, running out into pointed processes at the sides, and bounded by a space of dull lead-colour or cinereous. The shape of the head is broad and flattened: the cheeks are varied with blackish and yellow.
It seems to have been taken at a period not far distant from that of casting its skin; as the exterior scales separate easily from the subjacent ones, which then appear of a clearer and lighter colour than before, and the yellowish variegations on the sides and belly approach to a whitish colour, with darkish spots and marks. This snake is supposed to be a native of the interior parts of Africa, and was obtained from the master of a Guinea vessel by the Rev. Edward Jenkins of Charles-Town, South Carolina, by whom it was lately presented to the British Museum.
Caput nutans, maxillosum, palpis instructum.
Antennæ (plerisque) setaceæ.
Alæ quatuor, membranaceæ, (plerisque) convolutæ; inferiores plicatæ.
Pedes antici compressi, subtus serrato-denticulati, armati ungue solitario et digito setaceo laterali articulato. Postici quatuor, læves, gressorii.
Thorax linearis, elongatus, angustatus.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 689.
MANTIS thorace utrinque membranaceo-dilatato obcordato.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 691.
Roes. ins. 2. gryll. t. 3.
Mer. Sur. 27. t. 27.
Cum anteactis temporibus, fabulis et erroribus immersa jaceret veritas, non defuere qui hujusmodi insecta folia esse quasi animata firmiter . Notabilis admodum est thorax permagnus et dilatatus. Alæ inferiores v pellucidæ sunt, levissimo tantum virore tinctæ. Americam Australem incolit singulare hoc animalculum.
Fig. 1, Pupa, seu insectum adhuc imperfectum.
Fig. 2, Imago, seu insectum declaratum.
Head unsteady: Mouth armed with jaws, and furnished with palpi.
Antennæ setaceous, (some few species excepted.)
Wings four, membranaceous, in most species convoluted: the lower ones (generally) plicated.
Feet anterior compressed, serrated beneath, armed with a lateral solitary claw and jointed process; posterior four, smooth, formed for walking.
Thorax (in most species) elongated and narrowed.
MANTIS with the sides of the thorax nearly membranaceous and greatly dilated.
Mer. Sur. t. 27.
Roes. 2. gryll. t. 3.
The Mantis Strumaria is amongst the number of those insects which in less enlightened times have been considered as a kind of animated leaves. The very large, dilated thorax in this insect is highly remarkable. v The lower wings are of a transparent appearance, and have but a slight cast of green. This curious animal is a native of South America.
Fig. 1, The insect in its pupa state.
Fig. 2, The insect in its complete state.
Rostrum aduncum: mandibula superiore mobili, cera instructa.
Nares in rostri basi.
Lingua carnosa, obtusa, integra.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 139.
PSITTACUS macrourus viridis, subtus luteus, capistro alisque cæruleis.
Rostrum pedesque nigricant.
Inter minimas sui generis numeranda est hæc species, non longe enim superat magnitudine figuram quæ in tabula continetur. Notabile est hanc avem, parvula licet sit, magno illi psittaco qui Ararauna dicitur, primo intuitu admodum similem esse. Species procul dubio nunquam adhuc descripta est, et novam Hollandiam incolit.
Bill hooked. Upper mandible moveable.
Nostrils roundish, placed in the base of the bill.
Tongue fleshy, broad, blunt at the end.
Legs short. Toes formed for climbing, viz. two backward and two forward.
LONG-TAILED GREEN PARRAKEET, yellow beneath, with blue wings and frontlet.
The beak and legs are black.
This may be numbered amongst the smallest of its tribe, not very much exceeding in size the figure here represented. It is remarkable that this diminutive species bears at first view a considerable resemblance to the Psittacus Ararauna, or great blue and yellow Maccaw. It is an undoubted non-descript, and is a native of New Holland.
Caput nudum. Os cirris aliquot filiformibus tentaculatum.
Membr. branch. radiis 4-14.
Corpus: Radius pinnarum pectoralium aut dorsalis primus spinosus, retrodentatus.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 501.
SILURUS pinna dorsali postica uniradiata, squamis ordine duplici, cirris quatuor.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 506.
acad. 1. p. 317. t. 14. f. 1.
Gron. mus. 1. n. 70.
Seb. mus. 3. t. 29. f. 13.
Squamarum quibus pisces muniuntur, pulchritudo et diversitas, observationum microscopicarum studiosis amplissimam diu præbuerunt materiem. Nonnullis sunt squamæ ovatæ, annulis concentricis fibrarum reticulatarum ornatæ: aliis fere quadratæ, fibris in divisiones inæquales dispositis, marginibus aculeorum pellucidorum serie distinctis. Quarundam specierum squamæ ob v exiguitatem primo visu vix discerni possunt; aliarum non modo minimas sed et muco denso coopertas attentissima oculorum acie investigare necesse est. Sunt e contrario pisces qui squamis teguntur amplissimis; quod insigniter evenit in peculiari illa varietate, (ni potius distinctam speciem putemus) Cyprini, nomine Cyprini Regis distincti; cujus squamæ quadrantem diametri ipsius corporis æquant. Non desunt denique exempla piscium ad diversissima genera pertinentium, quorum squamæ amplissimæ et durissimæ a reliquis in tantum discrepant, ut prima facie ad ipsa animalia crustata videantur accedere. Hos vocat Linnæus cataphractos, quod scilicet quasi lorica muniantur. Ejusmodi principes sunt Silurus cataphractus, Silurus Callichthys, Cottus cataphractus, Trigla cataphracta, Loricaria cataphracta. Silurus Callichthys, quem ostendit tabula, tum Europam tum Americam inhabitat; plerumque autem in America Australi, et præcipue in Brasilia invenitur. Rivulos incolit, e quibus, si æstate fervidiore fere exsiccati fuerint, mirum dictu! se surripit, et per prata late evagatur, aquas altiores quæritans. E piscinis quoque in quibus servatus sit interdum erepit, margines seu aggeres perforando. Relictis tamen aquis, super terram incedere non solius est Callichthys; idem enim facere solent alii nonnulli, Muræna præcipue Anguilla dicta, quæ per prata noctu prorepit, limaces fortasse aliaque id generis prædatura; et si hyems fuerit severior, sub ipso etiam foeno et in cavernis latitans interdum deprensa est. Callichthys longitudo communis est circiter quatuor pollices: color fusco-flavescens, dorso paulum obscuriore. Oculi minuti; et utrinque ad latera oris (ut in aliis ejusdem generis) tentacula duo longa et magna extenduntur.
Head naked, large, depressed.
Mouth wide, generally furnished with long tentacula or beards.
First ray of the pectoral and dorsal fins commonly strong and serrated backwards.
SILURUS with a double range of scales, four beards, and the last dorsal fin single-rayed.
Gron. mus. 3. t. 29. fig. 13.
Marcgr. bras. 151.
The beautiful and varied structure which distinguishes the scales of fishes, has long afforded an extensive field for microscopical observation. In some the scales are of an oval shape, with concentric rings of reticulated fibres; in others of a squarish form, with the fibres curiously disposed into dissimilar patches or subdivisions, and ornamented at the extremities with a series of transparent aculei or prickles. In some fishes the scales are so extremely small as to be scarce distinguishable on a cursory view, and in some they are not only very small, v but so coated over by a mucous tegument as to require the most attentive investigation in order to discover them. In others, on the contrary, they are as remarkable for their extreme largeness, as in the peculiar variety (if not distinct species) of Cyprinus or Carp, known by the title of the King-Carp, in which the scales are equal to a fourth part of the diameter of the fish. Lastly, there are not wanting some instances of fish belonging to very different genera, which are coated with scales of a size so very large, of a structure so uncommonly strong, and of a disposition so unlike that which appears in the scales of other fish, that they seem at first glance to belong to the crustaceous tribe. Fishes of this peculiar cast are termed by Linnæus cataphracted or mailed fish, as if in suits of armour. Of these the most remarkable are the Silurus cataphractus, Silurus Callichthys, Cottus cataphractus, Trigla cataphracta, and Loricaria cataphracta. The Silurus Callichthys, here represented, is a native both of Europe and America, but is more common in South America than in Europe, being principally found in Brasil. It inhabits rivulets, and when these during a dry season grow extremely shallow, it has the extraordinary faculty of creeping out and traversing over the dry ground in order to seek deeper water. It has also been known to make its escape from fishponds in which it has been confined, by piercing through the banks. This terrestrial locomotion of fishes is not however confined to the Callichthys, but is known to take place in some others, and particularly in the common eel, which frequently creeps about meadows by night, in quest perhaps of slugs, &c., and has been known during the frosts of a severe winter to take refuge under hay-ricks r and in caverns. The general length of the Callichthys, is about four inches: its color is a yellowish brown, somewhat deeper on the back than on the other parts. The eyes are small, and on each side the mouth are situated (as in several others of this genus) two very large and long cirrhi or beards.
Corallium tubis cylindricis, cavis, erectis, parallelis.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1270.
TUBIPORA tubis fasciculatis combinatis: dissepimentis transversis membranaceis distantibus.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1270.
Aldr. mus. 291.
ALCYONIUM FISTULOSUM RUBRUM.
Bauh. hist. 3. p. 808. fig. 2.
Tourn. inst. t. 342.
Iis lithophytis annumerandum est hoc corallium quorum si formam generalem spectes, vix possit dubitari quia ab animalibus efficta sint. Constat quippe tota massa e tubulis erectis et parallelis, alio super alium gradatim assurgente, qualiter fere fit in cellulis apum. Septa transversa quibus tuborum strata connectuntur, ascendunt inæqualiter in variis partibus, tubis ipsis raro v unciam, interdum semiunciam altis, eorundem diametro nunc decimam nunc octavam pollicis partem attingente. Ab hac tamen proportione in diversis speciminibus longe deceditur. Vera animalium incolentium natura vix adhuc pro certo explorata est: ea tamen putat Linnæus Nereidibus vix ac ne vix differre. Speciem hac pulchriorem vix fortasse inveniemus in toto genere corallino: structuræ enim ipsius elegantiam mire auget color suaviter purpureus seu phoeniceus. Si singuli tubi accuratius inspiciantur, patebit eorum unumquemque tubulum minorem geniculis aliquot seu septis radiatis divisum continere, cuius ope diversis stratis sæpe cum se invicem communicatur. In magnam molem sese extendit formosum hoc corallium, nec defuere speciminaquæ pedes duos immo tres diametro superarunt. Cum adhuc sit recens, tota superficies exterior gelata seu mucosa substantia obducitur, quæ etiam per partes tubulatas quodammodo diffundi videtur. Magna Tubiporæ musicæ est copia circa littora insularum Indicarum nec non maris Pacifici.
Fig. 1, Pars aperta, et microscopio aucta, ut structura interior pateat.
Fig. 2, 3, 4, Tubuli separati magnitudine naturali.
Animal allied (probably) to the genus Nereis.
Coral consisting of erect cylindric parallel tubes.
TUBIPORE with fasciculated connected tubes, and distant transverse membranaceous dissepiments.
Argenv. conch. t. 26. fig. A.
Ellis Zooph. p. 144. t. 27.
This is one of those Lithophytes which in structure and general appearance seem plainly to indicate the operation of animals, the whole mass consisting of an assortment of upright parallel tubes, rising over each other by stages, somewhat in the manner of the cells of an honeycomb. The stages or transverse dissepiments by which the strata of tubes are connected, are of unequal heights in different parts of the mass, and the tubes of each stratum seldom rise to the height of an inch, and sometimes do not exceed half an inch, and their diameter is from about a tenth to an eighth of v an inch. In different specimens however there is a considerable variation, both in the proportional length and diameter of the tubes. The real nature of the inhabiting animals of these tubes is not clearly ascertained, but they are supposed by Linnæus to be strongly allied to Nereides. In point of beauty scarce any of the coral tribe can exceed the present species; the colour, which is a rich purple or deep crimson, highly increasing the elegance of the fabric. The individual tubes, when accurately examined, appear each furnished with a smaller internal tube, which is divided at certain distances by radiated diaphragms or partitions. By means of these internal tubes the different strata often communicate with each other. This curious coral extends itself to a very considerable size; specimens having been frequently seen of from one to three feet in diameter. In its recent state the whole upper surface is coated over by a mucous or gelatinous substance, which seems to pervade the tubular texture of the whole coral. The tubipora musica is produced in the greatest abundance about the shores of the East-Indian islands and those of the Pacific Ocean.
Fig. 1, A piece laid open and magnified by the microscope, in order to shew the interior structure.
Fig. 2, 3, 4, Separate tubes of their natural size.
Rostrum depressum, rectum, subconicum.
Alæ brevissimæ, volatui inutiles.
Femora in parte inferiore denudata.
Pedes tridactyli, digitis omnibus anticis.
Lath. ind. orn. p. 664.
CASUARIUS FUSCUS, vertice inermi.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 265.
CASUARIUS NOVÆ HOLLANDIÆ.
Lath. ind. orn. p. 665.
Inter aves quas protulit ingens illa insula Nova Hollandia (ni continens potius appelletur) insignis est quæ in tabula depingitur Casuarii species; a communi seu Africana adeo discrepans, ut dubitari non possit illam penitus et revera diversam esse. Magnitudine enim est multo majori, alta interdum, ad minus, pedes septem. Color imus cinereo-fuscus, subtus pallidior. Caret caput galea seu crista illa cornea, quæ speciem communem v distinguit. Collum præterea loco rugosæ illius et rubra cæruleæque cutis, et caruncularum quæ in Africana conspicuæ, pennis parvis vestitur, per quas ipsa cutis in hac parte leviter cærulea vix ac ne vix discerni possit. In apicibus alarum, quæ ad volandum inutiles, unguiculus est incurvatus et acutus. Crura validissima, nigricantia, et in parte postica conspicue serrata. Rostrum ejusdem fere coloris cum cruribus.
Bill depressed, strait, nearly conical.
Wings extremely small, and unfit for flight.
Feet tridactylous, with all the toes standing forward.
DARK-BROWN CASSOWARY with unarmed head.
White’s Voyage, pl. 1. p. 129.
One of the most remarkable birds which the continent of New Holland has yet afforded is a species of Cassowary which differs from the common or African kind in so many respects as to leave no doubt of its being perfectly distinct. In size it is considerably superior to the common Cassowary, having been seen of the height of at least seven feet. Its general colour is a sort of cinereous brown, somewhat paler beneath. The head is destitute of that horny crest which so strikingly distinguishes the African species; and the neck instead of being furnished with a wrinkled longitudinal red-and-blue skin and wattles as in that bird, is covered v with small feathers, through which the skin, which is of a bluish colour in that part, is just visible. The wings are perfectly useless for flight, and at the tip of each is a small, sharp, crooked spur or claw. The legs are very strong, of a blackish colour, and of a serrated appearance on the hinder part. The beak is of nearly the same colour with the legs.
Testa univalvis, spiralis, involute, membranacea, unilocularis.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1161.
ARGONAUTA carina utrinque subdentata.
Gmel. Syst. Nat. p. 3367.
Klein. ostr. t. 1. f. 3.
Rumpf. mus. t. 18. f. 1. 4. A. B.
Utcunque inter animalia ejusdem familiæ eadem fere sit formæ partiumque similitudo, pauca tamen proferri possunt exempla, in quibus a norma sua insigniter aberrare solet natura; præcipue vero in classe testacea. Testarum enim univalvium (ut dicuntur) incolæ, generi Limacis simillimi sunt; bivalvium contra generibus Tethyos et Ascidiæ. Formæ hujus anomalæ nullum notabilius argumentum possit seligi quam in genere Argonautæ; vel Nautili qui papyraceus dicitur: ab omnibus enim aliis ejusdem divisionis adeo discrepat v animal hanc testam inhabitans, ut illius verum esse et genuinum incolam non mirum sit si ægre credatur. Linnæus igitur de hac re scribit, “Domunculam alienam, quemadmodum Cancer Diogenes seu Bernhardus, intrasse Sepiam, cum non connexa sit testæ, sibi adeo alienæ, qui non crederet, nisi tot testes nobis obstringerent, qui propriis oculis viderunt Argonautam velificantem?”
Extra testam visus Argonautæ habitator sepiæ speciem, sepiam præcipue octopodiam admodum refert: nec sane ab ea forma generali differt, nisi quod ad extremitates brachiorum duorum membranas ovalas habeat, quas cum super mare pacatum navigat, erigit, reliquis sex brachiis remigans. Fieri non potuit ut miranda res hominum oculos effugeret: ideoque a variis auctoribus descriptam legimus; nullis elegantius quam Plinio.
“Inter præcipua autem miracula est, qui vocatur Nautilos, ab aliis Pompilos. Supinus in summa æquorum pervenit, ita se paulatim subrigens, ut emissa omni per fistulam aqua, velut exoneratus sentina, facile naviget. Postea prima duo brachia retorquens, membranam inter illa miras tenuitatis extendit; qua velificante in aura, cæteris subremigans brachiis, media cauda, ut gubernaculo, se regit. Ita vadit alto, Liburnicarum ludens imagine, et si quid pavoris interveniat, hausta se mergens aqua.”
Cavendum est hanc testam, quæ verus est Argonauta, cum Nautilo communiter dicto, seu Nautilo concamerato confundamus, qui generis est omnino distincti. Crescit Argonauta Argo ab una uncia ad sex vel etiam octo. Mare Mediterraneum nec non Indicum incolit.
Animal extremely resembling a Sepia.
Shell univalve, spiral, extremely thin.
ARGONAUT with whitish furrowed shell, with the keel dentated on each side.
THE PAPER NAUTILUS.
Argenv. t. 5.
Notwithstanding the general similarity of structure which prevails amongst animals of the same tribe, there are yet some remarkable deviations from it. This is no where more conspicuous than in the testaceous tribe, in which the inhabitants of most of the Univalves bear a strong affinity to the genus Limax, or Slug, while those of almost all the Bivalves are distinguished by a striking similarity to the genera of Tethys and Ascidia. Amongst the instances of deviation from the general plan may v be adduced the very remarkable and curious genus Argonauta or Paper-Nautilus, which is inhabited by an animal of an appearance so widely removed from those of most of the Univalves, as almost to make doubtful the reality of its being the genuine and proper inhabitant of the shell in which it resides. Linnæus accordingly has well observed, that unless the evidence of so many eye-witnesses had enforced belief, it might have been reasonably imagined that an animal so unlike the rest of the tribe, was only a usurper of the shell; in the same manner as the Cancer Diogenes and a few others, which take possession of such vacant shells as happen to suit their convenience. The inhabitant of the Argonauta, if seen detached from its shell, might pass for a real Sepia, and bears so great a resemblance to the Sepia octopodia or eight-armed Cuttle-fish, that the principal difference consists in its being furnished at the extremities of two of arms with a pair of membranes of an oval form, which, during its occasional navigations on the surface of a calm sea, it raises upright and expands to the gale; while by the assistance of the six remaining arms it rows itself along. It seems impossible that so curious a spectacle could have escaped the particular observation of mankind. Accordingly we find it described by various authors: by none however more elegantly than by Pliny, whose short and beautiful description, has generally been quoted by modern writers.
“But amongst the principal miracles of nature is the animal called Nautilos or Pompilos. It ascends to the surface of the sea in a supine posture, and gradually raising itself up, forces out by means of its tube all the r water from the shell, in order that it may swim the more readily; then throwing back the two foremost arms, it displays between them a membrane of wonderful tenuity, which acts as a sail, while with the remaining arms it rows itself along; the tail in the middle acting as a helm to direct its course; and thus pursues its voyage like a little ship; and if alarmed by any appearance of danger, takes in the water and descends.”
We must be careful not to confound this shell, which is the real and proper Nautilus, with the chambered or pearly Nautilus, which belongs to a very distinct genus. The Argonauta Argo is found of various sizes, from one to six or eight inches in length, or even larger. It is a native both of the Mediterranean and Indian seas.
Pedes octo: insuper Chelæ duæ frontales.
Oculi octo: horum tres ad latus utrumque thoracis; duo in tergo.
Palpi duo, cheliformes.
Cauda, elongata, articulata, terminata Mucrone arcuato.
Pectines duo subtus, inter pectus et abdomen.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1037.
SCORPIO pectinibus 13-dentatis, manibus subcordatis pilosis.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1038.
Degeer. ins. 7. p. 341. n. 3.
Inter omnia insecta hactenus cognita, quæ venenosæ et malignæ sunt indolis, Scorpiones primo semper numerari soliti sunt. Notandum tamen est vim veneni vel augeri vel minui pro diversa hominum vulneratorum idiosyncrasia, statuque ipsius animalis, majorive minorive impetu quo plaga infligitur. Concedendum etiam est vulgarem Scorpionem Europæum, multo magis v quam necesse est timeri, cujus ab aculeo vix aliquid mali potest evenire. At vero ingentes Africani Scorpiones, qualis est ille qui in tabula depingitur, vulnus infligere posse jure censetur, quod dolor acerrimus, virusque gravissimum solent comitari. Venenum per tria minutissima foramina prope apicem aculei exit, a summo fere apice et ab utroque latere. Notum est multum diuque dubitasse physicos sitne foramen necne, per quod venenum effunditur, in aranearum forcipibus. Similiter de foraminibus in scorpionis aculeo dubitatum est, immo pene ad lites perventum. Celeberrimus Redi, optimis licet vitris microscopicis tunc temporis instructus, non potuit foramen discernere; qui tamen revera illud extare minime dubitavit, quippe qui ab aculeo compresso guttulam quasi liquoris albescentis juxta apicem exprimi sæpe viderat. Alii autem multi ullum esse foramen plane negarunt. Vallisneri et Leewenhoek foramina duo triangula clare visa descripserunt ab utroque latere prope apicem sita; alii tria detexerunt; unde patet Scorpionis aculeum venenum promptius efflare posse quam alius cujusvis animalis. Pars illa quæ Scorpionibus sub pectore sita est, quæque more pectinis denticulata est, hoc ipso nomine pectinis a Linnæo designatur; qui etiam diversas species numero dentium in pectine distinguere conatus est. Fefellit tamen multos hæc discriminandi methodus; pectinibus enim ejusdem speciei impar forsan sit numerus dentium; ideoque hoc solo signo species non possunt satis accurate dignosci. Species hic depicta est magnus Scorpio Africanus, a Linnæo Scorpio Afer nominatus. Color ejus communis est admodum fuscus, interdum pene nigricans. In magnam crescit molem, interdum multo majorem quam r repræsentat tabula. Vivipari sunt Scorpiones, et plurimos uno partu edunt pullos, qui perfecte formati, nullam aliam mutationem subeunt, nisi forte quod aranearum more exuvias abjiciant. Quæ scripserunt varia et mira de his animalibus antiquiores physici, aniles sunt fabulæ, quas præsens ævum, cui omnigena affulsit scientia, ægre et indigne audiat. Hæc igitur putida et inania lubens taceo. Unum tamen e plurimis fas mihi sit seligere; Scorpionem nempe carbonibus ignitis circumdatum, cum nullum sibi exitum patere viderit, saluti tandem desperantem, sui ipsius aculei ictibus perire. Hanc fabulam, quasi fide dignam, plures etiam nunc temporis, serio et graviter recitant, et pro unico suicidii exemplo inter inferiora animalia seligunt.
Fig. 2. Pectines.
Eight Legs, besides the 2 frontal Chelæ.
Eight Eyes, viz. 3 on each side the thorax, and 2 on the back.
Two cheliform Palpi or feelers.
Tail long, jointed, terminated by a crooked point.
Two Combs beneath, between the thorax and abdomen.
SCORPION with 13-toothed combs and somewhat heart-shaped hairy claws.
Swammerd. bibl. nat. t. 3. f. 3.
Roes. ins. 3. t. 65.
Scorpions may be considered as the most malignant and poisonous of all known insects. It is true that the effect of their sting will differ greatly according to the different circumstances of the constitution of the person receiving the wound, as well as of the state of the animal itself, and the degree of violence with which the wound was inflicted. It is also to be acknowledged that the common European Scorpion is not in general r of so terrible a nature as is commonly supposed, and it is but rarely that any bad consequences happen from its sting. But the large Scorpions of Africa, such as here represented, may well be supposed capable of inflicting a wound of the most severe pungency and of the most dreadful malignity. The poison is evacuated through three very small foramina near the tip of the sting, viz. one on each side the tip, and the other in the upper part. It is well known that a diversity of opinion has subsisted amongst authors relative to the slit or foramen in the fangs of spiders, through which their poison is evacuated. The same contrariety of sentiment takes place with respect to such a foramen in the Scorpion’s sting. The celebrated Redi, assisted by the best microscopes he could procure, was not able to discover it; though he was well convinced of its existence from perceiving the minute drop of poison exsude from near the tip of the sting. Others have denied the existence of the foramen; but Vallisneri and Leewenhoek have both described two foramina, viz. one on each side the tip, and which are of a shape inclining to triangular: besides these a third foramen has sometimes been seen; so that the sting of the Scorpion can with greater facility discharge its venom than that of any other animal. The part in Scorpions which is seated below the breast and is toothed in the manner of a comb, is in the Linnæan language termed the pecten; and Linnæus has endeavoured to distinguish the species of Scorpions from the number of teeth in this part; but this has been found a fallacious mark of distinction; since they vary in the number of teeth, and consequently no great certainty can be obtained from this character alone. v The very large species here represented is the great African Scorpion, or Scorpio Afer of Linnæus. Its general colour is a deep brown, nearly approaching in some specimens to black. It grows to a very large size; specimens being sometimes seen which far exceed in size the figure here represented. Scorpions are viviparous insects, and produce a very considerable number of young at once; which are completely shaped, and undergo no farther change, except (perhaps) casting their skin from time to time in the manner of spiders. Several fabulous anecdotes of these animals have been recorded by the older writers on natural history, which are totally unworthy of being related in the present enlightened age. One of the most remarkable of these legends is, that a Scorpion surrounded by live coals, finding no method to escape, grows desperate from its situation and stings itself to death. It is not uncommon to hear this quoted with serious credulity as the only instance of suicide amongst inferior animals.
Fig. 2. The pectinated parts or combs.
Rostrum arcuatum, tenue, subtrigonum, acutum.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 184.
CERTHIA RUBERRIMA, alls caudaque nigris, abdomine albido.
Lath. ind. orn. p. 290.
Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. p. 479.
Inter minimas numeratur hæc avicula sui generis, sistitque eam tabula magnitudine naturali. Forma generali Certhiæ cruentatæ Linnæi videtur simillima. In insulis aliquibus Australibus nasci creditor; quicquid autem ad peculiares illius mores attinet incognitum omne et incertum est.
Bill slender, incurvated, sharp-pointed.
Tongue differing in shape in the different species.
Legs moderately stout.
Toes placed three before, and one behind; back toe large: claws hooked and long.
Linnæus. Latham. Pennant.
CARMINE-RED CREEPER, with black wings and tail, and whitish belly.
Lath. Syn. 1. p. 733.
This bird may be numbered amongst the smallest of its genus, the figure representing it of its natural size. In its general appearance it seems extremely nearly allied to the certhia cruentata of Linnæus, or red-spotted creeper. It is supposed to be a native of some of the Southern islands, but its particular history seems to be unknown.
Corpus depressum: crusta subcoriacea, tentaculis muricata.
Os centrale, quinquevalve.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1098.
ASTERIAS radiis dichotomis, ore depresso.
ASTERIAS CAPUT MEDUSÆ.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1101.
Jonst. ins. t. 26. f. 11.
Asteriæ, seu stellæ æquoreæ, ut vulgo nominantur, miram et numerosum constituunt genus animalium marinorum. Specierum diversarum diversa admodum est facies externa. Pars maxima formæ sunt stellatæ, seu in quinque radios æquales divisæ: alias in plures radios, decem nempe vel tredecim: nonnullæ scabræ et tuberosæ, nonnullæ læves, alias denique spinosæ sunt. Species vero reliquis longe mirabilior Asterias caput Medusæ vocatur. Hæc a centro in quinque æquales et æque distantes radios geniculatos primum dividitur, quorum singuli dein in duos alios minores divaricant; v hi iterum paulo longiore intervallo in duos adhuc minores separantur; et hoc modo, divisionibus minoribus et numerosioribus, infinita pene serie sensim attenuata et multiplicata, distribuuntur membra, donec millia multa numero superent. Inde fit ut animal quasi rete sit vivum, nec immerito rete mirabile possit dici, cum illa quæ pro cibo natura voluit animalia, contractis subito innumeris ramulis amplectatur, et adempta aufugiendi potestate, misera devoret. Asteriæ facultatem repullulandi habent, membrumque aliquod vel casu vel vi abruptum aut avulsum progressu temporis renovatur. In oceano, præsertim prope littora cibi captandi gratia vagantur, animaliaque non tantum nuda et molliora sed etiam testis obtecta comedunt; dentibus enim duris et acutis spinas referentibus armantur, adeo sitis ut aculei omnes ad centrum convergant, dispares in diversis speciebus. Species hic depicta in oceano fere omni invenitur, pracipue in mari Mediterraneo. Colore variat: interdum pallida, seu rufo-albescens, interdum fuscescens, immo etiam penitus fusca reperitur. Asteriæ (fortasse,) ut plurimum, viviparæ? sunt.
Body depressed; covered with a coriaceous crust, muricated with tentacula.
Mouth central, with five valves.
ASTERIAS, with regularly-divided and subdivided branches, and depressed mouth.
The Asteriæ or sea-stars, as they are generally called, form a very numerous and wonderful genus of marine animals. The several species differ greatly in appearance from each other: the greater number are of a stellated form, and are divided into five rays or processes; others are divided into a much greater number of rays, as ten, and thirteen. Some species are smooth, some tuberculated, others prickly. The species which of all others is most worthy of admiration is that called the Caput Medusæ, or Medusa’s Head Star-fish: this v very curious animal is first divided into five equidistant, thickly-jointed processes, each of which is soon subdivided into two other smaller ones, and each of these, at a somewhat farther distance, into two others still smaller: this mode of regular subdivision is continued to a vast extent, and in the most beautiful gradation of minuteness, till at length the number of the extreme ramifications amounts to several thousands. By this most curious structure the animal becomes as it were a living net, and may well deserve the title of rete mirabile, and is capable of catching such creatures as are by nature destined for its prey, by the sudden contraction of all its innumerable ramifications, by which the unfortunate object is secured beyond all possibility of escape. The sea-stars have a very considerable degree of reproductive power, and if injured by accidental violence, or if one or more of their limbs or branches be torn or cut off, the creature will in time be furnished with new ones. They wander about the ocean, particularly near the shores, in quest of food, and prey not only on the softer animals, but even on the smaller shell-fish; and are armed for this purpose with hard and sharp teeth, resembling prickles, and situated in a circular form, with the points converging towards the opening of the mouth, and differing in number in the different species. The species here represented is not uncommon in most seas, and is frequently found in the Mediterranean. In colour it varies, being sometimes pale, or reddish white, and sometimes of a brown, more or less intense. The Asteriæ in general are viviparous? animals.
Antennæ filiformes; articulis ultimis majoribus.
Thorax subrotundus, immarginatus, caput excipiens.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 565.
PTINUS fuscus subpilosus, griseo irregulariter maculosus.
Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 56. Sp. ins. p. 65.
Gmel. Syst. Nat. p. 1605.
Ex ineptiis omnibus quæ imbecillos vulgi animos occuparunt, inanior nulla est quam mortisagi, ut dicitur, metus; qui parvulum licet insectum, ruris quietem perturbare, vanisque et falsis terroribus totum pagum solebat implere. Dominatur etiam nunc in populorum animis superstitiosa ista solicitudo, nequiitque fugare has tenebras quod jam fere per totum orbem diffunditur scientiæ et veritatis lumen. Fatendum quidem est, illis qui in pane quotidiano comparando totum fere tempus v terere coguntur, deesse tum otium tum mentem ut in causam peculiaris alicujus sonitus accurate philosophiceque inquirant: mirum tamen est insectum commune non penitius cognosci, nec melius intelligi unde sonitus exoriatur.
Vere jam provecto, mutuo se convocare solent formidata hæc animalcula, eodem fere modo quo aves; licet non sit vera vox, sed pulsatio capitis clypeati in duram aliquam substantiam. Audiuntur ictus septies, novies, vel undecies; quod ipsum fortasse majorem vulgo metum incutit. Repetuntur sonitus celeriter, incertis intervallis, et in domibus antiquis, ubi maxima est Mortisagorum copia, per totum fere diem possunt audiri; præsertim si calidior sit aeris temperies. Exacte imitari poteris hos ictus si unguem modice in mensam impingas. Cum colori ligni veteris simillimus sit color mortisagi, inquirentis oculus diu eluditur. Longus est circiter quadrantem unciæ, modica crassitie. Ad coleoptera pertinet, quorum nempe alæ elytris seu tegumentis corneis munitæ sunt; licet enim rarissime volet, volatilis est. Referri debet proculdubio ad genus Ptinus dictum. Miror nec inveniri eum in editione duodecimo systematis naturæ Linnæi, nec in opere entomologico Fabricii, ni forte Dermestes tesselatus idem sit, quod si fiat, erravit Fabricius in genere. In volumine vigesimo, nec non in vigesimo secundo Actorum Anglicorum, nec male, describitur, additis observationibus celeberrimi Derhami, qui de animalculi forma moribusque recte disseruit. Vereor ne quod falsum et ineptum sit asserere videar, cum dicam posse mortisagum, in pyxide servatum, ad id mansuetudinis et docilitatis perduci, ut mensæ impositus pulsanti alicui prompte r respondeat. Cavendum est ne hoc insectum, (quod verus est rusticorum mortisagus pulsatorius,) cum alio confundamus, quod interdum eodem nomine dicitur, quodque horologii more diu et sine ulla intermissione sonum edit; pertinet enim hoc ad ordinem penitus diversum, nomine Termitis pulsatorii a Linnæo distinctum. Claudet hanc Mortisagi descriptionem quod in opere celeberrimo, Pseudodoxia scilicet Epidemica, observavit vir doctissimus Thomas Brown. “Qui ab animis populi unicam hanc superstitionem posset evellere, ille profecto a pavidis nutricum et aviarum capitibus sudoris multum gelidi depelleret.”
Antennæ filiform; the last joints larger than the others.
Thorax roundish, immarginated, receiving the head.
Dusky and somewhat hairy PTINUS, with irregular grey-brown spots.
Phil. Trans. vol. 20. p. 376. vol. 22. p. 832.
Amongst the popular superstitions which the almost general illumination of the present century has not been able to obliterate, the dread of the Death-watch may well be considered as one of the most predominant; which, though nothing more than a small insect, still continues to disturb the habitations of rural tranquillity with groundless fears and absurd apprehensions. v It is not indeed to be imagined that they who are engaged in the more important cares of providing the immediate necessaries of life should have either leisure or inclination to investigate with philosophic exactness the causes of a particular sound: yet it must be allowed to be a very singular circumstance that an animal so common should not be more universally known, and the cause of the particular noise which it occasionally makes, be more generally understood. It is chiefly in the advanced state of spring that this alarming little being commences its sound; which is no other than the call or signal by which the insects of this species mutually attend to each other, and which may be considered as analogous to the call of birds; though not owing to the voice of the insect, but to its beating on any hard substance with the shield or fore part of its head. The prevailing number of distinct strokes which it beats, is from seven to nine or eleven, which very circumstance may perhaps still add in some degree to the ominous character which the animal bears amongst the vulgar. These sounds or beats are given in a pretty quick succession, and are repeated at uncertain intervals; and in old houses where the insects are numerous, may be heard almost every hour of the day; especially if the weather be warm. The sound exactly resembles that which may be made by beating moderately hard with the nail on a table.
The insect is of a colour so nearly resembling that of decayed wood, viz. an obscure greyish brown, that it may for a considerable time elude the search of the inquirer. It is about a quarter of an inch in length, and is moderately thick in proportion. It belongs r to the class of coleopterous insects, or such as have horny or shelly sheaths defending their wings, for it is a winged insect, though rarely seen in flight. The genus to which it unquestionably belongs is that of Ptinus; but it is remarkable that it does not occur in the twelfth edition of the Systema Naturæ of Linnæus; nor has Fabricius distinctly mentioned it in his entomological works, unless his Dermestes tesselatus be intended for the same insect, in which case he must have placed it in a wrong genus. In the twentieth and twenty-second volumes of the Philosophical Transactions it has been long ago described, and some very just observations made relative to its habits and general appearance, by the celebrated Mr. Derham, and it is extremely singular that so remarkable an insect should have almost escaped the notice of more modern entomologists. Ridiculous, and even incredible as it may appear, it is an animal that may in some measure be tamed; at least it may be so far familiarized as to be made to beat occasionally, by taking it out of its confinement and beating on a table or board, which it readily answers, and will continue to beat as often as required.
We must be careful not to confound this insect, which is the real Death-watch of the vulgar, (emphatically so called,) with another insect, which makes a sound like the ticking of a watch, and which continues its sound for a long time without intermission: it belongs to a totally different tribe from the Death-watch, and is the Termes pulsatorium of Linnæus. I shall conclude this description of the Death-watch by a sentence from the celebrated work Pseudodoxia v Epidemica, or Vulgar Errors, by the learned Sir Thomas Brown, who expresses himself in some such words as these. “He that could eradicate this error from the minds of the people would save from many a cold sweat the meticulous heads of nurses and grandmothers.”
Rostrum conico-gibbum, frontis basi rotundatum versus caput: Mandibula inferior margine laterali inflexa.
Nares in basi rostri.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 299.
LOXIA CRISTATA RUBRA, capistro nigra, rostro pedibusque sanguineis.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 300.
Catesb. Carol. 1. p. 38. t. 38.
COCCOTHRAUSTES VIRGINIANA CARDINALIS dicta.
Briss. av. 3. p. 252.
Lath. ind. orn. p. 375.
E calidioribus Americæ Septentrionalis partibus in Europam jamdudum illata est Loxia Cardinalis. Ob colorem lautum splendidumque vocemque potentem et suaviloquam apud nos magni semper habita est, nec desunt qui eam ipsi lusciniæ vix ac ne vix cedere existimant. Ingenio est alacri, vivido, docilique.
Bill strong, thick, and convex.
CRESTED RED GROSBEAK with black frontlet.
Raii. Syn. p. 85.
Will. orn. p. 245. pl. 44.
Lath. Syn. 2. p. 118.
The bird here figured is a native of the warmer parts of North America, from whence it was imported soon after the first discovery of that continent; and from the glowing splendor of its colour, and the extraordinary powers of its note, soon became a distinguished favorite in Europe. It is even by some considered as scarce inferior to the nightingale. It is a bird of a lively nature, and possesses a considerable degree of docility.
Flores Hydræ, sparsi e floribus lateralibus.
Stirps radicata, lapidea, rigida, sæpe articulata.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1287.
ISIS stirpe corallina, articulis striatis, geniculis attenuatis.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1287.
Rumpf. Amb. 6. p. 228. t. 84.
Clus. exot. 124.
LITHOPHYTON articulatum internodiis striatis.
Gualt. test. 118. fig. 16.
Jactare sane possunt perpauca Lithophyta elegantiorem faciem quam hæc, de qua jam agitur, species. Ne quid enim dicam de ramulorum pulchritudine, bella est oppositio albarum expansarumque partium, nigrorumque quibus connectuntur geniculorum. Notandum tamen est pulchrum hunc aspectum non esse ipsius naturæ; v hæc enim vestivit isidem cortice albo et spongioso, foraminibus parvulis creberrime excavato, in quibus, cum adhuc recens sit lithophytum, habitant animalia polypos referentia, quæ ipsum corallium ædificasse creduntur. Crescit Isis Hippuris in variis mundi partibus, in mari præcipue Indico. Diversæ extat magnitudes, alta interdum paucas uncias, interdum duos fere pedes.
The Coral having the habit or appearance of a plant.
The Stem or internal part differing in the different species, and generally either of a horny or a stony appearance.
The cortical part soft, and inhabited by animals resembling polypes.
ISIS with white striated joints and black junctures.
PIED JOINTED CORAL.
BLACK AND WHITE JOINTED CORAL.
Ellis. Zooph. p. 105. t. 3.
Few, if any, of the Lithophytes can boast a more elegant appearance than the present species; which, exclusive of the neatness of its ramifications, is distinguished by the agreeable contrast between the white expanded parts and the black internodia by which they v are united. It is to be observed, however, that this beautiful appearance is very different from that of the same coral in its natural state; in which it is coated over by a soft or spongy whitish part, thickly marked with small foramina, which in the recent Lithophyte are the habitations of so many animals resembling polypes; the supposed fabricators of the coral. The Isis Hippuris is produced in several parts of the world, but is chiefly found in the Indian seas. It is found of various sizes, from a few inches to nearly two feet in height.
Vermis nudo oculo inconspicuus, subpellucidus, caudatus.
CERCARIA VIRIDIS, (interdum rubra,) corpore cylindraceo mutabili, cauda acuminata sub-bifida.
Müll. anim. infus. p. 126. tab. 19. fig. 6-13.
Ostenditur in tabula animalculum, situ varium, microscopio summopere auctum. Hujusmodi æstivis mensibus densissima super paludes conglomerantur agmina, adeo ut interdum tota superficies rubra videatur seu viridis; alias ipsius aquæ corpus vel hoc vel illo colore non leviter tingatur. Forma limaci, motu hirudini similior est cercaria. Cum huic, ut et aliis multis animalculis, summa sit contractionis vis, hinc fit ut nunc fere in orbem colligatur, nunc in longitudinis gradus ad libitum extendatur. Motu incedit tardiusculo; cumque natet penitus explicata, utraque extremitas pellucida videtur, corpusque granulis virentibus aut rubellis, piscium ova non male referentibus, v refertum. Caput seu anterior pars obtusior, cauda autem acuta, apicem interdum levissime bifurca; quod tamen vix ac ne vix conspici possit. Cum in reliquis omnibus prorsus conveniant cercariæ in tabula depictæ, nisi quod hæ sint rubræ, illæ virides, nolumus ob solam coloris differentiam vere distinctas pronunciare. Virides sæpissime mensibus Maii et Junii, interdum citius, mane plerumque et vespere aquarum stagnantium superficiem occupant, medio die fundum petentes. Rubræ, quæ longe rariores, aquas nonnunquam quasi in sanguinem convertunt; narrantque auctores universos populos hoc signo ingenti stupore perculsos: quod sane vulgo facile condonari possit; causam enim sæpissime ignorent necesse est, cum ipsa animalcula sine microscopii ope non nisi acutissimo oculo conspici possint. Vidi egomet non semel magnam paludem una nocte rubore obductam et sanguine veluti perfusam, cujus die proxime elapso ne minimum erat vestigium. Notandum est etiam eodem fere modo, licet minus, decolorari paludes a monoculo pulice Linnæi, nec-non a larva culicis communis, aliisque multis. Quid igitur mirum, anteactis temporibus, cum adhuc curta esset philosophia, vitrique optici ignoraretur usus, si homines vani et meticulosi aquas sanguineum rubentes conspicati, Deos illico infestos et præsens aliquod exitium pertimuerint? Immo narrat celeberrimus Swammerdamus totam Lugduni civitatem hac ipsa re supra modum attonitam, aquis primo mane immenso (ut postea compertum est) animalculorum agmine quasi cruentatis: nec dubitamus quin species eadem fuerit cum hac nostra quam descripsimus. Hoc præterea omine turbatos Romanorum animos, inter alia quæ r Cæsaris fatum aut præibant aut sequebantur portenta, memoravit Virgilius.
———— “nec tempore eodem
Tristibus aut extis fibræ apparere minaces,
Aut puteis manare cruor cessavit.”
Worm unobservable by the naked eye, somewhat pellucid, tailed.
GREEN CERCARIA, (sometimes red,) with cylindric mutable body, and slightly bifid pointed tail.
The animalcule of which microscopical figures, very highly magnified, are represented on the annexed plate, is amongst those legions of animated beings which, in the warmer months, contribute to people the generality of stagnant waters; sometimes covering the whole surface with a continued sheet of a red or green colour, and sometimes diffusing a strong tinge of those colours throughout the whole mass or body of the water. The general shape of this animalcule is not much unlike that of a slug, but its motions are more analogous to those of a leech. In its postures it is infinitely variable, possessing, like many others of the v animalcular tribe, the highest degree of contractile power; in consequence of which it occasionally appears in all the various states of elongation and contraction represented in the plate; and not unfrequently reduces itself to a globular form. Its motions are rather slow than swift, and when swimming at full length it generally appears transparent at both extremities, while the body seems filled with a congeries of globules or grains of a green or reddish colour, and not ill resembling the spawn of fish. The head or fore-part is obtuse, but the tail or extremity is acute, and sometimes exhibits a slight appearance of bifurcation at the tip; but this is a particular which in general is scarce to be perceived. The difference in colour between these animalcules seems hardly sufficient to justify our regarding them as specifically distinct; since both the green and the red sort are so perfectly alike in other respects that no difference can be perceived between them. The green sort may be very frequently observed in most stagnant waters in the months of May and June, and sometimes much sooner, appearing commonly on the surface in the evening and early in the morning, and retiring towards the middle of the day to the bottom. The red variety is far less common, and the appearance which it sometimes exhibits is such as to alarm a superstitious mind with the idea of the water being tinged with blood: a panic of which numerous instances have been adduced by authors; and which is the more excuseable in those who are ignorant of the cause, as the animalcules are so extremely minute as to be utterly imperceptible, (except to an uncommonly r sharp eye,) without the assistance of a glass; so that even taking up the water and examining it affords to the vulgar no satisfactory elucidation. I remember to have more than once observed the whole surface of a large moat or pool completely covered in the space of a single night with this animalcule, when the day before there was not the least appearance of discoloration in the water: the whole surface appeared as if covered with florid blood. It should be observed that several other species of animalcules sometimes give the same tinge to stagnant waters, though in a far less striking degree: thus the monoculus pulex of Linnæus is frequently so numerous as to redden the water: the larva of the common gnat has also been known to produce a similar discoloration.
These are appearances which in less enlightened ages, unassisted by the microscope, have so often filled the minds of the people with the most terrible apprehensions, and have been regarded either as the precursors of some great calamity, or magnified into the immediate symptoms of heavenly displeasure. We are assured by the celebrated Swammerdam that the city of Leyden was in a state of consternation on discovering one morning that the waters of that place were apparently changed into blood; which, upon accurate examination, was found to be owing to no other cause than prodigious numbers of minute red animalcules, (in all probability of the very same species here represented.) For the effect which such appearances produced on the minds of the ancients, it may be sufficient to recal to the recollection of the reader the words of v Virgil, who, in his terrific list of prodigies which either preceded or accompanied the death of Julius, has not neglected to enumerate this phænomenon.
————“nec tempore eodem
Tristibus aut extis fibræ apparere minaces,
Aut puteis manare cruor cessavit.”
The trembling priest o’er boding victims stood,
And wells, portentous omen! flow’d with blood.
Rostrum lamelloso-dentatum, convexum, obtusum.
Lingua ciliata, obtusa.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 194.
ANAS NIGRA, remigibus albis.
Lath. ind. orn. p. 834.
Cum ipsa nive candidior sit cycnus communis, colorque ei constans semper fuerit et perpetuus, mirum fortasse sonet populi auribus qui jam olim in proverbium abiit cycnus niger. Nemo tamen sanus unquam dubitaverit quin e numerosissimo genere anatino exstare posset alicubi in terris species quæpiam distincta, quæ forma licet modoque vivendi cycno candido simillima, a natura tamen colorem prorsus contrarium sortita sit. Hæc jam tandem comperta est in Nova Hollandia insulisque adjacentibus, quamque tabula fideliter depictam ostendit. Si nigredinem excipias, convenit huic in reliquis fere omnibus cum cycno Europæo. Idem ei natanti decor, eadem nec ingrata superbia, variique corporis v situs. Tota avis, remigibus albis exceptis, coloris est aterrimi. Rostrum amoenissime rubrum, cute implumi, quæ basin cingit, super frontem late et ultra oculos excurrente. Apici mandibulæ superioris nigricanti prope adjacet macula flava. Crura nigra, pedes paulo pallidiores.
Amicissime nobiscum communicavit exemplum fideliter depictum, unde figuram hanc nostram mutuati sumus, Thomas Wilson armiger, quod ei nuperrime miserat cum aliis multis hujusmodi cimeliis Dominus White, Novæ Hollandiæ chirurgus præcipuus.
Bill broad and flattened; the edges marked with sharp lamellæ.
Tongue broad and ciliated at the edges.
BLACK SWAN with white remiges.
To vulgar ears a black swan has the sound of a miracle: but this arises merely from annexing the proverbial name to the common swan, so emphatically distinguished by its constant snowy plumage, from which it was never known to vary: but no one could ever rationally be supposed to call in question the possible existence of some distinct species of this numerous genus, which, however nearly allied in point of size and habit to the common swan, might yet be naturally black. In fact such a species is now discovered. It is a native of New Holland, and the neighbouring islands, and is accurately represented on the plate annexed. In general appearance it bears the most striking resemblance to the common swan, and is remarkable for all those gracefully-varying attitudes which so eminently v distinguish the European species. The whole bird, except the long wing-feathers, which are white, is of the deepest and fullest black: the beak is of a fine red, and the skin surrounding the base is continued high over the forehead and beyond the eyes: the tip of the upper mandible is blackish, and near the tip is a spot of yellow. The legs are black; the feet somewhat paler.
The original drawing of this most curious bird, accurately taken from the life, and from which the present figure is copied, was obligingly communicated by Thomas Wilson, Esq. of Gower Street, to whom it was sent, together with many other non-descript animals, &c. by Mr. White, chief surgeon to the English settlement at New South Wales.
Lingua teres, extensilis.
Os angustatum in rostrum.
Corpus (plerisque) pilis tectum.
MYRMECOPHAGA ACULEATA, cauda brevissima.
Digna est quæ penitius examinetur hæc species, non modo quod nova prorsus sit et adhuc inaudita, sed quod in ea insigne detur exemplum miræ istius gradationis qua genera diversissima interdum sibi invicem appropinquant. Vinculum videtur esse hæc quo connectuntur genera satis distincta Hystricis et Myrmecophagæ, cum enim huic sit facie vestituque similior, illius habet rostrum verosque characteres. Pedem circiter unum longa est, quatenus a speciminibus adhuc visis colligi possit: deest igitur figuræ nostræ plusquam dimidia pars magnitudinis naturalis. Totum corpus superius cum cauda spinis contegitur validis et longioribus, quales omnino sunt hystricis vulgaris, nisi quod vice circulorum qui alternatim albi nigrique, plerumque albeant, apicibus altius nigro tinctis, quodque v albedo a nigredine separetur annulo parvo sordide aurantio. Aliæ vero spinæ totæ albent, si excipias extremitates levissime nigricantes. Caput, crura, corporisque partes inferiores e fusco nigricant, vestiunturque pilis seu setis potius densissimis. Caudæ brevioris apicem denudatæ et paululum complanatæ superficies superior spinis contegitur perpendicularibus, illas saltem longitudine æquantibus quæ in dorso cernuntur. Rostrum longum, nudum, nigrum, tubulatum, eodem modo formatum quo rostrum Myrmecophagæ jubatæ, in apice rictum habet minimum, unde lingua lumbriciformis longe protruditur, qualis est etiam Myrmecophagarum. Nares parvæ, ad extremum rostri sitæ. Oculi minimi, nigri, iride cærulea. Crura brevissima, crassissima, digitis quinque instructa. Pedum anticorum digitis sunt ungues quinque validissimi, longi, obtusiusculi, nigricantes: posticorum quatuor tantum (pollex enim cæteris latior, ungue caret,) quique differunt inter se: prior scilicet est longissimus, paululum curvatus, et acutus; secundus paulo brevior, sed similiter formatus; reliqui duo multo breviores, aliquatulum curvi, et obtusiusculi. Vivit proculdubio hæc species more aliarum Myrmecophagarum, in tumulo enim quem congesserant formicæ primo deprensa est, ideoque nomine Hystricis formicariæ distincta. Ad nos a Nova Hollandia allata est.
Cum nuperrime detectum sit hoc animal, neminem scientia naturali vel leviter imbutum latere possit minus quam antea convenire Linnæanos characteres generi Myrmecophagæ. Cum igitur quæ in generibus Manis et Myrmecophaga continentur animalia vestitu solo differant, huic enim corpus squamosum, illi pilosum; satius r forsan foret duo hæc genera conjungere, annumerata iis novissima hac specie, et ex parte characterum dicere Corpus vel pilis vel squamis vel aculeis vestitum: ni novum omnino genus instituatur, a generibus Manis et Myrmecophagæ in hoc tantum discrepans, quod nec squamis, nec pilis, sed aculeis contegatur.
Body (in most species) covered with hair.
Snout tubular; mouth small; no teeth.
Tongue cylindric, long, extensile.
SPINY ANT-EATER with very short tail.
This extraordinary animal may well be considered amongst the most curious and interesting quadrupeds yet discovered; since it is not only an absolutely new and hitherto unknown species, but is also a most striking instance of that beautiful gradation, so frequently observed in the animal kingdom, by which creatures of one tribe or genus approach to those of a very different one. It forms a connecting link between the very distant genera of Hystrix and Myrmecophaga; having the external coating and general aspect of the one, with the mouth and peculiar generic characters of the other. This animal, so far as can be judged from the specimens hitherto observed, is about a foot in length: the figure consequently represents it of nearly half the natural size. The whole upper parts of the body and tail r are thickly coated with strong, sharp spines, of a considerable length, and perfectly resembling those of the common porcupine, except that instead of being annulated with several alternate rings of black and white, as in that animal, they are mostly white, with black tips, the colour running down to some little distance on the quill, and being separated from the white part by a circle of dull orange: others are entirely white, or at least have but a slight appearance of black towards the tips. The head, legs, and whole under parts of the body are of a deep brown or sable, thickly coated with strong, close-set, bristly hair. The tail is short, bare, slightly flattened at the tip, and coated on the upper part of the base, with spines at least equal in length to those of the back, and seated perpendicularly upwards. The snout is long and tubular, and perfectly resembles in structure that of the Myrmecophaga jubata, or great ant-eater; having only a very small opening or rictus at the tip, from whence is protruded a long lumbriciform tongue, as in the ant-eaters. The nostrils are small, and seated near the extremity of the snout. The eyes are very small, and black, with a pale-blue iris. The legs are very short and thick, and are each furnished with five rounded broad toes: on the fore feet are five very strong, long, and blunt claws, of a black colour; seated on each toe. On the hind-feet are only four claws, the thumb, which is broader than the rest of the toes, being destitute of a claw. The first claw on the hind-feet is extremely long, somewhat curved, and sharp-pointed; the next rather shorter, but of similar appearance; the two remaining ones far shorter, very slightly curved, and not sharp-pointed.v
In its mode of life this animal beyond a doubt resembles the Myrmecophagæ, having been found in the midst of an ant-hill; for which reason it was named by its first discoverers the ant-eating porcupine. It is a native of New Holland.
It cannot escape the observation of every scientific naturalist, that in consequence of the discovery of this curious animal, the Linnæan character of the genus Myrmecophaga is in part rendered inapplicable. Since therefore the animals in the genera of Myrmecophaga and Manis differ only in the external coating of the body, the former being covered with hair and the latter with scales, it would perhaps be not improper to conjoin the two genera, to add this as a new species, and to give as part of the generic character Corpus pilis, squamis, vel aculeis tectum. But if this be not done, it would perhaps be proper to make this animal constitute a new genus, which would differ from the genera of Manis and Myrmecophaga in having the body coated with aculei, instead of hair as in the Myrmecophaga, or of scales as in the Manis.
Alæ quatuor, membranaceæ, deflexæ.
Pedes (plerisque) saltatorii.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 705.
CICADA scutelli apice bidentato, elytris anastomosibus quatuor, lineisque sex ferrugineis.
Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 707.
Mouss. ins. 127.
Adr. ins. 307.
Matth. Diosc. 264.
Cicada, quam sæpissime memorant poetæ antiqui, quamque communiter cum gryllo vulgari seu campestri confundunt plerique interpretes, Europam incolit calidiorem, in Italia et Græcia, ut plurimum reperta. Species notissima, seu cicada plebeia Linnæi quam depinximus, æstate calidissima conspicitur, ramoque insidens per totum fere diem stridulum canit et acutum. In Italia est altera species, (quæ cicada orni Linnæi) huic simillima, sed minor. Majorum cicadarum variæ v sunt species, adeo inter se similes, ut revera licet diversæ, easdem tamen putarent incuriosi spectatores. Omnes ab ovis originem ducunt, quæ deponunt parentes in arborum radicibus juxta terram, quæque in larvas excluduntur, a veteribus scriptoribus Tettigometrarum nomine distinctas. Peracto duorum annorum spatio, exuvias ponunt larvæ, perfectumque nascitur insectum. Figura tertia Tettigometram seu larvam cicadæ plebeiæ monstrat. Notandum est in Britannia plurimas esse cicadarum species; parvulæ tamen sunt, nec vocem seu stridorem notabilem emittunt.
Wings four, membranaceous, deflected.
Feet (in most species) formed for leaping.
CICADA with the scutellum bidentated at the tip, the elytræ marked with four anastomoses and six ferruginous lines.
The Cicada, so often commemorated by the ancient poets, and so generally confounded by the major part of translators with the grasshopper, is a native of the warmer parts of Europe, and is particularly plentiful in Italy and Greece. The most common species, or cicada plebeia, here represented, appears in the hotter months of summer, and continues its shrill chirping during the greatest part of the day; sitting amongst the leaves of trees. In Italy there is another species, (the cicada orni, Lin:) which bears a very great general resemblance to the former but is considerably less: indeed amongst the larger cicada there are several sorts, v which, though really distinct, are yet so very nearly allied to each other, as to be easily regarded, on a cursory view, as the same species. All the cicadæ proceed from eggs, which are deposited by the parent insects in and about the roots of trees, near the ground: they hatch into larvæ, which, when grown to a certain size, are the Tettigometræ of the older writers. These larvæ, after having continued in this state two years, cast their skins and produce the complete insect. Fig. 3. shews the larva or Tettigometra of the cicada plebeia. I should observe that in our own country we have several species of this genus, which however are extremely small, and are not distinguished by any sound sufficient to excite attention.
|103.||Asterias Caput Medusæ.|
|82.||Coral common red.|
Volume 3 of the Naturalist’s Miscellany was published in twelve monthly installments, from August 1791 through July 1792.
The first installment (probably 12 pages) is unlabeled; the remainder vary between one signature of 16 pages, or two of 8 + 4 pages:
[B]; C; D E; F G; H; I (January 1792); K; L; M; N; O; P
In the fifth installment (December 1791), the obligatory bird is placed last instead of first, resulting in the plate sequence 88, 89, 87. This also means there are two consecutive birds, Plate 87 followed immediately by Plate 90. In the ninth installment, Plate 101 (argonaut) comes before Plate 100 (scorpion).
After the first two volumes’ flurry of mammals, the present volume has just one, in the very last installment—but it’s a good one, the previously undescribed spiny anteater.
This volume also holds the Miscellany record for species named by Shaw, with a total of six. (Volume 9 has seven, but by then it had jumped from three animals per installment to four—from 36 to 48 per volume—so the proportion is lower.)
is now Vestiaria coccinea, the liwi or ’l’iwi, depending on how good you are at glottal stops. It lives in Hawai’i.
Rostrum arcuatum, tenue, subtrigonum, acutum.
final . missing
macula alba conspicitur.
first “i” in “conspicitur” invisible
is probably Ceratophrys cornuta, the Amazonian horned frog. It lives all over South America, and looks much more like Shaw’s picture than you would think possible. Unlike “horned toads”—which are actually lizards, genus Phrynosoma—it really is a frog.
the Surinam toad, or Rana Pipa
[As seen on Plate 17 of Volume 1.]
is now Troides helena, the Common Birdwing. It lives in South and Southeast Asia, not in the Americas.
But wait! To ensure total confusion, Linnaeus named both a Papilio helena and a Papilio helenus. (The two Helens are personal names, not adjectives, so they are not subject to grammatical agreement.) Unfortunately, the most thorough article I can find on the subject . . . is in Turkish. Papilio helenus is the red Helen, described at Plate 550 of Volume 14. It also lives in Southeast Asia.
may be Merops nubicus, the carmine bee-eater. It lives in sub-Saharan Africa. If so, we may meet it again under the name Merops Cærulocephalus at Plate 613 of Volume 15.
Tongue (generally) laciniated at the tip.
[I wonder why ABBYY FineReader decided that “laciniated” should be read as “herniated”?]
the Merops Brasiliensis of Mr. Latham
[Unidentified. Merops as currently defined is strictly an Old World genus.]
is now Fungia fungites, the mushroom coral. It is most common in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.
[Text has “Animal Medusa” with misplaced italics.]
[Anomalous, but it cannot be passed off as a flyspeck.]
is probably Goliathus goliatus. It lives in western Africa. In the description, Shaw entirely forgets to mention the insect’s size. But when we meet it again, at Plate 751 of Volume 18, he specifies that the illustration shows it at one-third less than natural size.
. . . doesn’t exist. Later investigations suggest that it was the avian equivalent of Piltdown man: a feather of this, a tail of that, get Latham to describe it, commission a painting, and you’re set for the next half-century. Depicting it atop a decidedly subarctic-looking tree was an especially nice touch.
If it is the same as Corallium rubrum, it is also known as the precious coral—which fits in nicely with the third binomial, Gorgonia pretiosa. It lives in the western Mediterranean.
text has , for .
visible even on the surface of the hard part or the coral itself
text unchanged: error for “of the coral”?
is now Varanus varius, the lace monitor. It lives in eastern Australia.
text has , for .
[The spacing of the line suggests that the printer started out saying Character Specificus, &c. and changed his mind, but forgot to replace the comma with a full stop.]
the Lacerta Monitor of Linnæus, or Monitory Lizard
[As seen at Plate 21 of Volume 1. Monitor lizards—not just one but several dozen species—are genus Varanus of the single-genus family Varanidae.]
Latham offers a long list of synonyms, one of which leads to Goura cristata (by way of Columba cristata), the Western crowned pigeon. The “Western” element appears to refer to its home territory, the western end of New Guinea. Its conservation status is listed as Vulnerable, which is IUCN-speak for “could be better, could be worse”.
is now Chelifer cancroides (by way of Linnaeus’s Acarus cancroides). It lives mainly in northern Europe and northeastern North America.
is another name for Amphisbaena alba, the red worm lizard. It lives in South America. Shaw seems to have been the only person who thought it was a distinct species, or even a formally defined “Variety”.
is now Istiophorus platypterus, the Atlantic sailfish, with naming credit to Shaw. In spite of the English name, it is most common in the Indian ocean and around Australia and both coasts of Central America; other names include Indian sailfish, billfish and bayonetfish.
intra paucos annos variis exemplis certissime compertum sit
text has pancos
is now Gekko vittatus, the lined gecko. Although the binomial Lacerta vittata was used by Gmelin, it actually originated with Houttuyn in 1782.
is now Glossopsitta concinna, the musk lorikeet, with naming credit to Shaw. It lives in eastern Australia.
is also known as the roseate spoonbill. It lives in much of the Americas.
is probably Limulus polyphemus, the American (not Indian) horseshoe crab. It lives along the east coast of North America, as far south as Oaxaca.
scilicet mas et fæmina prope natantes
[More often spelled “fœmina”—but still more often just “femina”, so we‘ll leave them to it.]
Linnæus calls it “insectorum omnium facile maximum.”
[“Easily the biggest of all insects”.]
the gigantic species just described.
text has descrihed
is otherwise known as the blue emperor. It lives in eastern Indonesia—including Ambon—and northeastern Australia. We will meet it again, under the name P. diomedes, at Plate 296 of Volume 8.
plaga magna amœnissime cærulea impletur
text has amænissime
[In late Latin there is a lot of variation between æ and œ—as in the immediately following “cærulea”, sometimes rendered as “cœrulea”—but here I have to call it a mistake.]
the caudated papilios, in which the lower wings are furnished with a pair of appendages resembling tails
[Today the Linnaean genus Papilio is reserved for swallowtails.]
is now Platycercus eximius, the Eastern Rosella, with naming credit to Shaw. It is most common in eastern Australia and New Zealand.
is now Bitis nasicornis, the rhinoceros viper, with naming credit to Shaw. It lives in central Africa. (At time of preparation, GBIF mysteriously dates the binomial to 1802, ten years in the future. Let’s call it a typo.)
(non, qualia Cerastis, supra oculos;)
text has misplaced close-parenthesis after “Cerastis,”
incline slightly backwards and a little outwards on each side
text has “and and”
It seems to have been taken
[Paragraph break added to agree with the Latin. (The previous sentence happened to coincide with the end of a line.)]
is probably Choeradodis strumaria (originally Gryllus strumarius, not the first time Linnaeus was torn between Mantis and Gryllus). It lives in South America.
non defuere qui . . . firmiter crediderint.
text has credididerint
[I had to consult Gildersleeve and Lodge to confirm that there were too many di syllables. Tense stem credid-, ending -erint.]
is probably Neophema pulchella, the turquoise parakeet, with naming credit to Shaw. It lives in eastern Australia.
is now Callichthys callichthys, the armored catfish. It lives in South America. The name, incidentally, means “beautiful fish”. I guess you had to be there.
Amœn. acad. 1. p. 317. t. 14. f. 1.
text has Amæn.
is also known as the organ pipe coral. It is most common around Australia and Southeast Asia.
If it were the same bird as Linnaeus’s Struthio casuarius, it would now be Casuarius casuarius, the southern cassowary. But it isn’t. In Shaw’s time, the names “Emeu” and “Cassowary” had not yet settled on their present meanings. This volume’s bird is an emu, Dromaius novaehollandiae (from Latham’s Casuarius novae hollandiae). We will meet cassowaries at Plate 297 of Volume 8. By any name, there are no cassowaries in Africa.
ingens illa insula Nova Hollandia (ni continens potius appelletur) . . . . the continent of New Holland
[Did a ruling on Australia’s continental status get handed down while Shaw was in the middle of preparing the text?]
is also known as the greater argonaut. It is distributed almost everywhere in tropical and temperate oceans, but seems especially partial to east coasts of continents.
the extremities of two of its arms
text has two of it
is listed as “doubtful”. If it is the same as DeGeer’s Scorpio indus—which it almost certainly isn’t—it would now be Heterometrus indus, from Sri Lanka. Africa need not feel left out, though: South Africa alone boasts over 150 known scorpion species.
Fig. 2. Pectines . . . . The pectinated parts or combs.
[If you look closely, it is really labeled a.]
is probably Myzomela cardinalis, the cardinal honey-eater. It lives in various south Pacific islands.
is now Gorgonocephalus caputmedusae, the basket star. Or rather, a basket star, since not only the genus, not only the family, not only the order, but the entire class (the taxonomic layer equivalent to “mammals” or “insects”) is basket stars. This particular species lives around Scandinavia and the northernmost parts of Britain.
[The picture is enormous because it’s a foldout. Look carefully and you can see the vertical fold line.]
viviparæ? . . . . viviparous?
[There would have been plenty of room on the page to say they may be or are probably viviparous.]
If it is the same insect as Dermestes tesselatus and Ptinus pulsator, it is now Xestobium rufovillosum, the death-watch beetle. It lives in much of Europe.
the Termes pulsatorium of Linnæus
[Now Trogium pulsatorium.]
is now Cardinalis cardinalis, the northern cardinal. It lives in North America, especially east of the Mississippi.
is also known as the golden sea fan. It is scattered around Austronesia, especially northeastern Australia.
in diversissimos longitudinis gradus
text has diverssimos
the city of Leyden
[I am glass he spelled this out in English. I would otherwise not have known if “totam Lugduni civitatem” referred to Lyons, Laon, Loudun or one of the multitudinous other cities honoring the once-popular Celtic deity, Lug or Lugh.]
the words of Virgil
[Georgics I.483-485. A slightly more recent translation runs
At that time
In gloomy entrails ceased not to appear
Dark-threatening fibres, springs to trickle blood ]
If it is the same as Latham’s Anas atrata, it is now Cygnus atratus. Although it originated in Australia and New Zealand, today it is widely distributed across Europe, South Africa and North America.
is now Tachyglossus aculeatus, the short-beaked echidna, with naming credit to Shaw. (Long-beaked echidnas are a genus of their own, Zaglossus.) This is officially its first description. Though Shaw doesn’t say, his specimen must have been stuffed with sawdust, explaining how he failed to notice that it’s a monotreme.
It forms a connecting link between the very distant genera of Hystrix [porcupine] and Myrmecophaga [anteater]
[Er, George, that’s not how taxonomy works.]
is now Tibicen plebejus. It is most common in regions just north of the Mediterranean, especially the south of France.
81. Trochilus multicolor.
text has Trohcilus
As recently as 1893, someone must still have been reading this work. Stuck to the back of a page:
Little can the newspaper’s editor have known that exactly a quarter-century in the future, a very important telegram indeed would be sent out around the world.
The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.