Naturalist’s Miscellany

The Naturalist’s Miscellany
by George Shaw
Volume 6

v

CELEBERRIMÆ ACADEMIÆ

OXONIENSI,

QUICQUID EST
ARTIUM ET SCIENTIÆ,
RELIGIONIS ET LITERARUM,
BENIGNISSIME FOVENTI,

SEXTUM HUNC

NATURÆ VIVARII

FASCICULUM,

D. D. D.

GEORGIUS SHAW,
FREDERICUS P. NODDER.

r

to
THE UNIVERSITY
of

OXFORD,

THE FRIEND OF SCIENCE,
THE GUARDIAN OF
RELIGION AND LITERATURE,

THIS SIXTH VOLUME

of the

NATURALIST’s MISCELLANY

is

MOST RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED,

by
GEORGE SHAW,
FREDERICK P. NODDER.

v

 

183

Red-Beaked Toucan

London, Published Augst 1st 1794 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

B

RAMPHASTOS ERYTHRORHYNCHOS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum maximum, inane, convexum, extrorsum serratum: mandibula utraque apice incurva.

Nares pone rostri basin.

Lingua pennacea.

Pedes scansorii plerisque.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 150.

Character Specificus, &c.

RAMPHASTOS nigricans, genis colloque subtus albis, fascia pectoris crissoque coccineis, uropygio sulphureo.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 136.

TUCANA cayanensis gutture albo.

Briss. 4. p. 416. 4. t. 31. f. 2.

Licet avibus quæ in hoc genere continentur monstrosa videatur et quasi incongrua esse rostri magni­tudo, cum tamen levissima sit substantia, non pondere iis officit, sed commode satis sustinetur. Insigne v præterea est in rostro serraturas omnes antrorsum sitas esse, ad retinendum quicquid arripitur minus idoneas. Vescitur Ramphas­torum genus vegetabilibus, nec ut falso opinati sunt nonnulli, rapax est et prædatorium. Species quam describimus columbæ fere æqualis est. Nascitur, ut et aliæ congeneres, in America Australi. Digna porro est lingua quæ penitius examinetur ob miram et fere ambiguam pennæ similitudinem. Hujus veram magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula.

B2

the
RED-BEAKED TOUCAN.

Generic Character.

Bill excessively large, convex, bending towards the tip, light, hollow, serrated.

Tongue long, narrow, feathered on the edges.

Feet formed for climbing.

Specific Character, &c.

GREENISH-BLACK TOUCAN, with cheeks and lower part of the neck white, pectoral band and vent crimson, the upper tail-coverts yellow.

RED-BEAKED TOUCAN.

Lath. Syn. 1. p. 328.

Le TOUCAN a gorge blanche de Cayenne.

Briss. orn. 4. p. 416. n. 4. pl. 31. f. 2.

The seemingly monstrous and disproportionate size of the beak in the birds of this genus is such as to excite our wonder at so incongruous an appearance. We are to consider, however, that the v substance of the beak in the Toucans is extremely slight, so that no inconvenience results to the bird from its weight. It is remarkable that the serratures of the beak in these birds are placed forwards, and are consequently not particularly calcu­lated for holding any object which the bird may happen to seize. It may also be observed that the Toucans in general feed only on fruits and vegetable substances, and are not (as has sometimes been erroneously imagined) of a predacious nature. The size of the present species is nearly that of a pigeon. Like the rest of its congeners, it is a native of South America. It should be added that the structure of the tongue in the birds of this genus is so extremely curious as to be well worthy of particular attention; so exactly resembling a feather that at first sight it might be regarded as such. It is repre­sented on the plate of the size of nature.

184

Spermaceti Whale

Notes

r

PHYSETER MACROCEPHALUS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes in maxilla inferiore.

Fistula in capite s. fronte.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 107.

Character Specificus, &c.

PHYSETER dorso impinni gibboso.

BALÆNA MAJOR, in inferiore tantum maxilla dentata macrocephala bipinnis. Sibb.

Raj. pisc. p. 11. 15.

CETUS DENTATUS.

Mus. Worm. p. 280.

Animalium cetariorum characteres generales antea in hoc opere denotatos, cum scilicet de balæna Mysticeto disserebamus, supervacaneum foret in hac specie describenda repetere. Maximus est Physeter Macro­cephalus sui generis; nec pretiosior est alter, ex hoc enim proveniunt spermaceti et ambarum. Deformior est vel ipso Mysticeto. Caput enorme, si cum corpore comparetur. Maxilla superior carens v dentibus recipit in cavis, ore clauso, quos plurimos continet maxilla inferior. Color fusco-pallescit, dorso obscuriore. Extrahitur spermaceti e cellulis osseis quæ in capite, recens fere liquidum, ab aere vero concrescit et coagulatur. Qui ambarum in deliciis habent ægre forsan sibi persuadeant nihil aliud esse quam fæces animalis morbo laborantis. Sæpius accidit ut tempestatibus agantur in littora Europæa, nonnunquam in Britannica, variæ cetorum species. Hanc ipsam de qua jam loquimur, centum abhinc annis Norfolciæ appulsam memorat doctissimus Thomas Brown, quam mire cupidus erat examinandi si modo ambarum inveniret, de cujus origine paululum videtur dubitasse. Destitit autem ab incepto intolerabili foetore repulsus carnis quæ jam aliquot dies in littore jacuerat, nec quod nunc dierum certissimum est suo potuit experimento comprobare. Disserit de hac re, ut solet, fortiter et nervose.

“Quod audacter afferunt Arctici piscatores, balænas nempe ambarum deglutire, frustaque ejus in visceribus sæpius reperiri, vetuit me pro certo cognoscere qui se undique effudit nefandus foetor. At si verum sit quod docet Paracelsus, moschum odoratissimum e stercore extrahi posse, et e substantiis foedissime olentibus elici quod naribus sit jucundissimum, confidentur jurarent omnes quibus non esset nasus Vespasianus, e nulla aptiori materia felicem laboris exitum posse expectari.”

r

the
SPERMACETI WHALE.

Generic Character.

Teeth in the lower jaw only.

Fistula or respiratory pipe seated either on the head or the top of the snout.

Specific Character, &c.

PHYSETER with gibbose back without fin.

THE SPERMACETI WHALE.

BLUNT-HEADED CACHALOT.

Pennant. Brit. Zool. 3. p. 55.

The general characters of the cetaceous animals having already been given in the present work under the article of Balæna Mysticetus, it is unnecessary to recapitulate them in the description of the present species, which is the largest of its genus, and is one of the most interesting of the whole tribe; affording not only the well-known concrete called spermaceti, but likewise the valuable substance known by the name of ambergrease. This species is of an appearance still more uncouth than the v great Northern Whale or Balæna Mysticetus; the head being of an enormous magni­tude in proportion to the body. The upper jaw is destitute of teeth: in the lower they are very numerous, and are received, when the mouth is closed, into corresponding cavities in the upper. The colour of this whale is a pale or whitish brown; darkest above. The substance called spermaceti is contained in peculiar cavities or bony cells in the head, and when recent is nearly liquid, but soon concretes on exposure to air. Ambergrease is (what perhaps few who are admirers of that perfume would easily imagine,) nothing more than the excrement of the animal in a diseased state. This species of whale, like others, is sometimes cast by tempests on the European coasts, and has been seen on our own. In the last century a very large one was stranded on the coast of Norfolk, which is particularly commemorated by Sir Thomas Brown, who seems to have been willing to have discovered amber­grease in it, but was repelled by the intolerable fætor of the animal, which had lain several days in a state of putrefaction. Sir Thomas recites the anecdote in his usual forcible style, and appears to have been rather in doubt of what is now well ascertained, viz. that the perfume above mentioned has really the origin before described.

“In vain it was to rake for ambergriese in the panch of this Leviathan, as Greenland discoverers, and attests of experience dictate, that they sometimes swallow great lumps thereof in the sea; insufferable r fætor denying that enquiry; and yet if, as Paracelsus encourageth, ordure makes the best musk, and from the most fetid substances may be drawn the most odoriferous essences, all that had not Vespasian’s nose, might boldly swear, here was a fit subject for such extractions.”

v

 

185

Microscopic Scolopendra

Notes

r

SCOLOPENDRA MICROSCOPICA.

Character Genericus.

Pedes numerosi, totidem utrinque quot corporis segmenta.

Antennæ setaceæ.

Palpi duo articulati.

Corpus depressum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1062.

Character Specificus.

SCOLOPENDRA PELLUCIDA PUNCTATA, margine laterali, stria dorsali, caudaque forficata aureis.

Cum ego paucis abhinc annis in accurata insectorum plurium aquaticorum examinatione essem versatus, animalculum hoc rarissimum mense maio in stagno subturbido primum detexi. Nunquam antea aut descripta aut depicta est species hæc tum aquatica tum omnino microscopica. Equidem ad rigidam scientiæ entomo­logicæ normam, nescio annon novum huic genus instituisse satius fuisset, quam ad scolopendras referre: quibus tamen ut annumeretur animalculum hoc nostrum magis placet, non modo ob v magnam affinitatem, sed quod in insecto adeo minuto ut quinquagesimam unciæ partem paulo excedat, characterum discrimina vix ac ne vix possunt accurate investigari. Magnitudinem naturalem plus centies auctam repræsentat tabula. Lentius incedit scolopendra microscopica, membris tamen utitur prompte satis, et sine impedimento.

r

the
MICROSCOPIC SCOLOPENDRA.

Generic Character.

Feet numerous; equal in number on each side to the segments of the body.

Antennæ setaceous.

Palpi two, jointed.

Body depressed.

Specific Character.

PELLUCID DOTTED SCOLOPENDRA, with lateral margin, dorsal stripe, and forked tail gold-coloured.

On examining a great variety of aquatic insects a few years ago, I first discovered this very curious animalcule in the water of a soft pond in the month of May. It has never before been either described or figured, and is here repre­sented very highly magnified; being entirely a microscopic species as well as an aquatic one. It might perhaps, strictly speaking, rather constitute a new genus than be referred to that of Scolopendra; but as this is a matter v which in an animalcule of scarce more than the fiftieth part of an inch in length can never be investigated with sufficient certainty, it is perhaps most advisable to place it under the genus Scolopendra, to which its appearance proves it so very nearly allied. The figure represents it magnified more than an hundred times in length. Its motions are rather slow, but accompanied with great freedom.

186

Funereal Cockatoo

London, Published Sepr 1st 1794 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

C

PSITTACUS FUNEREUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum: mandibula superiore mobili; cera instructa.

Nares in rostri basi.

Lingua carnosa, obtusa, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 139.

Character Specificus.

PSITTACUS BRACHYURUS NIGER, cauda medio melina nigro irrorata.

In eo præcipue differre videtur hæc avis a psittaco magnifico sive illo Banksii nomine insignito, quod media cauda non sit coccinea nigro fasciata, sed melina, punctulis parvulis nigris creberrime irrorata. Superat quoque magni­tudine psittacum Banksii, nec, re bene perpensa, restat dubium quin species sit vere distincta. Nunquam antehac physicis Europæis innotuit; attulerunt nempe eum ad nos cum aliis nonnullis prius incognitis naves ab Australia nuperrime reversas.

v

the
FUNEREAL COCKATOO.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked. Upper mandible moveable.

Nostrils round, placed in the base of the bill.

Tongue fleshy, broad, blunt at the end.

Legs short. Toes formed for climbing, viz. two toes forward, and two backward.

Specific Character.

EVEN-TAILED BLACK COCKATOO, with the middle of the tail straw-coloured, freckled with black.

The general appearance of this bird is so very similar to that of the magnificent or Banksian Cockatoo, that the chief circumstance in which it differs is the colour of the middle part of the tail; which instead of being red barred with black, as in that bird, is of a dull straw-colour, thickly sprinkled with small specks of black. The size of the bird is also superior to that of the Banksian, and upon the whole there can be no doubt of its constituting a distinct species. It is perfectly new, having been imported with other recently discovered birds in the last vessels from New Holland.

187

Lepidopterine Mite

Notes

r

ACARUS LEPIDOPTERORUM.

Character Genericus.

Pedes octo.

Oculi duo ad latera capitis.

Tentacula duo articulata, pediformia.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1022.

Character Specificus.

ACARUS ovatus subferrugineus, antice acuminatus, abdomine femoribusque setis sparsis incrassatis, tarsis adactylis longissimis setaceis.

Insectum, nunquam fortasse antea descriptum, quodque microscopio auctum, depingitur, detectum est cum multis ejusmodi parti inferiori alarum phalænæ arcte adeo adhærentibus, ut puncta potius ipsius alæ quam aliquid ab ea distinctum putares; nec nisi attento oculo propius adducto patebat ea acaros esse. Ope microscopii facto examine, comperi speciem non antea visam, quaque dubito an totum genus contineat mirabiliorem. Magni­tudine vix acarum sironem seu vulgarem superat. Corpus ovatum, depressum, parte antica acuminatum. Crura v gracillima; primo et secundo articulo setis crassis obsito, quæ gradatim dilatantur versus extremitates, auctæque admodum microscopio per totam longi­tudinem serratæ videntur more aristarum hordeacearum. Cæteri articuli setis longissimis acuminatis vestiuntur; ultimi autem seu tarsi non muniuntur uncis ungulis, quod plerisque acaris commune est, sed in tres longissimos, rectos et acutos pilos desinunt, ut in tabula exprimitur. Corpus aspergitur variis pilis crassis, quales sunt ii in articulis crurum primoribus. Palpi, seu partes cheliformes juxta caput crassissimæ et validas terminantur singulæ ungue longo, curvo, acuto, et setigero. Crura anteriora cæteris longiora. Mire comparatum est a natura hoc insectum ad vivendum sub alis Lepidopterorum; longa enim et gracilia crura facile inter alarum squamas insinuantur, efficiuntque setæ serratæ ut arctius adhærere possit, et a casu sit securius, cum alis celerrime vibratis volet phalæna. Militat phalæna super quam inventus est acarus inter illas quas Linnæus rusticas vocavit; videtur tamen esse inter species ab illo non descriptas. Magnitudinis est modicæ, alis superioribus e cinereo albentibus, inferioribus lacteis, fusco marginatis.

r

the
LEPIDOPTERINE MITE.

Generic Character.

Eight Legs.

Two Eyes, situated on the sides of the head.

Two Tentacula, jointed, and shaped like feet.

Specific Character.

OVATE SHARP-FRONTED SUBFERRUGINOUS ACARUS, with incrassated bristles on the body and thighs, and extremely long setiform feet.

This very remarkable insect, which has probably never before been described, and of which a microscopical figure is here given, was discovered, together with several others of the same species on the lower surface of the wings of a moth. They were affixed so closely as to appear rather like natural specks than extraneous objects, and it was not without a near and attentive survey that they were discovered to be acari. Their colour was a reddish v brown and their surface somewhat lucid. On examination by the microscope, I found that the species was different from any I had before examined. It is perhaps one of the most curious of the whole genus. In size it scarce exceeds the acarus siro or common mite. The body is oval, depressed, and acuminated forwards. The legs are remarkably slender, and are beset on the first and second joints with strong bristles, gradually thickening towards their extremities, and which, when very much magnified, appear serrated throughout their whole length in the manner of the awns of barley, while the remaining joints are furnished with very long sharp-pointed ones; and the tarsi or ultimate joints, instead of being termi­nated by hooked claws, as in most other species, run out into three very long, strait, and sharp bristles, as repre­sented in the figure. On the body are placed several bristles of the same form with those on the upper joints of the legs. The palpi or cheliform parts near the head are very thick and strong, each being terminated by a sharp, long, incurved claw or process, accompanied by several bristles. The fore legs exceed the others in length. This insect seems admirably calculated for its peculiar habitat on the wings of lepidopterous insects; its long and slender legs readily insinuating themselves amongst the scales of the wings, and the serrated bristles undoubtedly contri­buting to its closer adhesion, and securing it from being shaken off the wing during the insect’s flight. The moth on which this curious acarus was discovered is amongst the phalænæ rusticæ of Linnæus, r but is probably not a Linnæan species. It is of a middling size, with the upper wings of a cinereous whitish colour, and the lower ones milk white, bordered with brown.

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188

Perforated Serpula

London, Published Sepr 1st 1794 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

D

SERPULA PERFORATA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Terebella.

Testa univalvis, tubulosa, adhærens, (sæpe isthmis integris passim intercepta.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1264.

Character Specificus, &c.

SERPULA testa tereti recta, extremitate radiata; disco poris cylindricis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1267.

List. conch. t. 548. f. 3.

Rumpf. mus. t. 41. f. 7.

Gnalt. test. t. 10. f. M.

Mort. conch. 1. t. 1. f. 7.

Testam mire conformatam repræsentavimus, Serpulæ perforatæ nomine distinctam. Cum nesciatur quodnam eam animal incolat, difficile ideo est dicere cui usui inserviant foramina plurima in summa seu convexa parte sita, quam cingit et aliorum tubulatorum circulus. Oceanum incolit Indicum Serpula v perforata, eadem plerumque magnitudine, quam ostendit tabula. Color eburneo-candidus in nonnullis speciminibus levem quandam habet rubedinis misturam.

r

the
PERFORATED SERPULA.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Terebella.

Shell univalve, tubular, adhering commonly to other substances, (in many species intercepted internally by dissepiments at uncertain distances.)

Specific Character, &c.

STRAIT CYLINDRIC SERPULA, with radiated extremity: the disk perforated by cylindric pores.

L’ARROSOIR ou le Pinceau de mer.

Argenv. t. 3. fig. G.

Knorr. 4. t. 28. & 6. t. 40.

THE WATER-POT SERPULA.

The very singular structure and appearance of the present shell justly rank it amongst the more curious productions of nature. The inhabiting animal is unknown, and we are consequently unacquainted v with the particular use of the numerous foramina on the convex surface of the upper part, as well as of the circle of tubular ones which surround it. It is a native of the Indian ocean, and is generally of the size repre­sented on the plate. Its colour is an ivory white, with a slight tinge of reddish in some individuals.

189

Yellow Wren

London, Published Octr 1st 1794 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

E

MOTACILLA TROCHILUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum subulatum, rectum: mandibulis subæqualibus.

Nares ovatæ.

Lingua lacero-emarginata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 328.

Character Specificus, &c.

MOTACILLA cinereo-virens, alis subtus tectricibus flavescentibus, superciliis luteis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 338.

ASILUS.

Briss. 3. p. 479. 45.

Raii. syn. p. 80. A. 10.

Will. orn. p. 164.

REGULUS non cristatus.

Aldr. orn. p. 653.

Quod inter salices ut plurimum versetur Motacilla Trochilus, ea de causa a quibusdam Anglice nominata est Willow-Wren. Moribus modoque vivendi regulos communes et aureo-cristatos imitatur. Colore interdum variat: nonnulla scilicet specimina longe nitidius flavent.

v

 

E2

the
YELLOW WREN.

Generic Character.

Bill subulate (or awl-shaped); strait: the mandibles nearly equal.

Nostrils nearly oval.

Tongue jagged, or lacerated towards the tip.

Specific Character, &c.

ASH-GREEN MOTACILLA, with the wings beneath the coverts yellowish, and a streak of yellow over each eye.

YELLOW WARBLER.

Lath. syn. 2. p. 512.

THE GREEN WREN, YELLOW WREN, or WILLOW WREN.

The Motacilla Trochilus or Yellow-Wren, is mostly seen on willows, from which circumstance it has been sometimes called the willow-wren. In its manners and way of life it resembles the common and gold-crested wrens. It is subject to vary in point of colour, the yellow in some specimens being far brighter than in others.

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191

Duck Barnacle

London, Published Octr 1st 1794 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

r

LEPAS ANATIFERA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Triton.

Testa multivalvis, inæquivalvis, basi affixa.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1107.

Character Specificus, &c.

LEPAS testa compressa quinquevalvi lævi, intestino insidente.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1109.

CONCHA ANATIFERA.

Aldr. orn. c. 20.

TELLINA PEDATA.

Bonann. recr. 2. f. 2.

CONCHA PEDATA.

Imper. hist. nat. 904.

Inter errores antiquos qui historiam naturalem plurimi obscurabant, passim credi solitum est anserem Bernacle vulgo dictum, non ut alias aves ab ovo, v sed a conchylio, in tabula annexa depicto, originem ducere. Huic errori, ingenti certe et manifesto, assenserunt varii auctores, quos ab anili credulitate prorsus immunes credere par esset. Putabant sane physici, illis temporibus, animal hanc testam incolens, avis supra memoratæ pullum esse implumem; elapsoque aliquo tempore, postquam plumis vestitus fuerit, e testa se liberasse, et in aquam subja­centem decidisse. Numerosa brachia seu tentacula velut plumosa et fimbriata, ordine semicirculari caput animalis cingentia, solum videntur fuisse fundamentum cui tam prava opinio et ridenda fabula possent inniti. Inter alios qui de concha hac anserifera scripserunt, suam ita sententiam profert Gerardus nostras, herbarii Anglicani auctor notissimus.

“Quod autem propriis oculis vidimus, et propriis manibus tetigimus, id dicere pergimus. Est in Lancastria insula quædam parva cui nomen The Pile of Fowlders; circa quam navium exesarum et naufragarum frustula diffracta inveniuntur, simul cum truncis et ramis arborum anti­quarum ibidem jactatarum. Supra hæc frustula spuma quædam potest videri, quæ gradatim in formam testarum musculos referentium accrescit: tamen testæ sunt magis quam musculi acuminatæ, et coloris albescentis. Intra testam invenitur substantia serico fimbriato et albido non absimilis, fibris inter se intertextis et complicatis. Hujus substantiæ pars una mediæ testæ innititur, velut corpus ostreæ seu mytili; pars autem reliqua ventri seu gibbæ parti massæ rudis et imperfectæ affixa est, quæ progressu temporis r in formam avis effingitur. Cum plenam avis formam adepta sit, tunc concha hiat, primoque conspi­citur fimbria quasi serica quam supra memoravimus: paulo post crura aviculæ dependentia cernuntur, quæ, mole sensim aucta, concham paulatim aperit, donec pleno corpore egressa, a rostro solo pendeat; elapsoque parvo tempore cum ad integram maturitatem jam pervenerit, in mare decidit, plumasque nacta, ad magni­tudinem anate majorem, ansere minorem crescit; rostro pedibusque nigris, plumisque nigro alboque, more Picæ vulgaris nostratis, maculatis. Hanc avem Lancastriæ incolæ anserem arboreum constanter appellant. Insula prædicta, nec non alia loca vicina adeo his avibus scatent, ut tribus denariis monetæ Anglicanæ una ex optimis facile ematur. Si qui sint qui de hac re adhuc dubitant, ad me, si placet, veniant, et testimonio hominum dignissimorum illis satisfaciam.”

Corpus Lepadis ad ovalem accedit formam, animali quod nomine Tritonis describit Linnæus, simillimum. Triton iste in foraminibus rupium habitat: Lepas igitur velut Triton concham incolens censenda est. Os Lepadis e proboscide incurva, longa constat; duodecim plumosis seu fimbriatis tentaculis vel brachiis cincta, quæ, ut supra dictum est, ab orificio testæ dependent. Cauda hujus animalis cum tubulo testæ conjungitur, et hoc modo affigitur substantiæ cui adhæret; seu potius pars ista tubulata est pars ipsius animalis; nam pro arbitrio, ut videtur, contrahi potest. Hæc Lepadis species fere in omnibus maris Mediterranei littoribus, in v nostris etiam est frequentissima, imis navibus, nec non aliis rebus adhærens. Interdum unica tantum, interdum plures coacervatæ reperiuntur. Hujus generis aliæ variæ extant species, quarum aliæ Britanniæ indigenæ sunt, aliæ transmarinæ.

r

the
DUCK BARNACLE.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Triton.

Shell consisting of several unequal valves; affixed by its base.

Specific Character, &c.

PEDUNCULATED BARNACLE, with compressed shell consisting of five valves.

The ANATIFEROUS LEPAS, or DUCK-BEARING BARNACLE.

The COMMON DUCK-BEARING BARNACLE.

Ellis. Ph. Trans.

Amongst the numerous errors with which natural history was formerly incumbered, there prevailed an idea that the bird called the Bernacle-Goose was not produced like other birds from an egg, but that it v derived its origin from the shell represented in the annexed plate. This error, gross and absurd as it was, seems to have met with credit from authors who should have viewed objects of this nature with other eyes than those of the vulgar. It was supposed by these philosophers that the inhabitant of this shell was an immature bird, or young of the above-mentioned goose, which, after having attained its plumage, liberated itself from the confinement of its shell, and dropped into the water below. The numerous arms or tentacula of the inhabiting animal, which are disposed in a semicircular form, and are of a feathery appearance, seem to have been all that could reasonably be alledged in favor of this extraordinary hypothesis. Amongst others who have mentioned this supposed goose-bearing shell, is Gerard, the author of the well-known herbal. His account runs thus.

“But what our eyes have seene, and hands have touched we shall declare. There is a small island in Lancashire called the Pile of Fowlders, wherein are found the broken pieces of old and bruised ships, some whereof have been cast thither by shipwrake, and also the trunks and bodies, with the branches of old and rotten trees, cast up there likewise; whereon is found a certain spume or froth that in time breedeth unto certaine shells, in shape like those of the muskle, but sharper pointed, and of a whitish colour; wherein is contained a thing in form like a lace of silk finely woven as it were together, of a whitish colour; one end whereof is r fastened unto the inside of the shell, even as the fish of oisters and muskles are; the other end is made fast unto the belly of a rude masse or lumpe, which in time commeth unto the shape and form of a bird: when it is perfectly formed, the shell gapeth open, and the first thing that appeareth is the foresaid lace or string; next come the legs of the bird, hanging out, and as it groweth greater it openeth the shell by degrees, till at length it is all come forth, and hangeth onely by the bill: in a short space after it commeth to full maturitie and falleth into the sea, where it gathereth feathers, and groweth to fowle bigger than a mallard and lesser than a goose, having blacke legs and bill or beake, and feathers blacke and white, spotted in such manner as is our Mag-Pie, called in some places a Pie-Annet, which the people of Lancashire call by no other name than a tree goose: which place aforesaid, and all those parts adjoining, do so much abound therewith, that one of the best is bought for three pence. For the truth hereof if any do doubt, may it please them to repaire unto me, and I shall satisfie them by the testimonie of good witnesses.”

The body of the Lepas is of a form approaching to that of an oval, and extremely resembles the animal called by Linnæus a Triton, which is an inhabitant of the cavities of rocks. The Lepas may therefore be considered as a Triton inhabiting a shell. The mouth consists of a long proboscis, or bent tube, and is surrounded by twelve long, feathery tentacula, which, as before observed, hang out of v the mouth of the shell. The tail of the animal has a communi­cation with the tubular part by which it is affixed to the substance on which it adheres; or rather the tubular part may be said to constitute a part of the animal, since it has a contractile power at the pleasure of the creature. This species of Lepas is common on most of the coasts of the Mediterranean, and is frequently found on our own. It adheres to the bottoms of ships, and other substances, and is sometimes found single, and sometimes in clusters or groupes.

190

Tuna Coralline

Notes

r

CORALLINA TUNA.

Character Genericus.

Animal? crescens habitu plantæ.

Stirps fixa. Rami articulati, ramulosi.

Character Specificus, &c.

CORALLINA trichotoma articulata, articulis compressis planis subrotundis.

Soland. et Ellis. corall. p. 111. t. 20. f. e.

OPUNTIA MARINA.

Park. theat. p. 1294. fig. 12.

Mars. hist. mar. p. 65. t. 7. f. 31.

Evenit in nonnullis Corallinis ut geniculi, longe admodum progressi, totius lithophyti mensuræ male respondere videantur. Inter has est ea quæ Corallina Opuntia nominatur, quod scilicet crescat formeturque modo non longe absimili Cacto Opuntiæ Linnæi. Speciem autem quam depinximus distinguunt geniculi insigniter lati subrotundi, fere complanati, v singulo ramulo plerumque in tres minores diviso. Corallina hæc raro paucis unciis longior, videturque prodire a radice seu fasciculo fibrarum more vegetabili. Profert eam mare Mediterraneum.

r

TUNA CORALLINE.

Generic Character.

Animal? growing in the form of a plant.

Stem fixed. Branches jointed and subdivided.

Specific Character, &c.

CORALLINE with trichotomous branches, and smooth, compressed, roundish joints.

ROUND-LEAVED CORALLINE.

ROUND-LEAVED OISTER-WEED.

Ger. Herb. p. 1567.

TUNA CORALLINE.

Soland. et Ellis. Zooph. p. 111.

Some species of Coralline are remarkable for the very great size of their jointed processes in proportion to the whole. Amongst these species is that called Corallina Opuntia, from some similarity between its mode of growth and habit to that of the Cactus Opuntia of Linnæus. The species here figured is however still more remarkable for the v disproportioned size of its geniculations, which are of a roundish shape, nearly flat, and grow in such a manner that each branch is commonly divided into three smaller ones. This coralline seldom exceeds a very few inches in height, and seems to proceed from a root or collection of filaments exactly in the manner of a vegetable. It is a native of the Mediterranean.

192

Redstart

London, Published Novr 1st 1794 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

F

MOTACILLA PHOENICURUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum subulatum, rectum: mandibulis subæqualibus.

Nares obovatæ.

Lingua lacero-emarginata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 328.

Character Specificus, &c.

MOTACILLA gula nigra, abdomine caudaque rufis, capite dorsoque canis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 335.

RUTICILLA.

Gesn. av. 729.

Raii. Syn. p. 78. A. 5.

Will. p. 159. t. 39.

Ver nostrum et æstatem amans formosa hæc avicula non brumam expectat, sed terras petit alio sole calentes. Indole esse creditur cauta admodum et meticulosa, fidemque hominum adeo suspectam habere, ut simul atque non satis celari viderit, nidum statim deserat femina, præcipue si quis ova vel levissime tetigerit. Rem tamen se non ita semper habere v certissimum est; probe enim memini egomet exemplum prorsus contrarium; cum scilicet pullos imperturbatæ satis et tranquillæ aluerunt aves, licet in casula hortensi nidificassent ubi plurima erat huc illuc concursantium frequentia, ipsaque ova absente femina, plus semel manu fuissent contrectata.

F2

the
REDSTART.

Generic Character.

Bill subulate, strait; mandibles nearly equal.

Nostrils nearly oval.

Tongue jagged, or lacerated towards the tip.

Specific Character, &c.

MOTACILLA, with black throat, white front, rufous tail and abdomen, lead-coloured head and back.

THE REDSTART.

LE ROSSIGNOL DE MURAILLE.

Briss. orn. 3. p. 403. No. 15.

Buf. ois. 5. p. 170. pl. 6. f. 2.

Pl. enl. 351. f. 1. 2.

This elegant bird, tho’ common in England during the spring and summer, is of a migratory nature, and leaves the island before the commencement of the winter season. The Redstart is generally supposed to be of a peculiarly shy and unsocial disposition, and it has been said that the slightest observation or intrusion, especially if the eggs are v merely touched, will cause the female to forsake the nest. I recollect, however, one instance of an entirely different nature; in which a redstart’s nest was built in a small summer-house immediately adjoining to a dwelling-house, and where many of the family frequently came during the greater part of the day: yet the birds continued their operations without any apparent embarrassment, and reared their offspring with perfect composure. I might also add that the eggs were more than once examined and displaced during the absence of the female.

193

Leopard Cowry

Notes

r

CYPRÆA PARDALIS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, involuta, subovata, obtusa, lævis.

Apertura utrinque effusa, linearis, utrinque dentata, longi­tudinalis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1172.

Character Specificus, &c.

CYPRÆA FERRUGINEA, fusco guttata, linea dorsi testacea, subtus alba.

CYPRÆA testa ovata, postice obtusa, antice rotundata, linea longi­tudinali testacea.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1176.

PORCELLANA GUTTATA.

Rumph. mus. t. 38. f. A.

CYPRÆA TIGRIS.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1176.

CYPRÆA TIGRIS.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3408.

Licet conchæ pretium augeat raritas, hac tamen ægre reperies pulchriorem quæ fere abundat in museorum scriniis. Variat color, qui plus minus vividus, v et incertus admodum est macularum numererus; ad speciei vero distinctionem notæ sunt satis characteristicæ. Nomen Cypræa huic generi datum est, quod antiquitus vocatum sit concha Veneris, quem titulum transtulerunt hodierni physici ad aliam penitus diversam, bivalvem nempe, quæ Venus Dione Linnæi, quamque in hoc opere jam descrip­simus. Concham de qua jam tractamus, insigniverunt antiqui scriptores nomine conchæ Veneris, quod graviter indignata Venus instructam inimicissime a Periandro navem contra Cnidi incolas, his ipsis conchis mandasse fertur ut adhærentes navi morarentur cursum. Notandum porro est epidermide carere, ut plurimum, testas quas continet hoc genus, et ab ipsa natura eximium nitorem ducere, qui aliis plurimis non nisi labore artificis comparatur.

r

the
LEOPARD COWRY.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax.

Shell univalve, involute, obtuse, ovate.

Aperture linear, longitudinal, toothed on both sides.

Specific Character, &c.

FERRUGINOUS CYPRÆA, spotted with deep-brown, with a yellowish dorsal line; white beneath.

THE COMMON SPOTTED COWRY.

THE TIGER OR LEOPARD COWRY.

Common as is this shell in every collection, and for that very reason considered as of little value, there scarcely exists a more beautiful species. It varies much in intensity of colour, as well as in the number of the spots with which it is so elegantly adorned, but the characteristic marks of the species are always readily ascertained. The name Cypræa is v given to this genus in compliance with its ancient title of Concha Veneris or Venus’s Shell; which in modern conchyliology belongs to a bivalve shell which has already made its appearance in the present work, viz. the Venus Dione of Linnæus. The name Concha Veneris applied to the present shell by the ancient writers originated from its supposed efficacy in expediting the commands of the goddess Venus, who, displeased at a voyage undertaken by order of the tyrant Periander against the natives of Gnidos, is said to have made use of this shell to stop the progress of the vessel. I should observe that the Cyprææ in general are unfurnished with any epidermis or exterior cuticle, and are found naturally adorned with that beautiful polish which is given to many other shells by artificial means.

194

Cinnamon Madrepore

Notes

G

MADREPORA RAMEA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Medusa.

Corallium cavitatibus lamelloso-stellatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1272.

Character Specificus, &c.

MADREPORA subpinnata ferruginea, ramis cylindraceis truncatis, apice stellatis.

MADREPORA fruticulosa ferruginea, ramulis obliquis subpinnatis adscendentibus cylindraceis stella terminatis.

Soland. et Ellis. Zooph. p. 155. t. 38.

MADREPORA caulescens pinnata undulato-striata, stellis terminalibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1280.

MADREPORA maxima ramosa.

Tourn. inst. t. 340.

CORALLIUM maximum truncatum.

Besl. mus. t. 26.

Coralliorum omnium longe numerosissimum est genus Madrepora, speciesque inter se invicem longissime distant. Nonnullis forma est sphærica seu v fere sphærica, superficie signis rotundis et quasi stellatis dense gemmata. Undulantur aliæ fulcis gyrantibus et labyrinthi more flexuosis. Quibusdam facies est plana et expansa, radiata tamen stellis, vel sinuose striata ad instar Madreporarum globosarum. Sunt denique nonnullæ rameæ, situ vero numeroque ramorum longe diversæ. E maximis hujus­modi est quæ in tabula depingitur, alta sæpe duos pedes; frequentius tamen minor. Color generalis est ferrugineo-pallidus, seu cinnameus. Singulus ramulus quasi truncatus seu diffractus videtur, et in uniuscujusque apice cavitas est stellata, quæ, recente adhuc corallio, sedes erat incolæ animalis, Medusam quodammodo referentis. Externa Madreporæ rameæ superficies paululum est scabra, totaque striis longi­tudinalibus sulcatur. In India Orientali nascitur.

r

CINNAMON MADREPORE.

Generic Character.

Animal allied to a Medusa.

Coral marked with lamellar star-shaped impressions or cavities.

Specific Character, &c.

GREAT FERRUGINOUS BRANCHED MADREPORE, with striated cylindric subpinnated branches, terminating abruptly and marked at the top by a star-shaped cavity.

CINNAMON MADREPORE.

CINNAMON or MAY-BLOSSOM CORAL.

The genus Madrepora is by far the most numerous of all the Corals, and the species differ most widely from each other in their habit or general appearance. Some are of globular, or nearly globular forms, with the surface thickly beset with round radiated or star-shaped impres­sions: others are undulated with serpentine channels in the manner of a labyrinth: some are of a flat expanded form, and v decorated either with starry impressions, or with undulations in the manner of the globular ones: others again are of a ramified figure, and vary greatly in the disposition and form of the branches of which they consist. Amongst the branched Madrepores the species here figured is one of the largest, and is often seen of the height of nearly two feet. The generality of specimens are however much less. Its general colour is a very pale ferruginous, or cinnamon-colour. Each of the branches terminates in an abrupt manner, as if broken, or cut off, and is marked at the top with a star-shaped impression, in each of which, in the recent coral, resided an animal somewhat allied to a Medusa. The external surface of this coral is roughish, and marked throughout its whole length with fine longi­tudinal striæ or furrows. It is a native of the East Indies.

195

Long-Legged Plover

London, Published Decr 1st 1794 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

H

CHARADRIUS HIMANTOPUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum teretiusculum, obtusum.

Nares lineares.

Pedes cursorii, tridactyli.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 253.

Character Specificus, &c.

CHARADRIUS ALBUS, alis dorsoque nigris, rostro acuto capite longiore, pedibus rubris longissimis.

CHARADRIUS ALBUS, dorso nigro, rostro nigro capite longiore, pedibus rubris longissimis.

Rostrum nigrum apice crassius. Oculi rubri pupilla alba. Corpus album, sed nigricans dorso, occipite, tectricibus alarum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 255.

CHARADRIUS ALBUS, dorso nigro, rostro nigro capite longiore, pedibus longissimis.

Rostrum nigrum apice crassius: corpus album, sed nigricans dorso, occipite, tectricibus alarum. Sexus alter albus, alis dorsoque usque ad uropygium nigris.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 741.

v

CHARADRIUS ALBUS, dorso nigro, rostro nigro capite longiore, pedibus rubris longissimis.

Rostrum gracile, apice crassius; irides rubræ; frons, orbitæ, uropygium, cauda et corpus subtus alba; vertex, dorsum et alæ nitenti-nigræ; cervix maculis obscuris varia.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 690.

HIMANTOPUS.

Gesn. av. 547.

Aldr. orn. 9. p. 193. t. 1. f. 1.

Raii. Syn. p. 106. n. 9. p. 193. t. 1. f. 1.

Will. orn. p. 219. t. 54.

Sibb. Scot. 3. p. 18. t. 11. 13.

Charadrium Himantopum, in Anglia rarissimum, in locis tamen aquosis interdum conspectum, a reliquo genere facillime distinguit mira crurum longi­tudo; quæ si Phoenicopterum excipiamus, major fortasse illi pro corpore, quam alii ulli avi quam adhuc novimus. Luben­tissime de illo jam disserimus, ut lucidius appareat quod in charactere specifico vel neglexisse vel non satis intellexisse videntur plurimi auctores; et corrigatur non levis error in Systemate Naturæ Linnæano. Huic autem emendando plena sufficiunt observationes quas nobiscum amicissime H2 communicavit vir reverendus Hugo Davies, de Aber in Cambria boreali quem physicæ generatim peritum, avium vero nostratium apprime callentem, non semel merito collaudavit Pennantus in Zoologia Britannica. Literas a solerti hoc viro receptas lectoribus proponimus.

GEORGIO SHAW, M. D.

Apud Museum Britannicum, Londini.

Domine,

Mirum fortasse videatur me avem tibi depictam misisse, quam descripserunt et delinearunt plurimi auctores; Charadrium nempe Himantopum Linnæi: qui tamen in eleganti tuo et erudito Naturæ Vivario (Naturalist’s Miscellany) merito sibi locum vindicat; non modo quod pedes cruraque pulcherrime rubra nigro rostro, alæ tergumque fulgido-nigrantia niveo pectori belle opponantur, miraque omnino sit partium inæqualitas; set ut detur tibi occasio errorem amovendi qui apud physicos de forma rostri loquentes diu invaluit: error enim certe est, nisi mira sit variorum speciminum discrepantia. In Systemate Naturæ Linnæano dicitur rostrum apice crassius; cui definitioni assentitur Gmelinius qui idem edidit opus, et nihil mutat, licet in aliis descrip­tionem auctiorem et meliorem reddiderit. Nec aliter depingitur rostrum in plerisque avis exemplaribus; seu fides habita sit auctorum descriptionibus, seu ipsa specimina manca fuerint, difficile est dicere. Sæpe etiam repræsentatur rostrum a basi ad apicem incurvum, v quod in nostro specimine omnino rectum, longum duas uncias cum sex uncias decimis, et a basi gradatim ad tenue extremum decrescens, mandibula superiori paulo longiori quam inferior, cui superincurvatur. E recentioribus in mentem mihi venit Scopoli* solus, qui hoc recte notavit, et aptis verbis accurate definivit. “Rostrum rectum, mandibula superiore longiore, apice deflexa.” Laxior licet sit Willough­beii descriptio, quam forsan ab Aldrovando mutuatus est, ad quem lectores relegat, (nunquam enim ipse avem viderat) fere eadem tamen est verborum significatio. “Rostrum gracile, insectis lancinandis aptum.” At nullibi hujus avis delineationem vidimus quæ magis conveniat cum Willoughbeii et Scopoli descriptionibus, nec non cum hoc nostro specimine, quam illa, quæ rudis sane, sed non infida reperitur in Sibbaldi et Gesneri operibus.

Liceat vero mihi conjicere ortum fortasse esse errorem Linnæanum a mero calami lapsu: habuisse nimirum illum in animo duo hæc verba, crassus et acutus, alterumque loco alterius inopinato substituisse: vix enim putem acutum illum Naturæ indagatorem specificam differ­entiam designare voluisse termino qui in charactere generico includitur; præsertim cum “rostrum apice acutius,” obtuso contrarium, quod est characteris generici, speciei distinctionem adeo insigniter denotet, ut primo suspicatus sim ipsum genus diversum.

r

Oculi pupillam dicit Linnæus albam, quæ in hoc nostro specimine nigra erat, iride rubra. In animo habui ipsum rostrum tibi mittere, ut de eo certior fieres; sed illud servare necesse erat, ut integra et perfecta esset figura, quam effinxit prope nos degens ingeniosa femina, quæ, pennis apte juxta ipsam Naturam dispositis, vitam avi quasi secundam donavit, prima certe diuturniorem, tantum non pulchritudine parem.

Masculini erat generis Charadrius Himantopus de quo scripsimus, in Mona scloppeto confectus anno millesimo septingentesimo nonagesimo tertio.

Sum,

Domine, &c. &c. &c.

HUGO DAVIES.

* Annus I. Historico-naturalis, 1769.

† Icones Animalium, 1560.

v

 

r

the
LONG-LEGGED PLOVER.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, somewhat cylindric, obtuse, and (in general) not longer than the head.

Feet cursorial: with three toes all placed forward.

Nostrils linear.

Specific Character, &c.

WHITE PLOVER with black back and wings, slender sharp-pointed black bill and extremely long red legs.

THE LONG-LEGGED PLOVER.

Pennant. Brit. Zool. No. 209.

—— edit. fol. p. 128. t. e. add. pl.

LONG-LEGS.

Ray. syn. p. 190. 7.

HIMANTOPUS.

Will. orn. p. 297. pl. 54.

LONG-LEGGED PLOVER.

Lath. Syn. 2. p. 195.

L’ECHASSE.

Buf. ois. 8. p. 114. pl. 8.

Pl. enl. 878.

v

LONG-LEGGED PLOVER.

Pennant. Zool. Caledon. pref. to Lightf. Flor. Scot. p. 35. pl. 4.

White Hist. Selb. p. 259. pl. 4.

The Charadrius Himantopus, so remarkable for the extraordinary length of its legs, which, except those of the Flamingo, are perhaps longer in proportion than in any other bird yet discovered, is extremely rare in England; it is however sometimes observed in watery places, and is easily recognised from any other of the plover kind by the particular character above mentioned. I now introduce it into the present work in order that a particular of some importance in its specific character, and which hitherto appears to have been either mistaken or overlooked by most authors, may be clearly understood, and an impor­tant error in the Systema Naturæ of Linnæus be placed in its proper light. This I am enabled to do in the completest manner by the observations of the Rev. Mr. Hugh Davies, of Aber in North Wales, a gentleman whose merits as an observant naturalist, and particularly with respect to the birds of our own island, are so often and so justly comme­morated by Mr. Pennant in his British Zoology.

Mr. Davis’s letter to me on the present occasion is as follows:

r

To Dr. SHAW,

British Museum, London.

Dear Sir,

It may perhaps seem strange that I should send for your perusal a drawing of a subject described and figured by so many different authors; I mean the Charadrius Himantopus of Linnæus, the Long-Legged Plover of Mr. Pennant and Mr. Latham. This bird, on account of its beautifully red feet and legs contrasted with its black bill; the glossy blackness of its wings and back, with the snowy whiteness of its breast; but particularly the singular proportion of its parts, is exceedingly curious, and seems to claim a place in your highly elegant and learned work, the Naturalist’s Miscellany; but that is not the only reason of this address; you will have an oppor­tunity of obviating what seems to me (after an attentive examination of one of this species) a mistake, that hath prevailed among authors respecting the form of the bill of this bird; unless it varies unaccountably in different individuals.

Linnæus in his Systema Naturæ gives it rostrum apice crassius; Gmelin, in his edition of that work, repeats the same words, though he has improved the description in other particulars. Most of the figures I have seen represent it in the same manner; whether taken from description, or mutilated specimens, I shall not pretend to determine. In many figures the bill is likewise incurved from the base to the end, which is by no means the case in the subject from v which the present drawing is made: here it is perfectly straight, two inches and six tenths of an inch long, and tapers gradually from the base to a fine point, the upper mandible being a little longer than the lower, and bent over it. Scopoli* is the only modern author I know who has observed this, and thus accurately expressed it, Rostrum rectum, mandibula superiore longiore apice deflexa; Willoughby’s description, though not so particular, implies nearly the same, Rostrum gracile insectis lancinandis aptum, probably taken from Aldrovandus, whom he refers to, not having himself seen the bird. The rude, but not ill proportioned figures of Sibbald and Gesner correspond, in this particular, with the descriptions of Scopoli and Willoughby, as well as with my specimen, better than any others I have seen.

May I presume to offer a conjecture how a mistake in description might have been first produced by a slip of the pen of the great Naturalist? He probably had the two words crassus and acutus, in idea, and accidently inserted the one instead of the other; for I cannot conceive that the accurate Linnæus could have intended that as a specific difference, which was part of the Generic character; whereas the deviation of rostrum apice acutius, from the Generic character, obtusum, affords a most striking specific r distinction: I at first sight, indeed, thought it so remarkable, as to point out a distinct genus.

Linnæus says the pupil is white; in my subject it was black, the iris red.

I wished to have sent the part in question of the bird for your satisfaction, but it was necessary to preserve it, to complete a figure made by an ingenious Lady in this neighbourhood, who, by a judicious and accurate arrangement of the feathers in their natural order, has conferred on the subject a second existence, more permanent, and scarce less beautiful than its first.

This was a male bird, and shot in Anglesea in the year 1793,

I am, &c. &c.

HUGH DAVIES.

* Annus I. Historico-naturalis, 1769.

† Icones Animalium, 1560.

v

 

196

Bell Medusa

Notes

r

MEDUSA CAMPANELLA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus gelatinosum, orbiculatum, depressum.

Os subtus, centrale.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1096.

Character Specificus, &c.

MEDUSA hyalina campanulata, subtus tentaculis quatuor corpus cingentibus, cirris marginalibus filiformibus sedecim.

MEDUSA CYMBALOIDES.

Slabb. Nat. Verl. t. 12. f. 1. 2. 3.

MEDUSA HEMISPHÆRICA?

Mull. Zool. Dan. p. 25. t. 7. f. 1. 2. 3.?

Toto Medusæ genere vix ulla protulit mare animalia substantiæ tenerioris et ad repellendas injurias minus aptæ: constat quippe e massa gelata, in diversis speciebus plus minus densa varieque formata, e qua subtus brachia aliquot seu tentacula excrescunt. Ob summam hanc mollitiem vix aliquo modo asservari possunt Medusæ sine membrorum et figuræ detrimento: unde fit ut in distinguendis speciebus v sæpissime erretur; nec ad veram illarum notitiam possit perveniri nisi ope iconum ab ipsissimis animalibus recentibus et in aqua natali accurate effictarum. Medusarum myriades super litora arctica longe lateque natantium conspiciuntur; et ex his magna ex parte constare creditur cibus balænarum, pisciumque cetaceorum. Plurimæ etiam species circa litora nostra videndæ sunt. Plerisque inducitur non mediocris colorum elegantia. Aliæ viride pallent: aliæ rubro, cæruleo, reliquisque coloribus pulcherrime tinguntur. Sunt etiam quæ hyalinæ sunt, seu velut vitreæ. Inter tales militat species in tabula, quæ non solum magni­tudine naturali, sed etiam vitro optico aucta depingitur. In mari Arctico præcipue nascitur. Medusarum species majores cuti admotæ levem inflammationem et rubedinem ciere dicuntur, et inde nomine urticarum marinarum, a quibusdam distinctas sunt; quod tamen et aliis multis animalibus, Actiniis scilicet, reliquisque a Medusis longe differentibus datum est.

r

BELL MEDUSA.

Generic Character.

Body gelatinous, orbicular, (commonly) depressed.

Mouth central, beneath.

Specific Character.

HYALINE BELL-SHAPED MEDUSA, with four tentacula annexed to the body, and about sixteen marginal filiform cirri.

The genus Medusa is of all other marine animals the most tender, and seemingly the most defenceless; consisting of a gelatinous mass of different figure and density in the different species, and furnished with a certain number of arms or tentacular processes proceeding from its under surface. In consequence of this extreme delicacy, the species of Medusa are scarce capable of being preserved in spirits, or any other way, without suffering such a derangement in their figure as to prevent them from being accurately ascertained. Hence this genus of all others seems the least accurately known; since nothing but figures, executed from the living animals in their native waters, can convey a just idea of their real and natural appearance. They are animals which are by no v means uncommon: several species swarm by myriads on the surface of the northern seas, and are supposed to make a principal part of the food of whales and other cetaceous fish. Several species are also found near our own coasts. The Medusæ in general are animals of considerable beauty of colour; some being of an elegant pale green; others tinged with blue, red, and other colours; and some are nearly colourless, or of a glass-like appearance. In this latter tribe ranks the species repre­sented in the present plate, which is figured both in its natural size and magnified: it is principally found in the northern ocean.

The larger Medusæ, when applied to the skin, are said to excite a slight degree of inflammation and redness; from which circumstance they have obtained the appellation of urticæ marinæ, or sea-nettles; a title which has also been applied to some very different marine animals, as the Actiniæ and some others.

197

Antenor Butterfly

Notes

I

PAPILIO ANTENOR.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 774.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis concoloribus nigris albido maculatis; posterioribus lunulis marginalibus rubris.

PAPILIO ANTENOR.

Drury ins. 2. t 3. f. 1.
Eq: Troes.

Fabr. sp. ins. 2. p. 3. n. 8.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2227.

Paucis papilionibus exoticis augustior est vultus quam Antenori. Color imus fusco-nigricat, maculis notisque plurimis, magnis, gilvis ornatus. Alarum inferiorum pars media atomis innumeris seu v squamis nitidis virescit. Ima superficies alarum notas habet prope carneas, inferiorum præcipue; tingunturque in medio singulæ maculæ in marginibus sitæ nubecula læte miniata.

r

ANTENOR.

Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the upper part, and generally terminating in a clavated tip.

Wings (when sitting) erect, and meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

BLACK BUTTERFLY SPOTTED WITH WHITISH: with a marginal row of lunulated red spots on the lower wings: both surfaces nearly similar.

Few of the exotic Butterflies have an air of greater magnificence than the present. Its general colour is a rich blackish brown, ornamented by numerous large clay-colour’d spots and patches. The disk or middle part of the lower wings has a greenish cast; owing to innumerable shining scales or specks of that colour. On the under surface the spots incline to flesh-colour, particularly those of the lower wings, while the marginal ones are very strongly tinged with a cloud of vermilion-red in the middle of each.

v

 

198

Red-Banded Toucan

London, Published Janry 1st 1795 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

K

RAMPHASTOS ARACARI.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum maximum, inane, convexum, extrorsum serratum: mandibula utraque apice incurva.

Nares pone rostri basin.

Lingua pennacea.

Pedes scansorii plerisque.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 150.

Character Specificus, &c.

RAMPHASTOS NIGRO-VIRIDIS, mandibula superiore albida carina nigra, abdomine flavo fascia rubra.

RAMPHASTOS ARACARI.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 151.

ARACARI.

Raii. Syn. p. 44.

Will. orn. p. 96. t. 22.

In numero est specierum majorum Ramphastos Aracari, longus scilicet quasi sedecim seu septendecim pollices a rostri apice ad extremum caudæ. Amat præcipue, ut et alii congeneres, regiones calidiores America Australis. Habent nonnulla specimina maculam parvulam ferru­gineam, utrinque pone oculos sitam.

v

 

K2

the
RED-BANDED TOUCAN.

Generic Character.

Bill excessively large, convex, bending towards the tip, light, hollow, serrated.

Tongue long, narrow, feathered on the edges.

Feet formed for climbing.

Specific Character, &c.

BLACKISH-GREEN TOUCAN, with the upper mandible white with a black carina; the abdomen yellow with a red band.

LE TOUCAN verd du Bresil.

Briss. orn. 4. p. 426. n. 9. pl. 33. f. 2.

LE GRIGRI.

Buf. ois. 126.

Pl. enl. 166.

ARACARI.

Will. orn. p. 140. pl. 22.

The Ramphastos Aracari or red-banded Toucan ranks amongst the larger species of this genus, and measures about sixteen or seventeen inches from the tip of the bill to the extremity of the tail. Like the v rest of its tribe it is principally found in the warmer parts of South America. In some specimens a small patch or spot of a ferruginous colour is situated behind each eye.

199

Circular Vorticella

Notes

r

VORTICELLA CIRCULARIS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus contractile, aliis nudum, aliis tecta inclusum.

Cilia rotatoria caput cingentia.

Character Specificus, &c.

VORTICELLA testa orbiculari pellucida, organo rotatorio duplici.

BRACHIONUS PATINA.

Mull. anim. inf. p. 337. t. 48. f. 6-10.

Animalculum repræsentavimus ope microscopii summopere auctum, quodque inter rariores vorticellas haberi possit. Reperitur in aquis stagnantibus, mense maio. Ostendit figura superior organa, (ut vocantur) rotationis, caudamque exerta, quæ in inferiore intra testam pellucidam et orbiculatam contrahuntur. Bella est vesiculæ quasi trilobæ in medio sitæ, seu cordis (si modo revera sit cor) quæ clare conspici possit valida et certa pulsatio.

v

CIRCULAR VORTICELLA.

Generic Character.

Body contractile: in some species naked; in others included in a shell.

Cilia or rotatory fibrils surrounding the head or upper part.

Specific Character.

VORTICELLA with circular pellucid shell and double rotatory organ.

This most curious animalcule, which the plate repre­sents very highly magnified, may be considered as one of the rarer species of Vorticella. It is found in stagnant waters in the month of May. The upper figure shews its appearance when the rotatory organs and tail are extended; the lower as it appears when these parts are contracted within the circumference of the circular transparent shell. The strong and regular pulsation of the triple vesicle in the middle, or heart, (if it really be such,) is singularly conspicuous in this animalcule.

200

Australian Frog

London, Published Janry 1st 1795 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

r

RANA AUSTRALIACA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus tetrapodum, ecaudatum, nudum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 354.

Character Specificus.

RANA FUSCA, subtus cærulescens, lateribus gilvo punctatis, digitis anterioribus spinosis.

Digna sane depingi est hæc species, non modo quod deformitatem excuset quodammodo raritas, sed quod in remoto orbe generata, in Australia scilicet, unde museis Europeis mirum accessit incrementum, jam primo describatur.

v

the
AUSTRALIAN FROG.

Generic Character.

Body four-footed, naked, without tail.

Specific Character.

BROWN FROG, blueish beneath; with the sides speckled with ochre-colour, and the toes of the fore-feet spiny.

This animal certainly cannot be numbered amongst the most beautiful of its genus: it is a species, however, which has never before been described, and is more peculiarly interesting from the circumstance of its being a native of the distant region of New Holland, which has added so many zoological treasures to the cabinets of natural history. Its rarity must therefore apologize for its deformity.

201

Great Titmouse

London, Published Feb. 1st 1795 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

L

PARUS MAJOR.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum integerrimum, basi setis tectum.

Lingua truncata, setis terminata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 340.

Character Specificus, &c.

PARUS OLIVACEUS, subtus flavescens fascia longi­tudinali nigra, capite nigro, temporibus albis.

PARUS CAPITE NIGRO, temporibus albis, nucha lutea.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 341.

PARUS MAJOR.

Gesn. av. 640.

Will. orn. 174.

Parorum quos generat Britannia maximus est qui in tabula depingitur, aviculis multis nostratibus longe splendidior. Hortos frequentat et pomaria, et licet insectis præcipue vescatur, more tamen Pari cærulei, tenellis arborum fructiferarum gemmis non leve damnum solet inferre.

v

 

r

the
GREAT TITMOUSE.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, a little compressed, strong, hard, and sharp-pointed.

Nostrils round, and covered with reflex bristles.

Tongue as if cut off at the end, and terminated by three or four bristles.

Toes divided to their origin; back toe large and strong.

Specific Character.

OLIVACEOUS TITMOUSE, yellowish beneath with a longi­tudinal black band; the head black; the temples white.

GREAT TITMOUSE, or OX-EYE.

Will. orn. p. 240. pl. 43.

Br. Zool. 1. No. 162.

LA GROSSE MESANGE, ou la CHARBONNIERE.

Briss. orn. 3. p. 539. No. 1.

Buff. ois. 5. p. 392. pl. 17.

Pl. enl. 3. f. 1.

The Parus Major is the largest of the British Pari, and from the liveliness of its colors, makes a more v conspicuous appearance than many other of the English small-birds. It is extremely frequent in orchards and gardens, and, like the blue titmouse or Parus cæruleus, is consi­dered as injurious to fruit-trees, by destroying the young buds. It feeds however principally on insects.

202

Single-Finned Lophius

London, Published Febry 1st 1795 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

r

LOPHIUS MONOPTERYGIUS.

Character Genericus.

Caput (corpusque plerisque) depressum.

Dentes plurimi, acuti.

Oculi verticales.

Corpus squamis nudum, informe.

Character Specificus.

LOPHIUS? DEPRESSUS NIGRICANS, subtus capiteque albidus, pinna supracaudali suberecta ramosa.

Inter Lophios reponendum censuimus novum hoc animal et adhuc incognitum, non quod iis plene respon­deat character genericus, sed quod idem fere sit oris habitus, et forma generalis. Depingitur in tabula vera et naturalis magni­tudo, situ ter variato, ut de corporis partibus melius possit judicari.

In maribus Australiacis innascitur Lophius mono­pterygius: in quem quo arctius inquirimus, eo magis pergimus dubitare, sitne fœtus seu pullus trichechi alicujus, an piscis cetacei; an ipsum genus sit novum omnino, et ab aliis omnibus diversum.

1 Dens magnitudine auctus.

v

 

203

Single-Finned Lophius

Not Drawn by F. P. N.

r

SINGLE-FINNED LOPHIUS.

Generic Character.

Head (and body in most species) depressed.

Eyes vertical.

Teeth numerous, minute, sharp.

Body destitute of scales.

Shape uncouth.

Specific Character.

DEPRESSED BLACKISH LOPHIUS? with the head and body beneath whitish; fin above the tail suberect and ramose.

It is rather from its general habit than from an exact agreement in point of generic characters, that I have considered this curious animal as a species of Lophius. It is figured of the size of nature, and in order to convey as distinct an idea as possible of an animal not only in the highest degree singular, but which is also entirely new, it is repre­sented in three different views. It is a native of the Australian seas.

The more closely this object is considered, the more dubious it appears. Can it be the young or the fœtus of any of the Trichechi? or any of the cetaceous tribe? or does it rather form a new genus distinct from every other?

1 A magnified tooth.

v

 

204

Swallow-Tailed Falcon

Notes

M

FALCO FURCATUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum, basi cera instructum.

Caput pennis arcte tectum.

Lingua bifida.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 124.

Character Specificus, &c.

FALCO ALBUS, alis dorso caudaque purpureo-nigricantibus, rostro nigro, pedibus flavis.

FALCO FURCATUS.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 129.

FALCO PERUVIANUS cauda furcata.

Klein. av. p. 51. No. 14.

ACCIPITER cauda furcata.

Catesb. Carol. 1. p. 4. t. 4.

Non vestivit natura falconum genus venusta plumarum varietate, sed corpus dedit vegetum et robustum, ignitam aciem oculorum, bellicam vultus audaciam. At aliquibus nec deesse vel colorum elegantiam satis testatur species de qua jam tractamus, pulcherrime lactea, dorso alis caudaque pro variata luce magis minusve purpureo-nigricantibus, non v sine mutabili quodam viroris nitore. Rostrum nigricat; pedes flavent. Generatur Falco furcatus in America Boreali: in utraque Carolina, Georgia, et Florida sæpissime, necnon in partibus magis ad septen­trionem versis. Magnitudine milvo Europæo paulo inferior est.

M2

the
SWALLOW-TAILED FALCON.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked; with a cere or naked skin at the base.

Head thickly beset with feathers.

Tongue generally bifid.

Specific Character, &c.

WHITE FALCON, with the back, wings, and tail purplish black; the bill black, the legs yellow.

The SWALLOW-TAILED FALCON.

Lath. syn. 1. p. 60.

Le MILAN de la CAROLINE.

Briss. av. 1. p. 418. No. 36.

Buff. ois. p. 221.

SWALLOW-TAILED HAWK.

Catesb. Carol. 1. p. 4. pl. 4.

The birds of this genus are in general much more remarkable for their bold and spirited aspect, and their superior degree of strength and courage than for elegance of plumage. The present species however v is highly distinguished by its beauty of color. It is milk-white, with the back, wings, and tail of a rich purplish black, with a gloss of changeable green, varying according to the direction of the light. The bill is black; the legs and feet yellow. This bird is a native of North America, and is not uncommon in both the Carolinas, as well as in Georgia and Florida, and even in the more northern parts of the American Continent. It is somewhat smaller than the common Kite.

205

Aculeated Aphrodita

London, Published April 1st 1795 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

r

APHRODITA ACULEATA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus repens, ovale; pediformibus utrinque fasciculis pluribus.

Os terminale, cylindricum, retractile.

Tentacula oris duo, setacea.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1084.

Character Specificus, &c.

APHRODITA OVALIS hirsuta aculeata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1084.

APHRODITA NITENS.

Lin. Mus. Ad. Frid. 1. p. 93.

PHYSALUS.

Swammerd. bibl. Nat. t. 10. f. 8.

VERMIS AUREUS.

Barthol. act. Hafn. 3. p. 88. t. 88.

Distincta interdum est Aphrodita aculeata nomine erucæ marinæ, ob summam similitudinem quæ illi esse creditur cum erucis nonnullis majoribus. Corpus est ovatum, extremitatibus paululum acutis. Dorsum valde convexum, venter fere planus. Dividitur corpus in segmenta circiter triginta, quibus v utrinque adstant totidem pedes breves crassique seu papillæ, quarum utraque fasciculo setarum nigrarum terminatur. Color supra fuscus, subtus obscure carneus. Corpus vestitur setis plurimis seu potius spinulis acutis; duplicem quasi fasciam ducentibus, et assurgentibus supra pilum illum mollem et delicatulum qui in lateribus aspicitur. Distin­guitur hic pilus quasi sericus lateralis colorum nitore pro lucis ratione variantium, ut in pavonum pennis. Dorsum medium plerumque aculeis caret, obtegiturque villo denso qui brevior longe quam in lateribus. In plerisque Europæ Septentrionalis litoribus reperitur Aphrodita aculeata, raro quinque seu sex unciis longior, plerumque multo minor.

r

ACULEATED APHRODITA.

Generic Character.

Body repent, oval; with numerous bristly fasciculated feet on each side.

Mouth terminal, cylindric, retractile.

Tentacula at the mouth, two, setaceous.

Specific Character, &c.

OVAL APHRODITA, brown above, flesh-coloured beneath, with long silky changeable hair on each side the body.

ACULEATED APHRODITA.

Penn. Brit. Zool. 4. p. 37. t. 23. f. 25.

SEA MOUSE.

Dale’s Harwich, 394.

From a general resemblance which this creature bears to some of the larger caterpillars, it has been sometimes called by the name of eruca marina. Its outline is oval, with somewhat sharpened extremities. The back is extremely convex, and the belly nearly flat. The body is divided into about thirty segments, on each side of which stand so many short thick feet or papillæ, each terminated v by a fasciculus of black spines or bristles. The color of this animal is brownish above, and of a dull flesh-color beneath. The back is furnished with a great number of very sharp and moderately strong prickles, forming a sort of double fascia, and rising above the soft and delicate hair which ornaments the sides. This hair is distinguished by a varying gloss of colors similar to those which appear in the feathers of a peacock. The middle of the back is generally destitute of prickles, and is coated by a sort of villus considerably shorter than that which grows on the sides. The Aphrodita aculeata is by no means uncommon, and is found on most of the shores of the northern parts of Europe. It seldom exceeds the length of five or six inches, and is generally found of a much smaller size.

206

Pyramidal Clio

London, Published April 1st 1795 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

r

CLIO PYRAMIDATA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus natans, oblongum: Alis duabus, membranaceis, oppositis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1094.

Character Specificus, &c.

CLIO VAGINA TRIQUETRA PYRAMIDATA, ore oblique truncato.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1094.

Brown. Jam. 386. t. 43. f. 1.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3148.

A congeneribus præcipue differt Clio pyramidata corpore quasi vagina triquetra compressa incluso. Coloribus variat; plerumque tamen plus minus cærulea, corpore subfusco, oculis pulchre virentibus. In oceano Americano invenitur. Tabula magni­tudine naturali depictam exhibet.

v

 

r

PYRAMIDAL CLIO.

Generic Character.

Body nayant, oblong, with two opposite membranaceous wing-like processes.

Specific Character, &c.

PALE-BLUE CLIO with green eyes, the sheath of the body compressed and triangular; the mouth obliquely truncated.

PYRAMIDAL CLIO.

The Clio pyramidata principally differs from the rest of its congeners in having the body included in a sort of compressed triangular sheath. In color it varies, but is generally more or less blue, with the body brownish, and the eyes bright green. It is a native of the American ocean, and is repre­sented in its natural size.

v

 

207

White Wagtail

London, Published May 1st 1795 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

O

MOTACILLA ALBA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum subulatum, rectum: mandibulis subæqualibus.

Nares obovatæ.

Lingua lacero-emarginata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 328.

Character Specificus, &c.

MOTACILLA albo nigroque varia, rectricibus exterioribus latere exteriore albis.

MOTACILLA pectore nigro, rectricibus duabus lateralibus dimidiato oblique albis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 331.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 960.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 501.

Amat, ut plurimum, margines aquarum, et insectis præcipue vescitur bella et concinna hæc avicula, pagorum et villarum notissima habitatrix, vernique temporis imprimis prænuncia.

v

 

O2

the
WHITE WAGTAIL.

Generic Character.

Bill subulate.

Nostrils nearly oval.

Tongue jagged or lacerated towards the tip.

Specific Character, &c.

BLACK and WHITE WAGTAIL, with the two exterior tail-feathers white on the outside.

The WHITE WAGTAIL.

Penn. Brit. Zool. 1. p. 305.

The WHITE WATER-WAGTAIL.

Ray. Syn. 75.

Will. orn. p. 237.

LA LAVANDIERE.

Buff. ois. 5. p. 251.

This bird, the constant frequenter of villages, and one of the earliest harbingers of spring, is remarkable for the peculiar neatness of its appearance. It is generally seen near the margins of watery places, and feeds almost entirely on insects.

v

 

208

Louse

Notes

O3

PEDICULUS VULGARIS.

Character Genericus.

Os haustello retractili.

Pedes sex, ambulatorii.

Antennæ longitudine thoracis.

Abdomen depressum, sublobatum.

Character Specificus, &c.

PEDICULUS abdomine oblongo, lobato, cinereo.

PEDICULUS humanus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1016.

Faun. Suec. No. 1939.

PEDICULUS.

Swammerd. bibl. Nat. t. 1. f. 3. 6.

Mouff. ins. p. 259.

Licet fortasse offensionis aliquid in se habeat hoc animalculum, et ob vilitatem foeditatemque ipsi titulo hujus operis fere videatur contradicere; multa tamen sunt ad ejus historiam, conformationem, et subtilem defor­mitatem spectantia, quæ attentius examinare vel philo­sopho non sit injucundum. Pulicem quoque, quem non ita pridem descripsimus, apte satis comitari possit pediculus, licet careat certe lepidi istius insecti concinno corpore.

v

Per omne ævum habitus est pediculus in ærumnis et miseriis humani generis. Ab hoc nempe vexati homines turpiter desidiosi meritas squaloris et sordium pœnas luunt; ab hoc etiam cruciantur interdum principes, et domini terrarum, haud amplius invidiam sed fastidium commoventes. Quod ut omittam confirmare certissimo sacrarum scripturarum testimonio, memorant antiqui auctores viros magni nominis, qui foedissima horum animalculorum cohorte obruti, miserrime occubuerunt. Morbum tamen qui phthiriasis dicitur, a mera negligentia primitus oriri magis quam ab ipso corporis habitu putem: abhorret enim a natura pediculi cutim subire, quod vulgo existimatur, nec facile mihi persuadeam resistere posse aliquid hujusmodi hydrargyro probe sublimato, aliisque pollentibus remediis. Immo fas sit mihi omnino dubitare annon unquam extiterit vera et genuina phthiriasis, (de morbo loquor primario), licet ab hac ipsa interemptos Pherecyden Sirium, Syllam dictatorem, et alios nonnullos narret Plinius. De Sylla ita cecinit Quintus Serenus.

“Sylla quoque infelix, tali languore peresus

“Corruit, et foedo se vidit ab agmine vinci.”

Non subit pediculus, more pulicis, formæ mutationes, sed ab ovo perfectus et integer evadit, a parentibus non nisi exiguitate discrepans. Specimina hæc exigua potiora sunt quæ microscopice examinentur, nam pellucidiora sunt adultis, et in iis clarius cernuntur musculorum, viscerum, reliquarumque partium situs et dispositio.

r

Microscopii ope præcipue notatu digna sunt quæ sequuntur. Proboscidis peracutæ, in theca plerumque latentis, pars superior aculeis seu spinulis aliquot recurvis instruitur. Oculi læves, magni, nigri. In ventriculo et intestinis, quæ magnam abdominis partem occupant, evidenter admodum conspici possit motus qui peristal­ticus dicitur. Tracheæ ramuli, per corpus belle varieque dispersi, præcipue notabiles sunt juxta latera abdominis. Crura singula chela duplici, astaci chelæ non absimili, nisi quod longe sit acutior, terminantur. Vestitur totum animal cute rugosa, granata, pellucida.

Huic descriptioni liceat mihi subjicere versus aliquot Quinti Sereni, quibus explicare conatur poeta, quonam consilio turpia hæc animalcula crearit pater omnipotens, creatisque tantam foecunditatem indulserit.

“Noxia corporibus quædam de corpora nostro

“Produxit natura, volens abrumpere somnos

“Sensibus, et monitis vigiles inducere curas.”

Nec possum non Linnæi opinionem lectoribus proponere, qui sedulus pediculi defensor, graviter sententiam suam fert, verisimile nempe esse ut a varietate morborum, quibus aliter laborarent, immunes serventur pueri, quorum capita pediculis infestantur.

v

 

r

the
LOUSE.

Generic Character.

Head furnished with a retractile tube for suction.

Antennæ of the length of thorax.

Feet six, formed for walking.

Abdomen depressed and sublobated.

Specific Character, &c.

LOUSE with oblong cinereous lobated abdomen.

The COMMON LOUSE.

To introduce an animal of an appearance so inelegant as the present into a work of this nature, might almost seem a violation of the plan announced in its title: there are however circumstances in its history, and particulars in its conformation, which are well worthy the attention of philosophic enquirers; and if it cannot be considered as beautiful, it may at least be numbered amongst the more curious productions of nature: it may also be added, that it has from time immemorial been considered as a kind of companion (though surely of a far less elegant character v than that cleanly animal) to the flea, already described in the present work.

The Louse, in all ages enumerated amongst the pests of mankind, has been sometimes repre­sented as the mere punishment of personal negligence, and sometimes commemorated as one of the most humiliating concomitants of degraded pride; since, exclusive of the memorable and impressive descriptions on this subject in the sacred writings, we meet with various examples of characters of no small degree of eminence who have suffered from the attacks of this odious insect. The disorder, however, commonly termed phthiriasis, is probably more owing to want of early attention during the first stages of its appearance, than to any real constitutional cause in the patient; it being entirely contrary to the nature of this insect to get under the cuticle, as commonly supposed; and utterly inconceivable that a complaint merely external should be able to resist mercurial or other preparations outwardly used; and there can be little doubt but that such cases, whenever they occur, would be effectually removed by a proper application of a dilute solution of mercury sublimate. I must even venture to express my doubts whether a real and genuine phthiriasis, (considered as a primary disease) has ever appeared. Notwithstanding this, we are told by Pliny that Pherecydes Sirius, Sylla the dictator, and others, have died of this disorder. Quintus Serenus speaks thus of the latter:

r

“Sylla quoque infelix tali languore peresus

“Corruit, et foedo se vidit ab agmine vinci.”

Great Sylla too the fatal scourge hath known;

Slain by a host far mightier than his own!

The Louse does not, like the flea, undergo a change of form, but is hatched from the egg complete in all its parts, and differing only from the parent insect in its smaller size. Such diminutive specimens are far preferable for microscopical examination to the full-grown ones, being much more transparent, and shewing in a more elegant manner, the disposition of the muscles, viscera, &c.

When examined by the microscope the principal appearances are as follow: viz. the trunk or proboscis, which is generally concealed in its sheath or tube, is of a very sharp form, and is furnished towards its upper part with a few reversed aculei or prickles. The eyes are smooth, large, and black. The stomach and intestines, which possess the greater part of the abdominal cavity, afford an extremely distinct and curious view of the peristaltic motion. The ramifications of the trachea, or respiratory tube, appear dispersed in a most beautiful manner throughout various parts of the animal, and are particularly observable towards their orifices on the sides of the abdomen. The legs are each terminated by a double claw, not greatly unlike that of a lobster, but of a much sharper form. The whole animal is every where covered by a strong and granulated skin.

v

To what I have said respecting this animal I shall beg leave to add the lines of Serenus, as an attempt towards discovering an apparent intention of providence in permitting the frequency of such unpleasing animals.

“Noxia corporibus quædam de corpore nostro

“Produxit natura, volens abrumpere somnos

“Sensibus, et monitis vigiles inducere curas.”

See nature, kindly provident, ordain

Her gentle stimulants to harmless pain;

Lest man, the slave of rest, should waste away

In torpid slumber life’s important day!

Nor can I omit the observation of Linnæus on this subject, who, seemingly anxious to become an apologist for the Louse, has gravely observed that it probably preserves children who are troubled with it, from a variety of complaints to which they would otherwise be liable!!!

209

Gilded Snake

London, Published May 1st 1795 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

r

COLUBER AHÆTULLA.

Character Genericus.

Scuta abdominalia.

Squamæ subcaudales.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 275.

Character Specificus, &c.

COLUBER VIRIDI-CÆRULEUS, subtus aureo-virescens, fascia transoculari nigra.

Scut. abdom. circiter 164. Squam. subcaud. 150.

SERPENS ORNATISSIMA AMBOINENSIS BOIGUATRARA.

Seb. Mus. 2. t. 82. f. 1.

In serpentibus examinandis noto illo adagio præcipue opus est, “nimium ne crede colori.” Huic enim generi adeo discolor est varietas, ut certioribus signis opus sit, quibus inter species facilius et tutius possit dijudicari. Serpentes tamen nonnulli sunt quibus color satis constans sufficit characteri specifico. Hujusmodi est coluber pulcherrimus in tabula depictus, cujus color fere semper sui est similis, et rarissime immutatur. Asiam et Americam? incolit, carens veneno; nec pertingit ad certam aliquam longi­tudinem; raro tamen tres pedes superat.

v

 

r

the
GILDED SNAKE.

Generic Character.

Transverse Lamellæ under the abdomen.

Broad alternate Scales under the tail.

Specific Character, &c.

GREENISH-BLUE SNAKE, gold-green beneath; with a black streak across the eyes.

Abdominal lamellæ about 164. Subcaudal scales about 150.

The GILDED SNAKE, or BOIGA.

The IRIDESCENT SNAKE.

Never, perhaps, can the well-known maxim “nimium ne crede colori” be more justly applied than to the animals of the serpent tribe; which, in general, exhibit so many variations in point of color, as to make it necessary to fix on some more certain marks of distinction, in order to ascertain with precision the respective species. There are, however, some serpents which seem less liable to this uncertainty than others, and which display a tinge sufficiently v uniform to declare their specific character. Amongst these may be reckoned the beautiful snake figured on the present plate, which is pretty constantly found of the color repre­sented. It is a native both of Asia and America? and is not of a poisonous nature. It is seen of various sizes, but seldom exceeds the length of about three feet.

210

Saffron Creeper

London, Published June 1st 1795 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

P

CERTHIA CROCATA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum arcuatum, tenue, subtrigonum, acutum.

Lingua acuta.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 184.

Character Specificus, &c.

CERTHIA OLIVACEO-FUSCA, capite aureo-viridi, gula violaceo-chalybeia, pectore abdomineque croceis, rectricibus duabus intermediis elongatis.

CERTHIA rectricibus intermediis duabus longissimis, corpore violaceo-nitente, pectore abdomineque luteis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 188.

CERTHIA longicauda minor capitis Bonæ Spei.

Briss. 3. p. 649. t. 33. f. 6.

Cum in generibus Certhiæ Trochilique plurimæ contineantur species, eo fit ut unamquamque speciem non semper satis denotet triviale nomen; præcipue si notabilis aliqua fuerit colorum immutatio. Aviculam nempe quam depinximus, triviali nomine, v parum fauste selecto, violaceam nuncupavit Linnæus; licet caput cum collo humerisque coloris sit aureo-viridis saturatioris, fascia tantum violacea seu cæruleo-chalybeia trans pectus superius ducta. Cum autem insignis et conspicua distinc­tionis nota sit color pectoris et abdominis croceo-luteus, non dubitavi avem novo nomine crocatam dicere. Africam incolit Certhia crocata, amans præcipue promontorium euelpidis. Naturalem magni­tudinem ostendit tabula.

r

the
SAFFRON CREEPER.

Generic Character.

Bill slender, incurvated, and sharp-pointed.

Tongue either sharp-pointed, ciliated, or tubular.

Legs moderately stout: toes three before and one behind: back toe large: claws hooked and long.

Specific Character, &c.

OLIVE-BROWN CREEPER, with gold-green head, steel-blue throat, saffron breast and abdomen, and long middle tail-feathers.

VIOLET-HEADED CREEPER.

Lath. Syn. 2. p. 178.

Le SOUI-MANGA à longue queue et à capuchon violet.

Buff. ois. 5. p. 517.

PETIT GRIMPEREAU a longue queue du Cap. de B. E.

Pl. enl. 670. f. 1.

In the numerous genera of Trochilus and Certhia, it is not always that the most apposite and proper titles v have been given to the respective species; especially where they are in any degree subject to vary in point of color. The trivial name violacea applied by Linnæus to the bird at present repre­sented, seems peculiarly unfortunate; the head, neck, and shoulders being generally of a deep gold-green, with a band only of shining violet or chalybean-blue across the upper part of the breast. The most striking characteristic mark of the bird is the bright orange-yellow of the breast and abdomen, for which reason I have applied to it the new name by which it is here distin­guished. The Certhia crocata is a native of Africa, and is principally found at the Cape of Good Hope. It is repre­sented in its natural size.

211

Marbled Cone

London, Published June 1st 1795 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

r

CONUS MARMOREUS.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, convoluta, turbinata.

Apertura effusa, longitudinalis, linearis, edentula, basi integra.

Columella lævis.

Character Specificus, &c.

CONUS testa conica fusca vel atra, maculis ovatis seu trigono-ovatis albis.

CONUS testa conica fusca, maculis ovatis albis, spiræ anfractibus canaliculatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1165.

STROMBUS PYRAMIDALIS, &c.

Seb. Mus. 3. t. 46. f. 1.-15.

Exuberat, ut plurimum, splendidorum colorum varie­tate Conorum genus: avidissime arreptum a concharum studiosis. Perraræ enim sunt multæ species, et pretios­issimæ: Conus scilicet arausiacus, C. Ammiralis, præsertim Ammiralis summus, A. occidentalis, præ cæteris autem lauta illa et magnifica varietas, (ni species diversa sit) titulo gaudens Cedo v nulli; cujus specimen constitit interdum emptori centum aureis nummis.

His omnibus cedit longe species quam jam describimus: habet tamen suam nec mediocrem elegantiam. Innascitur in oceano Americano.

Ante publicatum Systema Linnæanum vocari solitum est hoc genus nomine Volutæ; quod Linnæus rectius, ut opinor, titulo Coni distinxit: similis enim est major pars generis cono mathematico.

r

the
MARBLED CONE.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax or Slug.

Shell more or less conic or pyramidal.

Aperture longitudinal, linear, without teeth, entire at the base.

Pillar smooth.

Specific Character, &c.

PYRAMIDAL BROWN or BLACK CONE, with ovate or trigonal-ovate white spots.

LE CORNET des COEURS.

Knorr. 1. t. 7. f. 4. 15. f. 2.

The BLACK and WHITE MARBLED CONE.

The shells of this genus are in general highly distin­guished by the richness and variety of their colors, and are considered as constituting the principal beauties of conchyliological cabinets. Many species are also extremely rare and valuable, as the C. arausiacus, the C. Ammiralis, and its respective v varieties; particularly the Ammiralis summus, A. occidentalis, and above all the superb variety, if not distinct species, known by the title of Cedo nulli, of which a specimen has been sometimes valued at the price of an hundred guineas. The present species, though not comparable either in point of beauty or rarity to many others, is yet possessed of a very high degree of elegance. It is a native of the American ocean.

It should be observed that this genus, before the Systema Naturæ of Linnæus made its appearance, was distinguished by the name of Voluta or Volute; but Linnæus, with greater propriety, has applied the title of Conus; the outline of the shell, in most species, approa­ching very nearly to the mathematical figure of a cone.

212

Lumbriciform Lizard

Notes

Q2

LACERTA LUMBRICOIDES.

Character Genericus.

Corpus tetrapodum, caudatum, nudum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 275.

Character Specificus, &c.

LACERTA BIPES, cylindrica, ferruginea, subtus pallida, striis quadratis tesselata, pedibus tetradactylis brevissimis.

Ob nimiam quæ est inter genera anguis et lacertæ affinitatem, difficile admodum est species nonnullas, ni paulo attentius in characteres inquiratur, ad verum et sibi proprium genus relegare. Rem se ita habere satis probant lacerta Chalcides, lacerta anguina, anguis quadrupes, et anguis bipes. Speciei quoque de qua jam agitur, quæque non ita pridem physicis innotuit, eadem est obscuri discriminis ambiguitas. Generat eam regio Mexicana. Hanc primus descripsit Dominus Cepede. Summa ei generalis simili­tudo est cum lacerta Chalcide, nisi quod caudam habeat brevissimam, cum Chalcidis sit longissima; fulceturque corpus utrinque linea in longi­tudinem ducta quæ dividit abdomen a dorso; qua caret Chalcides, cujus squamæ non interruptæ et annulatæ per totum corporis truncum v continuantur. Color lacertæ lumbricoidis est ferrugineo-fusco-pallidissimus. Squamæ quasi oblongo-quadratæ. Caput laminis magnis squamosis veluti scutatum. Oculi minimi. Specimen quod descripsit Dominus Cepede, octo uncias superabat; nostrum, quod in Museo Britannico asservatur, vix quatuor.

r

the
LUMBRICIFORM LIZARD.

Generic Character.

Body (in most species) four-footed, tailed, naked.

Specific Character, &c.

TWO-FOOTED CYLINDRIC FERRUGINOUS LIZARD, pale beneath; tesselated with square streaks, and furnished with very short tetradactylous feet.

LA CANNELÉ.

Cepede Quadr. Ovip. 1. p. 613.

Between the genera of Anguis and Lacerta there is so close an alliance, that some species exist which at first view have a doubtful appearance, and might seem with equal propriety to be referred to either. Of this the Lacerta Chalcides, Lacerta anguina, Anguis bipes, and Anguis quadrupes, may be adduced as remarkable examples. The species now repre­sented is also of a similar cast, and bears the same ambiguous appearance. It is a native of Mexico, and has but lately been introduced to the knowledge of European Naturalists. It was first described v by the Count de Cepede. It bears a great general resem­blance to the Lacerta Chalcides, but differs in having a very short tail; whereas that of the Chalcides is extremely long. Each side of the body is also marked by a longi­tudinal sulcus or line of division separating the upper part or back from the under surface. In the Chalcides there is no such division, but the scales are continued in complete annular series round the trunk. The color of this curious animal is a very pale ferruginous brown. The scales are of a lengthened square form. The head is covered by large scaly plates. The eyes are extremely small. The specimen described by the Count de Cepede was upwards of eight inches in length; but the individual here repre­sented, and which is now in the British Museum, is scarcely more than half that length.

213

Peruvian Jay

Notes

R

CORVUS PERUVIANUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum convexum, cultratum.

Nares pennis setaceis recumbentibus obtectæ.

Lingua cartilaginea, bifida.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 155.

Character Specificus, &c.

CORVUS VIRIDIS, fronte cærulea, vertice albo, gula pectoreque superiore atris, abdomine rectricibusque lateralibus flavis.

CORVUS PERUVIANUS.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 161.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. 1. p. 373.

Magnitudine corvo cristato Linnæi fere æqualis inter aves pulcherrimas jure sibi locum vindicat Corvus Peru­vianus; qui maxima ex parte læte viret, fronte colloque postico cæruleis; longe tamen saturatiore colore frontis. Occiput albet. Gula pectusque superius holoserico-nigra. Abdomen totum cum tribus rectricibus exterioribus nitidissime flavum. Rostrum pedesque nigricant.

v

 

R2

the
PERUVIAN JAY.

Generic Character.

Bill convex, cultrated.

Nostrils covered by setaceous recumbent feathers.

Tongue cartilaginous, bifid.

Feet formed for walking.

Specific Character, &c.

GREEN JAY, with blue front, white crown; throat and upper part of the breast black; abdomen and lateral tail-feathers yellow.

The PERUVIAN JAY.

Lath. Syn. 1. p. 391.

Le GEAI du PEROU.

Buff. ois. 3. p. 116.

Pl. enl. 625.

The Peruvian Jay is one of the most beautiful of birds. Its size is nearly that of the corvus cristatus or blue jay of America. The general color of the bird is an elegant light green: the frontlet and v back part of the neck are blue; the former much deeper than the latter. The back part of the head is white; the throat and upper part of the breast deep velvet-black; the whole abdomen and the three exterior rectrices or tail-feathers on each side of a rich jonquil yellow; the beak and legs are blackish.

214

Fasciculated Ascidia

London, Published July 1st 1795 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

r

ASCIDIA FASCICULATA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus fixum, teretiusculum, vaginalis.

Apertura binæ, ad summitatem; altera humiliore.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1087.

Character Specificus, &c.

ASCIDIA? pyriformis subferruginea subpilosa, apertura tentaculis decem apice frondoso-fasciculatis.

Caret Systema Linneanum pereleganti hac animalis marini specie, quam generant maria Indica et Americana. Reti illaqueatum est specimen quod depinximus juxta litora parvulæ cujusdam insulæ non longe a Borneo distantis. Ostendit tabula secunda ascidiam fasciculatam aquam ab ore emittentem, contracto corpore; quod commune ei est cum reliquo genere, si turbetur aut irritetur. Paucis abhinc annis prodiit figura hujus animalis miro artificio exsculpta auspiciis Domini Martyn, qui præclaro suo opere, iconas concharum australium continente, merito inclaruit.

v

 

215

Fasciculated Ascidia

r

the
FASCICULATED ASCIDIA.

Generic Character.

Body fixed, more or less cylindric, vaginant.

Apertures two, commonly seated near the top: one lower than the other.

Specific Character, &c.

PYRIFORM SUBFERRUGINOUS and SUBPILOSE ASCIDIA? with the aperture surrounded by ten fasciculated tentacula.

The elegant marine animal represented in the annexed plates, seems to be one of those species which have not yet been introduced into the Systema Naturæ of Linnæus. It is a native of the Indian and American seas. The individual specimen now figured was drawn up by a net in fishing off the coasts of a small island at no great distance from Borneo. Like others of its genus, when disturbed, it contracts the body, as repre­sented on the last plate, and ejects the contained fluid from the superior orifice or mouth. It remains to be observed, that a highly-elegant v engraving of this animal was some years since executed under the care of Mr. Martyn, so well known for his exquisitely conducted work on the South-sea shells.

216

Grey Baboon

London, Published Augst 1st 1795 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

S

SIMIA HAMADRYAS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes Primores utrinque quatuor, approximati.

Laniarii solitarii longiores, hinc remoti.

Molares obtusi.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 34.

Character Specificus, &c.

SIMIA cinerea, capite humerisque comosis, natibus calvis, cauda elongata apice floccosa.

SIMIA caudata cinerea, auribus comosis, unguibus acutiusculis, natibus calvis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 36.

SIMIA cynocephalus ad utramque aurem magna coma.

Alp. Ægypt. p. 284.

Simiam ostendit tabula vultu supra modum ridiculo, ingenio feroci. Generant eum calidiores Africæ regiones, superantem interdum altitudine quinque pedes. Depingi curavimus ipsissimam vivi animalis similitudinem.

v

the
GREY BABOON.

Generic Character.

Front-Teeth in each jaw four, approximated.

Canine-Teeth solitary, long, distant.

Grinders obtuse.

Specific Character, &c.

GREY BABOON, with long flowing hair on the head and shoulders, and elongated tufted tail.

DOG-FACED BABOON.

Penn. Quadr. 1. p.  

In this remarkable animal, to the most highly grotesque appearance is superadded a great degree of ferocity. It is a native of the warmer parts of Africa, and attains the height of more than five feet. The present figure is a very exact portrait from the living animal.

217

Medicinal Leech

London, Published Augst 1st 1795 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

S2

HIRUDO MEDICINALIS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus oblongum, promovens se ore caudaque in orbiculum dilatandis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1079.

Character Specificus, &c.

HIRUDO olivario-nigricans, supra lineis sex flavo-ferrugineis, subtus nigro flavoque varia.

HIRUDO depressa nigricans, supra lineis flavis sex; intermediis nigro arcuatis, subtus cinerea nigro maculata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1079.

HIRUDO elongata nigricans: supra lineis versicoloribus, subtus maculis flavis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. 1. p. 3095.

HIRUDO SANGUISUGA.

Character Specificus, &c.

HIRUDO depressa fusca; margine laterali flavo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1079.

HIRUDO maxime vulgaris.

Raj. ins. 3.

v

Hirudinum duas præcipuas species generat Britannia, sanguisugam scilicet seu majorem, et medicinalem seu striatam. Licet interdum confundantur, facile tamen inter eas est discrimen, si notis specificis satis attendimus. Sanguisuga superficiem superiorem semper habet olivario-nigricantem, colore magis minusve saturato; inferiorem sordide ochraceam; quo etiam colore tinguntur latera, adeo ut margo utrinque angustissima efficiatur. Vulgatissima est hæc species in fossis aquisque stagnan­tibus per totam æstatem, crescitque sæpe in longi­tudinem sex vel septem unciarum. Striatæ autem, quæ rarissime ad hanc magni­tudinem pertingit, major est colorum elegantia. Supra nigrat levissime olivaria, lineisque seu fasciis sex longi­tudinalibus ochraceis et interdum ferrugineis notatur, quarum duas utrinque exteriores interrumpit series macularum oblongarum nigrarum, cum reliquæ duæ maculis plane careant. Infra nigerrima maculis magnis ochraceis inæqualibus duplici serie in longi­tudinem ductis distinguitur. Motibus corporis moribusque ambæ species conveniunt. Ambæ quoque viviparæ sunt, fœtusque autumno edunt. Dentes hirudinibus sunt tres leviter cartilagei, cumque siti sint ut inter mordendum invicem convergant, vulnus fere triangulum cuti imprimunt. Constat cauda ex musculo orbiculato seu sphinctere, cujus ope facillime et secure se affigunt corpori omni cui volunt adhærere.

Hirudines dissectæ tantum non renascuntur. Sanguisugam non semel mediam divisi, vidique partes exectas, etiam elapsis aliquot septimanis, adhuc vivas r valentesque, nullo alio adhibito nutrimento præter quod ab aqua absorpserant. Extremitates vulneratæ magis magisque rotundata indies videbantur, et ad redinte­grationem properantes; quam tamen nunquam attin­gebant, sed paulo post gradatim morientes contabuerunt. Minoribus autem speciebus eadem fere est renovationis facultas cum ipsis hydris, possuntque illæ facillime et certissime dividendo multiplicari.

v

 

218

Horse Leech

Notes

r

the
MEDICINAL LEECH.

Generic Character.

Body oblong, more or less depressed; moving by dilatation and contraction.

Specific Character, &c.

OLIVE-BLACK LEECH with six yellow-ferruginous lines on the upper surface; the lower variegated with black and yellow.

The MEDICINAL LEECH.

the
HORSE LEECH.

Specific Character, &c.

OLIVE-BROWN LEECH with an ochre-coloured marginal band.

The HORSE-LEECH.

v

The two principal species of this genus which our own country produces are the Hirudo sanguisuga or Horse-leech, and the Hirudo medicinalis or striped leech, which is used with so much success in the practice of physic. These two species are sometimes confounded with each other, but may be readily distinguished by proper attention to their respective characters. The Hirudo sanguisuga or Horse-leech is always of an olivaceous-black, more or less deep on its upper surface, and of a dull ochre-color beneath, and the edges or sides of the body are of the same ochre-color as the lower parts; giving the appearance of a very narrow margin on each side. This species is very common in stagnant waters, ponds, ditches, &c. during the whole warmer parts of the year, and frequently grows to the length of six or seven inches. The Hirudo medicinalis or officinal species scarce ever attains to so large a size, and in point of color is far more elegant than the former. It is of a deepish black above, with a slight tinge of olive, and is marked by six longi­tudinal ochre-colored and sometimes reddish bands or stripes: of which the two exterior ones on each side are interrupted by a chain of longish black spots, while the two middle ones are perfectly free from spots. The lower surface of the animal is deep-black, marked in a somewhat irregular manner with a double longi­tudinal series of large ochre-colored spots. In their general motions and dispositions both species agree. They are both viviparous, and produce their young in Autumn. The teeth of the leech are three in number, and of T a slightly cartilaginous substance; and, being situated so as to converge when the animal bites, leave a somewhat triangular mark on the skin. The tail of the leech is a curious sphincter, or circular muscle, by which the creature has the power of fastening itself with ease and security to any object by which it chuses to adhere.

Leeches have a very strong tendency to reproduction when cut: the Hirudo sanguisuga I have more than once divided towards the middle, and have found that the two parts continued perfectly vigorous for some weeks, though receiving no other nourishment than what they absorbed from the water. The wounded ends appeared more and more rounded, and daily tending to complete reproduction; which however they did not attain to, but after some farther time gradually grew weaker and died. The smaller species, however, of this genus almost equal the Polype in reproductive power, and may be multiplied by cutting with great ease and certainty.

v

 

r

INDEX.

Pl.
205. Aphrodita aculeata.
214.
215.
Ascidia fasciculata.
187. Acarus lepidopterorum.
195. Charadrius Himantopus.
193. Cypræa Pardalis.
206. Clio pyramidata.
209. Coluber Ahætulla.
210. Certhia crocata.
211. Conus marmoreus.
190. Corallina Tuna.
213. Corvus Peruvianus.
204. Falco furcatus.
217. Hirudo medicinalis.
218. Hirudo sanguisuga.
191. Lepas anatifera.
202.
203.
Lophius monopterygius.
212. Lacerta lumbricoides.
189. Motacilla Trochilus.
192. Motacilla Phœnicurus.
194. Madrepora ramea.
196. Medusa Campanella.
207. Motacilla alba.
184. Physeter macrocephalus.
186. Psittacus funereus.
197. Papilio Antenor.
201. Parus major.
208. Pediculus vulgaris.
183. Ramphastos erythrorhynchos.
198. Ramphastos Aracari.
200. Rana Australiaca.
216. Simia Hamadryas.
185. Scolopendra microscopica.
188. Serpula perforata.
199. Vorticella circularis.

INDEX.

Pl.
205. Aphrodita aculeated.
214.
215.
Ascidia fasciculated.
191. Barnacle duck.
197. Butterfly Antenor.
216. Baboon grey.
186. Cockatoo funereal.
190. Coralline Tuna.
193. Cowry Leopard.
206. Clio pyramidal.
210. Creeper saffron.
211. Cone marbled.
204. Falcon swallow-tailed.
200. Frog Australian.
213. Jay Peruvian.
202.
203.
Lophius single-finned.
212. Lizard lumbriciform.
208. Louse common.
217. Leech medicinal.
218. Leech horse.
194. Madrepore cinnamon.
187. Mite lepidopterine.
196. Medusa bell.
195. Plover long-legged.
192. Redstart.
185. Scolopendra microscopic.
188. Serpula perforated.
209. Snake gilded.
183. Toucan red-beaked.
198. Toucan red-banded.
201. Titmouse great.
199. Vorticella circular.
207. Wagtail white.
184. Whale spermaceti.
189. Wren willow.

Notes and Corrections: Volume 6

Volume 6 of the Naturalist’s Miscellany was published in twelve monthly installments, from August 1794 through February 1795, and (skipping March) from April through August 1795.

Installments vary between one signature of 16 pages, or two of 8 + 4 pages, except as noted.

B; C D; E; F G; H I (16+4); K (January 1795, 8 pages); L (8 pages); M (April 1795, 12 pages); O; P Q; R (8 pages); S T

To make up for the previous volume’s entire lack of mammals, this one contains two of them—in the first and last installments—although one of the two does substitute for a bird.

In the third installment, Plate 191 (barnacle) comes before Plate 190 (coralline). The installments for February and July 1795 each describe only two animals, because the second one (the non-bird) gets two plates.

Dedication (English)

NATURALIST’s MISCELLANY
text has NATURALISTS’s
[The small “s” isn’t a mistake; he does this pretty consistently.]

Ramphastos Erythrorhynchos, the Red-Beaked Toucan

is probably just another name for Ramphastos tucanus, the red-billed or white-throated toucan. It lives in the northern part of South America, where it is listed as “Vulnerable”.

Physeter Macrocephalus, the Spermaceti Whale

is otherwise known as the sperm whale. It has an amazingly wide distri­bution, across almost all oceans.

confidentur jurarent omnes
text unchanged: expected confidenter

under the article of Balæna Mysticetus
[Plate 133 of Volume 4, not only our previous whale but our previous mammal.]

Scolopendra Microscopica, the Microscopic Scolopendra

Search me; I don’t find so much as a “doubtful”. I’m pretty sure it isn’t a centipede, though.

tum aquatica tum omnino microscopica.
text has microscopia

equal in number on each side
text has nnmber

Psittacus Funereus, the Funereal Cockatoo

is now Calyptorhynchus funereus, the yellow-tailed black cockatoo, with naming credit to Shaw. It lives in Australia.

Acarus Lepidopterorum, the Lepidopterine Mite

is probably Cheletomorpha lepidopterorum, with naming credit to Shaw. It is most common in the Azores.

Serpula Perforata, the Perforated Serpula

Search me. The first official listing of this binomial is several years later, in 1798—and that one’s equally unidentified. Today, genus Serpula belongs to a phylum we haven’t yet seen much of, the annelids.

Motacilla Trochilus, the Yellow Wren

is now Phylloscopus trochilus, the willow warbler. It lives all over Europe and Africa.

Lepas Anatifera, the Duck Barnacle

Unchanged. It lives in all oceans. For the Goose Barnacle, see Plate 554 of Volume 14. And for more about the “Bernacle Duck” (or Goose), see Volume II of Bingley’s Animal Biography.

Cauda hujus animalis cum tubulo testæ conjungitur
text has congungitur

Corallina Tuna, the Tuna Coralline

is now Halimeda tuna. Like the previous volume’s Corallina officinalis, it is a plant. It lives in most tropical-to-temperate oceans.

Motacilla Phoenicurus, the Redstart

is now Phoenicurus phoenicurus. It lives in Europe, western Asia and northern Africa.

MOTACILLA, with black throat
text has thaoat

Cypræa Pardalis, the Leopard Cowry

is now Cypraea tigris pardalis, a subspecies of the tiger cowrie. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

the Venus Dione of Linnæus
[As seen at Plate 163 of Volume 5.]

Madrepora Ramea, the Cinnamon Madrepore

is now Dendrophyllia ramea, the orange tree coral. It is found in the East Indies but also in scattered other places.

Charadrius Himantopus, the Long-Legged Plover

is now Himantopus himantopus, the black-winged stilt. It is most common in the Old World, including Australia, but has also been seen in the Americas.

Thanks to the incorporated letter, this will be the only article in the Miscellany that runs longer than four pages in both Latin and English. No, I have no idea why the printer suddenly ran wild with the italics in the Latin section.

fere eadem tamen est verborum significatio
text has verborem

I mean the Charadrius Himantopus of Linnæus
text has Charadius

Medusa Campanella, the Bell Medusa

If he meant Medusa campanula, it is now Catablema vesicarium, the constricted jellyfish. (Apparently there was some doubt about Fabricius’s 1780 description, while Agassiz’s from 1862 is unambiguous.) It lives in the far north, including the Arctic coast of Russia. Slabbert’s Medusa cymbal­oidea (not -oides) is now Phialella quadrata, an entirely different animal. And Linnaeus’s Medusa hemisphærica is now Clytia hemisphaerica. The only thing they have in common is that all three are hydrozoans—the taxonomic equivalent of “They’re all birds”.

The larger Medusæ, when applied to the skin, are said to excite a slight degree of inflammation and redness
[Shaw’s interest in Australian fauna must not have extended to jellyfish, or he would not have used the adjective “slight”.]

Papilio Antenor, the Antenor (butterfly)

is now Pharmacophagus antenor. It lives in Madagascar.

Ramphastos Aracari, the Red-Banded Toucan

is now Pteroglossus aracari, the black-necked aracari. It lives in South America.

LE TOUCAN verd du Bresil.
spelling unchanged

Vorticella Circularis, the Circular Vorticella

If it is the same as Brachionus Patina—which is by no means certain—it is now Testudinella patina, the turtle rotifer. It is most common in Europe.

It is found in stagnant waters in the month of May.
text has month of may

Rana Australiaca, the Australian Frog

is now Heleioporus australiacus, with naming credit to Shaw & Nodder. It lives in southeastern Australia. Although it is not one of the world’s prettier frogs, it is nowhere near as hideous as its picture.

Parus Major, the Great Titmouse

is also known as the great tit. It lives all over Eurasia, but is most common in Europe.

Lophius Monopterygius, the Single-Finned Lophius

is now Hypnos monopterygius, the Australian numbfish, with naming credit to Shaw. It lives along the coast of Australia. The question marks and general hesitation are warranted, since the only thing genus Hypnos and genus Lophius have to do with each other is that both have a central nervous system (phylum Chordata).

[Plate 202, Plate 203]
[Both plates are oversized foldouts. Inconveniently, the fold line for Plate 202 cuts right through the small inset drawing (“A magnified tooth”).]

Character Genericus
[Heading added for consistency.]

Not Drawn by F. P. N.
[Since I don’t have the physical book in front of me, I am not absolutely certain this is an engraved caption and not a hand-written comment. It’s the same type of 1795-vintage copperplate script, though:]

handwriting

Falco Furcatus, the Swallow-Tailed Falcon

If he means Falco forficatus (not “forked” but “scissor-like”), it is now Elanoides forficatus, the American swallow-tailed kite. It lives in most of the Americas, except Canada and the western US.

Aphrodita Aculeata, the Aculeated Aphrodita

is otherwise known as the sea mouse—not a rodent but an annelid. It lives along the coast of northern Europe.

Clio Pyramidata, the Pyramidal Clio

is also known as the pyramid clio. It lives almost everywhere, but seems to be especially partial to Australia, Antarctica and North America.

[Plate 206]
[Not a technical error; the picture really is that tiny.]

Motacilla Alba, the White Wagtail

Unchanged. It is widely distributed, especially in Eurasia.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 960.
[For the next ten volumes or so, Shaw will become entirely arbitrary in the choice between “Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.” (Gmel. not italicized) and “Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel.” (Gmel. italicized). If there is any method to the madness, I have not figured it out.]

Pediculus Vulgaris, the Louse

is now Pediculus humanus, the human louse or body louse. P. vulgaris seems to be Shaw’s name; Linnaeus called it P. humanus from the beginning.

O3
[Did Shaw and Nodder change printers? This is the first time a third leaf has been labeled; it won’t happen again until the opening quires of Volumes 20 and 21.]

immunes serventur pueri
text has serventer

the flea, already described
[Plate 178 of Volume 5. It would never have occurred to me to describe fleas as “elegant” and “cleanly”.]

a real and genuine phthiriasis
[Look it up. I won’t stop you.]

Coluber Ahætulla, the Gilded Snake

is now Leptophis ahaetulla, the (giant) parrot snake or green tree snake. It lives in South and Central America. The “giant” in the English name is relative; it tops out at around 170 cm, or less than 6 ft.

nimium ne crede colori
[Oh, good one, George. The line is originally from Virgil (Aeneid XII.46):

O formose puer, nimium ne crede colori

where the sense is “Don’t depend too much on (your) beautiful appear­ance”. But Shaw is giving it a more literal meaning, “Don’t rely too much on color” (as a basis for classification).]

Certhia Crocata, the Saffron Creeper

Both in his General Zoology and in the present article’s prose, Shaw equates Certhia crocata with C. violacea. This suggests we are dealing with Anthobaphes violacea, the orange-breasted sunbird, which lives at the southern tip of Africa.

For the first time in the Miscellany, there is no catchword at the bottom of the first Latin page. Since it is present on the English side, it was probably an oversight.

it is not always that the most apposite and proper titles have been given
word “it” missing

Conus Marmoreus, the Marbled Cone

is also known as the marble cone. It is most common in the south Pacific, as far west as Australia.

known by the title of Cedo nulli
[Not a binomial; it means “I yield to none”. It will crop up again at Plate 495 of Volume 13.]

Lacerta Lumbricoides, the Lumbriciform Lizard

is now Bipes canaliculatus, the four-toed worm lizard. (There are also three-toed and five-toed species.) It lives in Central America. I don’t know why Shaw’s name didn’t stick; he seems to have been the first person to come up with a binomial.

[Signature] Q2
[Printed as shown; there was no Q. Although it is not unheard-of for an article in the Miscellany to cross signature boundaries—as with T at the end of this volume—here it makes more sense if “Q2” is taken as an error for Q (the first page of a four-page quire).]

Between the genera of Anguis and Lacerta there is so close an alliance
[Today snakes and lizards—including legless lizards—share order Squamata.]

Corvus Peruvianus, the Peruvian Jay

Search me. Later on Shaw decided it might be Picus instead, but that gets us no further.

Ascidia Fasciculata, the Fasciculated Ascidia

Again, search me. As the question marks suggest, it probably isn’t an Ascidia (today a genus of tunicates) at all.

[Plate 214, Plate 215]
[The two illustrations were made as a single foldout—215 on the left, 214 on the right. It isn’t clear why, since the two views could easily have been engraved and bound in as separate plates. Only 214 has the caption (“London, Published” and so on).]

Caret Systema Linneanum pereleganti hac animalis marini specie
text unchanged
[He probably meant to say “Linnæanum”, but I won’t argue.]

executed under the care of Mr. Martyn
[Some earlier reader has penciled-in an interlinear note, “Drawn by F. P. Nodder”:

handwriting

In later volumes, many of the illustrations will be both drawn and engraved by Frederick’s son, Richard P. Nodder, but it’s unusual at this point in the Miscellany to credit the artist.]

Simia Hamadryas, the Grey Baboon

is now Papio hamadryas, the hamadryas baboon. Like all baboons, it lives in Africa. This will be our last mammal until the middle of Volume 8, a year and a half in the future.

Penn. Quadr. 1. p.
[Page number missing. A footnote in William Bingley’s Animal Biography, discussing the same animal, says “i. 180.”]

Hirudo Medicinalis, the Medicinal Leech

is unchanged. It lives in northern Europe. Do not confuse Hirudo, the leech, with Hirundo, the swallow.

Here, again, the first and second pages—both Latin and English—have no catchword.

Hirudo Sanguisuga, the Horse Leech

is now Haemopis sanguisuga. It, too, lives in northern Europe.

supra lineis versicoloribus, subtus maculis flavis.
text has subtis

[Plate 217, Plate 218]
[Like Plates 214-215, these are combined as a single foldout: 217 on the left, 218 on the right. Only 217 has the caption.]

Index

214. 215.   Ascidia fasciculated.
214. missing

The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.