Naturalist’s Miscellany

The Naturalist’s Miscellany
by George Shaw
Volume 5






&c. &c. &c.




D. D. D.






Knight of the most ancient Order of the Thistle,
&c. &c. &c.


of the










London, Published Augst 1793 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Rostrum subtrigonum, utrinque emarginatum, apice incurvo; vibrissæ patentes versus fauces.

Nares subrotundæ.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 324.

Character Specificus, &c.

MUSCICAPA NIGRA, fronte fasciaque tectricum albis, pectore abdomineque rubris.


Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. p. 944.


Lath. ind. orn. p. 479.

Hanc aviculam, novæ Hollandiæ incolam, satis describit character specificus. Amat præcipue solitudines sylvasque insulæ Norfolciensis. Victitat insectis, ut fere solet reliquum genus. Qua niger est mas, ibi fusca est femina; subtus flavo-aurantia.



Generic Character.

Bill somewhat triangular, flattened at the base, notched at the end of the upper mandible and beset with bristles.

Toes generally divided as far as their origin.

Specific Character, &c.

BLACK FLYCATCHER with front and bar of wing-coverts white: breast and belly red.


Lath. Synops. 2. p. 343. pl. 50.

The bird here represented is a native of New Holland, and is sufficiently described by its specific character. It is particularly plentiful in the more sequestered and woody parts of Norfolk Island, and, like most others of its genus, feeds principally on insects. The female is brown in those parts which are black in the male, and is of a yellowish orange beneath.


Acrochordus, or Warted Snake

London, Published Augst 1st 1793 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Verrucæ totum corpus obtegentes.

Character Specificus, &c.

ACROCHORDUS terreo-fuscus, subtus pallidior, lateribus albido-variegatis.


Cepede Hist. Nat. des Serpents, p. 472.



Memoires de l’Académie des Sciences de Stockholm, an. 1787. p. 306.

Journal de Physique, an. 1788. p. 284.

Differt Acrochordus a reliquo omni serpentino genere, quod non squamis sed tuberculis innumeris verrucarum ad instar totus sit obductus. Genus igitur revera est distinctum, cujus unica tantum species (illa nempe quæ in tabula depingitur) adhuc cognita est. Insulam Javam inhabitat, amatque præcipue degere ubi piper satum fuerit. Crescit v Acrochordus in magnam molem, longus scilicet interdum plusquam pedes septem. Caput modicum, vix collo latius, paulum complanatum est. Corpus versus medium sensim crassius prope caudam subito contrahitur et gracilescit. Cauda ipsa, brevissima si cum corpore comparetur, apicem habet leviter acumi­natum. Color rarissimi hujus serpentis est terreo-fuscus, dorso nigriore, ventre pallidiore, quæ variatio subobscure cernitur in lateribus. Visu asper et injucundus est Acro­chordus, expers autem veneni, quippe quod careat dentibus tubulatis, qui serpentibus solummodo virulentis contingunt. Specimen ipsissimum, unde delineata nostra figura, in Museo Britannico asservatur, pedes circitur tres longum. Si microscopio accurate examinentur verrucæ, species esse squamarum videntur, quæ admodum convexæ carina semi-longi­tudinali obtuse-acuminata instruuntur: minores vero quæ prope caudam, præter mediam carinam prominentia utrinque notantur.



Generic Character.

Tubercles resembling warts covering the whole body.

Specific Character, &c.

BROWN ACROCHORDUS, paler beneath; with the sides obscurely variegated with whitish.

Hornstedt. descr.

Mem: de l’Acad: des Sciences de Stockholm. 1787. p. 306.

Journal de Physique. 1788. p. 284.

The Acrochordus differs from all the rest of the serpent tribe in being covered all over with innumerable muri­cated wart-like prominences. It therefore forms a distinct genus, of which the species here repre­sented is the only one at present known. It is an inhabitant of Java, and is principally found v amongst plantations of pepper. It sometimes attains to a very considerable size; having been seen of the length of more than seven feet. The head is of moderate size, or scarce of greater diameter than the neck, and of a somewhat flattened shape: the body gradually thicker towards the middle, and suddenly contracts towards the tail, which is very short in propor­tion, and slightly acuminated at its extremity. The colour of this curious snake is an earthy-brown, deeper on the back, and somewhat paler or more inclining to white on the under surface: an obscure sort of variegation is also visible on each side the body. It is an animal of an unpleasing appearance, but is not of a poisonous nature, being unprovided with those tubular teeth or fangs which are peculiar to venomous serpents. The specimen from which the present figure was taken is in the British Museum, and is about three feet in length.

On accurate examination, by the assistance of a glass, the verrucæ or prominences on the skin of the Acro­chordus appear to be a species of scales, extremely convex, and furnished with an elevated semi-longi­tudinal obtusely-acuminated ridge or carina; and the smaller scales, or those towards the tail, are furnished with two smaller or lateral prominences; viz. one on each side the middle one.


Black-Striped Butterfly

London, Published Augst 1st 1793 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis integerrimis rotundatis albis: venis maculisque nigris; primoribus nigro margine albo punctato.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 758.
Danai candidi.

PAPILIO alis denudato-albis; venis maculisque nigris.

Fabr. spec. ins. 2. p. 38.

Gmel. Syst. Nat. p. 2258. Parnassii.

Clerk. ic. t. 38. f. 1.

Pl. enl. 20. f. 1.

Papilionum plurimorum lautos splendidosque colores merito licet miremur, nonnullæ tamen sunt species queis simplex est elegantia et pulchritudo, vario v et fucato congenerum nitore vix, ut puto, superanda. Exemplo est papilio qui in tabula depingitur, divisionis Heliconiæ ad quam refertur maximus. Continet hæc sectio illos quibus alæ magis oblongæ sunt quam reliquis ejusdem generis, magisque pellucidæ, squamis nempe tenuioribus vestitæ. Pulcherrime albet papilio Idea, venis striisque aterrimis et velut holosericis multifariam diverseque dispositis. Corpus album virgam habet dorsalem nigram: thorax niger albo fasciatus. Alæ superiores juxta humeros levissima flavedine tinguntur. Indiam incolit papilio Idea.



Generic Character.

Antennæ or Horns thickening towards the upper part, and generally terminating in a knob or club-shaped tip.

Wings (when sitting) erect, and meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

WHITE BUTTERFLY with semi-transparent wings, veined and spotted with black.

Pl. enl. 20. fig. 1.

Clerk. t. 38. f. 1.

Cram. pap. 17. t. 193. f. A. B.

Cram. pap. 31. t. 362. f. D?

While the major part of the papilionaceous insects astonish us by the splendor and variety of their colours, there are some which on the contrary exhibit only the plainest and most simple hues, and yet at the same time display a species of beauty and elegance scarcely exceeded by the gaudy robes of their v more brilliant congeners. Amongst these, one of the most remarkable is the insect here repre­sented, which is the largest of the section or division of the genus to which it belongs. This section, distinguished by the title of Heliconii, consists of such butterflies whose wings are of a more oblong form than in the rest of the genus, and are besides remarkable for a peculiar degree of transparency, as if less thickly coated with scales than in others. This insect is of a beautiful white, ornamented by a variety of velvet-black streaks and spots, running in different directions. The body is white, with a black stripe down the back; and the thorax is black striped with white. The superior wings, near the shoulders, are very slightly tinged with yellowish. It is a native of India.


Blue-Bellied Finch

London, Published Sepr 1st 1793 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Rostrum conicum, rectum, acuminatum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 317.

Character Specificus, &c.

FRINGILLA dilute fusca, subtus cærulea, abdomine interdum subroseo, macula suboculari purpureo-coccinea.

FRINGILLA dilute cærulea, capite dorsoque griseis, lateribus capitis purpureis. Fr: Benghalus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 323.

FRINGILLA dorso fusco, abdomine caudaque cæruleis. Fr: Angolensis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 323.


Briss. av. 3. p. 303. n. 60. t. 10. f. 1.

Avicula perpulchra hic depicta Indiæ interioris nec non Africæ varias partes incolit. Alacri vividoque est ingenio; non tamen inter aves musicas numeratur. Mas a femina macula utrinque sub oculos purpureo-coccinea distin­guitur.



Generic Character.

Bill perfectly conic, slender towards the end, and very sharp-pointed.


Specific Character, &c.

PALE-BROWN FINCH, blue beneath, with abdomen sometimes rose-coloured, and purplish-red spot under each eye.


Edw. pl. 131. (female.)


Pl. enl. 115. f. 1. (male.)


Lath. Syn. 2. p. 310.

The elegant bird here figured is a native of several of the interior parts of India and Africa. It is of a lively disposition, but is not esteemed as a singing bird. The male is distinguished from the female by a rich purplish-red spot situated beneath each eye.


Porcupine Diodon




Character Genericus.

Caput: maxillæ osseæ, porrectæ, indivisæ.

Apertura linearis.

Corpus spinis acutis mobilibus undique adspersum.

Pinnæ ventrales nullæ.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 412.

Character Specificus, &c.

DIODON sphæricus, aculeis basi triquetris.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 413.
Diod. Ating. γ.

Gmel. Syst. Nat. p. 1450.
Diod. Hystr. γ.

OSTRACION SUBROTUNDUS, aculeis undique densis, basi triquetris.

Art. gen. 60. Syn. 86.


Will. Ichth. p. 146.

Nullum esse terrestre nisi idem sit aquaticum, in refutando fortasse nimium longus negavit omnino vir doctissimus Thomas Brown in libro cui titulus v “Pseudodoxia Epidemica.” Et orta sane videtur popularis hæc opinio a cute externa animalium multorum æquoreorum et terrestrium fere simili; quæ hac de causa vulgo putantur quasi quodammodo affinia; adeo ut concedi aliquatenus possit quod observavit ingeniosus quidem Gallus de veteribus plantarum symbolis, in sententia erroribus implicita fere æquam esse inter falsum et verum contentionem. Ex animalium marinorum numero quæ terrestribus respondere creduntur vix aliud insignius quam piscis qui in tabula cernitur. Simul atque enim eum spinis undique obsitum intuemur, in mentem statim venit mucronata hystricis lorica. In editione duodecima Syste­matis Naturæ disposuit eum Linnæus inter nantes: (rectius dixisset nantia.) Physicis autem recentioribus, quibus amplior anatomices cognitio, visum est id genus animalia ab amphibiis dissociare, et verum in locum apud pisces amovere. In oceanis Indicis et Americanis præcipue reperitur Diodon Hystrix, crescitque interdum in longi­tudinem pedum duorum; at ut plurimum, multo minor est. Color fusco-pallet. Aculei juxta basin trianguli. Spinas potest vel erigere vel deprimere, corpusque vel inflare vel contrahere. Claudet hanc descriptionem quod subtilitur et acute, ut solet, observavit auctor ille quem in initio memoravi.

Quod si pro concesso habeatur eadem nomina tum terrestribus tum æquoreis animalibus commode satis posse imponi, rigida tamen ratiocinandi lege non nomina dare marinis, sed ab iis sua derivare debent terrestria. Qui enim prius existebant maris incolæ r priores etiam in ipsa natura adepti sunt appellationes. At quoniam eos non nominavit Adamus qui terrenis pro vario ingenio titulos dedit, ab iis qui Adamum secuti sunt ad arbitrium vocabantur, habita ratione animalium quæ ipsi in terris viderant, quæque affinia putabantur, quæ autem sibi propria et peculiaria vocabula habebant ad hos utpote prius creatos nihil spectantia.



Generic Character.

Jaws consisting of undivided bony processes.

Body covered on all sides with sharp moveable spines.

Specific Character, &c.

DIODON of an almost spherical shape, with the spines triangular at their base.




That all land animals “are in their kind, in the sea,” is a popular opinion, commemorated, and with unnecessary prolixity opposed and confuted by the learned Sir Thomas Brown, in his well-known work the Pseudodoxia Epidemica, or Vulgar Errors. This idea seems to have arisen from a general resemblance which sometimes takes place between the external coating of several marine animals, and that of r some terrestrial ones, which may therefore be said, according to common conceptions, to be in some degree allied; and, considered in this point of view, what has been affirmed by an ingenious Frenchman of the old doctrine of botanical signatures, may in great measure be granted, viz. that the notion, though loaded with errors, may be allowed upon the whole to contain almost as many truths as falsehoods. Amongst the animals which stand as examples of this allowable nomination, the fish repre­sented on the plate may serve as a remarkable instance; its spiny appearance naturally bringing to mind the quilly armour of the porcupine. This animal in the twelfth edition of the Systema Naturæ of Linnæus, was ranked under the particular division of Amphibia termed Nantes, or (as it might with more propriety have stood,) Nantia. From a more accurate knowledge however of their anatomical structure than was then known, the naturalists of the present day have pretty generally agreed to remove these creatures from the Amphibia, and to remand them to their proper situation amongst fishes.

The Diodon Hystrix is principally found in the Indian and American seas, and grows to a considerable size; having been seen of the length of about two feet. Its more general size is however much smaller. Its colour is a pale brown; and the prickles are of a triangular shape towards their base. The Diodon has the power of erecting or depressing its spines in a great degree, as well as of inflating or contracting its body.


In addition to what has been said, I shall beg leave to give a quotation from the learned author mentioned at the beginning of this paper, as a curious instance of the peculiar exactness and deep speculations of that celebrated writer.

“Moreover if we concede that the animals of one element might bear the names of those in the other, yet in strict reason the watery productions should have the prenomination: and they of the land rather derive their names from, than nominate, those of the sea. For the watery plantations were first existent, and as they enjoyed a priority in form, had also in nature precedent denomi­nations; but falling not under that nomenclature of Adam, which unto terrestrious animals assigned a name appropriate unto their natures; from succeeding spec­tators they received arbitrary appellations; and were respectively denominated unto creatures known at land; who in themselves had independent names, and not to be called after them which were created before them.”


Limacine Clio

London, Published Sepr 1st 1793 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Corpus natans, oblongum: Alis duabus, membranaceis, oppositis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1094.

Character Specificus, &c.

CLIO NUDA, corpore obconico.

Gmel. Syst. Nat. p. 3149.

Phipps. it. bor. p. 195.

Mart. Spitsb: p. 169. t. P. f. 5.

Soland. et Ellis. cor. tab. 15 f. 9. 10.

Paucas et exiguas continet species genus Clio, quarum e corpore utrinque producitur, ut plurimum, membrana velut thecam efficiens, et a capite utrinque expanditur quasi velum parvulum ovatum; unde sit ut sepias minutas brachiis carentes non male referant. Caret autem theca species quam describimus, et limaci parvo non longe est absimilis. Fusco-albicat, longaque est circiter unciam cum dimidio. Oceanum septentrionalem inhabitat.





Generic Character.

Body oblong, nayant; with a pair of opposite membranaceous Wings or expanded processes.

Specific Character, &c.

NAKED, or SHEATHLESS CLIO, with inversely conical body.




The genus Clio, which is far from a numerous one, consists of animals of a small size, and in general form not ill resembling minute Sepiæ or Cuttle-fish without arms. This appearance arises from the body being edged, as it were, with a membrane on each side, forming a kind of sheath; and on each side the head is a small expanded oval process. The species here exhibited is destitute of the sheath-like membrane above-mentioned, and bears no v very distant resemblance to a small slug. Its colour is a very pale or whitish brown, and its length about an inch and half. It is an inhabitant of the Northern ocean.


Long-Tailed Manakin

London, Published Octr 1st 1793 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Rostrum capite brevius, basi subtrigonum, integerrimum, apice incurvum.

Pedes gressorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 338.

Character Specificus.

PIPRA CÆRULEA, vertice subcristato coccineo, alis nigris, rectricibus duabus intermediis elongato-acuminatis.

Colli caudæque latera viridi-splendentia.

Aviculam in suo genere proculdubio pulcherrimam et coloribus eximiis superbientem, simulque novam nec antea descriptam, magni­tudine naturali depictam, sistit tabula. In America Australi et calidiori, sicut aliæ pleræque congeneres, præcipue invenitur.





Generic Character.

Bill shorter than the head, somewhat triangular at the base, bent at the tip.

Feet gressorial.

Specific Character.

BLUE MANAKIN with scarlet crown, black wings, and the two middle tail-feathers elongated and acuminated.

The sides of the neck and tail have a green lustre.

The bird here represented, which is unquestionably the most brilliant of its tribe, and is besides a new and hitherto undescribed species, is figured in its natural size. Like the rest of its genus it is principally found in the warmer parts of South America.




Clavate Ascidia

London, Published Octr 1st 1793 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Corpus fixum, teretiusculum, vaginans.

Aperturæ binæ utplurimum ad summitatem: altera humiliore.

Gmel. Syst. Nat. p. 3127.

Character Specificus, &c.

ASCIDIA stipite longissimo, corpore ovato, aperturarum utraque laterali.

ASCIDIA stipite filiformi, aperturarum utraque laterali.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3127.


Mant. plant. p. 552.

Bolten epist. de nov. zooph. Hamb. 1771.

Solent, ut plurimum, Ascidiæ saxis, rupibus, aliisque marinis substantiis basi adhærere. Forma iis plerumque oblonga, superius crassior. Sunt tamen duæ vel tres species quæ stipite seu pedunculo longo tubulato instruuntur, unde oritur inter eas et reliquas congeneres summa dissimilitudo. Specierum v harum anomalarum præcipua, quæ in tabula depingitur, corpus habet ovato-elongatum, superficie paululum exasperata. Augent præterea in certis speciminibus hanc scabritiem variæ serpularum, sertulariarum, aliorumque animalium parasiticorum, ut vocantur, species, quæ corporibus solent adhærere. Sunt in corpore Ascidiæ clavatæ duo foramina, alterum non procul a summo, alterum longe inferius situm, limbo seu margine paululum levato circundata, e quibus, si irritetur, aquam ejaculatur more reliqui generis. Stipes interdum vix octo vel novem unciis brevior, in variis speciminibus varie inclinatus, nec in ullis omnino rectus, lævis est, et fere corpori concolor, scilicet terreo-fuscus, paululum pallens, interdum jubens. In oceano septentrionali circa annum millesimum septingentesimum septuagesimum primo detecta est species quam descripsimus.



Generic Character.

Body fixed, approaching more or less to a cylindric shape; in some species sessile; in others supported on a pedicle.

Apertures (in most species) two: situated towards the upper part; one lower than the other.

Specific Character.

LONG-STALKED ASCIDIA, with elongated oval body and two lateral apertures.

The Ascidiæ in general adhere by their base to rocks, stones, and other submarine substances. They are mostly of an oblong form, somewhat thicker at the upper part than at the lower. There are however two or three species which are furnished with a long stalk, or tubular stem, which gives them an appearance widely different from the rest of their congeners. Of these anomalous species the animal here repre­sented is the most remarkable. The body is of an elongated oval shape, and of a somewhat roughened surface: this appearance is also in some specimens still increased by various species of serpulæ, v sertulariæ, and other parasitical animals, which adhere to it in various parts. The body has two foramina; one seated at a small distance from the upper part, and the other considerably lower: both are surrounded by a protuberant rim or circle. Through these holes, when irritated, it discharges water, like others of this genus. The stem is of a very considerable length; sometimes not less than eight or nine inches. It is differently inclined in different specimens, and is scarce ever perfectly straight. It is of a smooth surface, and nearly of the same colour with the body, viz. a pale earthly brown, and sometimes reddish. This most curious animal was first discovered about the year 1770 in the Northern Ocean.


Starry Globe-Madrepore

London, Published Octr 1st 1793 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Animal Medusa.

Corallium cavitatibus lamelloso-stellatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1272.

Character Specificus, &c.

MADREPORA SUBGLOBOSA, stellis distinctis innumeris undique aspersa.

MADREPORA COMPOSITA, stellis confertissimis immersis disco concavo-cylindrico.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1276.


Pall. el. zooph. p. 322. n. 190.


Seb. mus. 3. p. 208. n. 9. tab. 112. f. 9. 12. 14. 17. 18.

Cum Madreporam hanc plene describat character specificus, plura forsan supervacaneum sit dicere, nisi de magni­tudine, qua Madreporæ illi quam vocant Cerebrum æqualis est. Eadem quoque maria v inhabitat, nec raro foramine rotundato vel pluribus notatur, quæ interdum ob ipsa natura excavata videntur, circaque quæ animalia quæ corallium ædificare creduntur opus suum inco­harunt, alias similiora sunt cavis labore terebellarum quarundem efficitis.



Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Medusa.

Coral marked with lamellar striated cavities.

Specific Character.

NEARLY GLOBOSE MADREPORE, marked with innumerable star-shaped cavities.

This Madrepore is so fully described in its specific character as to require little to be added except the size of the coral, which equals that of the Brain-Madrepore. It is a native also of the same seas; and like that species, is not unfrequently marked by one or more round perforations, which sometimes bear the resemblance of natural excava­tions round which the animal fabricators of the coral have begun their operations, and at other times have more the appearance of the perforations of some species of Terebellæ.





London, Published Novr 1st 1793 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Rostrum teretiusculum, acuminatum.

Nares concavæ, denudatæ.

Lingua teres, lumbriciformis, longissima, apice mucronata.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 172.

Character Specificus, &c.

YUNX ex albo, griseo, nigro, et ferrugineo varia.


Bell. av. 76. a.

CUCULUS subgriseus maculatus, rectricibus nigris fasciis undulatis.

Lin. Faun. Suec. 1. p. 78. t. 1. f. 78.


Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 172.


Briss. av. 4. p. 7.

Varias Europæ partes incolit Torquilla, coloribus insignis elegantissime dispositis; e quibus conjunctis v eximia exoritur pulchritudo, cum forsan sigillatim conspectis vilescat pretium. In Angliam Aprili mense involat, cumque pullos aluerit, autumno vix finito, aliam sibi sedem quærit. Facillima auditu raro conspicitur: fallit enim oculos color cortici arboris nec longo intervallo simillimus, aures feriente rapida et canora voce citissime iterata. Vivitur Torquilla eodem fere modo quo picis; linguaque est huic, ut et illis longissima, retractilis, quam ejaculando inter corticis rimas latitantia insecta prædatur. More quoque picorum ova deponit in arborum foraminibus, nidum pene nullum struens, sed molli ligno putrido insidens. Ovis dum incubat femina (quæ interdum quinque parit, interdum octo, alba admodum et semi-pellucida) collum corpusque, si turbetur, miro modo contorquet quasi minitans: unde nomen Torquilla. Narrat doctissimus Derhamus in præcellenti libro Physico-Theologico, se puerum ab hac ave non semel perterritum fuisse, nec e foramine, quo nidificarat ova ausum esse surripere, quasi a serpente repulsum. Latet interdum nidus in cavo altissimo; ut vix discerni possit: quod si quis avem tangere conetur, illico more serpentum sibilat; quod sibilum ipsi etiam pulli fortiter emittunt. Notandum est tantam esse Torquillæ cum cuculo affinitatem, ut ab ipso Linnæo semel in eodem genere conjuncta sit.



Generic Character.

Bill roundish, slightly incurvated, weak.

Tongue very long, cylindric, missile, hard-pointed.

Feet scansorial, i.e. two toes forward and two backward.

Specific Character, &c.

YUNX (WRYNECK) varied with black, white, grey, and ferruginous.


Will. orn. p. 138. t. 22.


Briss. orn. 4. p. 4. pl. 1. f. 1.

Buff. ois. 7. p. 84. pl. 3.

Pl. enl. 698.

The Wryneck, so remarkable for the elegant disposition of its colours, which tho’ singly considered are far from brilliant, yet in combination produce so beautiful an effect, is a native of several parts of Europe. In our own country it appears in the month of April, and after the breeding season v is over, again migrates before the appearance of winter, or during the autumnal season. Though by no means uncommon, it is much more frequently heard than seen; its note, which consists of a quick succession of several shrill tones, being one of the most predominant amongst the vernal birds; while its colour bears so near a resemblance to the bark of the trees it frequents, as to be inconspicuous except on a very near approach.

In its mode of life the Wryneck bears a very strong affinity to the woodpecker tribe; and like those birds, is furnished with a very long, missile tongue, which it darts into the crevices of trees, and thus catches the insects they contain. It lays its eggs in the holes of trees, in the manner of a woodpecker; making scarce any nest, but contenting itself with the soft surface of the decayed wood. The eggs are from five to eight in number, very white, and semi­transparent. When the female is engaged in incubation, she has a habit, when disturbed, of wreathing herself into a number of extraordinary postures in a threatening manner. It is from this circumstance that the name of Wryneck has been given to the bird. The celebrated Derham in his Physico-Theology observes that, when a boy, he has more than once been deterred by these threatening contortions from taking the eggs of the Wryneck, “daring no more to venture his hand into the hole than if a serpent had lodged in it.” They sometimes, however, build in a hole so deep as to be perfectly secure from attacks of this kind; but if an attempt is made to reach them, they hiss r in the manner of serpents; and even the young exert this faculty in a most striking degree. I should observe that the Wryneck bears some affinity to the Cuckow, with which it was once associated in the same genus by Linnæus.




Atalanta Butterfly

London, Published Novr 1st 1793 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem verius crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis dentatis nigris albo maculatis: fascia communi purpurea: primoribus utrinque, posterioribus marginali.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 779.
Nymphales phalerati.

PAPILIO tetrapus; alis denticulatis nigris albo-maculatis: omnibus fascia arcuata coccinea.

Lin. Faun. Suec. 1. n. 777.

Mouff. p. 100. f. 3. 4.

Mer: europ. 2. p. 41. t. 91.

Roes. ins. 1. t. 6.

Degeer. ins. 1. t. 22. f. 5.

In formosissimis, quotquot generat Britannia, insectis habendus Papilio Atalanta ex eruca oritur, v quæ plerumque urticæ vulgaris, cui insidere solet, folia depascitur. In pupam seu chrysalidem mense Julio et Augusto ut plurimum convertitur, e qua diebus sedecim seu octodecim erumpit papilio.

Pleraque insecta lepidoptera simul atque e chrysalide liberantur, vel cum primæ se fugæ commiserint, guttas aliquot liquoris cujusdam colorati, ut plurimum magis minusve rubri, solent emittere. Hoc in pluribus speciebus communibus sæpissime cernitur, in papilione scilicet urticæ, Atalanta, Polychloro, reliquisque; et ut taceam simile quiddam velle naturam in cæteris animalibus recens natis, dignum est ut præcipue notetur, cum optime explicet phænomenon non modo antiquis temporibus sed et recentioribus prodigii loco habitum; guttarum nempe sanguinearum ab aere descensum, quem memorant varii scriptores, Ovidius præcipue inter portenta quæ, trucidato Cæsare, Romanorum animos turbarunt.

“Sæpe faces visæ mediis ardere sub astris:

“Sæpe inter nimbos guttæ cecidere cruentæ.”

Rem miram, quæ diu crux erat philosophorum, verisimiliter explicasse primus videtur celeberrimus Peirescius, qui in Gallia anno millesimo sexcentesimo octavo suis oculis phænomeni vestigia examinavit, sibique persuasissimum habuit provenisse guttulas rubras e papilionis specie, papilione fortasse urticæ id temporis præter solitum abundante, præcipue prope loca ubi nimbus cruentatus ceciderat. In hanc sententiam ivit Swammerdamus, qui tamen non αυτοπτης fuisse videtur. Eo me magis de hac r re recte intelligenda solicitum sentio, quod noverim auctorem, cujus nomen me jam effugit, non modo de causa hujusmodi imbris sed et de ipso imbre omnino dubitasse. Satis tamen probavit Peirescius oculatus testis revera devenisse a papilionibus circum­volitantibus humorem prædictum quasi sanguine rubentem; cumque de eo sententiam firmaverit accura­tissimi Swammerdami judicium, vix possit dubitari quin peritissimorum horum hominum sagacitas rem diffi­cillimam acu tetigerit.



Generic Character.

Antennæ or Horns thickening towards the upper part, and generally terminating in a knob, or club-shaped tip.

Wings (when sitting) erect, and meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

BLACK BUTTERFLY spotted with white: the upper wings marked by a transverse, the lower by a marginal band of crimson.


Harris. Aur. t. 6. f. a-h.


Albin. t. 3.

The Papilio Atalanta is one of the most beautiful of the British insects, and proceeds from a caterpillar which feeds on the leaves of the common nettle. It generally changes to a chrysalis in the month of July or August; from which, in about r the space of sixteen or eighteen days, emerges the complete insect.

The papilionaceous insects in general, soon after their enlargement from the chrysalis, and commonly during the first flight they take, discharge some drops of a coloured fluid, which in many species is of a red, more or less intense. This may be frequently observed in some of the most common species, as the P: urticæ, Atalanta, Polychloros, &c. and is a circumstance which, exclusive of its analogy to the same process of nature in other animals, is peculiarly worthy of attention from the explanation which it affords of a phenomenon sometimes considered both in ancient and modern times in the light of a prodigy, viz. the descent of red drops from the air, which has been called a shower of blood: an event recorded by several writers, and particularly commemorated by Ovid amongst the prodigies which took place after the death of the great dictator.

“Sæpe faces visæ mediis ardere sub astris:

“Sæpe inter nimbos guttæ cecidere cruentæ.”

With threat’ning signs the low’ring skies were fill’d,

And sanguine drops from murky clouds distill’d.

This highly rational elucidation of a phenomenon, at first view so inexplicable, seems to have been first proposed by the celebrated Peiresc, who with his own eyes observed the vestiges of an appearance of this kind in France in the year 1608, and was clearly convinced of its real origin, viz. v the discharge above mentioned, proceeding from a species of butterfly, probably the P: urticæ, which happened during that season to be uncommonly plentiful in the particular district where the phenomenon was observed. The same idea was also entertained by Swammerdam, though he does not appear to have verified it from his own observations.

I am the more particular on this subject, as I have seen in some author, whose name I do not at present recollect, this solution, and even the appearance itself, regarded as in the highest degree improbable: but the ocular attes­tation of so eminent a character as Peiresc, and the full persuasion of a reasoner like Swammerdam, are surely sufficient to establish not only the credibility, but the certainty, both of the phenomenon itself and its explication.


Common Coralline

London, Published Novr 1st 1793 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Animal? crescens habitu plantæ.

Stirps fixa. Rami articulati, ramulosi.

Character Specificus, &c.

CORALLINA fastigiata subbipinnata vel trichotoma, articulis subturbinatis.

CORALLINA subbipinnata, articulis subturbinatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1304.

CORALLINA alba officinarum.

Park. theatr. 1296.

Cum in genere Corallinarum species, ut plurimum, sint parvulæ et minutæ, hinc fit ut materia animalis, quæ in coralliis majoribus satis patet, in his nunquam adhuc pro certo explorata sit. Quod tamen hanc ob causam possit concedi quod ab analogia valde probabile sit; nec temere conjiciendum est nulla esse omnino incolentia animalia, eorum licet, ob exiguitatem pororum, qui ipsi non nisi microscopii ope cernuntur, vestigia frustra quærantur: v nec de his dubitasse videtur solertissimus Linnæus, quippe qui firmiter crediderit omnem calcariam substan­tiam ab animalibus esse exortam. Hujus corallinæ maxima copia racemosa quasi et conglomerata crescit in rupibus sub mari immersis, juxta littora pleraque Europæa. Colore ob plurimas causas variat, estque vel subpurpurea, vel subviridis, interdum etiam, præcipue si nimium soli exponatur, fere alba. In therapeutice magni olim erat nominis, et inesse credebatur illi vis quædam vermifugans; quam opinionem uno fere consensu denegant ridentque peritissimi omnes horum temporum medici.



Generic Character.

Animal? growing in the form of a plant.

Stem fixed. Branches jointed, subdivided.

Specific Character, &c.

CROUDED or CLUSTERED CORALLINE with doubly-pinnated and sometimes trichotomous branches, and turbinated joints.


Ger. emac. p. 1571.

CORALLINE of the shops.

Ellis. corall: p. 48. t. 24. f. a. & c.


Ray Synops. ed. 3. p. 33.

In the genus Corallina, most of the species of which are very small, the animal nature, so apparent in many of the larger corals, is not yet clearly ascertained. It is however from analogy to be supposed; and though the pores which a microscopical survey discovers on the surface of these productions v are so extremely small as not to admit of a view of any animal inhabitants, yet this circumstance is not sufficient to disprove the existence of such. Linnæus appears to have been convinced of the animal nature of this genus, merely from the circumstance of its being of a calcarious substance; according to his established idea of all calcarious matter proceeding from the animal kingdom. The present species of coralline is found in great abundance on the submarine rocks about most of the European coasts; growing in clustered tufts. Its colour varies according to circumstances; being sometimes purplish; at other times greenish; and sometimes, especially where much exposed to the sun, nearly white. It once maintained a very respectable character in the materia medica, and was particularly celebrated for its anthelmintic powers; which the more illuminated cast of modern practice almost universally denies it.


Minute Kingfisher

London, Published Decr 1st 1793. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Rostrum trigonum crassum, rectum, longum.

Lingua carnosa, brevissima, plana, acuta.

Pedes gressorii plerisque.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 178.

Character Specificus, &c.

ALCEDO? cærulea, subtus fulva, macula colli utrinque purpurea.


Lath. ind. orn. p. 266.

Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. p. 444.

Alcedinis pusillæ sui generis longe minimæ, ostendit tabula veram et naturalem magni­tudinem. Generat eam India Orientalis. In Sumatra etiam frequens conspicitur.





Generic Character.

Bill trigonal, thick, strait, long, sharp-pointed.

Tongue fleshy, very short, flat, sharp-pointed.

Feet (in most species) gressorial, three toes forward and one backward; and the three lower joints of the middle toe closely joined to those of the outmost.

Linnæus and Pennant.

Specific Character, &c.

SMALL BLUE KINGFISHER? (Tody?) fulvous beneath, with a purple spot on each side the neck.

LE TODIER BLEU à ventre orangé.

Buff. ois. 7. p. 229.


Pl. enl. 783. f. 1.

This bird is beyond comparison the smallest of the Kingfisher tribe. The plate represents it in its natural size. It is a native of the East Indies, and is also common in Sumatra.




Diogenes Crab

London, Published Decr 1st 1793 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Pedes octo (rarius sex aut decem;) insuper manus duæ chelatæ.

Palpi sex inæquales.

Oculi duo distantes, plurimis pedunculati; elongati, mobiles.

Mandibula cornea, crassa.

Labium triplex.

Cauda articulata, inermis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2963.

Character Specificus, &c.

CANCER MACROURUS PARASITICUS, chelis lævibus pubescentibus: sinistra majore.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1049.

Rumph. mus. t. 5. f. K. L.?

Catesb. Car. 2. t. 33. f. 1. 2.

Insectorum, quæ miro et singulari modo formata complectitur genus Cancer, numerosissimas species in phalangas pro vario corporis habitu distribuere prorsus necesse est, ut facilius dignosci possint. E cancris nonnulli corpore brevi sunt et quasi suborbiculato, v cujus diametros transversa non raro longi­tudinem superat. Alii forma sunt gracili et elongata; alii admodum spinosi seu muricati; alii omnino læves. Sunt qui chelis maximis validisque armantur; sunt etiam quorum pedes imbelles et inermes. Aliis denique vasta est et insignis magni­tudo; aliorum mira tenuitas efficit ut singulæ partes non nisi microscopii ope satis examinari possint. Quæ in hoc genere continentur animalia crudas seu exuvias certis intervallis solent exuere; sub quod tempus artus gradatim contrahuntur et exiliores fiunt, ut e chelis reliquaque cruda facilius liberentur: quo facto, in latibulo quiescit cancer paucos dies donec novum tegmen satis induruerit, quod primo membranaceum potius est quam crustosum. Membrum amissum, quod plerisque animalibus gravis­simum foret et irreparabile, parum aut nihil queruntur cancri; paucis enim septimanis excrescit alterum novum et integrum. Immo quasi scientes insevisse iis naturam facultatem repullulandi, si membrum aliquod læsum fuerit aut contusum, non expectant donec sanetur, sed subito et violento nisu veluti impedimentum abjiciunt, et in locum tutum et quietum se recipiunt, parte mox redintegrata gavisuri. Universo fere cancrorum generi mira inest foecunditas; cujus insigne exemplum est in illo qui Astacus dicitur, unde duodecim millia ovorum singulo partu excluduntur. Gulæ dediti et animalibus et vegeta­bilibus vescuntur. Cancer quem describimus inter eas species militat quæ cruda seu tegmine postico destitu­untur, quæque igitur testas univalves, si quas in litore invenerint vacuas et idonee formatas, r intrantes incolunt, corpore in testam immerso, chelis exertis. Cancrorum qui molles seu parasitici vocari solent præcipuæ species sunt Bernardus et Diogenes. Diogenem depinximus, qui plerumque testam muricis, buccini, turbinis, vel neritæ inhabitat, unde et nomen adeptus est, quod testa eodem modo utatur quo celebris iste pseudo-philosophus dolio suo. Figura prima monstrat animal testa inclusum, secunda testa exutum.

Nec prætereundum est insigniter in cancris aberrare naturam a generali suo consilio, quo cautum est ut omnes corporis partes utrinque sibi invicem respondeant. Ex illis enim multi chelas gerunt ab hoc latere immodicas, ab illo tenues et exiles; cogiturque cancer vocans et alii nonnulli brachium grande et incommodum inter ambulandum dorso imponere. Notandum porro est chelas magnas, quæ ut plurimum sunt a dextro latere interdum esse a sinistro; quod idem testis nonnullis univalvibus accidere notis­simum est, quarum ora nunc dextrorsum nunc sinis­trorsum sita sunt.





Generic Character.

Feet commonly eight, (in some species six or ten) besides two chelated ones.

Palpi or Feelers six, unequal.

Eyes two, distant, in most species footstalked; elongated, moveable.

Mandible thick.

Lip triple.

Tail articulated, unarmed.

Specific Character, &c.

ELONGATED PARASITIC CRAB, with smooth pubescent chelæ, of which the left is largest.



The genus Cancer is distinguished not more by the singularly curious shape and appearance of the insects it contains, than by the vast variety of species v into which it is divided; the number of which is so great that it is found entirely necessary to subdivide them into sections according to their different shape or general habit, in order that they may the more readily be investigated. Some are of a short, thick, and nearly orbicular form, and sometimes the transverse diameter of their body consi­derably exceeds the longi­tudinal: others are of a thin and long form: some are strongly muricated; others perfectly smooth: some are furnished with very strong and large chelæ or claws; others have only weak, unarmed feet: lastly, some are remarkable for their great size, while others are so diminutive as to require the assistance of glasses in order to determine the structure of their several parts.

The animals of this genus cast their shells from time to time. When this period approaches, the limbs gradually shrink or waste in size, so as to enable them to be drawn with the greater ease from the claws and other parts of the shell. The animal then lies in a quiet state for some days, till the new shell is formed, or rather till it is hardened; for at first it is rather membranaceous than crustaceous. The loss of a limb, an accident so dreadful and irremediable to the major part of the animal world, is to these creatures of but little importance; since the space of a few weeks supplies the defect, and restores them to their former state. What is still more wonderful, these animals, when injured, maimed, or bruised on any particular limb, do not wait for the process of a gradual recovery of that individual part, but, as if conscious of the power of reproduction, r voluntarily cast off with sudden violence the offending member, and betaking themselves to a state of retirement, await the formation of their new limb. Most of the genus are very prolific animals. The female of the common Lobster produces upwards of twelve thousand eggs each time of laying. They are of a very voracious nature, and feed on animal as well as vegetable substances. The species of cancer here repre­sented is one of those which have the body naturally destitute of a shelly covering; in consequence of which they never fail to take possession of such vacant univalve shells as happen to suit their convenience; the body being immersed in the shell, while the claws remain exserted. Amongst these parasitical or soft-bodied species the two most remarkable are the Cancer Bernardus and the Cancer Diogenes. It is the latter of these which is figured on the present plate; the first figure shewing the animal in the shell, the second representing it divested of its covering. It is generally found inhabiting the shell of a Murex, Buccinum, Turbo, or Nerite, and has obtained the title of Diogenes from its residing in this convenient receptacle as that celebrated pseudo-philosopher is reported to have done in his tub.

I should not dismiss this article without observing that the genus cancer affords a curious example of deviation from that general symmetry of parts so conspicuous in most other animals; in which the shape of the body and limbs on one side exactly corresponds to that of the other. Many of the Cancri, however, are furnished with a pair of chelæ v on one side of immoderate size, while those of the opposite side are thin and small; and in some particular species, as the C: vocans, &c., the size of the large arm is so great as to oblige the animal to support it on its back, in which position it is generally placed while the creature is walking. It may likewise be added that this is a parti­cularity which is sometimes reversed; a circumstance which takes place, as is well known, in the univalve shells.


Ocellated Shark

London, Published Decr 1st 1793 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Spiracula quinque ad latera colli.

Corpus oblongum teretiusculum.

Os in anteriore capitis parte.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 397.

Character Specificus, &c.

SQUALUS subfasciatus fusco maculatus, ocello utrinque nigro supra pinnas pectorales.

SQUALUS litura magna rotunda nigra, circulo albo cincta, ad utrumque colli latus.

Lin.Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 1495.

Continentur in genere hoc voraci et exitioso nonnullæ species quæ non modicam elegantiam jactare possunt. Exemplo sit illa in tabula depicta, quæ non modo corpus habet satis concinnum, maculasque æqualiter dispositas, sed etiam notis duabus nigris, permagnis, rotundis seu potius leviter ovatis insignitur, utrinque super pinnas pectorales sitis, alboque limbo circundatis in oculorum similitudinem. In numero est hæc species minorum squalorum, nasciturque in maribus australibus.





Generic Character.

Spiracula five on each side the neck.

Body oblong, somewhat cylindric.

Mouth situated beneath in the fore part of the head.

Specific Character, &c.

SUBFASCIATED SHARK, with dusky spots, and a black ocellated mark on each side above the pectoral fins.


Brousson. act. Paris, 1780. p. 660. n. 10.

Amongst this voracious and destructive tribe there are some species which possess no inconsiderable degree of elegance. Of this the fish here repre­sented is a remarkable instance, which, exclusive of the general neatness of its appearance and the regular distribution of its spots, is distinguished by two very large and beautiful round, or rather slightly oval black marks, situated on each side, immediately v above the pectoral fins. These spots are surrounded by a margin of white, so as to resemble a pair of eyes. This animal is one of the smaller sharks, and is a native of the Southern Seas.


European Bee-Eater

London, Published Janry 1st 1794 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Rostrum curvatum, compressum, carinatum.

Lingua apice laciniata.

Pedes gressorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 182.

Character Specificus, &c.

MEROPS dorso ferrugineo, abdomine caudaque viridi-cærulescente, rectricibus duabus longioribus, gula lutea.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 182.


Bell. av. 16.

Gesn. av. 599.

Aldr. 1. p. 871.


Briss. av. 4. p. 532. n. 1.

Formosam hanc avem, quam ignorat Britannia, alunt calidioris Europæ variæ regiones; Græcia nec non insulæ quæ in Ægæo mari abundanter, v Creta autem præcipue, in qua exerceri dicitur lepida ista et aeria avium quasi piscatio, cujus meminit Bellonius. Cicada nempe vel aciculæ incurvatæ vel hamo piscatorio affixa e filo longis­simo in altum projicitur, in quam celerrime volantem Merops, insectis sedulo invigilans, simul atque adspexerit subito impetu involat, et esca avide devorata, cedit ipse in prædam pueris Cretensibus. Nidum e musco confectum ponit Merops Apiaster in ripis fluviorum.



Generic Character.

Bill curved, compressed, carinated, and sharp-pointed.

Tongue (generally) laciniated at the tip.

Feet gressorial, i.e. three toes forward and one backward; and the three lower joints of the middle toe closely joined to those of the outmost.

Specific Character, &c.

BEE-EATER with the back ferruginous, the abdomen and tail blue-green, the two middle tail-feathers longer than the rest, the throat yellow.



Will. p. 147.


Buf. 6. p. 480. t. 23.

Pl. enl. 938.

This beautiful bird is a native of many of the warmer parts of Europe, but is never seen in the v British dominions. It is extremely common in Greece and the islands of the Archipelago; and in Crete is more peculiarly plentiful. It is in this latter island that the curious mode of bird-catching described by Bellonius is said to be frequently practised with success, viz. a cicada is fastened on a bent pin, or a fish-hook, and tied to a long line. The insect when thrown from the hand, ascends into the air, and flies with rapidity; the Merops, ever on the watch for insects, seeing the cicada, springs at it, and swallowing the bait, is thus taken by the Cretan boys. The Bee-Eater builds in the banks of rivers, and forms its nest of moss.


Venus Dione, or the Occidental Venus-Shell

London, Published Janry 1st 1794 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Animal Tethys.

Testa bivalvis æquivalvis, altero latere complanato et velut duplicato.

Cardo dentibus tribus: omnibus approximatis; lateralibus apice divergentibus.

Character Specificus, &c.

VENUS SUBCORDATA, latere complanato serie duplici spinarum curvarum ciliato.

PECTUNCULUS RUBER, fasciis acutis et ex altera parte muricatis exasperatus.

List. Conch. t. 307. p. 140.


Bonanni Mus. Kirch. Cl. 2. n. 121. p. 448.


Jacobæus in Mus. Reg. Dan.


Pet. gazoph. t. 31. fig. 9.


Valent. Mus. Museor. t. 35. n. 19.

CONCHA VENERIS occidentalis cum spinis.

D’Argenville. t. 21. f. 1.

Concham raram et elegantem ostendit tabula, qua nihil injuriarum passa vix pretiosiorem continet hodiernorum v museorum scrinia. At difficillimum est specimina nancisci integra et illæsa, ea præcipue quæ ad plenam magni­tudinem pervenerint.

Venerem Dionem, quam generant maria Americana, primus descripsit et depinxit Bonannus? Color illi generalis est levissime incarnatus, seu fere albidus; valvula utraque zonis plurimis levatis et concentricis extrinsecus notata. Pars posterior seu complanata in variis speciminibus plus minus est purpurea, et spinarum curvarum utrinque serie laterali ciliata; unde fit, ut si e transverso testam intuearis, non longe oculo absimilis videatur, vel etiam ori ringenti quadrupedis. Cum species numerosissimas contineat genus, multisque egregium sit decus, nomen ideo ei datum est quod pulchritudinem denotet.

Venerem seu Dionem e mari anadyomenen toties celebrarunt poetæ, ut supervacaneum forsan habeatur de re notissima quicquam dicere. Bellum tamen Ausonii epigramma liceat citare.

“Emersam pelagi nuper genialibus undis

Cyprin Apellei cerne laboris opus.

Ut complexa manu madidos salis æquore crines

Humidulis spumas stringit utraque comis

Jam tibi nos Cypri, Juno inquit et innuba Pallas

Cedimus, et formæ præmia deserimus.”

At vel Ausonio felicius cecinit celeberrimus Darwin, in eximio poemate cui titulus Hortus Botanicus, cujus versus in linguam Latinam eleganter adeo transtulit eruditus quidam amicus, ut si quod r ille scripsit in scriniis ineditum servem, persuasissimum habeam me a publica delectatione detracturum.

Addidi et egomet arctiorem, humiliorem, et quasi centonicam imitationem.

“Sic primum vitreum fugiens Erycina profundum,

Nereidumque domos, patrio jam debita cælo,

Surgit ad æthereum solem pulcherrima rerum,

Cæruleis emersa vadis: rutilante sedentem

Hanc concha manibus tollunt submisse inhiantes

Semiviri, visusque avidos pascuntur amore.

At leve subridens falsam dea crine soluto

Humorem, liquidas et gemmas exprimit; illæ

Desiliunt niveis sinuoso tramite mammis

Protinus, et placide lambunt juvenilia membra.

Præsentis valet interea vis vivida formæ.

Sternitur attonitum pacatis fluctibus æquor

Immensum, vix jamque tremit, metuitque moveri.

Mollius aspirant zephyri, simul æthera stillant

Ambrosiam, et toto nova regnat in orbe voluptas.”


Sic alto enata oceano, si credere fas sit,

Alma Venus quondam pelagi gratissima nymphis,

Muscosos inter scopulos cautesque profundas

Lusit amabiliter; vitreisque sedilibus hærens

Dulcia subridens immiscuit cscula verbis,

Et finxit vultum, et meruit formosa videri:

Jam teneros experta jocos, nec egena leporum.

At mox tota merum sal, plena et fulgida forma,

Tritonum manibus solio subvecta virenti

Sedibus ex imis, pacato in marmore ponti

Institit, attonitas despectans desuper undas:

Qualis ubi e cælo radiis argenteus almis


Lucifer assurgit, ridentemque undique terram

Vivificat, pictos revocans ad gaudia campos.

Ut roseis cæpit digitis siccare capillos,

Per caput errantes guttæ et per eburnea colla

Suave micant; dein terga petunt, humerosque latusque

Pectoraque, et falsis stellantes roribus artus.

Continuo natura Deam mirata salutat,

Et manifesta Venus cælo terrisque renidet.


or the

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Tethys.

Shell bivalve; Valves similar, flattened on one side and furnished with a duplicature.

Hinge consisting of three teeth, approximated, the outer ones diverging.

Specific Character, &c.

SUBCORDATED VENUS, with a double row of incurvated spines on the flat side.


CONQUE DE VENUS occidentale.

Encyclop. Recueil de planches. tom. t. 73. fig. 6.

CONQUE DE VENUS à pointes.

Fav. D’Herbigny Dict. vol. 1. p. 262.


Hill’s Hist. of Animals. p. 358.

The rare and curious shell represented on the present plate is numbered amongst the most valuable v articles of the conchyliological cabinet, and is indeed considered, when in its complete and unblemished state, as one of the cimelia of modern museums. It is, however, not often that specimens can be obtained which have not suffered some accidental injuries, especially those which have attained their full size. The Venus Dione is a native of the American seas, and was first described and figured by Bonanni? Its general colour is a very pale or whitish pink; each valve is marked externally by a great number of sharpened concentric zones or prominent ribs: the hinder or flattened part is of a purple tinge, more or less deep in different individuals, and is ciliated on each side with a row of curved spines, so as to give the shell, when viewed in a transverse direction, an appearance not ill resembling that of an eye, or even of the ringent mouth of a quadruped.

As the genus to which it belongs is extremely extensive, and contains several species of uncommon beauty, it has therefore received a name appropriated to the elegance of its form.

The birth of the younger Dione or Venus from the sea has so often been commemorated by the poets of antiquity, that it would be superfluous to relate what must be universally known. It may be sufficient therefore to quote on this subject the elegant epigram of Ausonius on the celebrated picture of Venus anadyomene by the hand of Apelles.

“Emersam pelagi nuper genialibus undis

Cyprin, Apellei cerne laboris opus.


Ut complexa manu madidos salis æquore crines

Humidulis spumas stringit utraque comis

Jam tibi nos Cypri, Juno inquit et innuba Pallas

Cedimus, et formæ præmia deserimus.”

Form’d in bold fancy by Apelles’ hand,

See Venus on her native ocean stand.

As from the wave in full-blown charms she springs,

And from her hair the dropping moisture wrings,

Juno and Pallas view her with amaze:

In silence on the lovely tablet gaze:

No more at beauty’s envied prize repine,

But to the pictur’d fair the willing palm resign.

A still more beautiful description has, however, been given by Dr. Darwin in his celebrated poem The Botanic Garden.

“So young Dione, nurs’d beneath the waves,

And rock’d by Nereids in their coral caves,

Charm’d the blue sisterhood with playful wiles,

Lisp’d her sweet tones, and tried her tender smiles.

Then on her beryl throne by Tritons borne,

Bright rose the Goddess like the star of morn;

When with soft fires the milky dawn he leads,

And wakes to life and love the laughing meads;

With rosy fingers, as uncurl’d they hung

Round her fair brow, her golden locks she wrung;

O’er the smooth surge on silver sandals stood,

And look’d enchantment on the dazzled flood.

The bright drops, rolling from her listed arms,

In slow meanders wander o’er her charms.

Seek round her snowy neck their lucid track,

Pearl her white shoulders, gem her ivory back,

Round her fine waist and swelling bosom swim,

And star with glitt’ring brine each crystal limb.

Th’ immortal form enamour’d Nature hail’d,

And Beauty blaz’d to heaven and earth unveil’d.”


Of this the reader will find in the corresponding Latin part a free translation by the hand of a learned friend, so highly elegant that I cannot resist the pleasure of presenting it to the public.

I have also myself added, in the manner of a cento, a more close imitation of Dr. Darwin’s lines.


Idomeneus, or Great Occidental Butterfly

London, Published Janry 1st 1794 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis subcrenatis cærulescenti-fuscescentibus, superioribus fascia semitransversa albida, subtus nebulosis, ocello posticarum maximo.

PAPILIO alis subcrenatis cærulescenti-fuscescentibus, subtus nebulosis: ocellis duobus: portico magno flavescente.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 753.
Eq. Achiv.

PAPILIO alis subcrenatis fuscis basi cyaneis, subtus nebulosis, posticis ocello magno flavescente.

Fab. Sp. Ins. t. 2. p. 26.

Inter Papiliones eminet Idomeneus, plerosque congeneres magni­tudine exuperans. Alarum superiorum v pars altior coloris est eximie fusci, striis aliquot trans­versis obscurioribus undulati: cyanea est reliqua pars, medio lucidiore. Nec caret pulchritudine alarum super­ficies inferior quæ fusca nubeculis aliquot pallidioribus striisque innumeris nigricantibus variatur; et in utraque ala inferiore macula exstat permagna, nigricans, oculo similis, circulo lato flavente inclusa, qui ipse nigro circun­datur. Magno intervallo super magnas has maculas sita est utrinque et alia minor. Americam Australem incolit Papilio Idomeneus.



Generic Character.

Antennæ or Horns thickening towards the upper part, and generally terminating in a knob, or club-shaped tip.

Wings (when sitting) erect, and meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

BUTTERFLY with dusky-blue wings: with a semi-transverse whitish bar on the upper pair: the lower surface clouded with different shades, and marked by a very large ocellated spot on each of the lower wings.

Petiv. gaz. 43. t. 28. f. 1.

Cram. pap. 5. t. 52. f. B. t. 390. f. A. B.

Mer. Sur. t. 60.

Pl. enl. t. 96. f. 1. 2.

This insect is one of the largest of the papilionaceous tribe. The upper half of the superior wings v is of a rich brown, undulated with a few deeper transverse striæ, while the remainder is of a very deep blue, the middle part more lucid than the rest. The body is brown. It is a native of South America. The under surface of the wings is by no means destitute of beauty, being of a brown colour, varied with lighter clouds, and undulated with innumerable blackish streaks, and on each of the lower wings is an extremely large ocellated blackish spot, surrounded by a broad ring of pale yellow, which is again encircled with black. At a great distance above these very large spots on each side is situated a smaller spot of the same form.


Golden-Crowned Wren

London, Published Febry 1st 1794 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Rostrum subulatum, rectum: mandibulis subæqualibus.

Nares ovatæ.

Lingua lacero-emarginata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 328.

Character Specificus, &c.

MOTACILLA subvirescens, subtus pallida, verticis fascia longi­tudinali lutea utrinque nigro marginata.

MOTACILLA remigibus secundariis exteriori margine flavis, medio albis, vertice luteo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 338.


Will. orn. p. 163. t. 42.


Lath. ind. orn. p. 548.

Antequam detectus esset orbis Americanus, avium omnium minima habebatur Motacilla Regulus: minorem v certe non alit Europa. Eximiam eleganti huic aviculæ affert pulchritudinem quæ verticem decorat fascia læte aurantia utrinque etiam nigro terminata. Non mollis et tenella est Motacilla Regulus, sed hiemes nostro sub coelo frigidissimas illæsa perfert. Cernere est eam sæpius in quercubus quas amare videtur ante alias arbores.



Generic Character.

Bill subulate (or awl-shaped); strait; the mandibles nearly equal.

Nostrils nearly oval.

Tongue jagged, or lacerated towards the tip.

Specific Character, &c.

GREENISH MOTACILLA, pale beneath, with a longi­tudinal gold-yellow band edged on each side with black on the crown of the head.


Raii. syn. p. 79. A. 9.

Will. orn. p. 227. pl. 42.

Br. Zool. 1. No. 153.

The Motacilla Regulus, or golden-crested Wren, is the smallest of all the European birds, and till the discovery of the American continent, was regarded as the most diminutive of the feathered tribe. The rich orange-coloured stripe on the top v of the head, softening into yellow, and bounded on each side by a line of black, gives a peculiarly beautiful appearance to this elegant species. It is a bird of a hardy constitution, and bears without seeming inconvenience the severest winters of our climate. It is more frequently seen on oak trees than on any others.


Head of the Dodo

London, Published Febry 1st 1794 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




——————Pes et Caput uni
Reddatur formæ.——————

Cum ego nuper verum et genuinum Didi pedem in Museo Britannico detectum accurate depingi curaverim, gratulor sane mihi quod jam oblata sit occasio reliquias pretiosiores lectoribus meis apponendi; rostrum nempe, cum fronte seu parte capitis ei adhuc adhærente. In hoc singularis istius avis vestigium fauste admodum incidi in Museo Ashmoleano apud Oxonienses; in quo satis notum est contineri quicquid rarum collegerat celeberrimus Tradescantius, qui id omne domino Eliæ Ashmole legavit, a quo postea Academiæ donatum est. In descriptione Didi qui in tabula centesima vicesima et tertia hujus operis cernitur, Willoughbeii testimonio usus sum, qui exuvias avis in Museo Tradescantiano se vidisse affirmaverat. Rostrum igitur de quo loquimur est ipsissimum specimen a Willoughbeio Raioque visum; quod fideliter repræsen­tavimus, quale hodie conspicitur, id injuriarum passum quas afferre solet annorum spatium majus quam centum et quinquaginta. Notandum porro est pedem quoque Didi, vetustate exesum et mutilatum, in eodem Museo asservari, plene et perfecte congruentem cum illo quem suppeditavit Museum v Britannicum, quemque in hoc Naturæ Vivario non ita pridem descripsimus. Vera igitur illius avis existentia, de qua nonnihil dubitari solitum est, tandem certissime probatur.



Having some months ago ascertained in the British Museum the leg of a Dodo, and given in a preceding number an exact representation of it, I have now the pleasure of presenting my readers with a still more satisfactory relique of that singular bird, viz. the beak, with the fore-part of the head still adhering to it. This I was so fortunate as to discover very lately in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, in which, as is well known, is contained the collection of the famous John Tradescant, by whom it was bequeathed to Mr. Elias Ashmole, who presented it to the university. In the description of the Dodo at plate 123 of the present work, I­have observed that we have the testimony of Willoughby for the existence of the exuviæ of the Dodo in the Trades­cantian Museum. The beak therefore here figured is that belonging to the specimen seen by Willoughby and Ray. It is most faithfully repre­sented as it now appears, having suffered some injuries from the lapse of more than a century and half. I should not omit to observe that a leg of the Dodo (tho’ in an extremely bad state of preservation), exists in the same collection; in size and every other particular agreeing with that belonging to the British Museum. The existence therefore of the Dodo, which has lately been considered as somewhat problematical, is now in the fullest and most satisfactory manner ascertained.




Hecuba Butterfly

London, Published Febry 1st 1794 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis anterioribus rubris, posterioribus nigris, omnibus subtus ocellatis.

PAPILIO alis anterioribus rubris, posterioribus nigris, subtus utrinque ocellatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2247.

PAPILIO alis dentatis, anticis rubris, posticis nigris, subtus utrinque ocellatis.

Lin. Mant. 1534.

Colorum dispositione insignis Papilio Hecuba inter maximos et lautissimos sui generis locum sibi vindicat. Alæ superiores læte ferrugineo-rubræ, oris fuscis; inferiores atræ longe minus nigrant juxta basin seu ad humeros. Alarum tum superiorum v tum inferiorum margines decorat series macularum leviter flaventium. Corpus griseum, seu canescens. Alarum omnium superficies inferior variis umbris nigris, fuscis, canis, ferrugineis undulata, maculis quoque quasi ocellatis concoloribus adornatur. Americam Australem incolit venustissima hæc species.



Generic Character.

Antennæ or Horns thickening towards the upper part, and generally terminating in a knob, or club-shaped tip.

Wings (when sitting) erect, and meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

BUTTERFLY with the upper wings red, the lower black; each pair ocellated beneath.


Pl. enl. 19.

The Papilio Hecuba is one of the largest and most magnificent of its tribe. It is also remarkable for the singularity of its colour; the upper wings being of a very rich ferruginous-red with dusky edges, while the lower ones are black, but considerably paler towards their base than on the broader part. Both the upper and lower wings are edged with a series of palish yellow spots. The body is greyish. The under surface of all the wings is undulated v with various shades of brown, black, grey, and ferru­ginous, and marked by several eye-like spots of similar colours. This superb insect is a native of South America.


Ruby-Throated Warbler

London, Published March 1st 1794 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Rostrum subulatum, rectum: mandibulis subæqualibus.

Nares ovatæ.

Lingua lacero-emarginata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 328.

Character Specificus, &c.

MOTACILLA fusco-ferruginea, subtus pallidior, gula rubra nigro marginata.


Lath. ind. orn. p. 331.


Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 817.


Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 977.

In frigidis Siberiæ regionibus innata Motacilla Calliope, more lusciniæ Europeæ, noctu præcipue cantare dicitur, aliis omnibus avibus quæ plagam istam immitem incolunt ob vocis suavitatem merito v prælata. Carminibus etiam dulcissimis accedit non mediocris colorum elegantia: quorum primarius blande est et molliter ferrugineo-fuscus, gutture ruberrimo margine nigerrima circumdato. Circa ripas fluminis Jenisæ præcipue dicitur abundare Motacilla Calliope.



Generic Character.

Bill subulate (or awl-shaped); strait; the mandibles nearly equal.

Nostrils nearly oval.

Tongue jagged, or lacerated towards the tip.

Specific Character, &c.

FERRUGINOUS-BROWN WARBLER, paler beneath, with red throat bordered by black.


Lath. Syn. 2. p. 28.


Lath. Syn. 2. p. 463.

The Motacilla Calliope or Ruby-throated Warbler is a native of the frozen regions of Siberia, and like the nightingale of Europe, is said to sing principally during the night. It is considered as the most musical bird of that inclement country, and to the sweetness of its song is superadded no v inconsiderable degree of beauty of colour: the prevailing tinge being a very fine soft ferruginous brown, while the vivid red on the throat is bounded by a border of the deepest black. It is said to be particularly plentiful about the banks of the river Jenisei.


Lace Millepore




Character Genericus.

Animal Hydra.

Corallium poris turbinatis teretibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1282.

Character Specificus, &c.

MILLEPORA membranacea reticulata umbilicata turbinato-undulata, hinc porosa pubescens.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1284.


Ray. syn. p. 31. n. 1.


Rumpf. amb. 6. p. 247. t. 87.


Ellis et Soland. zooph. p. 138.

Hoc lithophyto frustra fortasse quæremus formosius in toto genere. Constat enim e lamina undulata, plana, erecta, quæ interdum calyci non absimilis; alias longo ambitu pulchre et luxurianter plicata, et fere circulatim fimbriata. Efficiunt foramina v ampla, numerosa, æqualia, ut videatur corallium quasi phrygioneum: unde Galli satis apte vocarunt Manchette de Neptune. Tota superficies interna, si ope microscopii examinetur, foramina habet ovata, quæ incoluisse creduntur animalia polypis similia. Color Milleporæ cellulosæ est interdum lacteus, alias subflavescens.



Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Hydra or Polype.

Coral furnished with cylindric turbinated pores.

Specific Character, &c.

IRREGULARLY WAVED LAMINAR MILLEPORE, with oval perforations: the inner surface marked with pores.


Soland et Ellis zooph. p. 138.


Pl. enl. 23.

The structure of this Lithophyte is so elegant that it may justly be considered as one of the most beautiful of the whole coral tribe. It consists of an undulating, flat, upright lamina, sometimes so disposed as to form a single cup-like figure; at other times running into a luxuriant state, and appearing richly folded and turned in a somewhat irregular direction in the manner of a ruffle. The perforations, which are large, extremely numerous, v and of a regular form, give the coral the appearance of lace. It is from this singular aspect that the French have given to this species of Millepore the expressive title of Manchette de Neptune, or Neptune’s ruffle. When micro­scopically examined, it appears pierced all over on the internal or upper surface by oval foramina; the supposed habitations of polype-like animals. The colour of this Millepore is sometimes milk-white; at other times yellowish.


Finger-Shaped Pennatula




Character Genericus.

Corpus in aliis pinnatum, in aliis integrum.

Stipes nudus, ossiculo interno.

Character Specificus, &c.

PENNATULA simplex, rachi cylindrica crassa granulosa undique polypifera.

Pall. el. zooph. p. 373. n. 221.

Misc. zool. t. 13. f. 1. 4.


Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3811.


Sol. et Ellis. zooph. p. 65. n. 7.

Pennatulas, ut plurimum, distinguit corpus superius pennæ simillimum, e scapo complanato in ramulos plurimos laterales divisum gradatim longiores usque ad medium, et dein gradatim breviores donec ad apicem ventum sit. Sunt tamen aliquæ species quibus aliena est facies a cæteris congeneribus. Harum anomalarum insignior nulla est quam quæ in tabula depingitur, cui corpus cylindraceum v elongatum, supra crassius paulo quam infra, granosum, et tuberculis valvatis creberrime obductum, e quibus tentacula hydras referentia ad arbitrium extruduntur. Color huic est, ut plurimum, carneus, interdum læte phoeniceus seu coccineus. Mollis est substantiæ: osse tamen interno instruitur, unumque habet latus leviter canaliculatum seu excavatum. Generat eam mare Mediterraneum.



Generic Character.

Body in some species pinnated, in some entire; with polypes proceeding from its upper surface, and having a naked stem, furnished with an internal bone.

Specific Character, &c.

CYLINDRIC PENNATULA with the whole upper part polypiferous.


Phil. Trans. vol. 53.


Soland. and Ellis’s Zoophytes. p. 65.

The Pennatulæ in general are distinguished by the peculiar feather-like formation of the upper part of the body, which from a flattish midrib sends forth numerous lateral branches gradually lengthening from the part whence they originate, till they arrive at the middle or broadest part, and from thence again shortening towards the tip. There are however a few species which recede in point of habit v or general appearance from the rest of their congeners. Of these anomalous Pennatulæ the species here figured is one of the most remarkable. It consists of a lengthened cylindrical body, somewhat thicker on the upper part than the lower, of a granulated appearance, and thickly covered with valvular tubercles, thro’ the orifices of which are protruded at pleasure the polype-like tentacula of the animal. The colour of this curious species is commonly a pale pink, and sometimes a bright purple, or crimson. It is of a soft substance, but is furnished with an internal bone, and is slightly hollowed or channelled on one side. It is found in the Mediterranean sea.


White-Fronted Owl

London, Published April 1st 1794 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum (absque cera.)

Nares pennis setaceis recumbentibus obtectæ.

Caput grande: auribus oculisque magnis.

Lingua bifida.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 131.

Character Specificus.

STRIX FERRUGINEO-FUSCA, subtus pallidior, fronte alba, remigibus albo nigroque fasciatis.

Perpusillam hanc strigis speciem suspicor nunquam antea depictam fuisse aut descriptam. In America septen­trionali, præcipue autem in Canada generatur. Fronte alba, quæ insigniter marem? distinguit, caret quæ putatur esse femina. In generis divisione quæ species læves seu inauritas continet, reponitur strix albifrons.





Generic Character.

Bill crooked, (not furnished with a cere.)

Nostrils covered with recumbent bristly feathers.

Head large: Ears and Eyes large.

Tongue bifid.

Specific Character.

FERRUGINOUS-BROWN OWL, paler beneath, with the forehead white, and the remiges barred with black and white.

The very curious and diminutive species of owl here repre­sented in its natural size, has perhaps never been either figured or described. It is a native of North America, and particularly of Canada. The supposed female is destitute of the white forehead, which forms so conspicuous a character in the male? It belongs to the division of smooth or hornless owls.




Tremulous Holothuria




Character Genericus.

Corpus liberum, nudum, gibbum, ano terminali.

Tentacula plura in altera extremitate.

Os inter tentacula.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1089.

Character Specificus, &c.

HOLOTHURIA tentaculis fasciculatis, corpore papillis hinc subconicis, illinc cylindricis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1090.


Forsk. Fn. ægypt. ar. t. 39. f. A.


Bohadsch. anim. mar. p. 75. t. 6.

Facie varia adeo et mutabili sunt multa animalia quæ in ordine molluscorum continentur, ut eorum veram figuram difficillimum sit verbis apte describere, cum istius animalculi more quod distinxit Linnæus nomine Chaos Proteus, varias horæ momento formas possint induere, et citissima metamorphosi spectantis oculos decipere. Pollet hac facultate v totum genus Holothuria, præcipue autem species de qua jam agitur, quæ quiescens et intacta oblonga est et fere cylindracea; simul atque vero locum mutare inceperit, protruduntur statim e pluribus corporis partibus tentacula fere innumera, adeo ut totum animal quasi spinis mollibus obsitum videatur. Contra­hitur quoque ad libitum in formam globosam seu leviter ovatam. Constat color, ut plurimum, ex albedine et rubore pulchre commistis, variantibus autem pro ætate, anni tempore, aliisque de causis. In litoribus maris septen­trionalis non raro repentur Holothuria tremula. Possunt omnes Holothuriæ, si irritentur, aquam ex ore ejaculari ut solent Ascidiæ, velut e siphone prosilientem.



Generic Character.

Body unfixed, naked, gibbous, with an open extremity.

Tentacula numerous, surrounding one extremity.

Mouth situated amidst the tentacula.

Specific Character.

HOLOTHURIA with numerous conical papillæ on its upper surface, cylindric ones on its lower, and numerous fascicular tentacula surrounding the mouth.

So strange and variable are the shapes of several marine animals belonging to the tribe Mollusca, that it is difficult to give a clear idea of their form by any description; since like the animalcule known by the name of Proteus, (Chaos Proteus. Lin.) they are capable of totally altering their appearance, and assuming an aspect widely different from that in which they appeared a few minutes before. This is no where more remarkable than in the genus Holothuria, and the species here figured may stand as a curious example of this mutable power. When v perfectly at rest, and undisturbed, it appears of an oblong shape; but when it prepares to alter its situation, it protrudes from most parts of its body an infinite number of tentacula or feelers, in such a manner as to appear beset with soft spines. It also is capable of contracting itself at pleasure into a globular shape, or slightly oval. Its colour is commonly a beautiful mixture of red and white, but in this respect it varies considerably, according to the circumstances of vigor, the season of the year, &c. &c. It is not unfrequently found on the coasts of the northern seas.


Rostrated Ray

London, Published April 1st 1794 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Spiracula quinque subtus ad collum.

Corpus depressum.

Os sub capite.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 395.

Character Specificus, &c.

RAJA corpore elongato, rostro producto.


Bell. pisc. 78?

Gesn. pisc. 903?


Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 397.

Ab aliis Rajæ speciebus differt hæc, forma elongata, non, ut in illis, dilatata. Color ejus in speciminibus quæ musæa suspeditant, est pallide terreo-fuscus, sine aliqua notabili macularum variatione. Cutis vix ulla peculiari scabritie distinguitur. Pinnæ, prope caput sitæ, latæ sunt et tenues. Oculi magni sunt: rostrum valde productum, sed apice obtuso. Hæc species a physicis recentioribus v vix distincte memorata, a Johnstono tamen proculdubio, in historia sua animalium sæculo jam elapso publicata, depingitur: (tabulam illius operis duodecimam adeat lector, figuram sextam,) ubi Squatina vocatur, et cum pisce penitus diverso, vera nempe Squatina (quæ Squalus Squatina Linnæi,) quamque repræsentat Johnstoni tabula undecima, confundi videtur.



Generic Character.

Spiracula five, situated beneath towards the neck.

Body depressed.

Mouth situated beneath.

Specific Character, &c.

LONG-BODIED RAY with lengthened snout.



The species of Ray here represented, differs from the rest of its tribe, in its elongated form; the others being very wide or broad animals. Its colour, so far as can be collected from the specimens seen in museums, is a palish earthy brown, without any remarkable variegation. The skin is not distinguished by any very particular rough­ness. The extended processes or fins near the head are broad and thin. The eyes are large. The snout much elongated v and terminating obtusely. This species seems not very distinctly described by modern authors; but it is certainly the species figured in Johnston’s History of Animals published in the last century, at plate 12 of the fishes, fig. 6; who gives a very brief description of it, and calls it Squatina or Meer-Engel, and seems to confound it with a very different species, viz. the Monk-Fish, which is figured on plate 11 of the same work.


Striped-Headed Manakin

London, Published May 1st 1794 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Rostrum capite brevius, basi subtrigonum, integerrimum, apice incurvum.

Pedes gressorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 338.

Character Specificus, &c.

PIPRA olivaceo-fusca, subtus flavescens, vertice nigro striis albis, loris luteis.

PIPRA striata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 308.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 558.

Licet Pipræ punctatæ, quam in hoc opere jam descrip­simus, affinis admodum sit hæc avicula, ab illa tamen facillime dignosci possit capite plagis niveis insigniter striato. A fronte utrinque eminet macula aureo-flava perpulchra. Guttur quoque nitide flavum. Pennarum e quibus constat alula, ruberrimi seu phœnicei sunt apices. Novam Hollandiam incolit hæc avicula, et eadem est ei magni­tudo ac pipræ punctatæ.



Generic Character.

Bill shorter than the head, somewhat triangular at the base, bent at the tip.

Feet gressorial.

Specific Character, &c.

OLIVE-BROWN MANAKIN, yellowish beneath: the top of the head black with white stripes: the lores yellow.


Lath. Syn. 2. p. 526. t. 54.

This bird is very closely allied to the Pipra punctata or speckled Manakin already described in the present work. It is readily distinguished at first sight from that species by the remarkable appearance of the white streaks on the head. On each side the forehead is a beautiful gold-colour’d spot. The throat is also of a bright yellow. The feathers of the alulet or spurious wing are tipped with carmine-colour. Its size is that of the Pipra punctata. It is a native of New Holland.


Striated Lophius

London, Published May 1st 1794 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Spiracula solitaria, pone brachia.

Dentes plurimi, minuti.

Pinnæ pectorales brachiis insidentes.

Branchiæ tres tantum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 402.

Character Specificus.

LOPHIUS compressus fuscus, striis undique confertissimis nigris.

Tres novas repræsentavimus Lophii species, orbis antarctici incolas, qui uberrima scientiæ zoologicæ incrementa affatim suppeditavit. Cernere eas est in tabulis magni­tudine naturali, et a reliquo genere, quod adhuc novimus, longe diversas. Lophium striatum detexit eximius ille naturæ indagator Josephus Banks, cum in mari pacifico primum iter faceret. Circa litora Australasiæ reperitur nec non insularum adjacentium. In iisdem etiam regionibus nascuntur aliæ duæ species quas depingi curavimus; Lophius scilicet pictus, et Lophius marmoratus.



Generic Character.

Teeth numerous, minute.

Eyes vertical. Shape uncouth.

Ventral Fins more or less resembling feet.

Specific Character.

COMPRESSED BROWN LOPHIUS, marked all over with very numerous black streaks.

The three new and curious species of the genus Lophius exhibited in the present number may be considered as convincing proofs of the zoological treasures so richly dispersed in the regions of the Southern Hemisphere. They are each repre­sented of the natural size, and differ widely from the rest of the genus hitherto discovered. The first of these, or L: striatus, is amongst the number of new animals discovered by Sir Joseph Banks during his first voyage to the South Seas. It is found about the coast of New Holland and the neighbouring isles. The two following species are also natives of the same regions.


Variegated Lophius and Marbled Lophius

London, Published May 1st 1794 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Specificus.

LOPHIUS compressus fuscus, lituris subflavis rubro marginatis.


Character Specificus.

LOPHIUS subcompressus lividus, albido ferrugineoque varius, pinna dorii unica.



Specific Character.

COMPRESSED BROWN LOPHIUS, with yellowish blotches margined with red.


Specific Character.

SUBCOMPRESSED LIVID LOPHIUS, varied with whitish and ferruginous; with single dorsal fin.


Red-Tailed Tropic-Bird

London, Published June 1st 1794 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Rostrum cultratum, rectum, acuminatum, Fauce pone rostrum hiante.

Nares oblongæ.

Digitus posticus antrorsum versus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 219.

Character Specificus, &c.

PHAETON SUBROSEUS, rostro rectricibusque duabus intermediis rubris.

PHAETON ROSEO-INCARNATUS, rostro rectricibusque duabus intermediis rubris, tænia superciliari pedibusque nigris.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 894.

PHAETON PALLIDISSIME ROSEUS, rostro rectricibusque duabus intermediis rubris.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 583.

Quæ in hoc genere continentur aves a natura comparatæ ut vitam in mari degant, communiter tropicæ vocantur, quod scilicet intra tropicos semper v repertæ sint; res nauticis observatoribus notissima, qui inde conjiciunt se iis appropinquasse. Vagantur tamen nonnullæ, licet rarius, extra hos limites. Has merito dicamus, “non usitata ferri nec tenui penna,” rapidissimo enim alarum verbere coelum ipsum petentes e conspectu momento surripiuntur, vel ipsis procellariis altivolantibus et longivagis audentiores. Descendunt tamen e nubibus in æquor prædæ studio, et velocissime irruentes pisciculos corripiunt, quibus præcipue vescuntur. Forma et magni­tudine simillimæ sunt inter se variæ Phaetontis species; coloribus præcipue differunt. Quæ communis et notissima est candet argenteum, dorso alisque lunulis nigris brevibus copiose variatis. Species vero, de qua jam loquimur, pallet albido-rosea, sine lunularum istarum nigrantium vestigio. Rectrices duæ intermediæ, cæteris multo longiores, læte sunt phoeniceæ seu potius coccineæ. Tropicis omnibus avibus adhuc cognitis macula insignis nigra trans oculos ducitur. Rostrum phaetontis phoenicuri miniatum. Crura nigricant. Rectrices, seu caudæ pennæ longiores totius generis in tropicis multis regionibus magni habentur; et illis in vestibus ornandis utuntur insulas maris Australis incolentes. At in insula Otaheitee cum justa solvuntur mortuis, sancte et auguste incedunt sacerdotes principesque ploratores, amictu larva insignito e concha margaritifera, cujus margines plumis de cauda excerptis cinguntur, ut solis radios imitentur. Ova deponere solent hæ aves, bina plerumque, in cavis ad radices arborum, nidum sibi rudem et incompositum e frustulis ligni reliquisque ejusmodi comparantes.



Generic Character.

Bill compressed, rather sloping, sharp-pointed.

Nostrils pervious.

Toes four, all webbed together.

Tail cuneiform: the two middle feathers extremely long.

Specific Character, &c.

PALE-ROSE-COLOURED PHAETON, with the beak and two middle tail-feathers red.


Lath. Synops. 3. p. 619.

Le PAILLE en QUEUE à brins rouges.

Buff. ois. 8. p. 357.

PAILLE en QUEUE de l’Isle de France.

Pl. enl. 979.

The birds of this genus, which are by nature calculated for a marine life, have obtained their common title of Tropic-Birds from being constantly v found within the tropics; a circumstance so generally remarked that it affords one of the most common nautical observations relative to approaching those regions. They are however occasionally seen, though rarely, at some considerable distance beyond the tropics. These birds may well be said to soar “with no middle wing,” since their ascent is so uncommonly lofty, and so powerfully rapid, as quickly to raise them beyond human view. Even the Albatrosses, so remarkable for the heights which they attain in the air, and the vast extent of their excursions, cannot equal the daring and exalted flight of these etherial wanderers. From these elevations they occasionally descend to seek for prey, and darting down with vast velocity, seize on and devour the smaller fish, which form the principal article of their food. Between the different species of Phaeton, which are but few, there is the greatest degree of general similarity of shape and size; and indeed they differ principally in colour: the common tropic-bird being of a beautiful silvery white, thickly traversed on the upper part of the body with short lunulated streaks of black; while the present species is of an extremely pale rose-colour, or rather nearly white with a rose-coloured tinge, and without any of those black streaks which distinguish the former kind. The two middle tail-feathers, which greatly exceed the rest in length, are of a deep and beautiful crimson. In all the tropic-birds yet known there is commonly behind and across each eye a remarkable streak of black. The beak in this species is of a fine red; the legs blackish. r The long feathers of the tail in the birds of this genus are highly esteemed by the natives of many of the tropical regions, and are much used in the ornamental dresses of the natives of the Southern islands. They are particularly conspicuous on the awful and elegant ceremonial habits worn by the priests at Otaheitee, as well as on those of the chief mourners at funerals in that island, which are furnished with a mask or vizor of nacre or mother of pearl shell, surrounded by the tail-feathers of these birds, evidently intended to represent the solar beams, and disposed so as to imitate the diverging rays of that luminary. These birds deposit their eggs, which are generally two in number, in hollows near the roots of trees, in which they form a sort of careless nest with fragments of sticks, &c.





London, Published June 1st 1794 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Pedes sex, saltatorii.

Oculi duo.

Antennæ filiformes (seu potius moniliformes.)

Os rostro inflexo, setaceo, aculeum recondente.

Abdomen compresum.

Character Specificus, &c.

PULEX proboscide corpore breviore.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1021.

PULEX rostro corpore breviore.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2923.


Papilionaceis insectis ab ovo exortis subeundas esse quasdam formæ mutationes antequam plene adoleverint, fere omnibus cognitum est: paucis fortasse, similiter voluisse naturam in pulice. Ova pulicis minima et alba, inter pilos quadrupedum, plumas avium, et in variis ejusmodi locis a parente deposita, finito quasi hebdo­made, in larvas excluduntur v parvulas, albidas, seu levissime rubentes, agillimas, et variis modis se contor­quentes, simul atque turbantur. Hæ cum ad plenam magni­tudinem pervenerint, (circiter quintam scilicet unciæ partem) obvelantes se operimento laxo, albo, et veluti gossipino expectant donec in chrysalidas mutentur; quod sit diebus circiter duodecim: et e chrysalide erumpit pulex jam perfectus. Quamvis molestissimum sit hoc animalculum, negandum tamen non est inesse illi quandam formæ concinnitatem. Expeditissima est nec inelegans corporis agilitas. Lorica, qua tegitur, nullis unquam fœdatur sordibus, sed nitet semper quasi polita. At tantum musculosi roboris spatio adeo exiguo contineri et terminari quis non miretur? cui forsan vix simile invenitur in aliis omnibus animalibus; ne quidem in ipsis gryllis; posse enim pulicem distantiam sui ipsius corporis ducenties superantem uno saltu conficere satis probavit nec exaggerata computatio. Socratem, quem de hac ipsa re finxit se calculis torquentem, atro sale perfricuit Aristophanes.

“Αλλ ου θεμις,” &c.


Sed fas non est hæc cuiquam dicere nisi discipulis.


Mihi dic ergo audacter: ego enim ipse

Venio in scholam discipulus.


Dicam, sed te oportet habere ista pro mysteriis.

Modo interrogabat Chærephonta Socrates,

Pulex quot pedes suos ipsius saltaret?

Cum enim momordisset Chærephontis supercilium,

In caput Socratis inde saltavit.



Quomodo ergo istud metiebatur?


Scite admodum.

Cera liquefacta, deinde pulice prehenso,

Immersit in ceram pedes ejus:

Post, refrigerato adnatæ sunt crepidæ Persicæ.

His detractis dimetiebatur locum.


O rex Jupiter, quanta subtilitas mentis!

Ar: Nubes. act 1. sc. 2.

Hujus quoque mordaces facetias transtulit in poema satiricum Butlerus nostras.

A capite ad calcem si fit mensura, repertum est

Saltabit pulex quot spatia ipse sui:

Chære-que-phonteo tentamine, Socraticoque,

Frustra quæsitum tempore præterito.

Mira inest pulicibus, ut et aliis multis insectis, reviviscendi facultas, vel ea passis quæ vitæ sunt inimicissima. Narravit mihi ingeniosus quidam amicus quod suo experimento confirmavit, revixisse pulicem a calido aere, licet horas viginti et quatuor in aqua fuisset immersus. Insectis tamen nonnullis in classe Coleoptera redintegrari solet vita vel longius suspensa. Descrip­tionem insecti hujus belli et petulantis claudet epigramma lepidum quod legitur in carminibus quadragesimalibus Oxonii editis anno millesimo septingentesimo vicesimo tertio.

Pulicis exigui tenues per colla catenas

Nexuit artifici pulchra Corinna manu.

Sic, inquit, pavo Junoni chara, palumbes

Sic Veneri; pulex tu mihi gratus eris.

Hic nova lascivo testatur gaudia saltu,

Et cadit in molles parvulus erro finus:


Mox suadente siti, tanta est solertia, fertur

Qua sanguis roseo semper in ore sedet.

Credideris illic semper voluisse morari,

Nec blandas unquam destituisse genas.

Jam secura potes nexas laxare catenas,

Non opus artifici, pulchra Corinna, jugo.

Dum licet hic pasci, licet hac in sede morari,

Non tua captivum vincla, sed ipsa tenes.



Generic Character.

Feet six, formed for leaping.

Eyes two.

Antennæ filiform (or rather moniliform.)

Mouth consisting of an inflected setaceous tube containing a tubular piercer.

Body compressed.

Specific Character, &c.

FLEA with proboscis shorter than the body.


The change of form in the papilionaceous insects during their progress from the egg to their complete state, is almost universally known. But that a similar process takes place in the Flea, is perhaps by no means generally understood.

The eggs of the Flea, which are very small, white, and of an oval form, are deposited by the parent insect in various situations favorable to v their evolution, viz. amongst the hair and on the skins of quadrupeds, the feathers of birds, &c. &c. After the space of about a week they are hatched into small larvæ, which are of a whitish colour, with a slight tinge of reddish, and are extremely locomotive; and on being disturbed, throw themselves into various sudden contorsions. When arrived at their full size, they are about the fifth of an inch in length. At this period they prepare themselves for their pupa or chrysalis state, by enclosing themselves in a loosely spun web or diffused envelopement of a very soft, silky, or rather cotton-like appearance, and of a white colour. In this the larva changes into a chrysalis, out of which, in about the space of twelve days emerges the animal in its complete state.

Notwithstanding the inconveniences attending this little insect, and the general disapprobation which its frequency occasions, there is something pleasing in the appearance of the Flea. All its motions are elegant, and all its postures indicate agility. The shelly armour with which it is inveloped, is in a state of perpetual cleanliness; while the muscular power which it is capable of exerting is so extraordinary, as justly to excite our wonder at so much strength confined, and concentrated, as it were, in so small a space. Perhaps of all animals the Flea possesses the greatest muscular strength, and far exceeds in point of exertion all the insects of the locust tribe; being able to spring, on the most moderate computation, to the distance of at r least two hundred times its own length. It is remarkable that Socrates was ridiculed for his pretended experiments on this very subject, by the licentious pen of Aristophanes.


That were not lawful to reveal to strangers.


Speak boldly then as to a fellow student;

For therefore am I come.


Then I will speak;

But set it down amongst our mysteries.

It is a question put to Chærephon

By our great master Socrates to answer,

How many of his own lengths at one spring

A flea can hop? for one by chance had skipp’d

Straight from the brow of Chærephon to th’ head

Of Socrates.


And how did then the sage

Contrive to measure this?


Most dext’rously.

He dipp’d the insect’s feet in melted wax,

Which hard’ning into slippers as it cool’d,

By these computed he the question’d space.


O Jupiter, what subtilty of thought!

Arist: Clouds. Act. 1. Scene 2.


The celebrated Butler has also commemorated the same circumstance in his poem of Hudibras, viz.

“How many scores a flea will jump

Of his own length, from head to rump;

Which Socrates and Chærophon

In vain assay’d so long agon.”

The Flea, like many other insects, is eminent for its powers of revivescence, and will frequently recover, after being placed in situations highly unfavourable to animal life. I might here mention the experiment of an ingenious friend, who assures me that on immerging a flea in a vial of water, after being apparently drowned, and lying upwards of twenty-four hours, it has again revived on exposure to warm air. Some of the coleopterous insects are, however, capable of exhibiting far more striking examples of suspended animation.

I shall conclude the description of this locomotive little insect by the following jeu d’esprit, relative to a flea which a lady is supposed to have kept in a state of captivity. The reader will find the original in that truly classical publication the Carmina Quadragesimalia. Oxon. 1723.

Corinna, in a sportive vein,

A fav’rite Flea approves:

And fasten’d by a golden chain

The little captive moves.

Not Juno view’d with more delight

Her peacock’s train display’d:

Not Venus more her fav’rite dove

In changing plumes array’d.


With conscious joy the insect springs;

His soft confinement loves:

And sinking on her snowy breast,

In full luxuriance roves.

Then waking light from soft repose,

Attacks her rubied lips;

And where the deepest colour glows,

The living vermil sips.

Loose, fair Corinna, loose his chain,

Nor fear his flight away:

For how, thus tempted to remain,

How should he wish to stray?

Permitted on those lips to feed,

And slumber on that breast,

Thy charms, Corinna, not thy chains,

Will fastest bind the guest.




Scincoid Lizard

London, Published June 1st 1794 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Corpus tetrapodum, caudatum, nudum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 359.

Character Specificus, &c.

LACERTA squamis rotundatis, cauda tereti mediocri, pedibus brevibus, digitis brevissimis.

Longitudo sesquipedalis. Color griseus, lateribus fusco inquinatis. Caput scutis largioribus angulatis rectum. Crura brevia. Pedes brevissimi, unguibus brevibus. Lingua lata, rotundata, nec forficata.

Lacertarum nonnullæ sunt species quæ ab aliis sui generis discrepant, eo quod, piscium more, squamis magnis et rotundatis contectæ sint. In harum numero est Lacerta Scincus Linnæi, quæ olim in materia medica usurpari solita est, et communiter nomine Scinci cogno­scitur. Alia species est a Linnæo non nominata (nisi forte Linnæi aurata eadem sit) sed cujus meminerunt Sloane et Browne in historia sua insulæ Jamaicæ, descripseruntque nomine v Galliwasp. Tertia est lacerta maritima maxima, quam repræsentat figura quarta tabulæ centesimæ quintæ Sebæ thesauri volumine secundo. Ad hujus lacertæ similitudinem tam prope accedit hæc nostra, ut dubitari jure possit an revera sit diversa, an potius pro varietate tantum reputanda. Caudam tamen paulo breviorem habet quam illa de qua jam diximus. Lingua non, ut in plerisque, bifurca, sed rotundata, brevis, et lata. Dentes modici, paululum obtusi brevesque. Color est pallide fusco-flavescens; collo utrinque adjicitur macula longa, fusca seu potius nigricans. Eodem quoque colore tinguntur latera, qui tamen in cauda est saturatior. In specimine multo juniore cauda virgis numerosis fuscis pene nigricantibus transverse fasciata est. In quibusdam quoque speci­minibus apici caudæ addita est appendix, caudæ alteri non absimilis, quam arbitrantur nonnulli sexus differentiam indicare, et mari esse peculiarem. Longe tamen verisimilius existimo aliud nihil esse hanc appendicem præter cauda; olim mutilatæ et dein redintegratæ fortuitam et adventitiam divaricationem. Lacertarum enim caudas vi aliqua læsas et abruptas repullulare posse, ab experimentis scriptisque physi­corum certissime probatum est. Australasiam incolit lacerta scincoides, et plerumque longi­tudine est prope sesquipedali.



Generic Character.

Body four-footed, tailed, naked.

Specific Character.

LIZARD with rounded scales, short legs and extremely short toes.

There are some species of Lizards which differ from the rest of the tribe in being covered with large rounded scales, resembling those of fishes. One of these is the Lacerta Scincus of Linnæus, or the animal formerly used in the materia medica, and called the Scink. Another is a species not mentioned by Linnæus, but described by Sloane and Browne in their respective histories of Jamaica by the name of Galliwasp. A third is the Lacerta maritima maxima of Seba, which is figured in the second volume of his Thesaurus rerum naturalium at plate 105, fig. 4. It is to this last that the species here repre­sented bears the greatest affinity: indeed so great as scarcely to justify our regarding it as a distinct species: the tail however is somewhat shorter than in Seba’s animal. The tongue is not v forked, as in the generality of lizards, but is broad, flat, and rounded. The teeth rather small than large, somewhat obtuse, and short. The colour of the animal is a pale yellowish brown, with a long patch or mark of very deep brown or blackish on each side the neck. The sides are also tinged with the same colour, and the tail more deeply so than the sides. In a much smaller specimen of the same animal the tail had the appearance of being fasciated with a number of transverse bars of deep brown. In some specimens the tail, towards the end, is furnished with a sort of process or appendage, resembling a secondary tail, as it were, and it has been imagined that this might be a sexual distinction; and perhaps peculiar to the male: but it seems infinitely more probable that such an appearance is owing to mere accident; it being a well-known fact that the tails of lizards, when injured, or mutilated by accidental violence, frequently reproduce in different directions; of which numerous examples may be seen in the works of natural historians. The Scincoid Lizard is a native of New Holland, and is commonly about eighteen inches in length.


Greater Spotted Woodpecker

London, Published July 1st 1794 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Rostrum polyedrum, rectum: apice cuneato.

Nares pennis setaceis recumbentibus obtectæ.

Lingua teres, lumbriciformis, longissima, mucronata, apice retrorsum aculeata setis.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 173.

Character Specificus, &c.

PICUS albo nigroque varius, crisso occipiteque rubro.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 176.

PICUS varius major.

Will. orn. 94. t. 21.

PICUS discolor.

Frisch. av. t. 36.

Inter aves Britannicas quæ pulcherrimæ habentur Pico majori conceditur sedes, rariori longe Pico viridi et vulgari, et in Angliæ partibus Septentrionalibus præcipue conspecto. Deest feminæ color v vivide coccineus quo occiput maris ornatur: utrisque vero in imo abdomine idem levis est sed pulcherrimus rubor. Depingitur in tabula deminuta avis magni­tudo.



Generic Character.

Bill angular, strait, cuneated at the tip.

Nostrils covered with reflected bristly feathers.

Tongue cylindric, worm-shaped, very long, sharp-pointed, and (generally) aculeated at the tip with reflex bristles.

Feet formed for climbing, viz. two toes forward and two backward.

Specific Character, &c.

BLACK AND WHITE WOODPECKER with the hind-head and lower part of the abdomen crimson.


Will. orn. p. 137. pl. 21.


Pennant Brit. Zool. No. 85.

L’EPEICHE, ou le Pic varié.

Buf. ois. 7. p. 57.

Pl. enl. 196. 595.

The Picus major, or greater spotted Woodpecker, is one of the most elegant of the British birds. It v is far less common than the Picus viridis or green woodpecker, and is principally seen in the northern counties. The rich red on the back part of the head of the male is wanting in the female, but both sexes have the same elegant light crimson on the lower part of the abdomen. It is repre­sented on the plate much smaller than the natural size.


Spectacle Snake

London, Published July 1st 1794 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Colubrum Najam, collo paulatim tumescente et expanso, molliter tantum irascentem in hoc opere antea depinximus. Cum vero veram et archetypam figuram, quam de ipso vivo serpente delineavit in India pictor, quæque illum furibundum et jam jam morsurum ostendit, amicissime communicavit Dominus Russel, eam nunc lubentissime protulimus, ut clarius et melius innotescat quicquid ad formidandi hujus animalis historiam aliquo modo spectare possit.



The figure of Coluber Naja in a preceding number of this work representing the snake merely in an approach towards that expanded state which the neck assumes when the animal is preparing to bite, and having been since favoured by Dr. Russel with an original drawing executed in India and accurately representing the creature in its state of irritation, I therefore embrace so favourable an opportunity of giving an additional figure, as a farther and clearer elucidation of the history of this dangerous reptile.


Mailed Coccus




Character Genericus.

Rostrum pectorale.

Abdomen (plerisque) postice setosum.

Alæ duæ erectæ masculis. Feminæ apteræ.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 739.

Character Specificus.

COCCUS albus cataphractus, antennis pedibusque ferrugineis.

Affinis videtur Cocco rusci.

Rarissimum hoc insectum detexit Dominus Dickson, societatis Linnæanæ socius, Museique Britannici hortulanus primarius; ob acumen et diligentiam in botanicis, in ea præcipue parte quæ cryptogamia dicitur, merito laudatus; qui pulchro me specimine donavit, rogavitque ut in characteres inquirerem et definirem genus. Cum igitur animalculum ope microscopii penitius examinassem, non dubitavi pronunciare speciem esse generis Cocci, et novam fortasse seu non antea descriptam: frustra enim quæritur in editione systematis Linnæani quam v auctiorem longe publicavit Gmelinius, nec non in Fabricii operibus. Notandum est in genere Cocci marem a femina longe differre: est enim alatus, et in cæteris adeo feminæ absimilis, ut facile putent in insec­torum notitia leviter versati eum ad tribum omnino diversam spectare. Cocci, quem ob insigne corporis tegmen cataphractum nominavi, quæ adhuc detecta sunt specimina foeminea sunt, mare incognito. Hujus magni­tudo eadem fere est ac Coccinellæ tigrinæ Linnæi: at inter hanc et alios plerosque coccos adeo disconvenit, ut non mirum sit si primo visu ægre tibi persuadeas posse ulla cum iis affinitate conjungi. Totum insectum, exceptis oculis, rostro, pedibus, antennisque, lorica candidissima contegitur, adeo ut ipso ebore munitum videatur. Annuli seu divisiones dorsi sunt octo; quorum tres superiores scutello vel appendicula instruuntur, quo carent cæteri. Latera corporis laminis exstantibus eodem fere modo quo testudinum notantur. Corporis pars inferior segmentis angulatis et quasi testudineis operitur. Oculi, proxime ab antennis siti, nitidi sunt, et paululum levati, ut sunt astacorum. Color partium prominentium, oculorum nempe, crurum, rostri, et antennarum, est nitide rubro-ferrugineus. In figura nostra tegmen abdominis inferioris diffractum depingitur, ut scilicet rugæ cutis ostendantur, contractioque corporis, quæ orta est ab exclusa ovorum copia; quorum multa, postquam loricam perruperam, inveni parva pro corpore, et fusca; ut cernere est in tabula. Inter sphagnum, et alia muscosi generis in locis paludosis reperitur Coccus cataphractus. Optandum admodum est r posse tandem marem laudabili physicorum diligentia inveniri, ut nihil desit completæ historiæ. Repertum adhuc est hoc insectum præcipue in Scotia, et in aliquibus Cumbriæ partibus.





Generic Character.

Rostrum situated beneath the thorax.

Abdomen (in most species) bristled.

Wings (in the males two, upright.) The females apterous.

Specific Character.

WHITE MAILED COCCUS, with ferruginous antennæ and legs.

It seems allied to the Coccus rusci.

The very rare and curious insect here repre­sented was discovered by the ingenious Mr. Dickson, Fellow of the Linnæan Society, and Gardener to the British Museum, well known for his attentive researches into that difficult branch of botany the class Cryptogamia. Mr. Dickson soon after its discovery presented me with a specimen of the insect, requesting me to examine its characters, and ascertain, if possible, its genus. I accordingly made a microscopic survey of the animal, and on considering v it with much attention, I could not but conclude it to be a species of the genus Coccus, and probably a new or non-descript one: at least, it does not make its appearance in the greatly enlarged edition of the Systema Naturæ by professor Gmelin, nor is it to be found in the works of Fabricius. I should observe, that in the insects of the genus Coccus the male differs widely in appearance from the female, being furnished with wings, and of a habit so unlike the female as to be easily regarded by those not conversant in insects as of a totally different tribe. The specimens therefore of this insect hitherto observed are female ones; the male yet remaining to be discovered. The natural size of this animal is that of the Coccinella tigrina, or yellow-spotted Coccinella, and at first view it has an appearance so little allied to the generality of Cocci that it is not easy to conceive that it should belong to that tribe. The whole insect (except the eyes, legs, antennæ, and rostrum,) being coated in the most curious manner in a complete suit of milk-white armour, as if cased in ivory. The divisions or annuli of the back are eight in number, of which the three superior ones are each furnished with a small scutellum or appendicular piece, which is wanting in the others. The sides are surrounded by projecting laminæ somewhat in the manner of tortoises. The lower surface is composed of angular pieces nearly disposed as in the above-mentioned animals. The eyes, which are situated just below or on the under side of the antennæ, are bright, and somewhat elevated, not unlike those of a lobster. r The colour of the projecting parts, viz. the legs, eyes, antennæ, and rostrum, is a fine ferruginous, or reddish-brown. On the lower part of the abdomen the armour is repre­sented broken off; displaying the rugæ, &c. of the skin on that part, and shewing the remarkable contraction which has taken place in consequence of the insects having deposited its ova, many of which I perceived on breaking off this part of the shield. These eggs were small in proportion to the animal, and of a brown colour, as repre­sented in the figure. It is from the singular manner in which this creature is coated that I have given it the name of Coccus cataphractus. It is found amongst sphagnum and other mosses in bogs. It is much to be wished that by a diligent research the male may at length be discovered, in order that the history of so curious an insect may be rendered complete. It has been hitherto found chiefly in Scotland and in some parts of Cumberland.





148. Acrochordus Javanicus.
159. Alcedo pusilla.
154. Ascidia clavata.
160. Cancer Diogenes.
152. Clio limacina.
182. Coccus cataphractus.
181. Coluber Naja.
158. Corallina officinalis.
151. Diodon Hystrix.
166. Didi caput.
150. Fringilla Bengalensis.
172. Holothuria tremula.
156. Junx Torquilla.
179. Lacerta scincoides.
175. Lophius striatus.
176. Lophius pictus.
176. Lophius marmoratus.
155. Madrepora astroites.
169. Millepora cellulosa.
162. Merops Apiaster.
168. Motacilla Calliope.
165. Motacilla Regulus.
147. Muscicapa erythrogastra.
149. Papilio Idea.
164. Papilio Idomeneus.
157. Papilio Atalanta.
167. Papilio Hecuba.
170. Pennatula Cynomorion.
177. Phaeton phoenicurus.
180. Picus major.
174. Pipra striata.
153. Pipra caudata.
178. Pulex irritans.
173. Raja rostrata.
161. Squalus ocellatus.
171. Strix albifrons.
163. Venus Dione.


154. Ascidia clavate.
149. Butterfly black-striped.
157. Butterfly Atalanta.
164. Butterfly great Occidental.
167. Butterfly Hecuba.
162. Bee-eater European.
182. Coccus mailed.
152. Clio limacine.
158. Coralline common.
160. Crab Diogenes.
166. Dodo’s head.
151. Diodon porcupine.
178. Flea common.
150. Finch blue-bellied.
147. Flycatcher red-bellied.
172. Holothuria tremulous.
159. Kingfisher minute.
179. Lizard scincoid.
175. Lophius striated.
176. Lophius marbled.
176. Lophius variegated.
153. Manakin long-tailed.
174. Manakin striped-headed.
169. Millepore lace.
155. Madrepore starry globe.
171. Owl white-fronted.
170. Pennatula finger-shaped.
173. Ray rostrated.
181. Snake spectacle.
148. Snake warted.
161. Shark ocellated.
177. Tropic-bird red-tailed.
163. Venus occidental.
168. Warbler ruby-throated.
165. Wren golden-crested.
156. Wryneck.
180. Woodpecker great spotted.

Notes and Corrections: Volume 5

Volume 5 of the Naturalist’s Miscellany was published in twelve monthly installments, from August 1793 through July 1794.

The first installment (probably 12 pages) is unlabeled; the remainder vary between one signature of 16 pages, or two of 8 + 4 pages, except as noted.

[B]; C D; E F; G; H; I (January 1794); K L; M N; O P; Q (8 pg.); R S (16+4); T

Throughout this volume—and nowhere else in the Miscellany—the author forgot how to spell the Latin difficil-, and consistently rendered it with one f.

This is the first volume to contain no mammals at all.

Muscicapa Erythrogastra, the Red-Bellied Flycatcher

may be Petroica multicolor, the Norfolk robin. It lives in Australia and nearby islands.

Acrochordus Javanicus, the Warted Snake

is also known as the elephant trunk snake. It is most common around Indonesia.

Papilio Idea, the Black-Striped Butterfly

is probably Idea idea. It lives in Indonesia.

Fringilla Bengalensis, the Blue-Bellied Finch

If it is the same bird as Fringilla bengalus, it is probably Uraeginthus bengalus, the red-cheeked cordonbleu. It lives in sub-Saharan Africa. Fringilla angolensis is a different but closely related bird, Uraeginthus angolensis, the blue-breasted cordonbleu or blue waxbill. It lives in southern Africa.

Diodon Hystrix, the Porcupine Diodon

is otherwise known as the ajargo. It lives in all tropical and subtropical oceans.

(rectius dixisset nantia.)
[George Shaw discovers that the classical languages were not Linnaeus’s strong point.]

Clio Limacina, the Limacine Clio

is now Clione limacina, the common clione. It lives in all (ant)arctic and subarctic waters.

unde sit ut
text unchanged
[It seems as if it ought to be fit, but it’s definitely printed as an s (that is, ſ).]

with a pair of opposite membranaceous Wings
[That explains the name of the animal’s order, Pteropoda. In spite of the reference to “Sepiæ or Cuttle-fish”, it’s a gastropod, not a cephalopod.]

Pipra Caudata, the Long-Tailed Manakin

is now Chiroxiphia caudata, the swallow-tailed manakin or blue manakin, with naming credit to Shaw. It lives along the southeastern edge of South America.

Ascidia Clavata, the Clavate Ascidia

is now Boltenia ovifera (by way of Linnaeus’s Ascidia ovifera), the stalked sea squirt. It lives mainly around Alaska and eastern Canada.

Bolten epist. de nov. zooph. Hamb. 1771.
[That’s German naturalist Joachim Friedrich Bolten, namesake of genus Boltenia (defined in 1816), not to be confused with English naturalist James Bolton, namesake of plant genus Boltonia.]

Madrepora Astroites, the Starry Globe-Madrepore

Unchanged. M. radians is a different animal, now Siderastrea radians, the lesser starlet coral.

Yunx Torquilla, the Wryneck

is now spelled Jynx torquilla, the Eurasian wryneck. In addition to Europe and much of Asia, it is scattered around the northern parts of Africa.

albo, griseo, nigro, et ferrugineo varia.
. missing

it is much more frequently heard than seen
text has heared

Papilio Atalanta, the Atalanta (butterfly)

is now Vanessa atalanta, the red admiral. It lives all over Europe and North America.

non modo antiquis temporibus sed et recentioribus
text has recentiorbus

vix possit dubitari quin peritissimorum horum hominum sagacitas rem difficillimam acu tetigerit
text has peritissimo rum . . . dificillimam

commemorated by Ovid
[At Metamorphoses XV:787-88, for those who have the patience to read that far.]

Corallina Officinalis, the Common Coralline

Unchanged. It lives along almost all coasts, tropical to subarctic, though it doesn’t seem to care for Africa and Asia. Although there will be no more land plants in the Miscellany, this is only the first of several corallines—now classified as plants, with no question mark about it.

Alcedo? Pusilla, the Minute Kingfisher

If Shaw himself doesn’t know, how does he expect the rest of us to have any idea? Today’s A. pusilla, the little kingfisher, is a different bird, named in 1836 (when it was called Ceyx pusilla). It lives in Australia and New Guinea. Volume VIII of Shaw’s General Zoology (1812) equates Alcedo pusilla with either Todus caeruleus, the blue tody, or Alcedo ultramarina, the blue-headed kingfisher, both of which may be synonyms for Ispidina picta (now Ceyx pictus), the African pygmy kingfisher, which lives in sub-Saharan Africa.

LE TODIER BLEU à ventre orangé.
spelling unchanged
[The acute accent in “orangé” seems spurious. But since it didn’t occur to Shaw to specify which edition of Buffon’s Oiseux he was working from, I couldn’t cross-check it.]

Cancer Diogenes, the Diogenes Crab

is now Petrochirus diogenes, the giant hermit. It lives in the Americas, especially around the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico.

it is found entirely necessary to subdivide them into sections
[Sit tight, George. The Family, as a taxonomic level, is only about 20 years in the future. In the Linnean system, all shellfish were a single genus in order Aptera, wingless insects. They are now an order of their own, Decapoda or “ten feet”, in class Malacostraca.]

Squalus Ocellatus, the Ocellated Shark

is now Hemiscyllium ocellatum, the blind shark. It lives along northeastern Australia.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 1495.
word “Lin.” missing

Merops Apiaster, the European bee-eater

is unchanged. In addition to Europe—all of it, including the British Isles—it lives in the western half of Asia, and most of Africa except the furthest interior.

insulæ quæ in Ægæo mari abundanter,
text unchanged: error for “abundantur”?

e filo longissimo in altum projicitur,
text has projcitur

Venus Dione, the Occidental Venus-Shell

is now Hysteroconcha dione. It lives in the Caribbean.

At difficillimum est specimina nancisci
text has dificillimum

Addidi et egomet arctiorem, humiliorem
text has arcttiorem
[It’s funnier in print, because the typesetter momentarily forgot that the “ct” ligature already includes a “t”, so he didn’t need to set a separate one.]

[I guess you had to be there.]

the celebrated picture of Venus anadyomene by the hand of Apelles
[Modern writers are welcome to say anything they like about Apelles, because not so much as a chipped fragment—or even a securely attested copy—of his work survives.]

Papilio Idomeneus, the Great Occidental Butterfly

is probably Caligo idomeneus. It lives in South America.

and generally terminating in a knob
text has aud

Motacilla Regulus, the Golden-Crowned Wren

is now Regulus regulus, the goldcrest. It is most common in northern Europe, but also extends across Asia.

Caput Didi, the Head of the Dodo

The Dodo was described at Plate 123 of Volume 4, and its foot pictured at Plate 143 of the same volume.

Papilio Hecuba, the Hecuba (butterfly)

is now Morpho hecuba. It lives in South America.

Motacilla Calliope, the Ruby-Throated Warbler

is now Luscinia calliope, the Siberian rubythroat. It is distributed across most of south and east Asia—including Kamchatka—and has been seen in northern Europe.

the banks of the river Jenisei
[Now spelled Yenisei, it flows north from Mongolia to the Arctic Ocean.]

Millepora Cellulosa, the Lace Millepore

is unchanged. It lives mainly around the Mediterranean.

Pennatula Cynomorion, the Finger-Shaped Pennatula

is probably Veretillum cynomorium, the finger-shaped sea pen. (Did someone at ICZN think cynomorion is an adjective?) It is scattered along the coast of Europea and Africa, including the Mediterranean.

Strix Albifrons, the White-Fronted Owl

There’s no such owl—and therefore no naming credit for Shaw. After spending a century or so as Nyctale albifrons, Kirtland’s owl, it finally met an ornithologist who did the obvious experiment. In his own words, he

kept a fine specimen of “Nyctale albifrons” until it moulted and became a fine specimen of Nyctale acadica

—now known as Aegolius acadicus, the northern saw-whet owl. (This was by far my most entertaining Current Name Lookup.)

Holothuria Tremula, the Tremulous Holothuria

is now Parastichopus tremulus, not a mollusk but an echinoderm. It lives along the Atlantic coast of Europe, especially Scandinavia.

eorum veram figuram difficillimum sit verbis apte describere
text has dificillimum

Raja Rostrata, the Rostrated Ray

is now Aptychotrema rostrata, the Australian shovelnose ray, with naming credit to Shaw. It lives along the east coast of Australia. Squalus squatina, now Squatina squatina, is—as he says—an entirely different fish. So is Raja rhinobatos, now Rhinobatos rhinobatos, the guitarfish.

Bell. pisc. 78? Gesn. pisc. 903?
[This is neither the first nor the last time the Miscellany has given us question marks. But honestly, George, if you can’t read your own notes, go back and re-check . . . and if you’re not sure the cited source is talking about your critter, say so.]

in speciminibus quæ musæa suspeditant
text unchanged
[Everywhere else he is content to spell it suppeditant.]

Pipra Striata, the Striped-Headed Manakin

is probably Pardalotus striatus, the striated or yellow-tipped pardalote. It lives in Australia.

the Pipra punctata or speckled Manakin already described
[Plate 111 of Volume 4. Like the present bird, it has been moved to genus Pardalotus.]

Lophius Striatus, the Striated Lophius

is now Antennarius striatus, the black angler, with naming credit to Shaw. It lives along most tropical and subtropical coasts, but doesn’t seem to like the west coast of the Americas.

Circa litora Australasiæ reperitur
[This is the first time Shaw uses the word “Australasia”, meaning the continent of Australia. It will not be the last.]

Lophius Pictus, the Variegated Lophius

is now Antennarius pictus, another black angler, with naming credit to Shaw. (In spite of the recurring “angler” name, the genus as a whole is Frogfishes.) It is most common around Australia.

Lophius Marmoratus, the Marbled Lophius

If it’s the same as the subspecies Lophius histrio marmoratus—named by Bloch in 1801, so it probably isn’t—it is now Histrio histrio, another frogfish. And if it isn’t, it isn’t. Some sources dismiss it as wholly imaginary.

Phaeton Phoenicurus, the Red-Tailed Tropic-Bird

may be synonymous with Phaethon rubricauda—which means the same thing, only in Latin instead of Greek—the red-tailed tropicbird. In spite of the name, it is most common in Europe, west Asia and north Africa. (It is “Phaeton” rather than “Phæton” because they are separate syllables, Φαεθων.)

Pulex Irritans, the Flea

is, more exactly, the human flea.

George Shaw must have thought highly of fleas. Aside from the Boa Constrictor at Plate 51 of Volume 2—and one article in Volume 6 that includes a lengthy quoted letter—this is the only English description that exceeds four pages.

“Αλλ ου θεμις,” &c.
[I don’t mind if he omits the accents and breathing marks, but there really ought to be an apostrophe after Αλλ’ to mark elision of the final vowel.]

Chære-que-phonteo tentamine
[All the world’s upvotes to George Shaw—assuming the translation is his own—for this inspired tmesis.]

The eggs of the Flea, which are very small, white, and of an oval form
[Thank you, George, I have cats. I know what flea eggs look like.]

Lacerta Scincoides, the Scincoid Lizard

is now Tiliqua scincoides, the common bluetongue. It lives in Australia.

Picus Major, the Greater Spotted Woodpecker

is now Dendrocopos major, the great spotted woodpecker. It lives in Europe and in east Asia.

Coluber Naja, the Spectacle Snake

is now Naja naja, the Indian cobra.

The figure of Coluber Naja in a preceding number of this work
[Plate 74 of Volume 2. Unlike some of Shaw’s repetitions, this one is clearly intentional. But there’s still no reason this entire paragraph had to be a single sentence.]

Coccus Cataphractus, the Mailed Coccus

is now Arctorthezia cataphracta, the Alpine ensign scale. In spite of the name, it is found mainly in Scotland, northern Scandinavia—and southern Alaska. Shaw’s prose makes it sound as if he was the first to name and describe the animal. He was only the first to name it Coccus cataphractus; more than 20 years earlier, Eggert Olafsen (also spelled Ólafsson) had named it Pediculus cataphractus.

It seems allied to the Coccus rusci.
[Now Ceroplastes rusci, the barnacle scale. They are both in order Hemiptera, but that’s as close as it gets.]

that difficult branch of botany the class Cryptogamia
[Like the rest of Linnaeus’s botanical classes, Cryptogamia (“I can’t find any sex organs, and boy does that annoy me”) no longer exists. It covered everything from ferns to mushrooms to algae, making it a taxonomic dumping ground loosely analogous to order “Aptera” among insects—or class “Vermes” among animals as a whole.]

in consequence of the insects having deposited its ova
text unchanged: expected insect’s

The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.