Naturalist’s Miscellany

The Naturalist’s Miscellany
by George Shaw
Volume 7

v

VIRO NOBILISSIMO

FREDERICO HOWARD,

COMITI de CARLISLE,

NOBILISSIMI ORDINIS PERISCELIDIS EQUITI,

&c. &c. &c.
cui
ARRIDET SUMMOPERE
QUICQUID EST
HUMANIORUM STUDIORUM,

SEPTIMUM HUNC

NATURÆ VIVARII

FASCICULUM,

D. D. D.

GEORGIUS SHAW,
FREDERICUS P. NODDER.

r

TO

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE

FREDERICK HOWARD,

EARL of CARLISLE,

KNIGHT OF THE MOST NOBLE ORDER OF THE GARTER,

&c. &c. &c.

THIS SEVENTH VOLUME

of the

NATURALIST’s MISCELLANY,

is

MOST RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED,

by
GEORGE SHAW,
FREDERICK P. NODDER.

v

 

219

Reed Bunting

London, Published Sepr 1st 1795 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

A

EMBERIZA SCHOENICLUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum conicum.

Mandibulæ basi deorsum a se invicem discedentes: inferiore lateribus inflexo-coarctata, superiore angustiore.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 308.

Character Specificus, &c.

EMBERIZA castaneo nigroque varia, capite nigro, collari albo.

EMBERIZA capite nigro, corpore griseo nigroque, rectricibus extimis macula alba cuneiformi.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 311.

PASSER TORQUATUS s. ARUNDINACEUS.

Raj. syn. p. 93. A. 3.

Juxta aquas, ut plurimum, versatur, et in arundinetis nidificat nido arundinibus affixo Emberiza Schoeniclus, in conspectum præcipue veniens æstivo tempore. Non raro etiam insidet sepibus, et more congenerum, seminibus vescitur.

v

the
REED BUNTING.

Generic Character.

Bill conical: Mandibles separating a little from the base downwards: the sides of each mandible bending rather inwards.

Specific Character, &c.

EMBERIZA variegated with chesnut and black; with black head and white collar.

GREATER REED SPARROW.

Raii Syn. p. 93. A. 3.

Will. orn. p. 2 69.

Br. Zool. 1. p. 277.

This bird, which is by no means uncommon during the summer months, is most frequently to be found near waters, and in the neighbourhood of reeds, amongst which it fastens its nest. It is also often seen in hedges, and feeds, like the rest of its congeners, principally on seeds.

220

Speckled Eel

London, Published Sepr 1st 1795 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

A2

MURÆNA MELEAGRIS.

Character Genericus.

Caput læve. Nares tubulosæ. Oculi cute communi tecti.

Corpus teretiusculum, lubricum.

Pinna caudæ coadunata dorsali analique.

Spiracula pone caput vel pinnas pectorales.

Character Specificus.

MURÆNA nigricans, maculis creberrimis albis irrorata.

Fusca est pene nigricans elegantissima hæc Muræna, maculis parvis albis rotundatisque creberrime guttata, quæ versus caput collumque non secernuntur æqualibus intervallis, sed confluunt magis quam in cæteris partibus. Longa conspicitur circa duos pedes, et in oceano australi innascitur.

v

the
SPECKLED EEL.

Generic Character.

Head smooth. Nostrils tubular.

Body serpentiform, smooth, mucous.

Dorsal, anal, and caudal fins united.

Specific Character.

BLACKISH EEL, very thickly speckled with white.

This most elegant species is of a deep brown or blackish color, and is very thickly beset on all parts with innumer­able small round spots of white; which towards the head and breast are somewhat less regular, or more confluent than on the other parts of the animal. It is found of the length of about two feet, and is a native of the southern ocean.

221

Radiated Doris

London, Published Sepr 1st 1795 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

r

DORIS RADIATA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus repens, oblongum, subtus planum.

Os antice subtus.

Anus postice, supra cinctus ciliis.

Tentacula duo, supra corpus antice, intra foramina retractilia.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1083.

Character Specificus, &c.

DORIS ex argenteo cærulea, subtus alba, papillis lateralibus fasciculato-radiatis.

DORIS RADIATA.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3105.

Ad quam familiam revera pertineat marinum hoc animal difficile est primo visu pro certo statuere; mira adeo ei et ambigua est facies. Generi tamen Doris conjunctius videtur quam alii alicui, in quo etiam ordinatur a Gmelinio, in auctiore sua editione Systematis Linnæani. Formæ singulari accedit color pulcherrimus, scilicet cæruleo-pallens argento quasi obductus, margine corporis et apicibus omnibus tentaculorum summopere cyaneis. Magna est v ei contractionis vis, unde fit ut ad libitum nunc magis, nunc minus, extensum videatur. Longitudo communis unciam paulo superat. Ostenditur animal in tabula paulo auctum microscopio, ut varias partes dilucidius appareant. Ut solent pleraque hujus generis, vel innatat summo mari, vel prope superficiem. Conspicitur præcipue in oceano Indiæ occidentalis.

r

the
RADIATED DORIS.

Generic Character.

Body repent, oblong, flat beneath.

Mouth placed below, towards the anterior end.

Vent behind, surrounded by a fringe.

Tentacula two, seated on the upper part of the body in front, retractile.

Specific Character, &c.

SILVER-BLUE DORIS, white beneath, with lateral extensile radiato-fasciculated papillæ.

DORIS RADIATA.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3105.

Phil. Trans. Vol. 53. p. 57. t. 3.

So very singular is the appearance of this curious marine animal, that at first view it is not easy to guess to what tribe of beings it should with the greatest propriety be referred. The genus, however, to which it seems most nearly allied, and in which it is placed in the enlarged edition of the Systema Naturæ, by Dr. Gmelin, is that of Doris. The v singularity of its form is equalled by the elegance of its color, which is a beautiful pale blue, with a gloss of silver, while the margin of the whole body, and the tips of all the processes with which it is beset are of the richest deep blue. It possesses a high degree of muscular power, and appears occasionally in various states of contraction and extension. Its general length is somewhat more than an inch, the figure being slightly magnified, in order to shew the several parts with a greater degree of distinctness. Like others of this genus it swims principally on or near the surface of the sea, and is chiefly found in the West-Indian ocean.

222

Fork-Tailed Humming-Bird

Notes

B

TROCHILUS FORFICATUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum subulato-filiforme, apice tubulato, capite longius: Mandibula superior vaginans inferiorem.

Lingua filiformis, filis duobus coalitis tubulosa.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 189.

Character Specificus, &c.

TROCHILUS curvirostris viridis, rectricibus lateralibus longissimis, pileo rectricibusque cæruleis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 190.

MELLISUGA JAMAICENSIS, cauda bifurca.

Briss. av. 3. p. 728. No. 18.

POLYTMUS MAJOR NIGRICANS, aureo varie splendens, pennis binis uropygii longissimis.

Brown. Jam. p. 475.

Formosissimæ hujus avis, orbem occiduum incolentis, in insula autem Jamaica præcipue repertæ, v gemmeos fulgidosque colores (quibus etiam superbit fere totum genus) non satis ad vivum exprimere potest ars pictoria. Caudam admodum forficatam gerit hæc species, rectri­cibus validioribus quam sunt aliorum trochilorum.

B2

the
FORK-TAILED HUMMING-BIRD.

Generic Character.

Bill slender, tubular, the upper mandible sheathing the lower.

Tongue very long, missile, formed of two conjoined cylindric tubes.

Toes three-forward, one backward.

Specific Character, &c.

GREEN HUMMING-BIRD, with shining-blue forked tail; the exterior feathers extremely long; the top of the head blue.

The LONG-TAILED GREEN HUMMING-BIRD.

Edw. pl. 33.

OISEAU-MOUCHE à longue queue, or, vert et bleu.

Buff. ois. 6. p. 38.

This beautiful native of the Western hemisphere is principally found in the island of Jamaica, and, v like most others of its genus, possesses a radiancy of color which is but ill expressed by the utmost efforts of art. It is princi­pally distinguished as a species by the remarkable fork-shaped appearance of the tail, the feathers of which are stronger than in the rest of the Humming-Birds.

223

Esculent Echinus

London, Published Octr 1st 1795 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

r

ECHINUS ESCULENTUS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus subrotundum, crusta ossea tectum, spinis mobilibus sæpius aculeatum.

Os quinquevalve subtus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1102.

Character Specificus, &c.

ECHINUS subglobosus, spinis brevibus violaceis.

ECHINUS hemisphærico-globosus ambulacris denis, areis obsolete verrucosis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1102.

ECHINUS subglobosus, vertice plano.

Lin. Faun. Suec. 1. 1289.

ECHINOMETRA.

Aldr. aq. p. 405. 409.

Diversa admodum specierum est tum forma tum magni­tudo quas complectitur echinorum marinorum numerosissimum genus. Reperiuntur aliquæ in litoribus nostratibus; plures autem exoticæ sunt. Illam repræsen­tavimus quæ specierum Britannicarum vulgatior est. Constat animal ipsum e molli v substantia, corpore in segmenta, eodem fere modo quo malum aurantiam, diviso. Os, superius situm, quinque continet dentes validos et acuminatos. Stomachi aliorumque viscerum fere circulatim dispositorum multa est longi­tudo. Fulcitur totum corpus ossium erectorum columnis in medio positis. Testam exteriorem contegunt innumeras spinas, mobiles, et acutas, quæ singulæ miro modo cum tuberculis superficiariis articulatim connexæ sunt, et epidermidi testam vestienti fortiter alligatæ. Harum ope ad libitum progreditur animal; tantaque illis insita est vitalitas, ut echino ipso divulso seu distecto, partes ipsius testæ non raro huc illuc diffractæ obambulent. Inter spinas, quarum series in longi­tudinem ducta varias testæ divisiones occupat, innumera sunt foramina, totidem tentaculis supra sitis respondentia, quorum ope affigit se animal rupibus, aliisque id generis, eodem fere modo quo hirudo cauda; possunt enim tentaculorum extremitates ad libitum vel contrahi vel dilatari.

Color speciei, quam depinximus, cum spinis obtegitur, plerumque est violaceo-lividus; interdum tamen dominatur magis color subvirescens. Testa ipsa spinis et epidermide denudata, pallido-rufescit; tuberculis quibus accreverunt spinas superficiem quali margaritiferam reddentibus. Speciem de qua loquimur in cibis lautioribus habuerunt Romani; illamque præcipue commemorat garrulus quidam Epicuri de grege porcus, quem lepide irridet Horatius.

r

Notandum est, licet inter echinum marinum, et echinum vulgarem terrestrem, seu Erinaceum Europæum Linnæi, nulla sit vera et genuina affinitas, similem tamen esse spinarum tum internam tum externam conforma­tionem, nisi quod erinacei velut corneæ, marini quasi calcariæ seu lapideæ sint spinæ.

v

 

r

the
ESCULENT ECHINUS.

Generic Character.

Body covered with a sutured crust, generally furnished with moveable spines.

Mouth quinquevalve, placed beneath.

Specific Character, &c.

SUBGLOBOSE ECHINUS, with short violet-coloured spines.

The COMMON ECHINUS, or SEA-URCHIN.

The Echini, or Sea-Urchins, as they are sometimes called, form an extremely numerous genus, of which the species differ greatly from each other in point of shape and general appearance. Several are natives of our own country, but by far the major part are exotic animals. Of the British species the most common is that repre­sented on the plate, which is very frequently found on many of our coasts. The animal is of a soft fabric, and the body is marked as it were into a certain number of parts or divisions, not ill resembling those of an orange: the mouth is situated at the lower or under part, v and is armed with five strong teeth, of a sharpened form: the stomach and intestines, which are of considerable length, are disposed in a somewhat circular direction, and the whole body is supported internally by a set of upright bones or columns. On the outside of the shell are seated a prodi­gious number of sharp, moveable spines, curiously articulated with the tubercles on the surface, and connected by strong ligaments to the skin or epidermis with which the shell is covered. These are the instruments of motion, by the assistance of which the animal conveys itself at pleasure to any particular spot; and so tenacious are they of the vital principle, that on opening the animal, it is no very uncommon circumstance to observe the several parts of the broken shell walk off in different directions. Between the spines, disposed in a continued longi­tudinal series on the several divisions or regions of the shell, are an infinite number of very small foramina, communicating with an equal number of tentacula, placed above them. These are the instruments by which the creature affixes itself to any object, and stops its motion. They are possessed of a very high degree of contractile power, and are furnished at the extremities with an expansile part, which may be supposed to operate as a sphincter, or as the tail of a leech, and to fasten the animal securely to rocks, or other substances to which it chooses to adhere.

The general color of the common echinus, when covered with its spines, is a dull violet; though r sometimes a greenish tinge predominates. The shell itself, when deprived of its spines, is of a pale reddish tinge, the tubercles on which the spines were mounted appearing like so many pearly protuberances on the surface. The species here repre­sented is esculent, and is considered as no unpleasant article of food. It was also a dish well known amongst the ancient Romans, and is comme­morated, amongst other delicacies, by the loquacious epicure described by Horace.

It is remarkable, that though there is not the least real affinity between the two animals, yet the spines of the Echinus are of the same general structure, both internally and externally, with those of the Hedge-Hog; except that those of the Echinus are of a calcareous or strong nature, while those of the Hedge-Hog are of a horny substance.

v

 

224

Cephean Medusa

Notes

r

MEDUSA CEPHEA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus gelatinosum, orbiculatum, depressum.

Os subtus, centrale.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1096.

Character Specificus, &c.

MEDUSA hemisphærico-depressa fusco-rufescens, subtus brachiis octo apice villosis, tentaculisque novem filiformibus longissimis.

MEDUSA hemisphærica tuberculata fusco-rufescens, margine crenato, brachiis subtus octo lanatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3158.

Forsk. Fn. Aegypt. Arab. p. 108. n. 22.

Medusa Cephea, quæ inter majores numeratur, pellucida admodum est, et gelata, palletque fusco-rufescens, in nonnullis partibus obscurior et fere subcærulea. Circa litora maris rubri, non infrequens reperitur.

v

the
CEPHEAN MEDUSA.

Generic Character.

Body gelatinous, orbicular, commonly depressed.

Mouth central, beneath.

Specific Character, &c.

HEMISPHERIC-DEPRESSED REDDISH-BROWN MEDUSA; furnished with eight arms, villous at their extremities, and with nine very long filiform tentacula.

This is one of the larger Medusæ: it is extremely pellucid, of a gelatinous consistence, and of a pale reddish-brown color, tinged in some parts with a darker hue, approaching nearly to blueish. It is not uncommon towards the coasts of the Red Sea.

225

Lesser Spotted Woodpecker

London, Published Novr 1st 1795 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

C

PICUS MINOR.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum polyedrum, rectum: apice cuneato.

Nares pennis setaceis recumbentibus obtectæ.

Lingua teres, lumbriciformis, longissima, mucronata, apice retrorsum aculeata setis.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 173.

Character Specificus, &c.

PICUS albo nigroque varius, vertice rubro, crisso testaceo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 176.

PICUS varius minor.

Briss. 4. p. 41. 15.

PICUS varius tertius.

Raii Syn. p. 43. 6.

Perpulchram pici speciem magnitudine naturali ostendit tabula, illorum quotquot in Britannia vel etiam in Europa generantur, minimam. Vel hac tamen minores sunt quædam species exoticæ. Rarius longe venit in conspectum hominum quam picus major mediusque Linnæi: ex avibus scilicet est quas pauciores alit Britannia. Coccineo rubore quo caput maris ornatur caret femina.

v

 

C2

the
LESSER SPOTTED WOODPECKER.

Generic Character.

Bill angular, strait, cuneated at the tip.

Nostrils covered with reflected setaceous feathers.

Tongue cylindric, worm-shaped, very long, sharp-pointed, and generally aculeated at the tip with reflex bristles.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

BLACK and WHITE WOODPECKER, with the top of the head crimson; the vent pale brown.

The LESSER SPOTTED WOODPECKER.

Will. orn. 138. pl. 31.

Le PETIT EPEICHE.

Buff. ois. 7. p. 62.

Pl. enl. 598.

The beautiful species of Woodpecker here figured in its natural size, is the smallest of the genus which our own country produces, or even the rest of v Europe. Some exotic species are, however, still smaller. It is numbered amongst the rarer English birds, and is not so often seen as the picus major and medius, or larger and middle spotted Woodpecker. The female wants the rich crimson which ornaments the head of the male.

227

Guana

London, Published Novr 1st 1795 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

r

LACERTA IGUANA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus tetrapodum, caudatum, nudum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 359.

Character Specificus, &c.

LACERTA cauda tereti longa, dorso serrato, crista gulæ denticulata.

LACERTA cauda tereti longa, sutura dorsali dentata, crista gulæ denticulata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 366.

LACERTA LEGUAN.

Bont. Jav. 56.

YUVANA.

Clus. Exot. 116.

LACERTUS SENEMBI & IGUANA.

Raj. Quadr. 265.

LEGUANA.

Seb. Mus. 1. t. 95, 96, 97, &c.

r

In genere Lacertæ plurima sunt exempla formæ miræ et peculiaris; qua sane præ cæteris eminere videtur species quam repræsentat tabula. Americæ est incola; in variis etiam Indiæ Occidentalis insulis frequentissime occurrit; Indiam quoque Orientalem inhabitat. In magnam sæpe crescit molem; nec raro invenitur pedes tres, quatuor, vel etiam quinque longa. Color ejus generalis est viridis, in diversis speciminibus magis minusve vividus, et in aliquibus corporis partibus fusco adumbratus; interdum etiam color fuscus dominatur. Dorsum illi valde serratum, cum sacco qui in gula est, quemque pro arbitrio potest inflare donec summopere extendatur, efficit ut animal mite et innocens dirum prorsus et terribile videatur. Loca saxosa et sylvosa incolit hæc lacerta, insecta et vegetabilia devorans. Caro ejus pro esca salubri et nutritia habetur, licet stomachis nonnullis male conveniat. Capitur commu­niter laqueo circa collum jacto, cujus ope a situ suo detrahitur; non enim cum primum aspicitur, in fugam se recipit, sed intentis oculis conspectores intuetur, saccum simul, quem sub gula habet, miro modo ad summum inflans. Non raro hæc animalia sale condita in doliis asservant insulæ Jamaicæ aliarumque insularum Occidentalium incolæ. Hæc lacertæ species a variis auctoribus descripta est, a quibusdam etiam depicta; nullibi tamen pulchrius quam in Sebæ thesauro rerum naturalium, qui omnes ejus characteres optime expressit.

r

the
GUANA.

Generic Character.

Body four-footed, tailed, naked.

Specific Character, &c.

LIZARD with long round tail, serrated back, and denticulated gular crest.

The IGUANA or GUANA.

The GREAT AMERICAN GUANA.

The Lizard tribe affords numerous examples of strange and peculiar form; and scarce any species is more eminent in this respect than the Guana. This animal is a native of America, and is found in many parts of the West-Indian islands in great plenty. It is also found in the East Indies. It grows to a very considerable size, and is often seen of the length of three, four, or even five feet. Its most general color is green, but with much variation in the tinge of different individuals; and it is shaded with brown in some parts of the body; and sometimes the brown is the predominating color. The back of the Guana is very strongly serrated; and this, together v with the gular pouch, which it has the power of extending or inflating to a great degree, gives a formidable appearance to an animal otherwise harmless. It inhabits rocky and woody places, and feeds on insects and vegetables. It is reckoned an extremely nourishing and delicate food, but is observed to disagree with some constitutions. The common manner of catching it is by casting a noose over its head, and thus drawing it from its situation; for it seldom makes an effort to escape, but stands looking intently at its discoverer, inflating its throat at the same time in an extraordinary manner. Guanas are sometimes salted and barrelled up for use in Jamaica and other West-Indian islands in considerable quantities. This species of Lacerta has been described and figured by several authors; but the most expressive figures are those given by Seba in his Thesaurus rerum naturalium.

226

Elephantine Dentalium

Notes

r

DENTALIUM ELEPHANTINUM.

Character Genericus.

Animal Terebella.

Testa univalvis, tubulosa, recta, monothalamia, utraque extremitate pervia.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1263.

Character Specificus, &c.

DENTALIUM testa decem-angulata subarcuata striata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1263.

DENTICULUS ELEPHANTIS.

Rumph. mus. t. 41. f. 1.

DENTALIS.

Argenv. conch. t. 3. f. H.

Licet aliæ sint læves, aliæ angulis striatæ, per diversas tamen Dentaliorum species pervasit generalis quædam similitudo. Speciem angulatam depinximus, quæ maxima est totius generis. Color communis viret. Maria Europæa et Indica inhabitat Dentalium elephantinum. Dat nomen generi forma non longe absimilis denti prominenti et elongato.

v

 

r

the
ELEPHANTINE DENTALIUM.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Terebella.

Shell univalve, tubular, with undivided cavity, pervious at each extremity.

Specific Character, &c.

SLIGHTLY CURVED GREENISH DENTALIUM with ten longi­tudinal ribs.

The GREAT RIBBED TOOTH-SHELL.

The LARGE GREEN DENTALIUM.

In the genus Dentalium, so named from its tooth-like form, there prevails a considerable degree of general similarity between the different species; of which, however, some are smooth, while others are marked by longi­tudinal angular processes. In this latter division ranks the species repre­sented on the plate, which is the largest of the genus. Its general color is a dull green. It is found both in the European and Indian seas.

v

 

228

Ground Parrot

London, Published Decr 1st 1795 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

D

PSITTACUS TERRESTRIS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum: mandibula superiore mobili; cera instructa.

Nares in rostri basi.

Lingua carnosa, obtusa, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 139.

Character Specificus, &c.

PSITTACUS MACROURUS VIRIDIS, nigro flavoque maculatus, capistro rubro, cauda flava fasciis numerosis nigris.

Ungues postici rectiusculi, elongati.

PSITTACUS TERRESTRIS.

Museum Leverianum, No. 5. t. 5.

PSITTACUS FORMOSUS.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 103.

Avem qua vix pulchriorem jactat genus psittacinum in tabula depinximus. Turturem æquat ipsa v avis. Terrestris dicitur quia rarius arboribus insidet, sed more ralli super terras in locis præcipue juncosis et cariceis cursitat. Australasiam incolit hæc species.

D2

the
GROUND PARROT.

Generic Character.

Bill hooked: upper mandible moveable.

Nostrils round, placed in the base of the bill.

Tongue fleshy, broad, blunt at the end.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

LONG-TAILED GREEN PARROT, spotted with black and yellow; the frontlet red; the tail yellow with numerous black bars.

The hind claws are long and straitish.

The GROUND PARROT.

Museum Leverianum, No. 5. pl. 5.

Zool. of New Holland, p. 9. pl. 3.

The bird represented on the present plate is one of the most beautiful of its tribe: its size is equal to that of a turtle: it is called the ground parrot, from its rarely perching on trees, but being generally seen on the ground, especially in sedgy and rushy places, running along in the manner of a rail. It is a native of Australasia.

v

 

229

Round-Headed Zygæna

Notes

r

SQUALUS TIBURO.

Character Genericus.

Spiracula quinque ad latera colli.

Corpus oblongum teretiusculum.

Os in anteriore capitis parte.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 397.

Character Specificus, &c.

SQUALUS capite latissimo cordato.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 399.

ZYGÆNÆ affinis capite triangulo.

Will. icht. 55.

TIBURONIS species minor.

Marcgr. bras. 181.

Squalo Zygænæ Linnæi affinis admodum Squalus Tiburo ab eo præcipue differt quod caput non utrinque in longi­tudinem productum sit, sed potius subtriangulum, fronte rotundata. Maria incolit Americæ Australis, rarior multo quam Zygæna, cujus eum meram esse varietatem nonnulli falso opinati sunt.

v

 

r

the
ROUND-HEADED ZYGÆNA.

Generic Character.

Spiracles five, on each side the neck.

Mouth situated beneath, in the fore part of the head.

Body oblong, somewhat cylindric.

Specific Character, &c.

SHARK with very broad subtriangular head, rounded in front.

The ROUND-HEADED ZYGÆNA.

PANTOUFLIER.

Brousson act. Paris. 1780. p. 662. n. 12.

The Squalus Tiburo, which is extremely nearly allied to the Squalus Zygæna or Hammer-Headed Shark, differs from that species principally in the form of its head, which, instead of being produced on each side into a long process, is rather of a subtriangular appearance, rounded off in front. It is a native of the South American seas, and is a much rarer species than the Squalus Zygæna, of which it has been sometimes considered as a variety.

v

 

230

Erycina Moth

London, Published Decr 1st 1795 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

r

PHALÆNA ERYCINA.

Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ (volatu nocturno.)

Character Specificus, &c.

PHALÆNA pectinicormis, alis subfalcato-rotundatis luteo ferrugineoque variis, macula fenestrata solitaria.

PHALÆNA HESPERUS?

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 809.

Si revera sit hæc eadem ac phalæna Hesperus Linnæi, (quod valde dubitem), miror sane sagacem illum et acutum physicum phalænæ Atlanti adeo affinem eam putasse, ut ab illa, quasi distincta species dissociari non posset. Atlanti similem esse eam certissimum est; illico tamen percutit oblectatque oculos longe major elegantia et pulchritudo. Ad omnem igitur, quantum potui, confusionem evitandam, phalænam hanc elegantem nomine penitus diverso distinxi, quod tum speciem a prædicta fatis sejungit, tum insolitam ipsius insecti venustatem quodammodo exprimit.

v

 

r

ERYCINA.

Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, gradually decreasing from the base to the tip.

Wings (when sitting) generally deflex: flight nocturnal.

Specific Character, &c.

PHALÆNA with feathered antennæ, wings rounded and very slightly inclining to the falcated form: varied with yellow and ferruginous, with a large ovate transparent spot on each.

La VITRÉE de CAYENNE.

D’Aubent. pl. enl. 66.

If this insect be really the Phalæna Hesperus of Linnæus, which I am greatly inclined to doubt, it seems surprizing that he should have conceived it so very nearly allied to the Phalæna Atlas, as scarce to admit of a specific separation. To the Phalæna Atlas it indeed bears a general resemblance, but is an insect of still greater elegance and beauty than v that magnificent species: in order, therefore, to prevent as much as possible, all confusion on the subject, I have affixed a new name, which will at once sufficiently distinguish it from the former, and at the same time will serve in some measure to express the superior elegance of the animal itself.

231

Rose-Coloured Ouzel

London, Published Janry 1st 1796 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

E

TURDUS ROSEUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum tereti-cultratum: mandibula superiore apice deflexo, emarginato.

Nares nudæ superne membranula semitectæ.

Faux ciliata.

Lingua lacero-emarginata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 291.

Character Specificus, &c.

TURDUS ROSEUS, capite alis caudaque nigris, occipite cristato.

TURDUS subincarnatus, capite alis caudaque nigris, occipite cristato.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 294.

MERULA ROSEA.

Aldr. orn. 2. p. 626.

Non modo in Italia et reliqua mitiori Europa, sed et in aliis mundi partibus innatus, raro admodum in Angliam defertur Turdus roseus. Æqualis fere sturno est magni­tudine, summa notabilis elegantia; capite nimirum, collo, cauda alisque nigrantibus, variata luce, splendide viridi-purpureis; reliqua avi v pulcherrime roseo-pallente. Insectis, ut plurimum, vescitur hæc avis: maxime autem sævit in varias gryllorum species; eamque quasi sacram habent nonnulli Orientis incolæ, Hierapolitæ præcipue, quod minuat quodammodo diram animalculorum formidolosorum segetem. Pulchrum turdi rosei specimen, in agro Oxoniensi anno proxime elapso scloppeto confectum, amicissime nobiscum communicavit Dominus Jenner, militum classicorum dux.

E2

the
ROSE-COLOURED OUZEL.

Generic Character.

Bill strait, obtusely carinated at top, bending a little at the point, and slightly notched near the end of the upper mandible.

Nostrils oval.

Tongue slightly jagged at the end.

Specific Character, &c.

ROSE-COLOURED, CRESTED THRUSH, with the head, neck, wings, and tail black.

The ROSE-COLOURED OUZEL.

Will. orn. p. 194.

Le MERLE COULEUR de ROSE.

Briss. 2. p. 250. n. 20.

Buff. ois. 3. p. 348. pl. 22.

The rose-coloured ouzel, a native of Italy and the warmer regions of Europe, as well as of many other parts of the globe, in England appears only as an occasional visitant: its size is nearly that of a starling: it is highly remarkable for the elegance of its v colors: the head, neck, wings, and tail being black, with varying glosses of green and purple, while the remainder of the bird is of a beautiful pale rose-color. It feeds, in general, on insects, and especially on the different kinds of locusts; for which reason it is considered as a kind of sacred bird in some of the Eastern countries, where it contributes greatly to the destruction of those noxious animals. This is said to be particularly the case in the neighbourhood of Aleppo. A beautiful specimen of this bird was shot in the course of the last year in Oxfordshire, of which an account was politely communicated by Captain Jenner, of the marines.

232

Great Salpa

Notes

r

SALPA MAXIMA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus liberum, gelatinosum, utroque apice apertum, intus vacuum: intestino obliquo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3129.

Character Specificus, &c.

SALPA utroque apice appendiculato.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3129.

Forsk. Fn. Aegypt. Arab. p. 12. n. 130.

A quo tempore publicata est systematis Linnæani duodecima editio, auctus est in tantum zoologiæ campus, ut in plerisque animalium divisionibus, in nullis vero magis quam in Molluscis nova genera instituere necesse esset. Inter hæc eminet genus Salpa, quod animalia continet forma, ut plurimum, subquadrata et elongata, quorum corpus tubulatum et gelatum, apice utroque aperto, viscerum ramosorum vestigia subobscura intus ostendit: quæ tamen in nonnullis speciebus evidentius cernuntur. Gregatim eunt Salpæ, celerrime natantes, possuntque extremitates utrasque ad libitum vel contrahere vel dilatare. Perlucidæ admodum sunt, et interdum v splendide varieque versicolores. Multas sæpe cernere est sibi invicem adhærentes, lateribus conjunctis.

Videtur summa esse affinitas Salparum generi cum Dagyzis, primo detectis a Josepho Banks, et Solandro, prope littora Hispanica. Possent fortasse hæc duo genera recte satis consociari. Salpæ fere omnes in mari Mediterraneo nascuntur.

r

the
GREAT SALPA.

Generic Character.

Body tubular, nayant, open at each extremity, furnished with an oblique intestine.

Specific Character.

SALPA with an appendicle at each extremity.

The field of zoology has been so much enlarged by the discoveries made since the twelfth edition of the Systema Naturæ of Linnæus, that it has been found necessary to institute a variety of new genera in most of the divisions of the animal kingdom. In the division Mollusca these new genera are particularly conspicuous, and form not the least curious additions to the history of Nature. The genus Salpa may be numbered amongst the most striking. The Salpæ, in general, are of an elongated and somewhat squarish form, and consist of an oblong, tubular body, open at each extremity, and marked in the interior structure with some obscure appearance of ramified viscera; which are much more apparent in some species than in others. They are of a gregarious nature, and swim with great facility: possessing v the power of contracting or opening at pleasure the cavity of their extremities; they are very transparent, and sometimes exhibit a rich appearance of varying colors. Several are frequently found adhering closely together in a lateral direction. It may not be improper to add that the animals of the genus Salpa seem extremely nearly allied to those of the genus Dagyza, first discovered by Sir Joseph Banks and Dr. Solander, near the coasts of Spain. Perhaps the two genera of Salpa and Dagyza might be incorporated without any violation of propriety: the Salpæ, in general, are natives of the Mediterranean sea.

233

Long-Breasted Mantis

Notes

r

MANTIS GONGYLODES.

Character Genericus.

Caput nutans, maxillosum, palpis instructum.

Antennæ (plerisque) setaceæ.

Alæ quatuor, membranaceæ, (plerisque) convolutæ; inferiores plicatæ.

Pedes antici compressi, subtus serrato-denticulati, armati ungue solitario et digito setaceo laterali articulato. Postici quatuor læves, gressorii.

Thorax linearis, elongatus, angustatus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 689.

Character Specificus, &c.

MANTIS thorace lineari utrinque dilatato, femoribus anticis spina terminatis, reliquis lobo.

MANTIS GONGYLODES.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 690.

GAAYRA.

Marcgr. bras. 246.

In generanda Manti gongylode pene putemus primo visu lusisse Naturam, membraque ei non ad auxilium sed ad impedimentum dedisse. At ulterius v quærentes benigne ei consultum fuisse fatebimur; tantum enim abest ut incommodo sit monstrosa hæc et inconveniens, quæ videtur, partium dispositio, ut exinde etiam magna utilitas exoriatur. Præda vivit more reliqui generis, cui facilius arripiendæ inservit brachiorum magna longi­tudo, latetque inter ramos ipsa Mantis securior visuque difficilior ob alarum colorem et quasi foliatam simili­tudinem, ne quid dicam de crurum et thoracis summa exilitate. Antennæ, quæ in plurimis speciminibus simplices omnino et more fili deductæ, in nonnullis pulchre pectinantur. Utrum differentia sit vere specifica, an sexualis tantum, (quod versimile videtur) difficile est pro certo statuere. Notandum porro est in Sebæ figuris non modo hujus speciei sed et Mantis strumariæ antennæ interdum pectinari. Si viva posset inspici Mantis gongy­lodes, color fortasse ei longe esset vividior: mortuæ idem plerumque est ac in tabula. Innascitur in variis partibus Asiæ et Africæ.

r

the
LONG-BREASTED MANTIS.

Generic Character.

Head unsteady; mouth armed with jaws, and furnished with palpi.

Antennæ setaceous, (some few species excepted.)

Wings four, membranaceous, in most species convoluted: the lower ones (generally) plicated.

Feet anterior compressed, serrated beneath, armed with a lateral solitary claw and jointed process; posterior four, smooth, formed for walking.

Thorax (in most species) elongated and narrowed.

Specific Character, &c.

MANTIS with linear thorax dilated on each side, the fore thighs terminated by a spine, the other lobated.

Roes. ins. 2. gryll. t. 7.

D’Aubent. pl. enl. 65. f. 2.

Drury ins. 1. pl. 56. f. 2.

The Mantis gongylodes is an insect of so singular an appearance, that it seems, at first view, as if v formed by a caprice of Nature, and appears to be incommoded by the strange and uncouth disproportion of its limbs, and the aukwardness of its form. All these seeming incongruities, however, are in reality calculated for the natural habits and modes of life to which the animal is destined; and, instead of proving a disadvantage to it, are, on the contrary, the powerful means of its support. Like the rest of its congeners, it is of a predacious nature; and the great length of its fore-legs enables it readily to seize and manage the smaller insects on which it feeds; while its color and the leaf-like appearance of its wings, with the extreme gracility of its thorax and legs, make it less easily distinguished amongst the vegetables on which it resides, and thus give it the advantage of obtaining its prey the more readily. The antennæ, which in most specimens are simple and filiform, are in others elegantly pectinated; whether this be really a specific difference, or merely a sexual one, it is not easy to determine. It is also to be observed, that in the figures of Seba, this species, as well as the Mantis strumaria, is sometimes repre­sented with pectinated antennæ. Tho’ the Mantis gongylodes is generally of the color repre­sented in the plate, yet when living it is probably of a much greener cast: it is a native of many parts of Asia and Africa.

234

Brasilian Tanager

London, Published Febry 1st 1796 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

F

TANAGRA BRASILIA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum conicum, acuminatum, emarginatum, basi subtrigonum, apice declive.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 314.

Character Specificus, &c.

TANAGRA COCCINEA, alis caudaque nigris.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 314.

MERULA BRASILICA.

Bell. av. 319.

TIJEPIRANGA.

Raj. Syn. p. 87. 13.

Will. orn. p. 184. 185.

CARDINALIS.

Briss. av. 3. p. 42. n. 24. t. 3. f. 1.

Pulcherrima hæc avis, cujus magnitudinem naturalem ostendit tabula, amat omnem Americam Australem, præcipue autem Brasiliam.

v

 

F2

the
BRASILIAN TANAGER.

Generic Character.

Bill conic, sharp-pointed, sloping at the tip and slightly emarginated; somewhat trigonal towards the base.

Specific Character, &c.

SCARLET TANAGER with black wings and tail.

Le CARDINAL.

Briss. orn. 3. p. 42. 24. pl. 3. f. 1.

BRASILIAN TANAGER.

Lath. Syn. 1. p. 215.

This highly elegant species is a native of South America, and is principally found in Brasil. The plate represents it in its natural size.

235

Yellow-Haired Terebella

London, Published Febry 1st 1796 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

v

TEREBELLA FLAVICOMA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus oblongum, repens, nudum, penicillis branchiisque lateralibus.

Tentacula capillaria, ciliata.

Character Specificus, &c.

TEREBELLA depressa, branchiis utrinque 37, cauda bifurca.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3114.

APHRODITA FLAVA.

Pall. Misc. Zool. p. 97. t. 8. f. 7.-11.

Animalium istorum marinorum, quæ Terebellæ vocantur, accedit prope forma generalis ad Nereidum et Aphroditarum similitudinem. In cavis rupium degunt nonnullæ species: aliæ tubos quosdam incolunt flexiles et quasi coriaceos, sua arte fabricatos. E maximis est generis Terebella flavicoma, et in oceano Indico innascitur. Veram magni­tudinem reprælentat tabula.

r

the
YELLOW-HAIRED TEREBELLA.

Generic Character.

Body oblong, repent, with lateral fascicles and branchiæ.

Tentacula capillary and ciliated.

Specific Character, &c.

DEPRESSED TEREBELLA, with about 37 branchiæ on each side, and forked tail.

The Terebellæ are marine animals, in their general appearance resembling those of the genus Nereis. They are also pretty nearly allied to the Aphroditæ. Some species inhabit the cavities of rocks, and others a kind of flexible or leather-like tubes of their own composition. The species here repre­sented in its natural size is one of the largest of the genus, and is a native of the Indian ocean.

236

Democratic Salpa

Notes

v

SALPA DEMOCRATICA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus liberum, gelatinosum, utroque apice aperto, intus vacuum; intestino obliquo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3129.

Character Specificus, &c.

SALPA fasciata, postice aculeata.

SALPA punctata, fasciata, aculeis pone octo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3129.

Forsk. Fn. Aegypt. Arab. p. 113. n. 32.

Natat, ut plurimum, hæc species nullo certo tramite, agmine quaquaversum confuso, sine ullo duce aut consilio; quam ob causam conjicio Dominum Forskal, qui forsan primus eam descripsit democraticam nominasse. Salpæ fere omnes in mari mediterraneo nascuntur, democratica autem præcipue in mari rubro.

r

the
DEMOCRATIC SALPA.

Generic Character.

Body tubular, nayant, gelatinous, open at each extremity, furnished with an oblique intestine.

Specific Character.

FASCIATED SALPA, aculeated behind.

The species of Salpa here represented is generally seen in large groupes or multitudes, swimming confusedly in all directions, without any leader, plan or order; for which reason Mr. Forskall, its first describer, seems to have applied to it the title by which it is at present distin­guished. Almost all the Salpæ are natives of the Mediter­ranean, but this is principally found in the red sea.

v

 

237

Tailor Warbler

London, Published March 1st 1796 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

G

MOTACILLA SUTORIA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum subulatum, rectum: mandibulis subæqualibus.

Nares ovatæ.

Lingua lacero-emarginata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 328.

Character Specificus, &c.

MOTACILLA tota flava minima.

MOTACILLA sutoria.

Zool. Ind. p. 17. t. 8.

SYLVIA sutoria.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 551.

MOTACILLA sutoria.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 997.

Avium in nidificando varium et admirandum ingenium suave est philosopho contemplari. Aliæ, Fringilla nempe coelebs, Fringilla Carduelis, et variæ Parorum species, non sine magno labore nidos construunt concinnos et elegantes: aliæ nullo fere v negotio receptaculum sibi rude et incompositum comparant: aliæ nidum fere nullum facientes satis putant si cavum aliquod in arbore nactæ super molli et putrido ligno ova deposuerint: sunt etiam quæ in gramine pariunt vel inter lapides. Hirundininum genus arte quadam cæmentitia cunabula e luto compacta affigunt muris caminisque; et parvula est species in Sina Indicisque insulis probe cognita, quæ cum ab aquis vicinis satis materiæ gelatæ collegerit, firme nidificat de indurato glutine. In Indiæ et Americæ regionibus calidioribus altius quiddam sapere videntur aves, quarum multæ, Orioli scilicet et aliæ, cubilia de arborum ramis suspendunt modo vasis chemici cui collum retortum et elongatum, ventre capaci. Generat etiam Europa Parum pendulinum et alias paucas quæ prolem educant in cunis pendentibus, quarum margines mira solertia arundinibus alligaverunt. At his omnibus longe antecellit illarum avium acumen, quæ ad recipiendos pullos folium vel folia consuunt fibris vegetabilibus. Hujusmodi insigne exemplum ostendit tabula belle adeo et affabre contextum, ut artis potius humanæ quam aviculæ αυτοδιδαδτου opus videatur. Finito sutorio opere, consternitur nidus plumis mollibus, et lanugine e variis plantis collecta. Longa est avis circiter tres uncias, pondere levissimo. Ova, nisi errent qui se ea vidisse profitentur, formicarum ovis (ut falso vulgoque vocantur, sunt enim revera chrysalides) vix majora. Motacillæ sutoriæ, quam fide pictorum novimus (licet enim nidus sæpe in musæis inveniatur, ipsam avem vix unquam vidit physicus aliquis Europæus) color flavo-pallet. Varias G2 Indiæ partes incolit. In nido construendo interdum margines adversos ejusdem folii consuit, interdum aridum viridi connectit, ut sit in nido quem cernere est in opere celeberrimi Pennanti cui titulus “Zoologia Indica.” Supra notavimus aves Indicas ingeniosius nidificare. Pauca & levia sunt pericula quæ aves Europeæ tempore incubationis subeunt: at Indicas, quarum in perniciem sub omni fere arbusto latet serpens, & inter arbores ludo procaci invigilat insidiosa simiarum curiositas, Naturæ visum est majore quodam & acutiore instinctu donare, ut astutia astutiæ par esset.

v

 

r

the
TAILOR WARBLER.

Generic Character.

Bill subulate; strait: mandibles nearly equal.

Nostrils nearly oval.

Tongue jagged or lacerated towards the tip.

Specific Character.

Very small MOTACILLA, entirely yellow.

The TAILOR BIRD.

Ind. Zool. p. 7. pl. 8.

The TAILOR WARBLER.

Lath. Syn. 2. p. 515.

The nidification of birds, or varied instinct exerted by those animals in providing proper and convenient receptacles for their future brood, is a subject highly worthy the attention of a philosophic mind. Some, as the Chaffinch, the Goldfinch, and the different species of Pari or Titmice, are remarkable for constructing nests of peculiar neatness and elegance; while others exert little diligence in this respect, and arrange their materials in a far more careless v manner; and some can scarce be said to form any regular nest, but content themselves with a convenient cavity in a tree, and deposit their eggs on the soft surface of the decayed wood. Others lay their eggs on the ground, amongst grass, or even amongst stones. Birds of the Swallow tribe practise a species of masonry, and attach their nests, formed of soft mud, to the sides of walls and chimnies; and a small species of this genus, not uncommon in China and the Indian islands, collects gelatinous materials from the surface of the neighbouring waters, and constructs with them a nest of a very durable nature, and consisting entirely of hardened gluten. In the hotter regions of India and America, where a higher species of instinct seems to prevail amongst birds, several species form nests which are so disposed as to hang from the branches of trees in the form of retorts or long-necked bottles, as the Orioli and some others. In Europe also the Parus Pendulinus and a few other birds attach their temporary habitations, at three or four places on the edge, to the adjoining reeds amongst which they build, and thus, with exquisite contrivance, form their “pendent bed and procreant cradle.” Lastly, some birds exert a still more curious species of instinctive ingenuity, and actually sew together, with vegetable fibres, the edges of one or more leaves, in order to form a convenient and unsuspected receptacle for their young. Of this very singular mode of nidification, the little bird, whose nest, with the young included, is repre­sented on the annexed plate, affords perhaps the most eminent example; and sew r with such dexterity the edges of the leaves selected for this purpose, that they seem rather to have been connected by human art, than that of an uninstructed animal. When the operation of sewing the leaves is finished, the cavity is lined with feathers, and down collected from various vegetables. The size of this bird is very small: its length scarce exceeding three inches, and its weight propor­tionally light. The eggs, if there be no mistake in the reports of those who have seen them, are said scarce to exceed the size of what are commonly, but erroneously, termed ant’s eggs, (which in reality are the cases including the aureliæ or pupæ of those insects.) The color of the bird is a pale yellow. It is, however, principally on the faith of drawings that we are enabled to describe the bird itself, which, though the nest is often seen in museums, does not yet appear to have been in the possession of any scientific European naturalist. It is an inhabitant of several parts of India. In forming its nest it sometimes makes use of a dead or withered leaf, which it connects to a living one; at other times uses but one leaf, sewing together the opposite edges. A nest of this bird has been figured in Mr. Pennant’s Indian Zoology, in which the former of these methods has been practised.

It has been already observed, that it is chiefly amongst the birds of India that these extraordinary instances of ingenuity occur. In Europe, the dangers to which these animals are liable during their state of incubation are comparatively few; while in India, where every thicket conceals the gliding v serpent, and tribes of restless animals of the monkey kind are perpetually wandering about the woods, such an increase of foresight in the feathered tribe is the more necessary, in order to guard them from the numerous dangers to which they would otherwise be exposed.

238

Rose-Coloured Flounder

Notes

r

PLEURONECTES ROSEUS.

Character Genericus.

Caput parvum: Oculi in eodem capitis latere.

Corpus compressum, altero latere subconvexo dorsum, altero plano pallidiore abdomen referente.

Character Specificus.

PLEURONECTES oculis dextris, corpore roseo.

Pinn: pect: rad: 12. ventr. 7. dors. 60. an. 42. caud. 20.

Continet genus Pleuronectes pisces qui vulgo compressi nominantur. Huic fere nullus est colorum pulchriorum decor. Sunt sane species aliquot exoticæ quæ variatum jactant splendorem. Europæarum vix ullam novimus præter Pleuronectem Platessam hoc nomine dignam memorari; si excipiamus speciem de qua jam agitur, non quidem rutilam, sed certe elegantem, suaviter nempe roseo-pallentem, partim subflavam, partim argenteo-albentem; inferius pallidiorem longe, seu fere albidam. Pinnæ caudaque pallent fusco-flavescentia. Squamæ nullæ sunt, sed squamis similia minuta quædam reticula. v Caret quoque fere omni asperitate tum linea lateralis, tum origo seu basis pinnæ dorsualis. Inter Pleuronectes reponendus est piscis, quorum oculi a dextro latere siti sunt. Pleuronecti Fleso Linnæi admodum affinis est, cujus forsan primo visu varietas haberi possit. Verisimilius tamen est speciem esse revera diversam, nec antea descriptam. In Museo Leveriano exstat specimen ipsissimum, quod in Thamesi captum est, triennio jam abhinc elapso.

r

the
ROSE-COLOURED FLOUNDER.

Generic Character.

Head small: Eyes both seated on the same side of the head.

Body compressed; somewhat convex and coloured on one side; flat and paler on the other.

Specific Character.

ROSE-COLOURED FLOUNDER, with eyes towards the right.

Obs. In the pectoral fins about 12 rays, in the ventral 7, in the dorsal 60, in the anal 42. In the tail about 20.

The genus Pleuronectes, which contains the fish commonly known by the title of flat-fish, is in general not remarkable for elegance of color: some few indeed of the exotic species are beautifully variegated; but of those which are natives of Europe the Pleuronectes Platessa or Plaise is perhaps the most decorated. The fish here repre­sented, (if indeed it be really a distinct species, and not a variety of some other,) seems to afford an exception to this rule, and v is of a color which, if not radiant, must at least be considered as highly elegant; viz. a most delicate rose-color, which in some parts is slightly tinged with yellowish, and in others with silvery white. The lower surface of the fish is still paler, or very nearly white, and the fins and tail are of a pale yellow brown. It is destitute of scales, though marked by very minute scale-like points or reticulations. It is also nearly void of all asperity, either on the side-line, or at the origin of the back-fin, &c. It seems most allied to the Pleuronectes Flesus, of which it might perhaps on a cursory view be supposed a variety. There is, however, great reason to believe it a totally new and hitherto undescribed species. It was taken in the Thames about three years ago, and is now in the Leverian Museum.

239

Pedunculated Ascidia

Notes

r

ASCIDIA PEDUNCULATA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus fixum, teretiusculum, vaginans.

Aperturæ binæ ut plurimum ad summitatem.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3127.

Character Specificus, &c.

ASCIDIA stipite longissimo, capitulo ovato, apertura utraque terminali.

ASCIDIA stipite sensim attenuato, capitulo fusiformi, apertura utraque terminali.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3127.

VORTICELLA OVIFERA.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Edit. 12. p. 1319.

Ascidiam clavatam, qua rariorem nullam continet genus, in hoc opere antea descripsimus. Species de qua jam agitur, licet illi valde sit affinis, non modo corpus habet multo rotundius, sed et foramina ambo terminalia, seu non in lateribus sita. Corpus subrubrum et læve. Stipes fusco-rubet, scaber, setulis parvulis seu spiculis obsitus. Maria incolit Septentrionalia Ascidia pedun­culata, rupibus, lapidibus, conchisque majoribus plerumque affixa.

v

 

r

PEDUNCULATED ASCIDIA.

Generic Character.

Body fixed, approaching more or less to a cylindric shape; in some species sessile; in others supported on a pedicle.

Apertures in most species two: situated towards the upper part.

Specific Character.

LONG-STALKED ASCIDIA with oval body and two terminal apertures.

The Ascidia clavata, one of the rarest and most curious animals of its genus, has already been described in the present work. The species now repre­sented is much allied to it in general appearance, but differs in the shape of the body, which is much rounder, and in the situation of the apertures, which are terminal instead of lateral, as in the former animal. The body is of a reddish color, and smooth: the stem of a darker red, and rough, or beset with minute bristles or spicula. It is a native of the Northern seas, and is generally found affixed either to stones, rocks, or large shells.

v

 

240

Grenadier Grosbeak

London, Published April 1st 1796 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

H

LOXIA ORIX.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum conico-gibbum, frontis basi rotundatum versus caput: Mandibula inferior margine laterali inflexa.

Nares in basi rostri minutæ rotundæ.

Lingua integra.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 843.

Character Specificus, &c.

LOXIA GRISEA, rostro, fronte abdomineque nigris, collo uropygioque fulvis.

Lin. Mant. 1771. p. 527.

EMBERIZA ORIX.

Lin. Syst. 1. p. 309.

CARDINALIS capitis Bonæ Spei.

Briss. 3. p. 114.

LOXIA ORIX.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 863.

In bonæ spei promontorio generata hac avis, sedem sibi præcipue quærit in locis aquosis, nidum ponens inter arundines. Ostendit tabula veram avis magni­tudinem.

v

 

H2

the
GRENADIER GROSBEAK.

Generic Character.

Bill strong, and convex above and below, very thick at the base.

Nostrils small and round.

Tongue as if cut off at the end.

Pennant.

Specific Character, &c.

BROWN GROSBEAK, with the face and under part of the body black; the neck, back, and rump orange-scarlet.

GRENADIER GROSBEAK.

Lath. Syn. 2. p. 120.

Le CARDINAL du Cap de Bonne Esperance.

Briss. orn. 3. p. 114.

Buff. ois. 3. p. 496.

This bird is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, where it frequents watery places; building its nest among reeds: it is figured in its natural size.

v

 

241

Broad-Jointed Tape-Worm

Notes

r

TÆNIA VULGARIS.

Character Genericus.

Corpus depressum, articulatum.

Caput osculis suctoriis quatuor, duplicique serie uncinorum exsertilium et retractilium.

Character Specificus, &c.

TÆNIA longissima, articulis latis brevibus.

TÆNIA VULGARIS.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1323.

TÆNIA orificio ovorum duplici: altero in tergo ovarii punctiformi, altero ante illud posito papilliformi expressili.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3065.

Habitu et conformatione totius corporis, et vivendi modo, nescio annon mirabilior sit immensa illa cohors nomine vermium physicis cognita, quam ipsa etiam majora animalia. Auxit in tantum hanc zoologiæ partem indomita hodiernorum philosophorum diligentia, ut major longe sit vermium numerus v quam antea potuit cogitari. Tædio tamen esset plerisque lectoribus eos qui viscerales vulgo vocantur minutius enumerare: sunt enim nonnulla in naturæ investigatione quæ scire forsan infelicius sit quam nescire: nec sine perturbatione animi contemplari possumus fœdam istam et odiosam animal­culorum turbam, quæ, quantum adhuc compertum est, ad hoc ipsum nata videntur ut per aliorum animalium viscera pererrent, ibique sedem habeant quasi propriam et sibi destinatam; nusquam enim alibi conspiciuntur; immo nec carere iis animalia recens nata pro certo cognitum est: quod jam olim nec Hippocratem latuit. Sed de his satis. De tænia jam speciatim tractabimus quam ostendit tabula.

Tæniarum, quæ corpus humanum infestare solent, præcipuæ sunt tænia vulgaris, et tænia Solium Linnæi; quarum interdum pene incredibilis longi­tudo dirissima intulit symptomata. Harum priorem depinximus. Diffi­cillimum est specimen perfectum et integrum nancisci, cum diffracta plerumque sit vel ima vel superior pars; eo sæpius quod magna sit iis repullulandi vis, et insitum sit in singulo corporis segmento vitæ principium, adeo ut sponte se contrahat seu extendat unum aliquod a cæteris avulsum, quasi nullam omnino senserit injuriam.

Figuræ superiores capita tæniarum demonstrant micro­scopio aucta, eo magis notatu digna quod Linnæum plene refellant, qui in systematis naturæ editione duodecima asserit nullum esse iis caput revera r diversum a corpore, et errasse vult Tysonum aliosque, qui caput notarunt depinxeruntque.

Addendum porro est tænias esse oviparas, et e foraminibus quæ sunt in lateribus corporis ova numerosissima excludere.

v

 

r

the
BROAD-JOINTED TAPE-WORM.

Generic Character.

Body depressed, jointed.

Head furnished with four orifices for suction, and (generally) with a double series of retractile hooks or holders.

Specific Character, &c.

Very long TÆNIA, with broad, short joints.

The broad TÆNIA.

The short-jointed TAPE-WORM.

The numerous tribes of beings distinguished in modern natural history by the title of Vermes, exhibit perhaps more curious and striking particularities in their confor­mation, habits, and general appearance, than even the superior orders of the animal kingdom.

The additions to this branch of zoology by the perse­vering researches of modern Naturalists, are in the highest degree curious, and prove the number v of these wonderful animals to be far greater than before imagined.

To the generality of readers, however, a too particular enumeration of the visceral vermes, though abounding in curiosity, might be unpleasing; and it is perhaps one of the few cases in which an ignorance of natural history contributes, in some degree, to our happiness; since it must be allowed that a full survey of the modern discoveries on this subject excites ideas unfavourable to our own repose; nor is it possible to survey, without a mixture of horror and astonishment, the numerous list of those disgusting inmates, which, for reasons uninves­tigable by human wisdom, are permitted to take up their abode in the internal parts of different animals; and which seem, so far as the utmost research of Naturalists has been capable of discovering, to be intended for the real and proper inhabitants of those situations, being undisco­verable in any other place. As a convincing proof of this, it is certain, that in animals recently born, their existence has been ascertained; an observation which did not escape the attention of Hippocrates.

But to return to the immediate subject of the present paper; of the Tæniæ which infest the human species the most remarkable are the Tænia vulgaris, and the Tænia Solium of Linnæus; each of which has sometimes been found of an incredible length, and productive of the most distressing symptoms. r It is the former of these which is represented on the present plate. It is not often that a complete specimen can be seen, as it generally happens that either the upper or lower part is broken off; a circumstance which is extremely common in these animals, which possess a high degree of reproductive power, and may be considered as possessing the vital principle in every joint or segment, which, when separated from the rest, continues to move in various directions, as if uninjured by its disassociation from the general chain.

The upper figures represent the heads of Tæniæ, as they appear when magnified, and which are the more worthy of observation, as they so completely demonstrate the absurdity of the doctrine delivered by Linnæus in the twelfth edition of the Systema Naturæ; viz. that these animals are destitute of a distinct head, and that Tyson and others, who had described them with one were entirely mistaken.

It should be added, that the Tæniæ are oviparous animals, and discharge their numerous eggs from the lateral foramina of their bodies.

v

 

242

Common Coryphæna

Notes

r

CORYPHÆNA HIPPURUS.

Character Genericus.

Caput maxime truncato-declive.

Membrana branchiostega radiis quinque.

Pinna dorsalis longitudine dorsi.

Lin.

Character Specificus, &c.

CORYPHÆNA THALASSINA, aurantio-guttata, dorso cæruleo, cauda bifida.

CORYPHÆNA cauda bifida, radiis dorsalibus sexaginta.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 446.

CORYPHÆNA pinna ani radiis viginti quinque.

Bloch. ausl. Fisch. 2. p. 143. t. 174.

Generi Coryphænæ, ut plurimum, obtigit insolitus colorum splendor; cujus variæ species vel ipsis pulcher­rimis Labris Zeisque non cedunt, immo etiam nec auratis fulgentis­simisque Cyprinis. Species, quam jam memora­vimus, in mari Mediterraneo non raro invenitur; illamque interdum gravi v errore Delphinis nomine vocaverunt nonnulli. In longi­tudinem quatuor vel etiam quinque pedum crescit. Pernicissimus est piscis et prædando vitam sustinet.

r

the
COMMON CORYPHÆNA.

Generic Character.

Head sloping suddenly downwards.

Gill-covers five-rayed.

Dorsal Fin the length of the back.

Specific Character, &c.

SEA-GREEN CORYPHÆNA, spotted with orange, with blue back and forked tail.

The COMMON CORYPHÆNA.

The SEA-GREEN SPOTTED CORYPHENE, popularly called the Dolphin.

The genus Coryphæna is distinguished in general by a more than usual gaiety of color; many of the species being equal in brilliancy to the richest of the Labri and Zei, or even to the golden splendor of some of the Cyprini. The particular species here repre­sented is not unfrequently found in the Mediterranean, and has sometimes been most erroneously called by the title of Dolphin. It grows to the length of four, or even five feet. It is extremely swift and vigorous, and of a predacious nature.

v

 

243

Lesser Banana-Bird

London, Published May 1st 1796 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

I

ORIOLUS XANTHORNUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum conicum, convexum, acutissimum, rectum: mandibula superiore paulo longiore, obsolete emarginata.

Lingua bifida, acuta.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 160.

Character Specificus, &c.

ORIOLUS LUTEUS, gula, remigibus rectricibusque nigris.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 391.

XANTHORNUS MEXICANUS.

Briss. av. 2. p. 118. t. 11. f. 2.

AVIS AYOQUANTOTOTL.

Hern. mex. 54.

Seb. Mus. 2. p. 102. t. 96. f. 4.

Oriolus Xanthornus in insula Jamaica præcipue invenitur: tabula avis magni­tudinem naturalem exprimit.

v

the
LESSER BANANA-BIRD.

Generic Character.

Bill conic, convex, very sharp-pointed, strait: the upper mandible rather longer than the lower, and slightly emarginated.

Tongue bifid, sharp-pointed.

Feet formed for walking.

Specific Character, &c.

GOLD-YELLOW ORIOLE, with black throat, quills, and tail.

The LESSER BONANA-BIRD.

Lath. Syn. 1. p. 438.

LE CAROUGE.

Briss. orn. 2. p. 118. pl. 11. f. 2.

Buf. ois. 3. p. 247.

Pl. enl. 535. f. 1.

The Oriolus Xanthornus or lesser Banana-Bird is chiefly found in the Island of Jamaica: it is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.

244

Episcopal Volute and Papal Volute

Notes

I2

VOLUTA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa unilocularis, spiralis.

Apertura ecaudata subeffusa.

Columella plicata: Labio Umbilicove (ut plurimum) nullo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3459,

VOLUTA EPISCOPALIS.

Character Specificus, &c.

VOLUTA testa lævi, anfractuum margine integro, columella quadriplicata.

VOLUTA EPISCOPALIS.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3459.

VOLUTA MITRA episcopalis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1194.

MITRA EPISCOPI.

Rumph. mus. t. 29. f. K.

Seb. mus. 3. t. 51. f. 8.-16.

v

VOLUTA PAPALIS.

Character Specificus, &c.

VOLUTA testa transversim striata, anfractuum margine labroque denticulatis, columella quadriplicata.

VOLUTA PAPALIS.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3459.

VOLUTA MITRA papalis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1195.

MITRA PAPALIS.

Seb. mus. t. 51. f. 1.-5.

Rumf. t. 29. f. 1.

Adeo inter se affines sunt conchæ in tabula depictæ, ut Linnæus in editione duodecima Systematis Naturæ dubitasse omnino videtur, sintne species revera diversæ; cum ambas eodem nomine communi designaverit, nempe Volutæ Mitræ. Speciem lævem, mitram scilicet episcopalem decorant plerumque maculæ pulchre rubentes, sed pallidulæ, forma fere quadrata. Mitra papalis e contrario maculis aspergitur, quarum forma inæqualior, colorque multo saturatior, et rubro-ferrugineus. Inveniuntur r ambæ in mari Indico, et recentes cooperiuntur epidermide, seu pellicula tenui fusco-flavescente. Quod incolit eas animal venenatum esse dicitur, et mucrone quodam seu proboscide acuminata tangentes vulnerare.

v

the
MITRE VOLUTES.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax or Slug.

Shell unilocular, spiral.

Pillar or Column twilled or plaited.

the
EPISCOPAL VOLUTE.

Specific Character, &c.

Smooth white Volute with squarish red spots; the edges of the spires entire; the pillar with four wreaths.

The SMOOTH MITRE-SHELL.

La MITRE.

Argenv. conch. pl. 9. f. C.

La MITRE EPISCOPALE.

Knorr. 1. pl. 6. f. 2.

r

the
PAPAL VOLUTE.

Specific Character, &c.

Transversely striated white Volute with irregular dark-red spots; the edges of the spires toothed; the pillar with four wreaths.

The ROUGH or TOOTHED MITRE-SHELL.

The PAPAL MITRE.

La TIARE.

Argenv. pl. 9. f. E.

La COURONNE PAPALE.

Knorr. 1. pl. f. 1.

The two shells at present figured, are so very nearly allied, that Linnæus, in the twelfth edition of the Systema Naturæ, seems to have considered them as scarce speci­fically distinct; and has therefore included them both under the common title of Voluta Mitra. In the smooth sort, or M. episcopalis, the spots are commonly of a bright, though somewhat pale red, and of a shape much inclining to v square: on the contrary, in the M. papalis they are of a very deep or brownish red, as well as much more irregular in their form. Both are natives of the Indian ocean, and, when recent, are covered with a thin, yellowish-brown epidermis or cuticle. The inhabiting animal is said to be of a poisonous nature, and to wound those who touch it with a kind of pointed trunk.

245

Harlequin Lophius

Notes

K

LOPHIUS HISTRIO.

Character Genericus.

Caput (corpusque plerisque) depressum.

Dentes plurimi, acuti.

Oculi verticales.

Corpus squamis nudum, informe.

Character Specificus, &c.

LOPHIUS subflavescens, corpore compresso tumido, maculis irregularibus nigricantibus variato.

LOPHIUS HISTRIO.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 403.

Bloch. ichth. t. 111.

Ob formam quam sortitus est singularem et inusitatam, putemus potius hunc piscem monstrum quoddam seu pictoris lusum quam ipsius naturæ artificium. Maris Americani Australis incola est et prope oras Brasilienses plerumque conspicitur. Peculiare quiddam et insolitum est in tuberibus illis elongatis quæ ex capite excrescunt, nec satis adhuc patet cuinam usui inserviant. Pinnæ anteriores, pedibus v simillimæ, inutiles feruntur ad progrediendum. Ni fallor tamen, auctor cujusdam operis icthyologici, (Dominus Renard?) se vidisse Lophium asserit, qui ex aqua captus per tres dies servaretur, circa domum more canis ambulantem. Raro pede longior est, et longe minora sunt specimina, quotquot vidi, in Europam advecta. Color fusco-flavescens, subtus pallidior, totumque corpus maculis plurimis fusco-nigricantibus indiscriminatim notatum. Prædando vitam sustentat Lophius Histrio.

r

the
HARLEQUIN LOPHIUS.

Generic Character.

Head (and body in most species) depressed.

Eyes vertical.

Teeth numerous, minute, sharp.

Body destitute of scales.

Shape uncouth.

Specific Character, &c.

YELLOWISH LOPHIUS, with compressed tumid body, variegated with irregular blackish spots.

The SPOTTED FROG-FISH.

The HARLEQUIN FROG-FISH.

The shape of this animal is so highly singular as to resemble at first view some fanciful production of the pencil rather than any real existence. It is a native of the South-American ocean, and is chiefly found near the coasts of Brasil. The lengthened processes on the head are of a very peculiar and unusual structure, and their use is not perfectly clear. v The anterior fins bear a strong general resemblance to a pair of feet: yet it is said the animal has not the power of using them as such. If, however, I am not mistaken, a certain author, (Mons. Renard?) in his History of Fish, declares that he saw an instance of a fish of this species being kept for three days out of the water, and walking about the house in the manner of a dog. Its size is not large, very rarely exceeding the length of a foot; and the specimens seen in our museums are in general far smaller. The color is a yellowish brown, paler beneath, and the whole body is covered with numerous irregular blackish-brown marks or spots. It is a fish of a predacious nature.

246

Barbary Shrike

London, Published June 1st 1796 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

L

LANIUS BARBARUS.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum rectiusculum, dente utrinque versus apicem, basi nudum.

Lingua lacera.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 134.

Character Specificus, &c.

LANIUS NIGER, subtus ruber, vertice femoribusque fulvis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 137.

Briss. av. 2. p. 185. t. 17. f. 2.

In Africa superiori nascitur Lanius Barbarus, in Senegala præcipue conspectus. Tabula illum magni­tudine deminutum et fere dimidiatum monstrat. Coloribus interdum variat; vertice nempe ferrugineo potius quam luteo, corporeque subtus minus vivide rubro.

v

the
BARBARY SHRIKE.

Generic Character.

Bill straitish, with a tooth or small process on each side near the tip.

Tongue jagged.

Specific Character, &c.

BLACK SHRIKE, red beneath, with the top of the head deep yellow.

Le GONOLEK.

Buf. ois. 1. p. 314.

PIE-GRIÈCHE du SENEGAL.

Pl. enl. 56.

The Barbary Shrike is a native of the superior parts of Africa, and is principally found in Senegal. The plate represents it diminished to near half the natural size. In color it sometimes varies; the top of the head being rather ferruginous than yellow, and the red on the under parts of a less vivid appearance.

247

Skiff Medusa

Notes

L2

MEDUSA NAVICULA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus gelatinosum, orbiculatum, depressum.

Os subtus, centrale.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1096.

Character Specificus, &c.

MEDUSA ovalis cærulea, oblique cristata, crista bipartita, subtus tentaculis numerosissimis.

HOLOTHURIA spirans.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3143.

Forsk. Fn. Æg. Arab. p. 104. n. 15.

Pulcherrimum animal in tabula depictum in mari Mediterraneo frequentissime conspicitur, super aquas, more Medusæ Velellæ, cui admodum affine est, velificans. Veram ejus magni­tudinem cernere est in tabula.

v

the
SKIFF MEDUSA.

Generic Character.

Body gelatinous, orbicular, commonly depressed.

Mouth central, beneath.

Specific Character.

OVAL BLUE MEDUSA, with oblique, divided crest, and very numerous tentacula beneath.

The beautiful animal here figured is very frequently observed in the Mediterranean sea, sailing on the surface of the water in the manner of the Medusa Velella, to which it is extremely nearly allied: it is repre­sented in its natural size.

248

Agate Bulla

Notes

r

BULLA ACHATINA.

Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, convoluta, inermis.

Apertura subcoarctata, oblonga, longi­tudinalis, basi integerrima.

Columella obliqua, lævis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1181.

Character Specificus, &c.

BULLA testa ovata, apertura obovata apiceque sanguineis, columella truncata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1186.

BULLA GALLICA.

Seb. Mus. 3. t. 71. 1. 2. 3. & 7. 8.

BUCCINUM cauda brevi, ore expanso.

Argenv. t. 10. f. E.

Perpulchram hanc concham parit America, et Americæ adjacentes insulæ. Variat colore, qui interdum fuscus, undis obscurioribus, interdum multo splendore insignis quem cernere est in tabula. Species v hæc terrestris? est et tenuis. Distinguitur varietas depicta apertura læte purpurea. Quod eam incolit animal limaci simillimum est. Non omnino persuasum mihi habeo debere hanc sestam generi quod Bullam vocat Linnæus annumerari, cujus inter formam generalem et characteres huic non plene convenit.

r

the
AGATE BULLA.

Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax or Slug.

Shell univalve, convoluted.

Aperture somewhat straitened, oblong, longi­tudinal, entire at the base.

Column oblique and smooth.

Specific Character, &c.

Ovate, pointed, wide-mouthed BULLA, with broad fasciæ, crimson mouth, and truncated column.

The AGATE BULLA.

The CRIMSON-MOUTHED BULLA.

This most elegant shell is a native of America and the West Indian islands. It varies considerably in point of color, being sometimes of a dusky brown, with deeper variegations; at other times ornamented with the beautiful hues repre­sented on the annexed plate. This is commonly called the purple-mouthed v variety. It is a land? shell, of a thin structure, and the inhabiting animal bears the most striking resemblance to the common snail. It may be added that it seems scarce allowable to rank this shell under the Linnæan genus Bulla, with the general form and characters of which it does not perfectly agree.

249

Red-And-Black Manakin

London, Published July 1st 1796 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

M

PIPRA AUREOLA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum capite brevius, basi subtrigonum, integerrimum, apice incurvum.

Pedes gressorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 338.

Character Specificus, &c.

PIPRA NIGRA, capite pectoreque coccineis aut luteis.

PIPRA NIGRA, capite pectoreque coccineis, remigibus antrorsum macula alba.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 339.

PARUS AUREOLA.

Lin. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. p. 191.

PARUS RUBER et NIGER.

Edw. av. 2. p. 109. t. 261.

MANACUS RUBER.

Briss. av. 4. p. 452. t. 34. f. 3.

v

Coloribus variat Pipra aureola; interdum enim capite pectoreque coccineis, interdum luteis conspicitur. Americam incolit calidiorem et in Cayana præcipue invenitur. Magnitudinem veram exprimit tabula.

M2

the
RED-AND-BLACK MANAKIN.

Generic Character.

Bill shorter than the head, somewhat triangular at the base, bent at tip.

Feet gressorial.

Specific Character.

BLACK MANAKIN with the head and breast either scarlet or gold-yellow.

The RED and BLACK MANAKIN.

Edw. t. 261. f. 2.

Le MANAKIN rouge.

Buff. ois. 4. p. 415.

Le MANAKIN orangé.

Buf. ois. 4. p. 417.

Pl. enl. 34. f. 3. & 302. f. 2.

The Pipra aureola varies in color, being sometimes seen with the head and breast of a rich scarlet, at other times of a gold-yellow. It is an inhabitant of the hotter parts of America, and is principally found in Cayenne. The plate represents it in its natural size.

v

 

250

Sailing Medusa

Notes

r

MEDUSA VELELLA.

Character Genericus.

Corpus gelatinosum, orbiculatum, depressum.

Os subtus, centrale.

Character Specificus, &c.

MEDUSA ovalis cærulea, oblique cristata, crista simplici, subtus tentaculis numerosissimis.

MEDUSA OVALIS, concentrice striata, margine ciliato, supra velo membranaceo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1098.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3155.

VELUM marinum coloris cærulei.

Imperat. nat. 912.

Medusæ Velellæ cujus magnitudinem naturalem ostendit tabula, facies non modo singularis verum etiam est elegans. Constat animal e corpore complanato, tenui, ovato, lineis seu libris plurimis concentricis pulchre notato. Lineis similiter ductis assurgit quasi velum latum et erectum quod superius oblique extenditur. Cingitur corpus serie tentaculorum v parvorum quæ plurima ab ima parte protruduntur. Mare incolit Mediterraneum et Atlanticum bella hæc Medusa. Coloris est cærulei, velo quasi vitreo seu pellucido. Figura inferior fulcrum internum, seu cartilaginem membranaceam denudatam monstrat.

r

the
SAILING MEDUSA.

Generic Character.

Body gelatinous, orbicular, commonly depressed.

Mouth beneath, central.

Specific Character, &c.

OVAL BLUE MEDUSA, with oblique simple crest, and very numerous tentacula beneath.

The BLUE SAILING MEDUSA.

The Medusa Velella, which is here repre­sented in its natural size, is an animal of a very singular as well as elegant appearance. It consists of a flat thin body, of an oval form, and beautifully marked by a great number of concentric lines or fibres. On the upper part is situated, in an oblique direction, an upright broad process or sail, marked in a similar manner with numerous concentric striæ. The body is surrounded by a series of tentacula or small processes, a great number of which arise from the lower part. This curious Medusa is found both v in the Mediterranean and Atlantic seas. It is of a blue color, except the sail, which is pellucid, and of a glassy appearance. The lower figure shews the internal fulcrum or membranaceous cartilage, the gelatinous part being taken off.

251

Egyptian Locust

Notes

N

GRYLLUS CRISTATUS.

Character Genericus.

Caput inflexum, maxillosum, palpis instructum.

Antennæ setaceæ, seu filiformes.

Alæ quatuor, deflexæ, convolutæ: inferiores plicatæ.

Pedes postici saltatorii. Ungues ubique bini.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 693.

Character Specificus, &c.

GRYLLUS MAGNUS, corpore rufo, thorace cristato, carina quadrifida, alis variegatis apice fuscis.

GRYLLUS thorace cristato, carina quadrifida.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 699.

GRYLLUS ex ÆGYPTO.

Olear. mus. t. 17. f. 5.

GRYLLUS ARABICUS.

Hasselq. it. 413.

LOCUSTA INDICA.

Roes. 2. t. 5.

v

Cum de Gryllo migratorio Linnæi in hoc opere disseremus, speciem longe majorem memoravimus, in variis Orientis regionibus cum reliquis sui generis pro cibo sumi solitam. Hanc ipsam magni­tudine naturali jam depinximus. Color imus fusco-viridis, interdum ruber, maculis notisque tenebricosis variatus. Crura tantum non rubra. Alæ inferiores in nonnullis speciminibus rubent, in aliis fusco-pallent, maculis multis sagittatis viridibus vel nigricantibus, notatæ.

r

the
EGYPTIAN LOCUST.

Generic Character.

Head inflected, armed with jaws, and furnished with palpi or feelers.

Antennæ either setaceous or filiform.

Wings four, deflected, convolute; the lower ones plaited.

Hind-Feet formed for leaping. Claws on all the feet double.

Specific Character, &c.

GREAT RED or BROWN LOCUST, with crested thorax and variegated wings.

The GREAT ARABIAN LOCUST.

The EGYPTIAN LOCUST.

In the description of the Gryllus migratorius, or wandering locust, described in a former number of the present work, I mentioned a species of far superior magni­tude, which, together with others of the genus, is frequently used as an article of food in v the Eastern nations. This species is now repre­sented in its natural size. Its general color is a brownish green, sometimes red, varied with dusky spots and marks: the legs incline much to red: the under wings are in some specimens reddish; in others of a pale brown, with numerous arrow-shaped blackish or greenish spots.

252

Red-Shouldered Tanager

London, Published Augst 1st 1796 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.

Notes

O

TANAGRA DUBIA.

Character Genericus.

Rostrum conicum, acuminatum, emarginatum, basi subtrigonum, apice declive.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 313.

Character Specificus.

TANAGRA? nigra, humeris coccineis flavo marginatis.

An varietas Orioli phoenicei?

Oriolum phoeniceum Linnæi facile diceres hanc avem, formæ et colorum ambigua quadam similitudine deceptus, nisi quod paulo minor rostri habeat basin magis depressam, apicem minus acuminatum; ideoque hac ex parte Tanagras potius quam Oriolos referat. Americam septentrionalem incolit Oriolus phoeniceus; hæc autem avis creditur in Africa innasci. Minuitur paululum in tabula naturalis magni­tudo.

v

the
RED-SHOULDERED TANAGER.

Generic Character.

Bill conic, acuminated, a little inclining towards the point; the upper mandible slightly ridged, and notched near the end.

Specific Character.

BLACK TANAGER? with red shoulders edged with yellow.

Var. Oriol. phoenic.??

So extremely similar is this bird in its general appearance and colors to the Oriolus phoeniceus of Linnæus, or red-winged Oriole, that it is scarce to be distinguished from it, except by its being of a somewhat smaller size, and having the beak somewhat flatter at the base, as well as less sharp at the tip; so that it more resembles the Tanagers than the Orioles. The Oriolus phoeniceus is a native of North America, but the bird here figured is believed to be an inhabitant of Africa. The plate represents it rather smaller than the natural size.

253

Speckled Ostracion

Notes

O2

OSTRACION MELEAGRIS.

Character Genericus.

Dentes teretes, porrecti, obtusiusculi.

Branchiarum apertura linearis.

Corpus osse integro loricatum.

Character Specificus.

OSTRACION subquadratus nigricans albo punctatus.

Facillime dignoscitur hæc species a reliquo genere, maculis innumeris albis et rotundis imo colori, qui niger, belle et æqualiter super-impositis. Rarior est, et oceanum incolit australem. Variat magni­tudine; interdum tamen longa est sex vel octo uncias.

v

the
SPECKLED OSTRACION.

Generic Character.

Teeth cylindric, blunt, pointing forwards.

Branchial Aperture linear.

Body mailed by a complete bony covering.

Specific Character.

BLACKISH OSTRACION, of a somewhat square form, speckled with white.

This species is readily distinguished from all others of its genus by the regular and beautiful manner in which it is marked with innumerable round spots of white on a black ground. It is a rare species, and is a native of the Southern ocean. In size it varies, but is sometimes seen of the length of six or eight inches.

254

Magpie Snake

Notes

r

COLUBER DOLIATUS.

Character Genericus.

Scuta abdominalia.

Squamæ subcaudales.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 275.

Character Specificus, &c.

COLUBER LACTEUS, annulis in dorso nigris ovatis approximatis.

Scut. abdom. 164. Squam. subcaud. 43.

Pulcher hic serpens, magnitudine naturali in tabula depictus, peculiari quadam concinnitate, et colorum simplicitate distinguitur. Lacteæ est albedinis, per totum dorsum annulis ovatis nigerrimis notatæ, quorum extremitates sibi invicem appropinquantes, in summo dorso, fascias duplices referunt. Spatia tria prima his annulis inclusa prope caput, sunt coloris sub-gilvo flavescentis. Interdum ad latera ventris inter singulum annulum nigrum macula conspicitur nigricans. Inter serpentes innoxios numeratur hic serpens, et in Carolina australi præcipue invenitur.

v

the
MAGPIE SNAKE.

Generic Character.

Transverse Lamellæ under the abdomen.

Broad alternate Scales under the tail.

Specific Character, &c.

MILK-WHITE SNAKE, marked on the back with large approximated ovals of black.

Abdominal Lamella about 164. Subcaudal scales about 43.

The elegant little snake here represented in its natural size, is distinguished by the remarkable neatness of its appearance, and the simplicity of its colors. It is milk-white, and marked down the whole length of the back with large oval rings of jet-black, the ends of which approaching each other on the top of the back, give the appearance of double bars: the three first spaces included by the ovals nearest the head are of a cream-color; and it sometimes happens that the sides of the body are marked by blackish spots between each of the oval rings. This animal is one of the harmless serpents, and is a native of South Carolina.

r

INDEX.

Pl.
239. Ascidia pedunculata.
248. Bulla achatina.
254. Coluber doliatus.
242. Coryphæna Hippurus.
226. Dentalium elephantinum.
221. Doris radiata.
219. Emberiza Schoeniclus.
223. Echinus esculentus.
251. Gryllus cristatus.
227. Lacerta Iguana.
246. Lanius Barbarus.
245. Lophius Histrio.
240. Loxia Orix.
220. Muræna Meleagris.
224. Medusa Cephea.
233. Mantis gongylodes.
247. Medusa Navicula.
250. Medusa Velella.
237. Motacilla sutoria.
243. Oriolus Xanthornus.
253. Ostracion Meleagris.
225. Picus minor.
230. Phalæna Erycina.
249. Pipra Aureola.
238. Pleuronectes roseus.
228. Psittacus terrestris.
229. Squalus Tiburo.
232. Salpa maxima.
236. Salpa democratica.
234. Tanagra Brasiliana.
252. Tanagra dubia.
241. Tænia vulgaris.
235. Terebella flavicoma.
222. Trochilus forficatus.
231. Turdus roseus.
244. Voluta Mitra.

INDEX.

Pl.
239. Ascidia pedunculated.
248. Bulla agate.
243. Banana-Bird lesser.
219. Bunting reed.
242. Coryphæna common.
226. Dentalium elephantine.
221. Doris radiated.
223. Echinus esculent.
220. Eel speckled.
238. Flounder rose-coloured.
227. Guana.
240. Grossbeak Grenadier.
222. Humming-bird fork-tailed.
245. Lophius Harlequin.
251. Locust Egyptian.
224. Medusa Cephean.
247. Medusa Skiff.
250. Medusa sailing.
233. Mantis long-breasted.
249. Manakin red-and-black.
230. Moth Erycina.
231. Ouzel rose-coloured.
253. Ostracion speckled.
228. Parrot ground.
232. Salpa great.
236. Salpa democratic.
246. Shrike Barbary.
254. Snake Magpie.
234. Tanager Brasilian.
252. Tanager red-shouldered.
241. Tape-Worm broad-jointed.
235. Terebella yellow-haired.
244. Volutes Mitre.
237. Warbler Tailor.
225. Woodpecker lesser spotted.
229. Zygæna round-headed.

Notes and Corrections: Volume 7

Volume 7 of the Naturalist’s Miscellany was published in twelve monthly installments, from September 1795 through August 1796.

Installments vary between one signature of 16 pages, or two of 8 + 4 pages, except as noted.

A (8 pages); B; C (12 pages); D (12 pages); E (January 1796, 12 pages); F (8 pages); G; H; I K; L (8 pages); M N; O (8 pages)

In the third installment, Plate 227 (iguana), comes before Plate 226 (“elephant’s tusk”).

Emberiza Schoeniclus, the Reed Bunting

Unchanged. It is distributed across much of Eurasia, but is most common in Europe.

Muræna Meleagris, the Speckled Eel

is now Gymnothorax meleagris, the Guinea moray eel, with naming credit to Shaw. It lives mainly in the tropical and subtropical Pacific and Indian oceans.

Corpus teretiusculum, lubricum. / Pinna caudæ coadunata dorsali analique.
line break added to agree with English side

Doris Radiata, the Radiated Doris

is now Glaucus atlanticus (the genus and species are both Forster’s, predating Gmelin by 14 years), the blue glaucus. In spite of Forster’s name—and Shaw’s prose—it is scattered around most oceans.

Again no catchword—but it will be back next month.

Trochilus Forficatus, the Fork-Tailed Humming-Bird

is listed as “doubtful”. John Gould, writing in 1861, equates it with Thalurania furcata, which he distinguishes from Th. furcatoides, now the subspecies Th. furcata furcatoides. If he is right, it is also known as the fork-tailed woodnymph. It lives in South America and is every bit as gorgeous as Shaw’s picture, except that the long yellow tail seems to be artistic license.

Echinus Esculentus, the Esculent Echinus

is also known as the European edible sea urchin. It lives along the coasts of northern Europe.

Medusa Cephea, the Cephean Medusa

is now Cephea cephea. In addition to the Red Sea (where Forsskål would have seen it), it is also found around Australia and in the south Pacific.

Difficillimum est specimen perfectum et integrum nancisci
text has Difficilimum

Picus Minor, the Lesser Spotted Woodpecker

is now Dendrocopos minor. It lives mostly in Europe.

Lacerta Iguana, the Guana

is now Iguana iguana, the common green iguana. It lives in South and Central America and the Caribbean islands, extending into Mexico and Florida.

Dentalium Elephantinum, the Elephantine Dentalium

is also known as the elephant’s tusk. (If the picture and description don’t make it plain, it’s a mollusk.) It is most common around Indonesia—west of Wallace’s Line—and northern Australia.

Psittacus Terrestris, the Ground Parrot

Search me. If it is the same bird as Latham’s Ps. formosus, it may be something in genus Pezoporus, such as Pezoporus wallicus, the eastern ground parrot. The genus as a whole is limited to Australia.

the frontlet red
text has frontled

Squalus Tiburo, the Round-Headed Zygæna

is now Sphyrna tiburo, the bonnet hammerhead. It lives along both coasts of the Americas.

Phalæna Erycina, the Erycina (moth)

is now Rothschildia erycina, with naming credit to Shaw. It lives in South and Central America.

If this insect be really the Phalæna Hesperus of Linnæus, which I am greatly inclined to doubt
[Ph. hesperus is probably Rothschildia hesperus, a different though closely related moth.]

nearly allied to the Phalæna Atlas
[As described way back at Plate 2 of Volume 1.]

Turdus Roseus, the Rose-Coloured Ouzel

is now Pastor roseus, the rosy starling. Its range extends from northwestern Europe to South Asia.

Captain Jenner, of the marines
[In other words, not Smallpox Guy, who was also known for ornithological work.]

Salpa Maxima, the Great Salpa

Unchanged. It lives in almost all oceans. But it isn’t a mollusk; in fact it’s a chordate like you and me. For, of course, the loosest possible definition of “like”.

nearly allied to those of the genus Dagyza
[Everyone else, including Banks and Solander themselves, spelled it Dagysa. It has since been merged with Forsskål’s genus Salpa.]

Mantis Gongylodes, the Long-Breasted Mantis

is probably Gongylus gongylodes, the wandering violin mantis. It lives in South Asia.

ne quid dicam de crurum et thoracis summa exilitate
text has dicam dicam at mid-line

Tanagra Brasilia, the Brasilian Tanager

is probably Ramphocelus bresilius (spelled like that), the Brazilian tanager. It lives mainly in coastal Brazil.

Terebella Flavicoma, the Yellow-Haired Terebella

If it is the same animal as Aphrodita flava, it is now Chloeia flava. It is most common around Australia and Indonesia.

Salpa Democratica, the Democratic Salpa

is now Thalia democratica, the salp. It is scattered along most seacoasts.

[Plate 236]
[Not a technical error: the picture really is that small.]

Mr. Forskall . . . applied to it the title [democratica] by which it is at present distinguished
[This becomes funnier when you know that Pehr Forsskål had to leave Sweden in a hurry after publishing a pamphlet called Pensées sur la liberté civile.]

Motacilla Sutoria, the Tailor Warbler

is probably Orthotomus sutorius, the common tailorbird. It lives in South and Southeast Asia.

Hirundininum genus
[At first sight I thought this was a typo for hirundinum genus (the genus of swallows), but Messrs. Lewis & Short assure me that there exists an adjective hirundininus.]

pendent bed and procreant cradle
[Banquo in Macbeth, describing the martin. The same phrase was quoted by William Bingley in his description of the chimney swallow in Volume II of Animal Biography. Or, more likely, the phrase was quoted by whoever Bingley was cribbing from at that particular moment.]

Pleuronectes Roseus, the Rose-Coloured Flounder

is now Platichthys flesus (by way of Linnaeus’s original name, Pleuronectes flesus), the Baltic flounder. The species racked up a staggering number of binomials in the course of the 19th century before zoologists established that it is all the same fish. In addition to the Baltic, it lives along most European coasts.

There is, however, great reason to believe it a totally new and hitherto undescribed species.
[You win some, you lose some.]

Ascidia Pedunculata, the Pedunculated Ascidia

If it is the same animal as Linnaeus’s Vorticella ovifera, it is now Boltenia ovifera, the stalked sea squirt. It is most common around western Alaska and eastern Canada.

The Ascidia clavata . . . has already been described in the present work.
[At Plate 154 of Volume 5. Since A. clavata is also now Boltenia ovifera, the two are not just “much allied” but may fact be the same animal.]

Loxia Orix, the Grenadier Grosbeak

is probably Euplectes orix, the red bishop. It lives in southern Africa.

Tænia Vulgaris, the Broad-Jointed Tape-Worm

is now listed as “doubtful”. Tapeworms-in-general are genus Taenia; there is no exact equivalent for T. vulgaris. Tapeworms live everywhere, but—if GBIF maps can be believed—the genus is most common in North America and western Europe. Or, at least, it is most thoroughly documented there.

and the Tænia Solium of Linnæus
[Unlike T. vulgaris, the species T. solium is still recognized under that name.]

as if uninjured by its disassociation from the general chain.
text has dissassociation

Coryphæna Hippurus, the Common Coryphæna

is otherwise known as the dolphinfish or mahi-mahi. It lives in all tropical and temperate oceans.

SEA-GREEN CORYPHÆNA, spotted with orange
text has CORYHÆNA

Oriolus Xanthornus, the Lesser Banana-Bird

The binomial now belongs to the Asian black-headed oriole, which lives in South and Southeast Asia. Shaw may have conflated it with the equally yellow “banana bird” or bananaquit, now Coereba flaveola, which lives not only in Jamaica but all over the Caribbean and most of South America.

Seb. Mus. 2. p. 102. t. 96. f. 4.
text has 102, for 102.

Voluta episcopalis, the Episcopal Volute

is now Mitra mitra, the episcopal miter. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Voluta papalis, the Papal Volute

is now Mitra papalis, the papal miter. It lives in the Indian and south Pacific oceans.

Rumf. t. 29. f. 1.
text unchanged
[It should really be either Rumpf (full German name) or Rumph. (abbre­viated Latin name), but we know what he means.]

Lophius Histrio, the Harlequin Lophius

is now Histrio histrio, the frogfish. It lives along most coasts, but is most common near eastern North America, including the Caribbean; it doesn’t seem to like the eastern Pacific (west coast of the Americas). If the name seems familiar, it is because we met two other frogfishes just the year before last, at Plate 176 of Volume 5.

Lanius Barbarus, the Barbary Shrike

is probably Laniarius barbarus, the yellow-crowned gonolek. It lives in central Africa.

Medusa Navicula, the Skiff Medusa

If it is the same animal as Holothuria spirans, it is now Velella velella, described at Plate 250, below.

Bulla Achatina, the Agate Bulla

is now Achatina achatina, the common . . . African snail. I suspect somebody goofed. In spite of the “common”, it has a fairly narrow range, near the south-facing coast of equatorial Africa. We will meet it again at Plate 447 of Volume 12.

Pipra Aureola, the Red-and-Black Manakin

is also known as the crimson-hooded manakin. It lives along the north coast of South America, and in the Amazon basin.

Lin. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. p. 191.
text has Lin, for Lin.

Medusa Velella, the Sailing Medusa

is now Velella velella, picturesquely called “Jack sail-by-the-wind”. It lives in most oceans.

Gryllus Cristatus, the Egyptian Locust

is probably Tropidacris cristata, the giant red-winged grasshopper. GBIF says this in turn is a synonym of Tropidacris collaris, the violet-winged grasshopper. If so, it isn’t clear why a binomial from 1813 takes precedence over one from 1791. Both live in South America. Locusta indica seems to be a different insect, now Emptera indica. Here as so often, Shaw has probably conflated several different animals.

Cum de Gryllo migratorio Linnæi in hoc opere disseremus
text has Gryllo, with superfluous ,

Gryllus migratorius, or wandering locust, described in a former number of the present work
[Plate 62 of Volume 2.]

Tanagra Dubia, the Red-Shouldered Tanager

“Dubia” indeed. Some mid-19th-century sources equate it with Campe­phaga phoenicea (by way of Turdus phoeniceus), the red-shouldered cuckooshrike, which lives in subsaharan Africa.

An varietas Orioli phoenicei? / the Oriolus phoeniceus . . . or red-winged Oriole
[Now Agelaius phoeniceus, the red-winged blackbird. As Shaw says, it lives in North America. The two are not especially closely related, unless you consider order Passeriformes a relationship.]

Ostracion Meleagris, the Speckled Ostracion

is also known as the black boxfish, with naming credit to Shaw. It is scattered across the south Pacific and Indian oceans.

Coluber Doliatus, the Magpie Snake

is now Lampropeltis triangulum (by way of Coluber triangulum), the eastern milk snake. It lives in the US and Mexico east of the Rockies—hence the “eastern”—extending into the northernmost part of South America.

Not being a herpetologist, I have no idea what was the basis for deciding that C. doliatus is a synonym for C. triangulum. The latter does not look anything like Shaw’s description or picture; instead it illustrates the rule of thumb “If red touches black, you’re OK, Jack.”

in tabula depictus, peculiari quadam concinnitate
text has ; for ,

Index

233.   Mantis gongylodes.
text has 223

The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.