Naturalist’s Miscellany

The Naturalist’s Miscellany
by George Shaw
Volume 8








D. D. D.









of the









Lobated Duck

London, Published Sepr 1st 1796 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Rostrum lamelloso-dentatum, convexum, obtusum.

Lingua ciliata, obtusa.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 194.

Character Specificus.

ANAS NIGRICANS, transversim griseo-lineata, subtus pallidior, rostro subtus lobato.

Distinguitur hæc avis, jam primo descripta, vultu non tam venusto quam novo et sibi peculiari. Color ejus generalis cinereus est, collo et inferioribus partibus longe pallidioribus, huc illuc obscure maculatis. Per dorsum fusco-nigricans et quasi fuligineum transverse ducuntur lineæ plurimæ albidæ, atomique innumeri concolores, ut cernere est in Caprimulgo Europæo. Præcipuam autem habet avis distinctionis notam, carunculam nigram, planam, orbiculatam, magnam, quæ longi­tudinalis dependet a mandibula inferiore. Rostri nigri lata est basis, marginibus admodum pectinatis. Nigrant quoque pedes. Cauda acuminata. Rarissima hæc avis in Australasia innascitur, eamque in Britanniam v intulit Dominus Archibaldus Menzies, qui una cum Domino Vancouver iter nauticum nuperrime perfecit, explorationis causa. Magnitudo est quasi Anatis Boschadis. Asservatur specimen in Museo Britannico.



Generic Character.

Bill broad and flattened; the edges marked with sharp lamellæ.

Tongue broad and ciliated at the edges.

Specific Character.

BLACKISH DUCK, lineated transversely with greyish, paler beneath: the under mandible lobated beneath.

This bird, which is an entirely new and hitherto undescribed species, is less remarkable for the beauty than the singularity of its appearance. Its general colour is cinereous, which on the neck and lower parts is much lighter than on the upper, as well as marked obscurely by several dusky spots. The back is of a very deep ash-colour, or fuliginous blackish; marked with numerous transverse whitish lines, together with innumerable freckles of a similar colour, not unlike those on the back and wings of the common Goatsucker, or Caprimulgus Europæus; but the most singular character of the bird is a large, black, flat, orbicular flap or wattle, seated longi­tudinally v beneath the lower mandible. The bill is broad at the base; much pectinated at the edges, and black: the legs are also of the same colour: the tail is of a sharpened form. This curious species is a native of New Holland, and is about the size of a common Duck. The specimen is preserved in the British Museum, and was brought over by Mr. Archibald Menzies, who accompanied Captain Vancouver in his late voyage.


Great Buprestis




Character Genericus.

Antennæ filiformes, serratæ, longi­tudine thoracis.

Palpi quatuor, filiformes; articulo ultimo obtuso truncato.

Caput dimidium intra thoracem retractum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 1926.

Character Specificus.

BUPRESTIS elytris fastigiatis, bidentatis, rugosis, thorace marginato lævi, corpore inaurato.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 659.

CERAMBYX INDIÆ orientalis maximus.

Grew. mus. 165. t. 13.

CANTHARIS maxima elytris cuprei coloris sulcatis.

Sloan. Jam. 2. p. 210. t. 236. f. 1.2.


Degeer. ins. 4. p. 134. n. 1.

Buprestidis generi peculiaris est quidam et quasi metallicus splendor, qui in nonnullis speciebus, exoticis v præcipue, adeo dominatur, ut aurum cuprumve summa arte politum æmuletur. Tinguntur quædam species colore aureo-viridi, cui cedit longe quicquid pigmenti est aut vernicis. Illam de qua jam agitur vincunt multæ fulgido colore, nullæ magni­tudine; cumque larvam ejus notaverit et eleganter depinxerit Domina Merian, visum est ut melius explicetur genus, illam ipsam una cum insecto inspiciendam offerre. Larva ad magni­tudinem qua depingitur crescere, et prope radices plantarum degere solet. Plene aucta dormit ad tempus cava sub humo, cuteque exteriore exuta, in pupam seu chrysalidem mutatur, e qua, elapso quodam spatio, emergit insectum perfectum; cujus color generalis est quasi cupri politi, thoracis elytrorumque marginibus plus minus viridi tinctis. Elytrorum superficies est paulum scabrosa et rugosa, striis aliquot in longi­tudinem ductis quasi costata.

Notandum est antennæ Buprestidis giganteæ non mere setaceas esse, ut plerisque ejusdem generis, sed lamellis paululum pectinari. Americam Australem incolit pulcherrimum hoc insectum.



Generic Character.

Antennæ filiform, and sometimes serrated; of the length of thorax.

Feelers or Palpi filiform: with the last joint obtuse or truncated.

Head partly retracted under the thorax.

Specific Character.

COPPER-COLOURED BUPRESTIS with a gloss of green-gold; the wing-shells wrinkled, and bidentated at the extremities.



Grew’s Museum Reg. Soc.

Merian Sur. pl. 50.

The genus Buprestis is remarkable for the metallic splendor by which most of the exotic species are distinguished; and which in some is so great as to equal the appearance of the most highly-polished v gold or copper: others are ornamented with a tinge of golden green, which far exceeds the appearance of all artificial painting or varnish. The present species, though less rich in colour than several others, is the largest of the whole genus; and as its larva has been observed and well figured by Madam Merian, I have thought it not improper, as an elucidation of the genus, to add the larva as repre­sented by that lady, to the figure of the compleat insect. This larva grows to the size repre­sented, and resides near the roots of plants: when fully grown, it lies dormant for some time in a small cavity beneath the surface of the ground, and, casting its exterior skin, becomes a pupa or chrysalis, out of which, after a certain space, proceeds the perfect insect. Its general colour is that of highly-polished copper; the edges of the thorax and wing-cases tinged more or less with green. The wing-cases are of a roughish or wrinkled surface, and slightly ribbed longi­tudinally. It is to be also observed that the antennæ, which in most of the genus are simply setaceous, are in the present species of a somewhat lamellated or pectinated appearance. This beautiful insect is a native of South America.


Scaly Chiton




Character Genericus.

Animal Doris.

Testæ plures, longitudinaliter digestæ dorso incumbentes.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1106.

Character Specificus, &c.

CHITON testa octovalvi semistriata, margine squamuloso.

CHITON testa octovalvi semistriata, corpore squamuloso.

Lin. Mus. Ulr. 465.

CHITON squamosus, testa septemvalvi.

Chemn. Chiton. t. 1. f. 4.

Rupibus adhæret, ut plurimum, genus patellarum more; continetque species satis numerosas, quibus si negarit natura pulchritudinem, miram certe concessit conformationem, e plurimis quasi zonis testaceis constantem. Oras incolit Americanas species quam depinximus, inter maximas habita v sui generis: color ejus cæruleo-virescens venulis atomisque obscurioribus variatur.

Suave est philosopho contemplari generalem quandam similitudinem, quæ interdum mira et manifesta est in animalibus penitus diversis, nec ulla affinitate inter se conjunctis. In hoc ipso scilicet Chitonis genere, testa qua obducitur animal loricæ simillima est qua muniuntur Dasypodes. Quod contigit quoque insectis quæ continet Onisci genus; quorum species communis, quæ et offici­nalis dicitur, hanc ipsam ob causam nomine Linnæano Oniscus Armadillo nuncupatur.



Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Doris.

Shell consisting of several segments disposed longi­tudinally in the back.

Specific Character.

CHITON with the shell commonly consisting of eight valves; the margin scaly.

The genus Chiton is generally found adhering to rocks, like some of the Lepades. The species, which are pretty numerous, are less remarkable for beauty than for singularity of structure; being composed of several distinct shelly bounds. The species here repre­sented is one of the largest, and is a native of the American coasts. Its general color is a blueish green, variegated with veins and specks of darker and lighter colors. It is curious to contemplate the similarity in point of general form, which sometimes takes place between animals of the most distant tribes, and which have no real affinity to each other. Thus in the present genus, the inhabiting animals are covered with an armour resembling that v of the Dasypodes or Armadillos amongst quadrupeds; and the insects of the genus Oniscus are formed on a similar plan; the officinal or common species in particular, which has obtained its trivial name from this very circumstance.


Pale Parrakeet

London, Published Octr 1st 1796 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 15 Brewer Street.




Character Genericus.

Rostrum aduncum: mandibula inferiore mobili; cera instructa.

Nares in rostri basi.

Lingua carnosa, obtusa, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 139.

Character Specificus, &c.

PSITTACUS FLAVUS, alis albidis rosaceo leviter tinctis, virescenteque, pro luce, variatis.

In Australasia innascitur nova hæc species, cujus vera magni­tudo in tabula depingitur.



Generic Character.

Bill hooked: upper mandible moveable.

Nostrils round, placed in the base of the bill.

Tongue fleshy, broad, blunt at the end.

Legs short. Toes formed for climbing, viz. two toes forward, and two backward.

Specific Character.

YELLOW PARRAKEET with whitish wings, slightly tinctured with rose-color, and with a cast of greenish according to the direction of the light.

This bird, which is a native of Australasia, is entirely new, and is repre­sented in its natural size.


Egyptian Medusa




Character Genericus.

Corpus gelatinosum, orbiculatum, depressum.

Os subtus, centrale.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1096.

Character Specificus.

MEDUSA fusco-pallens, brachiis subtus octo ramosissimis foliaceis.

MEDUSA hemisphærica, marginis brachiis nullis, brachiis octo teretibus ramosissimis inferius foliaceis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3157.

Forsk. F. Ægypt. Arab. p. 106. n. 18.

Major sæpenumero est Medusa Andromeda, quam hæc quæ in tabula ostenditur. Color communis est subflavo-fuscus, habens interdum aliquid subcærulei. Pellucet fere totum animal; nec modicam ei affert pulchritudinem artuum seu tentaculorum e medio corpore provenientium quasi ramulosa divilio. In mari rubro invenitur.



Generic Character.

Body gelatinous, orbicular, commonly depressed.

Mouth central, beneath.

Specific Character.

PALE-BROWN MEDUSA, with eight ramified foliaceous tentacula beneath.

The Medusa Andromeda is frequently found consi­derably larger than repre­sented on the present plate. Its general color is a pale yellowish-brown, sometimes inclining to blueish. The whole animal has a considerable degree of transparency, and is remarkable for the elegantly ramified subdivisions or processes of the limbs or tentacula proceeding from the lower part of the body. It is a native of the Red sea.


Brown Holothuria




Character Genericus.

Corpus liberum, nudum, gibbum, ano terminali.

Tentacula plura in altera extremitate.

Os inter tentacula.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1089.

Character Specificus.

HOLOTHURIA fusca, tentaculis duodenis, corpore lineis longi­tudinalibus pallidis.

HOLOTHURIA tentaculis duodenis, corpore papilloso sexfariam lineato.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3141.


Forsk. F. Ægypt. Arab. p. 121. t. 38. f. A.

Differt a cæteris plerisque congeneribus hæc Holothuria, quod longior multo sit et gracilior. Color plerumque fusco-saturatior, in longi­tudinem ductis pluribus lineis pallidioribus, non semper tamen clare conspicuis. Aspergitur superficies totius animalis papillis seu tuberculis innumeris minutissimis, v sine vitro optico ægre cernendis; quorum ope tangentis manus arcte adeo adhæret, ut ab ea non sine labore possit sejungi. Generant hanc Holothuriam plagæ orientales.



Generic Character.

Body unfixed, naked, gibbous, with an open extremity.

Tentacula numerous, surrounding one extremity.

Mouth situated amidst the tentacula.

Specific Character.

BROWN HOLOTHURIA with twelve red tentacula: the body marked with longi­tudinal pale stripes.

This species is of a much longer and slenderer form than most others of the genus: its color is commonly a darkish brown, with several longi­tudinal stripes of a lighter cast, and which are not always distinctly visible. The surface of the whole animal is closely beset with innumerable papillæ, scarcely visible without the assis­tance of a glass. By means of these it adheres tenaciously to the hand on touching, so as with difficulty to be separated from the skin. It is a native of the Eastern parts of the world.




Blue Redbreast

London, Published Novr 1st 1796 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 92 Newman Street near Oxford Street.




Character Genericus.

Rostrum subulatum, redhim: mandibulis subæqualibus.

Nares obovatæ.

Lingua lacero-emarginata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 328.

Character Specificus, &c.

MOTACILLA cærulea, subtus rufa.

MOTACILLA cærulea, subtus tota rubra, abdomine albo.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 336.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 989.


Briss. av. 3. p. 423.


Kalm. it. 3. p. 30.


Catesb. 1. p. 47. t. 47.


Motacilla Sialis, eadem quasi magnitudine ac Motacilla Rubecula, aut paulo ampliore, Americam septentrionalem inhabitat; præcipue Carolinam. Tota avis amoene cærulea est, exceptis pectore et abdomine leviter rubentibus, remigibusque alarum primoribus apice fere nigricantibus. Rostrum nigrum. Pedes fusci. Insectis vescitur more reliqui generis.



Generic Character.

Bill subulate, strait; mandibles nearly equal.

Nostrils nearly oval.

Tongue jagged or lacerated towards the tip.

Specific Character, &c.

BLUE MOTACILLA, rufous beneath.


Lath. Syn. 4. p. 446.

Pennt. Arct. Zool. 2. No. 282.


Edw. 1. pl. 24.

This bird, which is about the same size with the common Redbreast, or rather larger, is an inhabitant of North America, and is principally seen in Carolina: the whole bird is of a fine blue, the breast and abdomen excepted, which are of a light red, and the tips of the principal wing-feathers, which are dusky; the bill is black, and the legs brown. It feeds on insects, like the rest of this genus.




Telescope Carp




Character Genericus.

Caput ore edentulo; Os nasale, bisulcum.

Membrana branchiostega radiis tribus.

Corpus læve.

Pinnæ ventrales sæpe novemradiatæ.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 525.

Character Specificus, &c.

CYPRINUS sanguineus, oculis prominentibus, pinnis omnibus dimidiato-albis, cauda trifida.

CYPRINUS oculis prominentibus.

Bloch. ausl. Fisch. 12. p. 9. t. 410.



Rutilante insignem corpore Cyprinum buphthalmum generat regio Sinensis. Magnitudine Cyprinum auratum, cui maxime affinis, æquat vel paulo superat.



Generic Character.

Mouth (in most species) toothless.

Gill-membrane with three rays.

Body smooth.

Specific Character, &c.

SCARLET CARP, with protuberant eyes, all the fins half white; the tail trifid.





Sauvigny, Hist. Nat. des Dorades, pl. 10, 11, 12, &c.

The scarlet Carp, so remarkable for its brilliant color, is a native of China, and is equal, if not superior, in size to the common gold-fish, to which it is extremely nearly allied.


Luna Moth




Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ. (Volatu nocturno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 808.

Character Specificus, &c.

PHALÆNA alis viridi-pallentibus, inferioribus caudatis; omnibus ocello disci lunato.

PHALÆNA alis caudatis concoloribus virescentibus; ocello disci lunato.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2404.


Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 810.

Cramer. 1. t. 2. A. & 3. t. 31. A. B.

Drury ins. 1. t. 24.

Insolitæ est pulchritudinis Phalæna Luna, alis omnibus pulcherrime viridi-pallentibus, superiorum margine antico fusco-purpureo. Alæ posticæ excurrunt quasi in caudas. Alarum omnium mediam v partem ornat macula hyalina, non absimilis oculo. Generat phalænam Lunam America septentrionalis, variasque partes provinciarum Britannicarum, nuperrime fœderatarum.



Generic Character.

Antennæ or Horns setaceous, decreasing in size from the base to the point.

Wings, when at rest, generally deflected.

Flight mostly nocturnal.

Specific Character, &c.

LARGE PEA-GREEN PHALÆNA, with the lower wings tailed, and a lunated transparent spot on each wing.

The large caudated pea-green PHALÆNA.

The pea-green CAROLINA MOTH.

The Phalæna Luna is an insect of unusual elegance. The wings are of a beautiful pea-green; the upper edge of the superior pair marked by a band of purplish-brown: the lower ones are terminated by a pair of lengthened processes or tails, and in the middle of each wing is a transparent spot, resembling an eye. It is a native of North America, and is found in many parts of the United British States.




Purple-Sided Gorgonia




Character Genericus.

Animal crescens plantæ facie.

Stirps cornea, ossea, vel lapidea.

Cortex mollis, osculis polypiferis.

Character Specificus, &c.

GORGONIA depressa ramosissima dichotomo-pinnata, corticis flavi poris dissichis purpureis.

Pall. el. zooph. p. 175.


Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3087.

Luculente adeo et accurate explicuit hanc speciem celeberrimus Pallas in opere cui titulus Elenchus Zoophy­torum ut ipsissima auctoris verba sine ulla immutatione transcribere non dubitaverim.

Magnitudo pedalis vel ultra, multa tamen specimina palmo non altiora occurrunt. Truncus in eodem constanter plamo ramosus; Rami pinnati, ramulis passim sine ordine dichotomis, subdivisis, v sæpe fastigiatis. Stirps tota depresso-plana. Lignum corneum, colore et substantia. Cortex calcareus, citrinus, extus lævis. Pori crebri, ramulis prominuli, in marginibus ramorum duplici utrinque serie dispoliti, sparsive, halone ruberrime roseo inclusi. Pumila specimina pinnata, procera ramosiora sunt.”



Generic Character.

Animal growing in the form of a plant.

Stem of a horny, osseous, or even lapideous substance.

Bark soft, marked with numerous polype-cells.

Specific Character, &c.

Flat, branched, pinnated GORGONIA, with yellow bark and double-rowed purple pores.

Purple-spotted yellow GORGONIA.

The description of this Gorgonia, by Dr. Pallas, is so accurate, that it is unnecessary to add any thing to the account given by that celebrated Naturalist, who informs us that it sometimes grows to the height of a foot or more; though specimens often occur of much inferior size. The trunk is always branched a flat direction, with the branches pinnated; the smaller ones occasionally subdivided and dichotomous. The body or wood is of a horny substance and color; the bark yellow and smooth; the pores numerous, and projecting in the form of tubercles, v disposed in a double series on the margins of the branches, each being surrounded by a very bright rose-coloured or purple border. The smaller specimens are commonly pinnate; the larger ones more ramified. This elegant coral is a native of the Atlantic and of the American seas.






Leona Goatsucker

London, Published Decr 1st 1796 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 92 Newman Street near Oxford Street.




Character Genericus.

Rostrum modice incurvum, minimum, subulatum, basi depressum.

Vibrissæ ad os serie ciliari.

Rictus amplissimus.

Lingua acuta, integerrima.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 118.

Character Specificus.

CAPRIMULGUS GRISEO-VARIUS, alis rufo fuscoque maculatis, penna utrinque humerali denudata longissima.

Conari pro certo dicere quid sibi voluerit arcanum Naturæ consilium in anomala nonnullorum animalium conformatione, opus esset immensum et omnino inexpli­cabile. Enormis Phoenicopteri colli crurumque longi­tudo, rostrum Avocettæ flexile et recurvum, nec non Pingui­nariarum alæ breves et velut squamatæ; hæc omnia facile satis referri possunt ad vitæ rationem quæ hisce avibus peculiaris est et accommodata. Frustra autem torque­bimur quærendo, v cuinam usui inserviant pennæ nudæ et prælongæ quas utrinque gerit collum Paradiseæ auratæ; illæve quæ proveniunt a lateribus Paradiseæ apodæ; seu alarum Grylli qui monstrosus dicitur gyri et volumina; aut immodici processus alarum Phalænæ macrouræ. Nec felicius inquiramus quo animo dederit Natura avi quam cernere est in tabula pennam longissimam, denudatam, quas ab humero utroque e medio tectricum minorum exoritur, bis saltem superans longi­tudinem totius avis. Extremitates solæ plumatæ sunt, penna ipsa nigra levissime per totam longi­tudinem barbata; apicibus plumatis nigricantibus, ter quater cinereo transverse fasciatis.

Color avis generalis obscure cinereus, maculis atomisque nigris, rufis, albidisque belle guttatus. Alæ ferrugineæ fasciis confertis nigricantibus notantur, exceptis tectricibus minoribus. Vertex capitis nigrior reliquo corpore. Pectus et abdomen ferrugineo-pallidas strias habent maculasque plurimas nigricantes trans­versim ductas. Collum posticum cingit quasi collare ferrugineum. Alæ paulo longiores cauda cinerea, fasciis atomisque nigricantibus distincta. Pedes exigui; unguis intermedii latere fortiter serrato. Nova proculdubio est avis, nec antea descripta. A Sierra Leona delatum est specimen quod depinximus. Magnitudo est quasi Sturni vulgaris.



Generic Character.

Bill very small, depressed at the base, slightly hooked.

Mouth extremely wide; the sides furnished with a series of bristles.

Specific Character.

VARIEGATED GREY GOATSUCKER, with wings spotted rufous and black, with a very long naked-shafted feather on each shoulder.

In the formation of some animals we meet with particulars so inexplicable as to baffle all attempts at pointing out the purposes for which Nature intended them.

The immoderate length of neck and legs in the Flamingo, the recurved and flexible bill of the Avocet, the short and scaly wings of the Penguin, are evidently calculated for the well-known manner v of life in the respective animals: but it would be in vain to enquire into the particular use of the long, shaft-like feathers which project from each side the neck of the Paradisea aurata, or those which hang from the sides of the Paradisea apoda: for the strange and uncouth convolutions in the wings of the Gryllus monstrosus; or the extravagant processes which terminate those of the Phalæna macroura. The bird which forms the subject of the present plate may also be adduced as an equally singular example of the above inexplicable formation; its principal character consisting in the excessively long naked shafts projecting from the upper part of each shoulder, in the midst of the smaller coverts. These remarkable feathers are at least twice the length of the whole bird, and are webbed only at their extremities: the naked or shafted part is black, very slightly bearded on each side the whole length; and the webbed or plumed ends are dusky or blackish with three or four obscure cinereous transverse bars. The general color of the bird is a blackish grey, elegantly variegated with specks of black, rufous, and whitish: the wings are ferruginous, all the feathers, except the smaller coverts, being marked with numerous blackish bars: the top of the head is darker than the rest of the bird: the under parts are pale ferruginous, dashed with dusky bars and patches, and round the back of the neck runs a sort of ferruginous collar or band. The wings reach beyond the tail, which is cinereous, with blackish bars and freckles: the feet are very small, with the r middle claw very strongly serrated on the interior side. This bird is an undoubted non-descript, and is a native of Sierra Leona, from whence the specimen here figured was recently imported. Its size is that of a Starling.




Fasciated Snake




Character Genericus.

Scuta abdominalia.

Squamæ subcaudales.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 275.

Character Specificus, &c.

COLUBER CÆRULEUS, subtus pallidior, cæruleo lucidiore variatus.


Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 378.

ANGUIS e cæruleo et albo varius.

Catesb. 2. t. 58.

Historiam naturalem probe callentibus facile patebit a Catesbæo mutuatos esse nos figuram hujus serpentis, situ paululum mutato. Eadem communiter putatur hæc species ac coluber fasciatus Linnæi; ipseque Linnæus, nonnihil tamen addubitans, relegat lectores ad hanc ipsam Catesbæi tabulam. Si veros colores depinxerit Catesbæus, habendus v proculdubio est coluber fasciatus inter formosissimos sui generis. Reperiri præcipue dicitur in Carolina, et in numero esse serpentum prorsus innocuorum.



Generic Character.

Transverse Lamellæ under the abdomen.

Broad alternate Scales under the tail.

Specific Character, &c.

BLUE SNAKE, paler and variegated with brighter blue beneath.


Catesb. Car. 2. t. 58.

It will readily be perceived by those who are conversant in natural history, that the elegant snake repre­sented on the present plate is in reality copied from Catesby, with the variation only of posture: it is commonly considered as the coluber fasciatus of Linnæus, and is thus quoted, though not without a mark of uncertainty, in the Systema Naturæ. If the colours of the living animal are really such as expressed by Catesby, it must certainly be regarded as v one of the most beautiful of that variable tribe. It is said to be found principally in Carolina, and is a perfectly harmless species.


Hammer-Headed Shark




Character Genericus.

Spiracula quinque ad latera colli.

Corpus obliongum teretiusculum.

Os in anteriore capitis parte.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 397.

Character Specificus, &c.

SQUALUS capite latissimo transverso malleiformi.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 399.


Salvian. pisc. 128.


Rondel. pisc. 389.

Will. icht. 55.

Monstrosa capitis figura facile a reliquis omnibus piscibus distinguitur Zygæna Libella, quæ ad longi­tudinem interdum sexpedalem crescit, et in mari Mediterraneo præcipue invenitur.



Generic Character.

Spiracula five on each side the neck.

Body oblong, somewhat cylindric.

Mouth situated beneath, in the fore part of the head.

Specific Character, &c.

SHARK with transverse hammer-shaped head.



This fish is readily distinguished from all others by the strange and uncouth shape of its head. It sometimes grows to the length of six feet, and is principally seen in the Mediterranean.


Ribband Bulla




Character Genericus.

Animal limax.

Testa univalvis, convoluta, inermis.

Apertura subcoarctata, oblonga, longi­tudinalis.

Columella obliqua, lævis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1181.

Character Specificus, &c.

BULLA ALBA, fasciis versicoloribus duplicatis, columella truncata purpurea.

BULLA TESTA subturrita erecta, columella truncata sanguinea.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1186.


Lin. Mus. Lud. Ulr. n. 267.

In Asiæ fluviis præcipue reperta sedem sibi vindicat hæc concha inter pulcherrimas sui generis. Colore interdum variat; notas tamen semper retinet certas adeo et constantes, ut de specie non possit dubitari.



Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax or Slug.

Shell univalve, convoluted.

Aperture somewhat straitened, oblong, longi­tudinal, entire at the base.

Column oblique and smooth.

Specific Character, &c.

WHITE BULLA, with particoloured double bands, and purple truncated column.



This beautiful shell, which is justly considered as one of the most elegant of the genus, is principally found in the rivers of Asia. It varies sometimes in its colors, but always retains characters sufficiently clear to determine the species.






White-Collared Kingfisher




Character Genericus.

Rostrum trigonum, crassum, rectum, longum.

Lingua carnosa, brevissima, plana, acuta.

Pedes gressorii plerisque.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 378.

Character Specificus, &c.

ALCEDO CÆRULEA, subtus rufa, humeris uropygioque viridibus, superciliis et torque albis.

ALCEDO CÆRULEA, subtus rufa, superciliis et torque albis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 454.


Lath. ind. orn. p. 249.


Briss. 4. p. 481. t. 37. f. 2. A.

In India innascitur Alcedo cærulea, Alcedinem Europæam seu Ispidam magni­tudine superans: caput v dorsumque vestiunt pennæ cæruleæ splendidissimæ; alarum tectrices minores uropygiumque pulchre virent; pectus et abdomen rufescunt; rostrum pedesque nigricant.



Generic Character.

Bill trigonal, thick, strait, long, sharp-pointed.

Tongue fleshy, very short, flat, sharp-pointed.

Feet (in most species) gressorial.

Specific Character, &c.

BLUE KINGFISHER, rufous beneath, with green shoulders and rump, a white collar round the neck, and a white streak over the eyes.


Lath. syn. p. 620.

The white-collared Kingfisher is a native of India: in size it exceeds the common or European Kingfisher: the head and back are of a rich and beautiful blue: the shoulder-feathers or smaller wing-coverts and the rump of a bright green: the breast and abdomen rufous; the bill and feet dusky.




Serpentiform Nais




Character Genericus.

Corpus repens, longum, lineare, pellucidum, depressum.

Pedunculi setis simplicibus.

Tentacula nulla.

Oculi duo aut nulli.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3120.

Character Specificus, &c.

NAIS PELLUCIDA, intestino spirali rubro, collari triplici nigro.


Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3121.

Roes. ins. 3. p. 567. t. 92.

Spargit se genus Nais in parva animalia, aquas plerumque dulces amantia. Horum nonnullæ species, qualis est ea quam depinximus, examinari satis accurate nequeunt sine microscopio. Depingitur hæc species, quam frequentem alunt aquæ stagnantes, tum sua magni­tudine, tum microscopice aucta.





Generic Character.

Body repent, long, linear, pellucid, depressed.

Bristles on each side, instead of feet.

Tentacula none.

Specific Character, &c.

PELLUCID SNAKE-LIKE NAIS, with red spiral intestine and triple black collar.



The genus Nais consists of small animals, which in general are natives of fresh waters: some species are not to be distinctly examined without the assistance of glasses: amongst these is the animal here repre­sented, both in its natural size, and as it appears when magnified: it is not uncommon in stagnant waters.




Hector Butterfly




Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) erectæ sursumque conniventes. (Volatu diurno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO alis caudatis concoloribus nigris; primoribus fascia interrupta alba; pollicis maculis lunatis coccineis.

PAPILIO alis caudatis concoloribus nigris: primoribus fascia alba; posticis maculis rubris.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 745.


Lin. Fabr. Cram. Gmel. &c. &c.

Inter lautissimos papiliones exoticos habetur papilio Hector quem alit India. Tabula eum exhibet magni­tudine naturali.





Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the upper part, and generally terminating in a knob.

Wings (when sitting) erect. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character, &c.

BLACK BUTTERFLY with tailed wings: the upper pair marked by a broken white band; the lower by numerous crescent-shaped crimson spots.

The crimson-spotted INDIAN BUTTERFLY.

This insect is one of the finest of the exotic butterflies, and is a native of India: the plate represents it in its natural size.




Sandy Alcyonium




Character Genericus.

Animal (plerumque) plantæ forma crescens.

Stirps fixa, carnosa, gelatinosa, spongiosa, vel coriacea, osculis polypiferis obsita.

Character Specificus.

ALCYONIUM simplex semicirculare arenosolutosum.


Pall. el. Zooph. p. 37. n. 3.

Eschara MILLEPORA arenosa Anglica.

Raii syn. p. 31.


Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3829.


Soland. et Ell. Zooph. p. 17.

Miram hanc substantiam, quam in Escharis numeravit Pallas, in Milleporis Ellisius? in Flustris Gmelinus, qui systema naturæ Linnæanum auctius edidit, v nullus dubito in Alcyonii genere reponere. Adhæret plerumque radicibus fucorum majorum; circa littora Britanniæ septentrionalis minime rara; semper retinens figuram semicircularem. Substantia est multo leviori et magis friabili quam cætera pleraque Alcyonia, et constare videtur ex arena glutine animali connexa. Cellulæ polypos recipientes qui putantur massam ædificasse, majusculæ sunt, nec profundæ, sed potius superficiariæ. Color totius leviter fusco-flavet. Ostendit tabula veram magni­tudinem.



Generic Character.

Animal (commonly) growing in the form of a plant.

Substance more or less fleshy, gelatinous, spongy, or coriaceous: beset with polype-cells.

Specific Character.

Flat sandy ALCYONIUM of a semi-circular form.

Horse-shoe MILLEPORE.

English sandy MILLEPORA.

Ellis corallin. p. 74.

I have not the slightest hesitation in ranking this curious substance under the genus Alcyonium, rather than that of Eschara, in which it is placed by Pallas, of Millepora, in which it is stationed by Ellis? or lastly, in that of Flustra, in which it is arranged by Gmelin in his enlarged edition of the Systema Naturæ of Linnæus. It is repre­sented in its natural size, and is generally found attached to the roots of v the larger fuci: it is not uncommon about the northern parts of the British coasts, and always preserves its semicircular shape. Its texture is much slighter than that of most others of this genus, seeming to consist of sandy particles connected by an animal gluten: the cells or cavities, in which are supposed to reside the polypes, or fabricators of the mass, are rather large than small, and are not very deeply impressed, but rather superficial. Its colour is a pale yellowish brown.


Indian Roller




Character Genericus.

Rostrum cultratum apice incurvato, basi pennis denudatum.

Lingua cartilaginea, bifida.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 159.

Character Specificus, &c.

CORACIAS ex cyaneo et cæruleo-thalassino varia, dorso testaceo, pileo virescente.

CORACIAS CÆRULEA, antice testacea, pileo viridi.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 159.


Lath. ind. orn. p. 170.

Licet superbiat totum genus splendidissimis coloribus, ægre tamen speciem pulchriorem reperies quam quæ in tabula depingitur. In Museo Britannico asservatur specimen unde delineata est hæc nostra figura, magni­tudine quasi Coraciæ communis sive Europææ.



Generic Character.

Bill strait, bending a little towards the end; cultrated at the edges.

Nostrils narrow; naked.

Legs generally short: toes divided to their origin; three forwards and one backwards.

Specific Character, &c.

ROLLER varied with deep-blue and pale greenish-blue; the back pale-brown; the top of the head greenish.



Lath. syn. p. 412.

BLUE JAY from the East Indies.

Edw. pl. 32

The genus Coracias is eminently distinguished by beauty of color, and the species here repre­sented may be considered as one of the most brilliant. The specimen from which the figure was taken is in the British Museum, and is about the size of the common or European Roller.


Chordated Stylephorus




Character Genericus.

Oculi pedunculati (seu cylindro crasso brevi impositi.)

Rostrum productum, sursum spectans, versus caput membrana interjecta retractile.

Os terminale, edentulum?

Branchiæ trium parium sub jugulo sitæ.

Pinnæ pectorales parvæ; dorsalis longi­tudine dorsi, caudalis brevis, radiato-spinosa.

Corpus longissimum, compressum.

Cum rarissimum hunc piscem in primo volumine Actorum Societatis Linnæanæ jam descripserim, satis erit lectores admonere fideliter in tabula depingi naturalem animalis magni­tudinem, coloremque (exceptis capite pinnisque fuscis) esse splendide argenteum.

Captus fuit Stylephorus chordatus juxta parvulas aliquot insulas non longe a Cuba distantes. Specimen, quod unicum in Europa extare creditur, undeque exaravi descriptionem quæ actis inseritur Societatis Linnæanæ, conspici possit in Museo Leveriano.

Novum genus constituit piscis, cujus alia nulla hactenus cognita est species.



Generic Character.

Eyes pedunculated; standing on a short, thick cylinder.

Snout lengthened; directed upwards; retractile towards the head by means of a membrane.

Mouth without teeth?

Branchiæ three pair, beneath the throat.

Fins pectoral small; dorsal the length of the back; caudal short, with spiny rays.

Body very long; compressed.

Having already described this highly curious animal in the first Volume of the Transactions of the Linnæan Society, I shall at present only observe that it is here repre­sented in its natural size; that the color (except on the head and fins, which are brown) is a bright silver; and that it was taken near a cluster of small islands not far from the coast of Cuba. The only specimen yet known in Europe, and from which the description above referred to in the Linnæan Transactions was drawn up, is preserved in the Leverian Museum.

I need not add that this fish constitutes a new genus, of which no other species has yet been discovered.


Double-Scaled Chætodon




Character Genericus.

Dentes (plerisque) setacei, flexiles, confertissimi, numerosissimi.

Membrana branchiostega radiis sex.

Corpus plerumque fasciatum. Pinna dorsi anique carnosa squamosa.

Character Specificus, &c.

CHÆTODON viridi-aureus, squamis squamulosis.


Catesb. 2. p. 31. t. 31.

Piscem depinximus non modica pulchritudine, juxta Americæ et insularum adjacentium litora copiose satis generatum, squamis insigniter contectum quæ ipsæ minutius squamatte: quod vel solum speciem satis denotet. Non raro errant auctores, qui nihil distare opinantur hunc piscem a Chætodonte triostego Linnæi; ducitque eos in errorem quod falso citatur in systematis Linnæani editione duodecima, indeque in alia multa opera irrepsit.


Accidere solet huic quod et aliis plerisque piscibus, ut diversis anni temporibus variet color; magis scilicet minusve aureus, pinnis itidem magis minusve rubro-cæruleis.



Generic Character.

Teeth (in most species) setaceous, small, very numerous.

Body commonly fasciated transversely. Dorsal and anal fins fleshy and scaly towards the base.

Specific Character, &c.

Gold-green CHÆTODON, with the scales coated with smaller ones.


This beautiful fish is not uncommon about the coasts of America and the West Indian islands. It is remarkable for the very singular appearance of its scales; which are each coated over with much smaller ones; a particularity alone sufficient to distinguish this species from almost all others. It is often confounded with the Chætodon triostegus of Linnæus; owing to a mistaken quotation in the v twelfth edition of the Systema Naturæ of that author, and which has been carelessly repeated by several others. In color, like most fishes, it varies at different seasons; being sometimes of a far richer and more golden tinge than at others; as well as with the blue and scarlet of the fins either deeper or lighter according to circumstances.


Arctic Walrus




Character Genericus.

Dentes Primores nulli utrinque.

Laniarii superiores solitarii.

Molares ex osse rugoso utrinque; inferius duo.

Labia geminata.

Pedes posteriores compedes coadunati in pinnam.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 49.

Character Specificus, &c.

TRICHECHUS dentibus laniariis superioribus exsertis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 49.

TRICHECHUS dentibus laniariis superioribus exsertis remotis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 59.


Jonst. pisc. t. 44.

EQUUS MARINUS s. Hippopotamus falso dictus.

Raj. quadr. 191.


Si externam corporis figuram spectemus, ad phocas, seu ut vulgo vocantur, vitulos marinos plurimum appro­pinquat Trichechus; cum quibus, si systematis naturalis habeatur ratio, recte consociatur. Color illi est atro-fuscus. Corpus pilis raris conspergitur, cuteque tegitur crassa et rugosa. Caret Trichechus omni formæ venustate. Corpus medium permagnum est, sensimque attenuatur ad caudam brevissimam. Caput maxime rotundatum et breve est: labia crassissima; vibrissæque exinde utrinque crescentes pellucidæ sunt, et stramineæ crassitudinis. Maxillæ superiori insunt dentes duo longissimi, maximi, acuti, deorsum tendentes. In longi­tudinem multorum pedum, aliquando etiam viginti crescit Trichechus Rosmarus.

Hujusmodi bestiarum, hominum conspectum et consortium longe fugientium, perfectam morum vitæque rationis notitiam frustra desideramus; quam sane assequi non licet physicis nisi frequenti visu sedulaque mansue­tiorum animalium observatione. Plurima, ut ait perele­gans scriptor, in deserto horrido, ingentique pelago perficiuntur opera, quæ perspicacissimum hominum acumen semper effugient. Nihil igitur novimus de Trichechorum vita et moribus præter quod narraverint navigatores qui illos in secessibus suis temporariis apud insulas glaciei mari Arctico fluitantes, vel in littoribus Septentrionalibus conspexerint. Gregatim degunt Trichechi, turmisque maximis in littora ad dormiendum conveniunt. Pugnacissimo sunt ingenio, et enormibus dentibus sævissima vulnera inter mutua r certamina sibi invicem infligunt. Vox eorum est ingens rugitus. Præstant fortitudine, et hominum impetum dira vi repellere solent. In regionibus Arcticis ob oleum pinguedinemque copios­issimam occiduntur. Dentes quoque magno sunt in pretio, qui vel ebur superant robore: eboris tamen color longe stabilior.





Generic Character.

Tusks in the upper jaw, large, and pointing downwards.

Grinders four on both sides, above and below.

Cutting teeth none.

Feet palmated.

Specific Character, &c.

WALRUS with long tusks remote from each other.


Penn. Quadr. 2. p. 266.

Arctic Zoology. n. 71. p. 144.

The Morse, Sea-Horse, or WALRUS.

The Walrus is one of those animals which in general shape and appearance make a near approach to the Seal or sea-calf, and in a natural arrangement of quadrupeds must of necessity be disposed in the same tribe. The color of this animal is a darkish v brown: the body is thinly scattered with hair, and the skin is thick and wrinkled. The shape of the Walrus is extremely uncouth; it is very thick in the middle, and gradually lessens towards the tail, which is very short: the head is remarkably short and round; the lips very thick, and the vibrissæ or whiskers consist of transparent bristles as thick as straws. In the upper jaw are two very long, large, acuminated tusks, pointing downwards. The Walrus grows to the length of several feet, and has sometimes been found not far short of twenty feet in length.

Of animals whose habitations and retreats are so far removed from the general haunts of mankind, we must not expect to obtain that exact knowledge with respect to their ways of life which creatures of a more accessible nature permit us to discover. Innumerable stratagems, says an elegant writer, are acted in the gloomy wilderness and in the great deep, which must for ever elude human investigation. All that is known of the general habits of the Walrus is derived from the accounts of navigators and others who have observed them during their temporary abodes either on the floating islands of ice in the northern ocean, or on the frozen coasts of the arctic regions. They are gregarious animals, and sometimes assemble in multitudes on the coasts to sleep. They are of a very pugnacious disposition, and with their enormous teeth inflict the most grievous wounds on each other during their contests. Their voice is a loud roar. They are possessed r of great courage, and resist with dreadful violence the attacks of mankind. They are killed in the northern regions for the sake of their oil, which is extremely plentiful: their teeth are also considered as a valuable article of commerce, being in strength at least equal, if not superior to ivory; their color however is not so lasting.




Chinese Cuckow




Character Genericus.

Rostrum teretiusculum.

Nares margine prominulæ.

Lingua sagittata, plana, integra.

Pedes scansorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 168.

Character Specificus, &c.

CUCULUS macrourus cæruleus, subtus niveus, caudæ tectricibus rectricibusque macula nivea notatis.

CUCULUS cauda cuneiformi macroura, corpore cæruleo subtus albo, rectricum apicibus macula alba.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 171.

CUCULUS sinensis cæruleus.

Briss. av. 4. p. 157. t. 14.

Ab erudito Brissono mutuatus sum hanc descriptionem, qua nulla possit esse plenior et accuratior.

“Speciem istam nondum mihi videre contigit. Ipsius descriptionem desumpsi ab icone in Sina ad v vivum depicta a D. Poivre; et sic eam æri insculptam esse curavi.

“Merulam crassitie circiter æquat. Ipsius longi­tudo ab apice rostri ad caudam extremam tredecim circiter pollices explet, et ad extremos ungues septem pollices et novem lineas. Rostrum ab ipsius apice ad oris angulos usque undecim lineas longum est; cauda septem pollices et sex lineas; pes decem cum semi lineas; digitorum anticorum extimus cum ungue undecim lineas, intimus novem lineas; posticorum exterior decem lineas, interior quinque cum semi lineas. Alæ complicatæ ultra caudæ exortum non multum protenduntur. Summum caput albore nitet, minutisque variegatur maculis cæruleis. Totum reliquum caput et guttur nigricant: color autem nigricans super inferiorem colli partem in acumen protenditur. In utroque capitis latere macula exstat rotunda candida, pone oculum posita. Pars colli superior, dorsum, pennæ scapulares et superiores alarum tectrices splendidissimi cærulei sunt coloris, exceptis tamen superioribus alarum tectricibus majoribus a corpore remotioribus albis. Uropygium dilutissimo tingitur cæruleo. Superiores caudæ tectrices eodem imbuuntur cæruleo ac dorsum ipsum tingitur, et ex istis quælibet majuscula macula ovata nivea versus apicem insignitur. Collum inferius et ad latera, pectus, venter, latera, crura, inferioresque caudæ tectrices niveo candore nitent. Alarum remiges majores sunt ab ipsarum exortu mediam versus longi­tudinem usque dilutissime cæruleæ, a medietate ad apicem eodem ac dorsum cæruleo imbutæ: minores quoque dorso concolores. Caudam G2 componunt decem rectrices splendidissime cæruleas, majuscula macula ovata nivea versus ipsarum apicem notatæ. Binæ intermediæ utrinque proxime sequentem trium pollicum et totidem linearum longi­tudine excedunt: laterales vero gradatim longi­tudine minuuntur ad utrinque extimam usque unum pollicem et novem tantum lineas longam. Oculorum irides rubræ. Mandibulæ superioris basis quibusdam obsita est plumulis rigidis, piliformibus, antrorsum versis. Rostrum, pedes, unguesque rubent. Habitat in Sina.”


Generic Character.

Bill somewhat bending.

Nostrils bounded by a small rim.

Tongue short, pointed.

Feet scansorial.

Specific Character, &c.

Long-tailed blue CUCKOW, white beneath; the tail-feathers and their coverts each marked with a white spot.

Le COCOU bleu de la Chine.

Briss. 4. p. 157.

SAN-HIA de la Chine.

Buf. ois. 6. p. 389.

The Chinese Cuckow is thus described with elaborate exactness by the celebrated ornithologist Brisson.

“Not having seen the bird myself, I have given its description from a drawing taken from the life in China by Mons. Poivre. It is about the size of r a blackbird: its length, from the tip of the bill to the end of the tail, is about thirteen inches; and to the end of the claws about seven inches and nine lines. The bill, from the tip to the corners of the mouth, eleven lines: the tail seven inches and six lines: the foot ten lines and a half: the exterior fore-toe, with the claw, eleven lines; the interior nine lines; the exterior hind-toe ten lines; the interior five lines and a half. The wings, when closed, do not reach much beyond the beginning of the tail. The top of the head is of a clear white, variegated with minute specks of blue: all the rest of the head, with the throat, is blackish: the blackness being produced on the lower part of the neck into a sharpened form. On each side the head is a round white spot, placed behind the eye. The upper part of the neck, the back, the scapular feathers, and the upper wing-coverts are of a most brilliant blue, except the larger upper wing-coverts farthest from the body, which are white: the rump is of a very pale blue: the upper tail-coverts are of the same blue color with the back, and are each marked with a rather large, snow-white spot towards the end: the lower part and sides of the neck, the breast, belly, sides of the body, thighs, and lower tail-coverts are of a beautiful snow-white. The larger wing-feathers are of a very pale blue from their origins to their middles; and from their middles to their tips of the same blue with the back: the smaller wing-feathers are also of the same color with the back. The tail is composed of ten feathers of a very bright blue, each marked towards the tip with a largish snow-white spot: the two middle v feathers exceed in length the two next them on each side by three inches and as many lines; but the side-feathers shorten gradually to the exterior one on each side, which is only one inch and nine lines in length. The irides of the eyes are red: the base of the upper mandible is beset with some small, stiff, hair-like feathers, turned forwards. The beak, feet, and claws are red. It is a native of China.”


Arborescent Vorticella




Character Genericus.

Corpus contractile nudum, ciliis rotatoriis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3874.

Character Specificus, &c.

VORTICELLA composita ovato-truncata, pedunculo reflexili ramosissimo.

Müll. an. inf. p. 328. t. 46. f. 7-9.

VORTICELLA composita, floribus concatenatis, stirpe paniculata subdigitata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1317.

BRACHIONUS vegetans, stirpe retortili umbellata, radiis racemosis, corpusculis campanulatis.

Pall. Zooph. 56.

VORTICELLA polypina.

Müll. hist. verm. 1. p. 123. n. 237.

Mirari jure possint in operibus naturæ minutioribus parum versati, non inter vegetabilia referri quod in tabula proponitur, sed inter animalia. In fere innumeris aquarum incolis quos ope microscopii detexerunt hodierni physici, pulchriores pauci sunt, aut digniores qui penitius exami­nentur, quam v quos continet Vorticellarum genus: quod modo vivendi, et prolem propagandi, polypis seu hydris admodum est affine: adeo ut a multis microscopicis scriptoribus nomine vocatum sit polypi racemati. Sunt enim variæ species quæ fere unitæ et connexæ videntur, plurimis confertis et parvo spatio coarctatis; sunt etiam quæ crescunt et panduntur veluti in racemi similitudinem.

Reperiuntur, ut plurimum, Vorticellæ mensibus æstivis, in aquis purioribus stagnantibus, adhærentes caulibus foliisque plantarum minorum; præcipue autem lemnæ vulgaris. Quam vero jam describimus marina est species, quæ simili modo crescit super fucis minoribus. Tota congeries nudo oculo conspecta videtur quasi macula quædam albicans, viscido-mucosa: nec patet ejus forma mira et peculiaris, donec in aquæ guttula immersa vitroque imposita examen microscopii subierit. Ab unico caule prodeunt incertis intervallis ramuli minores, singulo quasi in florem pulcherrimum desinente convolvulo non absimilem, lateraque habentem adversa filamentis duobus instructa, more staminum. Habet omnis coacer­vatio pelluciditatem vitri purissimi; floresque animati nunc se contrahentes, nunc dilatantes, motu quaqua­versum variato, adeo delectant oculos, ut vix aliud magis quod ope microscopii spectatur. Singulum animalculum, licet stipes omnibus, in commune sit, integrum tamen est et sui juris; cumque plene adoleverit, possit se a patrio solo dissociare, et novam coloniam alio deducere.

Prædantur Vorticellæ animalcula se minora, quæ prope natantia arripiunt ingurgitantque, simul atque in vorticem contorserint aquas gyratis tentaculis.



Generic Character.

Body contractile, naked; furnished with rotatory organs.

Specific Character, &c.

Compound bell-shaped VORTICELLA, with retortile branched stem.

Paniculated sea VORTICELLA.

Tree or Arborescent VORTICELLA.

To those who are not particularly conversant in the history of the minuter productions of Nature it must doubtless be matter of surprise to be informed that the figures on the annexed plate are not the representations of a vegetable but of an animal.

Amongst the innumerable inhabitants of the waters, which the microscope has enabled modern naturalists to discover, few are more strikingly curious than those which constitute the genus Vorticella. These animals, in their general mode of life, their manner of production, and other circumstances, bear a great affinity to the Hydræ or Polypes; and indeed by many microscopical writers have been called by v the title of Cluster-Polypes; many of the species being found in groupes; sometimes formed by the mere approximation of several individuals; and at other times by the ramified or aggregate manner in which they grow.

The Vorticellæ are generally found in clear stagnant waters, during the summer months; attached to the stalks of the smaller water-plants; and particularly to those of the common Lemna or duckweed. The species however here repre­sented is a marine one, and is attached in a similar manner to the stalks of the smaller Fuci. To the naked eye the whole groupe bears the appearance of a very small whitish spot or slime, resembling mouldiness; but when placed in a drop of water on a glass, and examined by the microscope, its extraordinary structure is immediately displayed. From a single stem proceed, at various heights, smaller ramifications, each terminated by a seeming flower, like that of Convolvulus, and furnished on the opposite edges with a pair of filaments resembling stamina. The whole is in the highest degree transparent, and perfectly resembles the finest glass; while the varying motions of the seeming flowers, expanding and contrac­ting occasionally, and turning themselves in different directions, afford a scene so singularly curious that it may be numbered amongst the most pleasing spectacles which the microscope is capable of exhibiting. Each animal, though seated on the common stem, is to be considered as complete in itself, and possesses the power, when fully grown, of detaching itself from the parent stem, affixing r itself in some other spot, and forming a new colony. The Vorticellæ feed on animalcules still smaller than them­selves; and their various motions are commonly exerted in order to obtain their prey, the rotatory motion of their tentacula causing an eddy in the neighbourhood of each individual sufficient to attract into its vortex the animal­cules which happen to swim near, and which the Vorti­cellæ seize, by suddenly contracting, and inclosing them.




Warted Newt




Character Genericus.

Corpus tetrapodum, caudatum, nudum.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 359.

Character Specificus, &c.

LACERTA nigricans, lateribus albido-punctatis, abdomine croceo, maculis inæqualibus nigris.

SALAMANDRA alepidota verrucosa.

Gronov. Mus. 2. p. 77. n. 51.

SALAMANDRA aquatica.

Houttuyn. Act. Ulyss. 9. p. 328.


Laur. amph. p. 39. n. 43. t. 4. f. 2.

Superat interdum magnitudine Lacerta palustris specimina quæ in tabula ostenduntur; rarior et amplior lacerta aquatica, quam alunt fere omnes aquæ stagnantes. Color corporis superioris fusco-nigricat saturatior; infra aurantius, maculis magnis, inæqualibus, nigris, variatus. Latera verruculis plurimis seu atomis convexis, albis, asperguntur; caudaque utrinque fasciam plerumque habet latam, subargenteam, v cum mistura quadam subcærulei. Assurgit magis minusve per dorsum maris quasi crista continuata et compressa inæqualiter serrata.

Amat ut plurimum, hæc species aquas puriores et frigidiores quam quas incolit lacerta aquatica; et ineunte vere, conspici possit vespertino tempore in locis udis juxta margines aquarum, nec non sub sepibus, aliisque latibulis, quæ umbram præbent et humorem.



Generic Character.

Body four-footed, tailed; naked; or unfurnished with any distinct integument.

Specific Character, &c.

Blackish NEWT with the sides speckled with white; the abdomen orange with irregular black spots.

The Warty LIZARD.

Pennt. Brit. Zool. 3. p. 22. t. 3. f. 3.

The black-and-orange WATER-NEWT.

The greater WATER-NEWT.

The Lacerta palustris is a species somewhat less common than the lacerta aquatica, which occurs in almost every stagnant water: it is also of a superior size; being sometimes found considerably larger than the specimens here repre­sented. Its color is an extremely deep blackish brown above, and a bright orange beneath, variegated with large irregular black spots. The sides of the body are sprinkled v over with numerous white convex specks or tubercles, and on each side of the tail there is commonly a broad streak of a silvery hue, with a cast of blueish. The back of the male is more or less distinguished by a kind of flattened process, divided into irregular serratures. This species is commonly met with in waters of a clearer and colder nature than those in which the lacerta aquatica is found; and in the beginning of spring may occasionally be observed, towards the evening, in damp situations near the margins of ponds, as well as under hedges, and other shady situations.


Great Cerambyx

London, Published March 1st 1797 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 92 Newman Street near Oxford Street.




Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ.

Palpi quatuor.

Thorax spinosus aut gibbus.

Elytra linearia.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 1814.

Character Specificus, &c.

CERAMBYX thorace utrinque tridentato, corpore nigro, elytris ferrugineis, antennis brevibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 1816.

PRIONUS giganteus.

Fab. spec. ins. 1. p. 206.

Depingitur Cerambyx giganteus magnitudine naturali. Americam australem inhabitat, physicisque Europæis paucis abhinc annis innotuit. A Domino Drury in elegan­tissimo opere de insectis exoticis eximie exprimitur, nec non a Domino Daubenton in opere cui titulus Planches Enluminées. Color est obscure castaneus, seu terreo-fuscus, thorace paulum nigriore. Elytra, seu alarum thecæ exteriores, quodammodo scabra sunt: antennæ brevissimæ.



Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous.

Thorax either spinose or gibbose.

Palpi four.

Wing-Cases long or linear.

Specific Character, &c.

Black CERAMBYX, with ferruginous wing-cases, short antennæ, and thorax tridentated on each side.

Le THUSTE de Cayenne.

Pl. Enl. 64. f. 2.

The great short-horned CERAMBYX.

The Cerambyx giganteus, represented in its natural size on the annexed plate, is a native of South America, and was introduced to the notice of European naturalists some few years backwards. It has been extremely well figured by Mr. Drury, in his elegant work on exotic insects; as also by Mons. Daubenton in his Planches Enluminées. Its color is a uniform dull chesnut, or earthy brown: the thorax is somewhat darker or blacker than the other parts: the elytra or wing-cases are of a roughish surface, and the antennæ are remarkably short.


Cyanean Creeper




Character Genericus.

Rostrum arcuatum, tenue, subtrigonum, acutum.

Lingua acuta.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 184.

Character Specificus, &c.

CERTHIA CYANEA, vertice beryllino, alis caudaque nigris, tectricibus inferioribus flavis.

CERTHIA cærulea, fascia oculari humeris alis caudaque nigris, pedibus rubris.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 188.

CERTHIA cærulea, fascia oculari, humeris, alis caudaque nigris, pedibus fuscis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 483.

Certhiæ familiari æqualis prope est magni­tudine avis quam repræsentat tabula. Generatur in America Australi, in Cayana autem præcipue.





Generic Character.

Bill slender, incurvated, sharp-pointed.

Tongue differing in shape in the different species.

Legs moderately stout.

Toes three before; one behind: back-toe large; claws hooked and long.

Specific Character, &c.

Blue CREEPER, with the wings and tail black; the crown beryl-coloured; the under wing-coverts yellow.

GUIT-GUIT noir et bleu.

Buff. ois. 5. p. 529.


Pl. Enl. 83. f. 2.

Black-and-blue CREEPER.

Edw. pl. 264. f. 1.

The bird represented on the plate is an inhabitant of South America, and is principally found in the province of Cayenne. Its size is nearly that of the common English Creeper.




Bamffian Lobster




Character Genericus.

Pedes octo (rarius sex aut decem); insuper manus duæ chelatæ.

Palpi sex inæquales.

Oculi duo distantes, plurimis pedunculati; elongati, mobiles.

Mandibula cornea, crassa.

Labium triplex.

Cauda articulata, inermis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2963.

Character Specificus, &c.

CANCER elongatus, thorace striato, brachiis longissimis.

CANCER thorace rugoso, antice ciliato spinoso, rostro tridente, manibus filiformibus.

Fab. sp. ins. 1. p. 508.

CANCER rugosus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2985.

In variis Europæ Arcticæ oris conspici possit hæc cancri species, ob enormem crurum anticorum longi­tudinem v notabilis, nec non ob summam thoracis superioris elegantiam; qui laminis decoratur plurimis transversis, quasi imbricatim dispositis, et subtiliter serratis, ipsis quoque marginibus belle ciliatis.



Generic Character.

Legs generally eight (in some species six or ten).

Feelers six, unequal.

Eyes two, generally distant, footstalked, moveable.

Tail articulated, unarmed.

Specific Character, &c.

Long-bodied CRAB, with striated thorax and very long arms.


Long-clawed LOBSTER.

Pennt. Brit. Zool. 4. p. 14. pl. 13. n. 25.

This curious species is distinguished by the enormous length of its arms, as well as by the singular elegance of the upper part of the thorax, which is ornamented with a great many transverse, finely-serrated laminæ, disposed over each other in an imbricated manner, and beautifully ciliated on the margins. It is found on several of the Northern coasts of Europe.




Vermicular Serpula




Character Genericus.

Animal Terebella.

Testa univalvis, tubulosa, adhærens, (sæpe isthmis integris passim intercepta.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1264.

Character Specificus, &c.

SERPULA testa tereti, subulata, curvata, rugosa.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1267.


Ellis Corall. t. 38. f. 2.

Specierum quas plurimas continet genus Serpula varium omnino et inæquale, diversa admodum est forma et magni­tudo. Species quam magni­tudine naturali depinximus, in litoribus Britannicis aliisque Europæis sæpe conspicitur, quasi in longi­tudinem agglutinata conchis majoribus, rupibus, lapidibus, reliquisque ejusmodi. Pulcherrima sunt tentacula quasi plumata, eodem colore quo corpus, scilicet vivide rubra; quæque, cum animal escam quæritat, insecta nempe parvula marina aliaque id generis, exseruntur; v et assurgit inter tentacula tuba, margine ampliore, tubæ bellicæ non longe absimilis, quam juxta est et alia simplicior. Corpus reliquum intra testam contrahitur, et ad similitudinem hirudinis quodammodo accedit.



Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Terebella.

Shell univalve, tubular, adhering commonly to other substances, (in some species intercepted internally by dissepiments at uncertain distances.)

Specific Character, &c.

SERPULA with round, tapering, curved, wrinkled shell.


Common SERPULA or Worm-shell.

The genus Serpula, consisting of a great number of species of very different sizes and forms, is among the least regular of the testaceous tribe; and the inhabiting animals appear of a very different cast from those of any other shells. The species here figured in its natural size, is not uncommon on the British and other European coasts. It is found attached, or agglutinated as it were, longi­tudinally, to the larger v shells, rocks, stones, or other substances. The animal is remarkable for the elegance of its plumy tentacula, which, as well as the body, are of a bright scarlet color, and are protruded when the creature is in quest of prey; viz. the smaller sea insects, &c. Between the tentacula arises a curious tube with a dilated opening not ill resembling the form of a trumpet; and near this appears another tube of a more simple structure. The remainder or body of the animal is imbedded in the shell, and bears a distant resemblance to a leech.


Stag-Horned Cerambyx




Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ.

Palpi quatuor.

Thorax spinosus aut gibbus.

Elytra linearia.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 1814.

Character Specificus, &c.

CERAMBYX thorace utrinque tridentato, mandibulis porrectis corniformibus spinosis, elytris fusco et flavescente variis.

CERAMBYX thorace marginato dentato, maxillis porrectis corniformibus utrinque spinosis, antennis brevibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 622.

CERAMBYX thorace utrinque tridentato, mandibulis porrectis, extus unispinosis, antennis brevibus.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 1814.

Magnitudine naturali depingitur Cerambyx cervicornis, inter maximos sui generis numerandus. In America meridionali præcipue conspicitur.





Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous.

Thorax either spinose or gibbose.

Palpi four.

Wing-Cases long or linear.

Specific Character, &c.

Great CERAMBYX, with the thorax tridentated on each side; the jaws resembling horns; the wing-sheaths variegated with brown and yellowish.

The Stag-horned variegated CERAMBYX.

Le BUFLARD de Cayenne.

Daubent. Pl. Enl. 90. fig. 3.

Mer. Sur. pl. 48.

Roes. 2. p. 12. t. 1. f. B.

Sloan. Jam. 2. t. 237. f. 6.

The Stag-horned Cerambyx, which is one of the largest insects of the genus, is a native of South America, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.




Golden Oriole




Character Genericus.

Rostrum conicum, convexum, acutissimum, rectum: mandibula superiore paulo longiore, obsolete emarginata.

Lingua bifida, acuta.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 160.

Character Specificus, &c.

ORIOLUS luteus, loris alis caudaque nigris, rectricibus exterioribus postice flavis.

ORIOLUS luteus, loris artubusque nigris, rectricibus exterioribus postice flavis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 160.

TURDUS luteus.

Frisch. t. 31.

TURDUS aureus.

Klein. av. p. 66.


Raii Syn. p. 68.


Oriolus Galbula, aves plerasque Europæas pulchritudine superans, quemque satis abundanter alit reliqua Europa, in insulas Britannicas fortuitus hospes rarissime defertur. Magnitudo est quasi turdi communis. Color feminæ olivaceus.



Generic Character.

Bill conic, convex, very sharp-pointed, strait: the upper mandible rather longer than the lower, and slightly emarginated.

Tongue bifid, sharp-pointed.

Feet formed for walking.

Specific Character, &c.

Gold-yellow ORIOLE with black lores wings and tail: the exterior tail-feathers yellow on their lower part.

The Golden THRUSH.

Edw. t. 185.

Golden ORIOLE.

Lath. Syn. 1. p. 449.


Will. orn. p. 198.


Buf. 3. p. 254. t. 17.

The Oriolus Galbula, surpassing most of the European birds in beauty of plumage, is not uncommon v in Germany, France, and many other parts of the continent, but is seen only as an occasional straggler, (and even that but very rarely,) in the British dominions. Its size is that of a common thrush. The female is olive-coloured.


Green Scarus




Character Genericus.

Caput: Dentium loco maxillæ ipsæ eminentes; margine dentato-crenatæ osseæ.

Membrana branchiostega radiis quinque; Operculum integerrimum.

Corpus: Linea lateralis plurimis ramosa.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 1280.

Character Specificus, &c.

SCARUS viridis, linea laterali interrupta.

SCARUS linea laterali interrupta.

Block ausl. Fisch. 7. t. 222.

Ad generis Scari distinctionem insignis est forma dentium, qui constant e duabus quasi maxillis seu laminis osseis in utraque mandibula sitis, quales sunt in genere Tetrodontis; margine vero serie denticulorum separa­torum crenata. Hæ quoque ipsæ lamina osseæ, si accuratius inspiciantur, constare videntur in nonnullis speciebus e congerie quasi dentium minorum, super se invicem serie continuata surgentium, adeo ut belle cælatas putes. Squamæ pluribus scaris magnæ sunt, et colores vividi. Scarus quem ostendit tabula, æquat magni­tudine Cyprinum Carpionem, et alitur in aquis Japonicis.





Generic Character.

Strong bony processes, crenated at the edges, instead of teeth.

Specific Character.

Green SCARUS, with interrupted lateral line.

The genus Scarus is eminently distinguished by the form of its teeth, which consist of a pair of strong, bony processes in each jaw, as in the genus Tetrodon; but marked or crenated round the edges by a number of separate denticulations: the whole body also of the bony processes themselves, if narrowly examined, will be found to consist, in some species, of a kind of aggregate mass of smaller teeth, placed as it were in succession over each other, and giving a beautiful kind of carved appearance to the whole. The scales in most of the Scari are large, and the colors beautiful. The present species is about the size of a Carp, and is a native of Japan.




Imbricated Tortoise




Character Genericus.

Corpus tetrapodum, caudatum, testa obtectum.

Os mandibulis nudis, edentulis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 350.

Character Specificus, &c.

TESTUDO palmarum plantarumque unguibus binis, scutis laxe atque imbricatim incumbentibus?

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 1036.

TESTUDO Caretta.

Raj. quadr. p. 258?

TESTUDO Marina Americana?

Seb. Mus. 1. p. 130. t. 80. fig. 9.

Dividitur genus in testudines terrestres, fluviatiles, et marinas. Marinis quæ vulgo dicuntur Turtles, pedes sunt quasi pinniformes, lati, et squamati. Harum præcipua est species Mydas dicta, hodie habita in exquisitissimis dapibus. Dividi solet tegmen testudinis jam depictæ, nec non testudinis Mydæ et Carettæ Linnæi, in tenues lamellas artificiose v paratas et expolitas; unde multa et satis quæstuosa sit mercatura. Crustis testudinis lectos, domuum postes, et reliqua ejusmodi decorare mos erat veteribus.

Fœcundæ admodum sunt testudines pleræque marinas, ovaque numerosa in arena deponunt, ovis gallinaceis non absimilia, sed cute quasi membranacea obtecta, et rotundata; unde post paucos dies exclusi pulli mari se illico credunt. Amplissima interdum est moles testudinis imbricatæ & Mydæ. Fuisse dicuntur nonnullæ pondo sexcenis, longi­tudine plus quinquipedali. Communiter autem captantur bipedales, seu tripedales. Alitur præcipue testudo imbricata in maribus Americanis, frequentior apud insulas Jamaicæ, Cubæ, Hispaniolæ, &c. Victitat, ut solent aliæ testudines marinæ, testaceis, sepiis, fucis, reliquisque ejusmodi.



Generic Character.

Body four-footed, tailed; covered with a shell.

Mouth with uncovered, toothless, bony mandibles.

Specific Character, &c.

SEA-TORTOISE with two claws on each foot; the shell consisting of laxly-imbricated, acuminated scales.

Hawk’s-Bill TURTLE?

Brown. Jam. p. 465.


Grew. Mus. p. 38. t. 3.

The animals of this genus are divided into land, river, and sea tortoises; which latter are commonly distin­guished by the name of Turtles; and are furnished with broad, flat feet, resembling a kind of thick, scaly fins. Of these the most important species is the Testudo Mydas, which has long been celebrated for the peculiar delicacy of its flesh, and which forms a principal article in the repasts of v modern epicures. It is from the species here repre­sented, as well as from the Caretta and Mydas of Linnæus, that a great part of what is commonly called tortoise-shell is procured; and which, when properly prepared and polished, affords so many beautiful and valuable articles of commerce. The ancients were well acquainted with the ornamental use of tortoise-shell, and applied it to the decoration of their houses, &c.

Most of the animals of this tribe are extremely prolific, and deposit their eggs, which are about the size of hen’s eggs, but round, and covered with a membranaceous skin, under the sand; which, after a certain number of days, are hatched; and the young immediately betake themselves to the sea. The Testudo imbricata and Mydas grow sometimes to a vast size; and have been seen of the length of five or six feet, and of the weight of many hundred pounds: the general length however is about two or three feet. This species is a native of the American seas, and is common about the coasts of Jamaica, Cuba, Hispaniola, &c. Like the rest of its tribe, it feeds on shell-fish, cuttles, fuci, &c. &c.


Tiger Moth




Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attenuatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ. (Volatu nocturno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 808.

Character Specificus, &c.

PHALÆNA Bombyx alis albis fusco maculatis; inferioribus rubris nigro maculatis.

PHALÆNA Bombyx elinguis, alis deflexis fuscis, rivulis albis; inferioribus purpureis nigro punctatis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 819.

Goed. ins. t. 17.

Roes. ins. 1. phal. 2. t. 1.

Mouss. ins. 93. f. 15.

Aldr. ins. 246. f. 11. 12.

Polyphaga vocatur larva pulcherrimi hujus insecti; depascitur nempe varia gramina, plantaginem, et alia vegetabilia. In chrysalidem plerumque convertitur mense Junio, tela quadam tenui cooperta. Erumpere solet phalæna mensibus Julio et Augusto.





Generic Character.

Antennæ or Horns setaceous, decreasing in size from the base to the point.

Wings, when at rest, generally deflected.

Flight mostly nocturnal.

Specific Character, &c.

PHALÆNA with the upper wings cream-coloured, spotted with brown; the lower wings red, spotted with black.

The Great Tiger Moth.

Merian. ins. Eur. t. 5.

Albin. ins. t. 20.

Degeer. ins. 1. t. 12. f. 8. 9.

Seba. 4. p. 63. t. 52. fig. F. 1-4.

Sepp. ins. 4. t. 9. f. 2.

The Larva or Caterpillar of this beautiful Moth is of a polyphagous nature; feeding indiscriminately on grass, plantain, and a variety of other vegetables. It commonly changes to a chrysalis in June, enveloping itself in a web of a slight texture. The Moth appears in July and August.




Wall Creeper




Character Genericus.

Rostrum arcuatum, tenue, subtrigonum, acutum.

Lingua acuta.

Pedes ambulatorii.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 184.

Character Specificus, &c.

CERTHIA cinerea, alis caudaque nigris; tectricibus roseis, remigibus roseo marginatis.

CERTHIA cinerea, macula alarum fulva.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 184.

PICUS muralis.

Gesn. av. p. 712.

PICUS murarius.

Aldr. av. 1. p. 851.

Will. orn. p. 99. t. 23.

Italiam sibi sedem præcipuam selegit Certhia muraria; rara tamen et ibi; in reliqua Europa longe rarior. In muris turrium aliorumque ædificiorum, ut plurimum, solet reptare, necem parans insectis. Solivaga est avis, nec unquam volat gregatim. Maris guttur stria seu fascia-nigra distinguitur. Ostenditur in tabula naturalis magni­tudo.



Generic Character.

Bill slender, incurvated, sharp-pointed.

Tongue differing in the different species.

Toes three before; one behind: claws hooked and long.

Specific Character, &c.

Grey CREEPER, with black wings and tail; the coverts rose-coloured; the quills edged with rose-colour.

The WALL-CREEPER, or Spider-catcher.

Will. orn. p. 143. t. 23.

Le GRIMPEREAU de muraille.

Buf. ois. 5. p. 487. t. 22.

The Certhia Muraria or Wall Creeper may be consi­dered as one of the rarer European birds, being very little known in any other country except Italy; and even there it is by no means common. It principally frequents towers and other edifices, creeping about the walls in quest of insects. It is a bird of a solitary nature, and is never seen in flocks. The male is distinguished by a black stripe or longi­tudinal patch on the throat. The plate represents it in its natural size.


Madrepore Terebella




Character Genericus.

Corpus oblongum repens nudum, branchiis ad latera instructum, sæpius in tubulo.

Os anterius labiatum edentulum, proboscidem clavatam exferens.

Tentacula circum os capillaria, plura, ciliata.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3112.

Character Specificus, &c.

TEREBELLA tentaculis spiraliter fasciculatis, proboscidis disco bicorni.

TEREBELLA proboscidis disco simplici terminali bicorni??

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3114.

Act. Angl. tom. 75. p. 333. t. 11.

In opere hoc nostro jam antea notatum est, foramina quæ in Madreporis magnis et globosis sæpius cernuntur, non a natura originem ducere, sed ab animali aliquo sedem sibi in madrepora quærente, esse terebrata. Qui de hoc plus doceri cupit, adeat lector Actorum Anglicorum volumen septuagesimum v quintum, in quo insigne profertur exemplum ab ingenioso Domino Home, qui commentario suo adjecit quicquid præterea observavit celeberrimus Joannes Hunterus. Et quantum colligere possumus a figura, quam inde in tabellam nostram transtulimus, ut melius illustraretur res de qua quæritur; censemus animal in madrepora latitans, speciem esse Terebellæ; quæ cum semel madreporam terebraverit, manet in cavo, exinde se, ut verisimile est, ad libitum protrudens, prædæ studio.

Figura prima ostendit animal e foramine exemptum. Secunda frustum madreporæ cum cellula in qua latet Terebella.



Generic Character.

Body oblong, repent, naked: often inhabiting a tube.

Mouth without teeth, in some species exserting a clavated proboscis.

Tentacula several, capillary and ciliated; in some species fasciculated.

Specific Character.

TEREBELLA with spirally fasciculated tentacula; the head of the proboscis furnished with two horns.

It has been already observed in the course of the present work, that the foramina which frequently appear in some of the larger globose Madrepores, are not always owing to the natural structure of the coral, but rather to the operation of some other animal, which thus forms itself a habitation in the madrepore. Of this a curious instance has been observed by the ingenious Mr. Home, whose memoir on this subject may be seen in the seventy-fifth v volume of the Philosophical Transactions, accompanied by some farther observations by Mr. John Hunter. From the figure there given, and which we have here copied, as an illustration of this particular, it appears that the animal should be considered as a species of Terebella, which, when it has formed itself a hole in the madrepore, continues to reside there, and may be supposed to protrude itself occasionally from its cell in quest of prey.

Fig. 1. The animal taken out of its cell.

Fig. 2. A piece of the madrepore, with the cell in which the terebella resides.


Russelian Snake




Character Genericus.

Scuta abdominalia.

Squamæ subcaudales.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 275.

Character Specificus.

COLUBER fusco-flavescens, maculis dorsalibus ovato-acuminatis nigricantibus albo marginatis, lateralibus minoribus ovatis.

Scuta abdominalia 168. Squamæ subcaudales 59.

Longus est quasi quatuor pedes serpens quem describere in animo est. Capitis largiusculi pars superior squamis parvulis contegitur. Nasus obtusus. Rictus oris amplus. Tela magna, et (quod variis serpentibus venenatis contingit), duplicia; minus nempe in utraque maxilla adjacet majori. Color eleganter fusco-flavescit, ducta per totam dorsi longi­tudinem macularum fuscarum, rhombi­formium, seu potius ovatarum serie continua, quarum medium pallet, margines albent; quæque aliquibus in locis confluunt, ut cernere est in tabula. Utrinque in lateribus sitæ sunt maculæ ovatæ, fuscæ, minores iis v quæ in tergo sunt; et præterea transversim sparguntur aliæ vel his minores. Corpus inferius albet, scutorum seu lamel­larum multarum marginibus notas aliquot fuscas habentibus.

Speciem hanc primus descripsit Dominus Russelius, libri auctor de Serpentibus Indicis, quique specimine quod depinximus Museum Britannicum ditavit. Narrat Russelius in India non rarius reperiri hunc serpentem quam ipse Coluber Naja; eique vix et ne vix cedere telo venenato: suis enim experimentis probavit vir doctus, horæ momento post morsum tricies et sex elapso, interiisse pullos gallinaceos; ipsum autem canem, exacto fere semihoræ spatio.



Generic Character.

Transverse Lamellæ under the abdomen.

Broad alternate Scales under the tail.

Specific Character, &c.

Brownish-yellow SNAKE, with acutely-ovate blackish dorsal spots edged with white, and smaller ovate lateral ones.

Abdominal lamellæ 168. Subcaudal scales 59.

Katuka Rekula Poda.

Russel’s Indian Serpents. p. 10. pl. 7.

The length of this remarkable snake is about four feet: the head is rather large, and covered on its upper part with small scales: the snout obtuse: the mouth wide: the fangs large, and, (as in several other poisonous serpents), double; a smaller fang being situated close to the larger one on each side. The color of the animal is an elegant pale yellowish brown, marked throughout the whole length of the back with a continued chain or series of large rhomboid, or rather oval spots of deep brown, with paler v middles, and narrow white edges: in some parts these spots are nearly confluent, as shewn in the figure: on each side of the body is a row of brown oval spots, smaller than those on the back; and besides these a few still smaller transverse marks are scattered here and there on the sides: the under part of the body is white, with a few dusky spots.

This species appears to have been first described by Dr. Patrick Russel, who presented the elegant specimen here figured to the British Museum. Dr. Russel, in his work on Indian Serpents, informs us that it is scarce less common in India than the Coluber Naja or Cobra de Capello; and that its poison is nearly as deleterious. Its bite, according to Dr. Russel’s experiments, proved fatal to chickens in thirty-six seconds, and to a dog in twenty-six minutes.


Great Dytiscus




Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, aut clavato-perfoliatæ.

Pedes postici villosi, natatorii, submutici.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 664.

Character Specificus, &c.

DYTISCUS niger nitidus, antennis perfoliatis, sterno postice mucronato.

DYTISCUS antennis perfoliatis, corpore lævi, sterno carinato, postice mucronato.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 664.

HYDROPHILUS ruficornis.

Degeer. 4. p. 371. t. 14. f. 1. 2.

DYTISCUS hastatus.

Herbst. Besch. der naturf. Berl. Fr. 4. t. 7. f. 2.

HYDROPHILUS niger, &c.

Geoffr. ins. Par. 1. p. 182. t. 3. f. 1.


Lyonet Less. t. 2. p. 54. n. 110. t. 1. f. 15-17.

Omnium qui in Britannia generantur maximus est Dytiscus piceus. A cæteris facillime dignoscitur, v quippe qui totus nigerrimus thoracem inferiorem solus gerat mucronatum; quod non nisi paucis exoticis contingit, nulli præter hunc Britannico. Aliæ licet species magis abundent, hujus tamen nulla est penuria. Piscinas amat aquasque stagnantes, larvaque ejus ut et aliorum Dytiscorum atrocissime prædatur teneriora insecta, nec non vermes et pisciculos, quos oris forcipibus correptos sugendo enecat. Hujus aliorumque majorum Dytiscorum juniores ab antiquioribus physicis nomine Squillarum aquaticarum describi soliti sunt; esse enim eos revera larvas tunc temporis ignorabant. Licet inter larvas diversarum specierum maxima sit similitudo, hujus tamen cæteris major sibi peculiare quiddam habet et anomalum, cui vix simile in aliis animalibus invenias: crura nempe, ni penitius examinentur, non ut aliorum insectorum, sub thorace sita videntur, sed supra, indeque ad latera deflecti. Crura autem non revera dorso inseruntur, sed oritur deceptio a peculiari quadam conformatione situque capitis; augetque deceptionem larvæ tum natantis tum quiescentis inversa plerumque positio; adeo ut difficile sit vel exercitatissimo physico errorem semel conceptum ex animo excutere. Frischius in historia insectorum ne minimum dubitasse videtur crura reapse esse dorso inserta: et celeberrimus Reaumurius cum huic simile aliquod in alio insecto aquatico obser­vasset, attonitus rei novitate phænomenon unicum nec alibi uspiam conspectum commemoravit. Auctor quoque quarti voluminis Sebæ Thesauri lectores sedulo admonet, sculptorem corrigere volentem quod falso et inscite delineatum putavit, pedes hujus larvæ non supra r thoracem sed subtus depinxisse. Lyonettus autem, multo vir acumine, in notas quas adjecit libro Lesseri, cui titulus “Theologie des Insectes,” errorem vulgarem primus videtur detexisse, et veram larvæ conformationem luculenter descripsisse.

Dytiscorum larvæ non nisi post duos? circiter annos in pupas seu chrysalidas transformantur: cum enim ad plenam magni­tudinem pervenerint, in cavo aliquo ripæ latibulo torpidæ aliquandiu dormiunt; deinde cutim exuunt et chrysalides fiunt. Elapso certo tempore, iterum exuviæ abjiciuntur, ipseque Dytiscus jam plene formatus erumpit; qui chrysalidis cute primum deposita, tener­rimus est et coloris pallidi; paucis vero horis elytra seu alarum tegumenta satis indurantur, colore gradatim magis magisque fusco donec penitus nigraverit; et tum demum insectum nova gaudens forma, nec alias ullas vices subiturum, aquis se audacter concredit.

Mares Dytiscos distinguit a feminis crurum anticorum diversitas, quæ juxta pedum insitionem concava quadam cornea et rotundata parte velut clypeolo instruuntur, quo prorsus carent crura feminea. Toti generi peculiaris est et miranda crurum posticorum formatio, quorum latera interiora serie pilorum longorum et densorum obsita sunt, pinnas quodammodo referentium; quibus magnopere in natando adjuvantur. Notandum porro est Dytiscum feminam speciei jam depictæ exemplum præbere artis, aliis (ut videtur) insectis coleoptratis penitus incognitæ; telam nempe nendi complanatam, circularem, sericam, quam super aquas libere fluitantem relinquit, ibique ova sua deponit; cujusque v superficies superior cornu in formam quasi coni crescente terminatur, longo, fusco, et densiori ipsa theca, quæ albet. Larvæ ut primum a thecæ carcere liberantur, aquis se illico credunt. Quod mirum in historia Dytisci primus notavit Dominus Lyonettus.

Cavendum est putemus Dytiscos non posse sub dio vivere; frequenter enim per prata vagantur, in hanc vel illam aquam ad libitum se recipientes: quod cum noctu præcipue fiat, non mirum esse si ignoretur. Si incaute ex aquis nuda manu excipiatur Dytiscus piceus, eo est robore ut cutim mucrone thoracico interdum luctando vulneret.



Generic Character.

Antennæ either setaceous or clavato-perfoliate.

Hind Feet formed for swimming, villose on the interior side, and scarce perceptibly clawed.

Specific Character, &c.

Glossy-black DYTISCUS, with perfoliate antennæ and long thoracic spine pointing backwards.

The large Black WATER-BEETLE.


Grew. Mus. p. 170.

The insect here figured is the largest of all the British Dytisci, and is at once distinguished by its uniform blackness, and by the remarkable spine or process proceeding from the lower part of the thorax; and which, though occurring in some exotic Dytisci, is found in no other British species. It is not a very uncommon animal, though far more so than some others of the genus. It is found in ponds and stagnant waters; where its larva, like those of v other species, commits great havoc amongst the more tender aquatic insects, as well as amongst worms and young fish, which it seizes with its forcipated jaws, and destroys by sucking out their juices. The larvæ of the larger Dytisci were described by the older writers on natural history under the title of Squillæ aquaticæ; and were not at that time known to be Dytisci in their first or caterpillar state. There is a great similarity between the larvæ of the different Dytisci; but that of the present species is distinguished by a particularity so very remarkable as scarce to be equalled by any other creature. This consists in the apparently anomalous situation of the legs; which seem, unless very accurately examined, to be placed, not beneath the thorax, as in other insects, but on the upper part, and from thence to be deflected towards the sides. This uncommon appearance however is not owing to a real dorsal instead of ventral insertion of the legs, but principally to the peculiar shape and position of the head; and the deception is so much heightened by the inverted posture in which the insect generally swims and rests, that it is by no means easy even for the most scientific observer to divest himself of the erroneous idea before mentioned. Frisch, in his History of Insects, appears to have been completely convinced of the real dorsal insertion of the legs; and the celebrated Reaumur, having discovered something similar in another aquatic insect, was so struck with the unusual appearance, that he has commemorated it as a circumstance unparalleled in the animal world. The author of M the fourth volume of Seba’s Thesaurus was of the same opinion, and expressly warns his readers that his engraver, thinking to rectify what he supposed an erroneous drawing, has repre­sented the legs in this larva as situated beneath the thorax, and not on the upper part. The sagacious Lyonett, in his observations on Lesser’s “Theologie des Insectes,” seems to have been the first who detected the common error, and ascertained the real structure of the animal, which he has clearly and satisfactorily explained.

The larvæ of the Dytisci remain about two? years before they change into pupæ or chrysalides. When the larva is arrived at its full growth, it secretes itself in the bank of the water it inhabits, and having formed a convenient cavity or cell, lies dormant for some time; after which it divests itself of its skin, and appears in the form of a chrysalis; in which state having continued for some time longer, it again delivers itself from its exuviæ, and appears in its complete or Beetle form. When first disengaged from the skin of the chrysalis, it is of a pale color, and very tender: in the space however of a few hours, the elytra or wing-cases acquire a degree of strength and a dark color, which gradually grows more and more intense, till the animal, finding itself sufficiently strong, comes forth from its retreat, and commits itself in its new form to the waters.

The male Dytisci are distinguished from the females by the structure of the fore legs, which are furnished, near the setting on of the feet, with a sort of horny, concave flap or shield: the legs of the v females are destitute of this part. The structure of the hind legs, in the whole genus Dytiscus is singularly curious, and finely calculated for their aquatic mode of life; being furnished on the interior side with a series of long and close-set filaments, so as to give a sort of finny appearance to the legs, and to enable the animal to swim with the greatest ease and celerity. It may be added that the female of the Dytiscus piceus affords an example of a faculty which seems to be exercised by no other coleopterous insects; viz. that of spinning a kind of web or flattish, circular case of silk, which it leaves floating on the surface of the water, and in which it deposits its eggs: this case is terminated on its upper surface by a lengthened, conical process resembling a horn; of a brown color, and of a much stronger or denser nature than the case itself, which is white. The young larvæ, as soon as hatched, make their escape from the envelopement of the case, and commit themselves to the water. This curious particular in the history of the Dytiscus piceus was first discovered by Lyonett.

It is not to be imagined that because the Dytisci are so generally seen in the water, they are therefore incapable of living in air: on the contrary, they sometimes emerge, and fly about the fields, and thus migrate from water to water: but as this happens chiefly by night, it is not generally observed.

The Dytiscus piceus is an insect of great strength, and if incautiously handled when taken out of the water, will struggle in the hand with so much force as sometimes to wound the skin with its thoracic spine.


Gangetic Ibis




Character Genericus.

Rostrum longum, subulatum, teretiusculum, subarcuatum.

Facies ultra oculos nuda.

Lingua brevis, lata.

Saccus jugularis nudus.

Nares ovatæ.

Pedes tetradactyli, basi palmati.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 240.

Character Specificus, &c.

TANTALUS albus, tectricibus alarum remigibusque nigricantibus, uropygio roseo.

TANTALUS leucocephalus.

Lath. ind. orn. 2. p. 706.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 649.

In India innascitur Tantalus Gangeticus; magni­tudine Ciconiam æquans vel superans. In Ceylonia quoque, aliisque insulis indicis conspicitur. Rostrum flavum. Pedes carnei.



Generic Character.

Bill long, thick at the base, incurvated.

Face, and sometimes the whole head, naked.

Nostrils linear.

Tongue short.

Toes connected at the base by a membrane.

Specific Character, &c.

White IBIS, with the wing-coverts and remiges blackish; the tail-coverts rose-coloured.

White-headed IBIS.

Pennt. Ind. Zool. p. 47. t. 11.

Lath. Syn. 3. p. 116.

The Gangetic Ibis is a native of India, and is also found in Ceylon and other Indian islands. In size it is equal, or rather superior to the common Stork. The bill is yellow: the legs pale rose-color.






Character Genericus.

Corpus se affigens tentaculis, oblongum, teretiusculum.

Ovaria bina, tanquam totidem caudæ.

Tentacula brachiformia duo seu tria.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1092.

Characteres Specifici, &c.

LERNÆA radiata.

L. corpore quadrato depresso, brachiis utrinque tribus, cornubus quatuor rectis.

Müll. zool. dan. 1. p. 122. n. 57. t. 33. fig. 4.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3146.

Habitat in Coryphænæ rupestris oris angulis.

LERNÆA gobina.

L. corpore rhomboidali, brachiis duobus anterioribus totidemque posterioribus nodosis, cornubus duobus arietinis.

Müll. zool. dan. 1. p. 121. t. 33. fig. 3.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3145.

Habitat in Cotti Gobionis branchiis.


LERNÆA nodosa.

L. corpore quadrato tuberculato, brachiis subtus brevissimis utrinque duobus.

Müll. zool. dan. 1. p. 123. n. 58. t. 33. fig. 5.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3146.

Habitat in Percæ Norvegicæ rictu.

LERNÆA cornuta.

L. corpore oblongo, brachiis quatuor rectis emarginatis, capite subovato.

Müll. zool. dan. 1. p. 124. n. 59. t. 33. fig. 6.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3146.

Habitat in Pleuronectis Platessa et Linguatula.

LERNÆA pectoralis.

L. capite orbiculato hemisphærico, abdominis obcordati papilla terminali truncata.

Müll. zool. dan. 1. p. 125. n. 60. t. 33. fig. 7.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3146.

Habitat in Pleuronectarum et Æglefini pinnis.

Piscium corporibus affigunt se Lernææ, branchiis præcipue et pinnis adhærentes. Depinguntur species in tabula vera magni­tudine juxta ipsam naturam.



Generic Character.

Body oblong somewhat cylindric, affixing itself by tentacula.

Ovaries two, resembling tails.

Tentacula resembling arms, two or three in number on each side.

Specific Character, &c.

Radiated LERNÆA.

LERNÆA with square depressed body, three pair of arms and four strait horns.

It is found about the mouth of the Coryphæna rupestris.

Gobian LERNÆA.

LERNÆA with rhomboid body, two nodose anterior and posterior arms, and two curved horns.

It is found on the gills of the Cottus Gobio.

Knotty LERNÆA.

LERNÆA with square tuberculated body, with two very short arms beneath on each side.

Found in the mouth of the Perca norvegica.


Horned LERNÆA.

LERNÆA with oblong body, four strait emarginated arms, and subovate head.

Found on the Plaise, &c.

Pectoral LERNÆA.

LERNÆA with orbiculated hemispheric head and obcordate abdomen with a terminal truncated papilla.

Found on the gills and pectoral fins of Flounders, &c. &c.

The Lernææ affix themselves to the bodies of fish; adhering principally to the branchiæ and fins. The species figured on the annexed plate are all repre­sented in their natural size.


Occidental Bulla




Character Genericus.

Animal Limax.

Testa univalvis, convoluta, inermis.

Apertura coarctata, oblonga, longi­tudinalis.

Columella obliqua, lævis.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1181.

Character Specificus, &c.

BULLA? (Helix?) ovato-oblonga, crassa, albida, spira obtusa, labio purpureo.

HELIX oblonga. H. testa perforata ovato-oblonga, striata, labro columellaque roseis.

Müll. Hist. Verm. p. 86. n. 284.

PSEUDO-AURIS MIDÆ, testa ovali oblonga, subumbilicata, tumida, crassa, anfractibus sex ventricosis, apice obtuso, labro et labio roseis, apertura ovata integerrima.

Martini. Vol. 9. p. 30. t. 119. fig. 1022. 1023.

BUCCINUM admodum crassum, &c. &c.

List. conch. t. 23. fig. 21. &c. t. 1055. fig. 1.


COCHLEA terrestris Americana Plumieri.

List. it. Par. p. 74. t. 3.

HELIX oblonga.

Born. Mus. Cæs. Vind. test. t. 35. fig. 21. 22.

HELIX oblonga.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3637.


Seb. Mus. 3. t. 73. fig. 17-20.

Facie formaque generali affinis admodum est Bulla Occidua perpulchræ Bullæ achatinæ, quam in hoc opere jam depinximus. Ab illa tamen facile dignosci possit, quod crassior multo sit, labio non tenui, quale est Bullæ achatinæ, sed circa testæ hiatum solidam in marginem ducto. Differt quoque colore; nam alba paulatim subflavet, labio pulchre roseo, (quo etiam leviter inficitur interna testæ superficies,) caretque omnino eleganti illa variatione qua decoratur Bulla achatina. Terrestris est species, et in variis Americæ meridionalis partibus non raro reperitur, nec non in insulis Americanis seu occiduis. Animal testam incolens helici communi simillimum est. Color est cinereus, umbris striisque huc illuc obscuri­oribus et lucidioribus variatus, et in aliquibus partibus sub-cæruleo et roseo commistus. Viro celeberrimo Carolo Plumiero, quem circiter finem sæculi jam elapsi merito insigniverunt r scripta quæ congessit de naturali novi orbis historia, de botanice præcipue, figuram archetypam debemus, quam in tabula imitati sumus, quamque cum Listero in Lutesia Parisiorum agente, communicavit Plumierus. Ova quæ deponit Bulla occidua putamine calcario conteguntur, et tum forma tum magni­tudine ad ovorum passeris vulgaris similitudinem tam prope dicuntur accedere, ut ab iis vix ac ne vix possint distingui.



Generic Character.

Animal resembling a Limax or Slug.

Shell univalve, convoluted.

Aperture somewhat straitened, oblong, longi­tudinal, entire at the base.

Column oblique and smooth.

Specific Character, &c.

Ovate-oblong thick BULLA? (Helix?) with obtuse spire, and purple lip.

The Rose-lipped SNAIL.

Rose-mouthed BULLA.

Surinam SNAIL.

Oviparous SNAIL.

Der Rosenmund. Roodlip.

Martini. Vol. 9. p. 30. t. 119. fig. 1022. 1023.

FAUSSE Oreille de Midas.

Davil. Cat. 1. p. 134. n. 166.

Der rosenmundige SCHNIRKEL.

Born. Mus. Cæs. p. 381. t. 15. fig. 21. 22.


La FAUSSE Oreille de Midas.

Favanne conch. t. 65. fig. 1.

Surinam HELIX.

Cat. Mus. Port. p. 55.  n. 1299.

p. 39.  n. 933.

p. 82.  n. 1835.

p. 174. n. 3745.

In its general appearance this shell is very nearly allied to the beautiful species called Bulla achatina, already figured in the present work: it is however readily distinguished by its far thicker or more solid substance, by the lip or edge, which instead of being thin, as in that shell, forms a strong ridge or border round the opening, and by its total want of the beautiful variegations so conspicuous on the surface of the Bulla achatina; being merely of a dull white, with the border or lip before-mentioned of an elegant purple or rose-color: the inside of the shell has also a slight tinge of the same color. It is a terrestrial species, and is not very uncommon in several parts of South America, as well as the West Indian Islands. The inhabiting animal, which bears the most striking resemblance to the common snail, is of a cinereous color, varied with lighter and darker shades and streaks; with a tinge of blueish and rose-color on some parts. It is to the celebrated Father Plumier, so distinguished towards the latter part of the last century for his researches into v the natural history of the new world, and more particularly in the botanical department, that we owe the original of the elegant representation on the present plate; the drawing having been communi­cated by Plumier to Dr. Lister during the time of his residence in Paris.

The eggs which this animal deposits are covered with a hard calcareous coating, and are said to resemble those of the common sparrow to such a degree as to be scarce distinguished from them.


Diomedes Butterfly




Character Genericus.

Antennæ apicem versus crassiores, sæpius clavato-capitatæ.

Alæ sedentis erecti se sursumque conniventes, (volatu diurno).

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 744.

Character Specificus, &c.

PAPILIO caudatus niger, alarum disco inæqualiter cæruleo-radiato, macula nigra rotundata; posterioribus lunulis marginalibus cæruleis.

An Var. P. Ulyssis?


Cram. ins. t. 122. A.


Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 749.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 2236.

Indiam incolit pulcherrimus hic Papilio, magni­tudine naturali in tabula depictus.





Generic Character.

Antennæ thickening towards the upper part and generally terminating in a knob.

Wings (when sitting) erect and meeting upwards. (Flight diurnal.)

Specific Character.

Caudated black BUTTERFLY, with the disc of the wings unequally radiated with blue, with a round spot of black: the lower wings marked by a row of blue crescents round the margin.

This most beautiful Insect is a native of India, and is repre­sented on the plate in its natural size.




Galeated Cassowary




Character Genericus.

Rostrum depressum, rectum, subconicum.

Nares ovatæ.

Alæ brevissimæ, volatui inutiles.

Femora in parte inferiore denudata.

Pedes tridactyli, digitis omnibus anticis.

Cauda nulla.

Lath. ind. orn. p. 664.

Character Specificus, &c.

CASUARIUS niger, vertice galeato, collo purpureo-cæruleo, palearibus rubris.


Will. orn. 105. t. 25.


Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 265.


Lath. ind. orn. p. 664.

In insulis Indiæ orientalis præcipue conspicitur Casuarius galeatus, vel ipsi Struthio-camelo magni­tudine parum cedens. Cum alarum loco scapos v aliquot nudos, breves, acuminatos utrinque gerat, volandi omnino inscius est. Pennæ totius avis sunt valde graciles, laxe plumatæ, et veluti duplices; duæ nempe ab eadem basi oriuntur. Si cum hac avi comparetur Casuarius australis, quem in hoc opere jam depinximus, facile patebit species inter se omnino esse diversas.



Generic Character.

Bill depressed, strait, nearly conical.

Wings extremely small, and unfit for flight.

Feet tridactylous, with all the toes standing forwards.

Specific Character, &c.

Black CASSOWARY, with galeated head, and purple carunculated neck, with red wattles.


Will. orn. p. 151 pl. 25.


Lath. syn. 3. p. 10. pl. 72.


Robert icon. t. 4.


Briss. av. 1. p. 10. pl. 1. f. 2.

Buf. ois. 1. p. 464. Pl. enl. 313.

The Cassowary is principally found in the East-Indian islands: in size it is but little inferior to the v ostrich: it is totally destitute of the power of flight, being furnished only with a few strong, short, sharp-pointed shafts or naked quills in the place of wings: the feathers throughout the whole bird are of a very slender form, loosely webbed, and double; i.e. two proceeding from the same base or root. The Australasian or New Holland Cassowary has been already described in the present work, and from a collation of the figure of that bird with the present, it will readily appear that the two species are perfectly distinct from each other.


Porculine Opossum




Character Genericus.

Dentes numerosi, parvi.

Folliculus abdominalis, (feminæ.)

Character Specificus.

DIDELPHIS subferruginea, subtus albescens, cauda longiuscula, pedibus anticis pentadactylis, ungue exteriore utrinque brevissimo; pollicis tetra­dactylis, digitis interioribus unitis.

Macropi potius quam Didelphidis species.

Australasiam incolit hæc species, crassior et pinguior reliquis congeneribus. Crura posteriora anterioribus longiora, pedesque eodem fere more formati quo pedes Macropi gigantei, vulgo Kanguroo nominati; licet minor longe sit digitus intermedius pro rata proportione pedis. Digiti duo interiores utrinque conjuncti, seu cute communi vestiti. Magnitudo animalis eadem prope est ac muris Ratti Linnæani, semiadulti. Color pallido-fusco-flavescit. Pilus crassior et asperior quam aliarum plerarumque minorum Didelphidum. Aures rotundatæ. Cauda v longiuscula. Si obiter et in transitu aspiciatur hæc Didelphis, non absimilis videtur porcello minutulo. Hanc speciem primo observavi in Museo celeberrimi Joannis Hunteri, unde figura hæc nostra vera magni­tudine depingitur. Iconas quoque nonnullas vidi quas depingi curaverat Dominus White, coloniæ Britannicæ, vulgo dictæ Botany Bay, chirurgus primarius; quique specimen supra distum Domino Huntero donavit.



Generic Character.

Teeth numerous, small.

Abdominal Pouch in the female.

Specific Character.

Subferruginous OPOSSUM, whitish beneath, with longish tail; the fore-feet pentadactylous with very small exterior claws; the hind-feet tetra­dactylous with the two interior toes united.

In reality it is more properly a species of Macropus than Didelphis.

This species, hitherto undescribed, is a native of New Holland, and is remarkable for a thicker or more corpulent habit than others of the genus. The hind legs are considerably longer than the fore-legs, and have, in miniature, the form of those of the Kanguroo and some other Australasian quadrupeds; though the middle claws are far less in proportion: the interior ones are double, or both covered by a common skin. The size of this species is nearly v that of a small or half-grown domestic rat. Its color is a pale yellow-brown, and its hair is of a coarser or more harsh appearance than in the rest of the smaller Opossums: the ears are rounded: the tail rather long. When viewed in a cursory manner the animal bears a distant resemblance to a pig in miniature. I first observed this species in the Museum of the late Mr. John Hunter, and from the specimen there preserved the present figure is taken. It is repre­sented in its natural size. I have also seen drawings of the same species in the collection of Mr. White, Chief Surgeon to the Settlement at Botany Bay, who presented the above-mentioned specimen to Mr. Hunter.


Pulmonic Medusa




Character Genericus.

Corpus gelatinosum, orbiculatum, depressum.

Os subtus, centrale.

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 1096.

Character Specificus, &c.

MEDUSA hemisphærico-concava, margine fimbriato, subtus striata, caudice quadrifenestrato, brachiis octo.

Macri observ. del polm. mar. p. 34. t. 1.

Lin. Syst. Nat. Gmel. p. 3155.

PULMO marinus Matthioli.

Aldr. zooph. p. 575.

Jonst. anim. exang. t. 19.

Seb. mus. 3. t. 1. fig. 2.?

PULMO marinus.

Matthiol. in Dioscor. Venetiis. 1583. p. 310.

Speciem hanc Dominus Macri quam diligenter descripsit in hunc modum.


“Corpus totum gelatinosum, pellucidum, crystallinum, durum, tenax, uniforme, nitidum, cærulescens: Pileo maximo, hemisphærico-concavo, quasi usque ad caudicis extremitatem extenso, supra lævi, subtus cavo, striato, striis numerosis, concentricis, proximis, a sexdecim, ut plurimum ligamentis, distantibus, ramum unum brevis­simum utrinque emittentibus, longi­tudinaliter dissectis: Margine tenui, subtili, membranaceo, fimbriato, fimbriis subrotundis, sature cæruleis, multis, vicinis, lævibus, nitidis, sensim ut ad centrum accedit crassiori, et ad centrum crassissimo.

“Pilei centro adnatus descendit caudex maximus, crassissimus, tetragonus, lævis, versus finem attenuatus, in origine 4-fenestratus, fenestris lateralibus, magnis, subpatentibus, semiovalibus, inferne lobo lævi majore, superne minori et opposito donatis.

“Rami octo ab ima caudicis parte prodeuntes, magni, æquales, subcylindracei, pendentes, anterius et lateribus læves, posterius semper crispi.

“Appendices sexdecim, subtrigonæ, mediocres, liberæ, æquales, veluti coronam circa caudicis finem constitu­entes, anterius bifidæ, latere superiori plano densarum rugarum terminatæ, origine uniuscujusque rami adnatæ, una utrinque.

“Rami desinunt in totidem pendentes, magnas, æquales, branchias, subpyramidales, lateribus duobus anterioribus multum extantibus, proximis, plano densarum rugarum terminatis, superficiebus lævissimis, latere posteriori sive interno, remoto, minus exstante, rugoso, plicis ramorum continuato.

“Branchiæ abeunt in octo oblonga, subtrigona. r pendentia, æqualia corpora, magna, crassa, lævia, in plana tria membranacea acuta, parum distantia, desinentia, singulum unicuique lateri, in extremitate in acumen coalita.

“Intra singulam fenestram adest fascia striata, serpentina, flavo-cærulescens: an genitalia?

“Mirabile visu, hoc animal ore, arteriis, venis, nervis, (nisi strias, et ligamenta nervorum munus obire censeas) musculis, cerebro, medulla spinali, cordeque destitutum, vivere, nutriri, moveri, cresci, multiplicari!”

Habitat in mari Tyrrheno.



Generic Character.

Body gelatinous, orbicular, commonly depressed.

Mouth central, beneath.

Specific Character.

Hemispherically-concave MEDUSA with fimbriated border; striated beneath; the body or stem furnished with four openings and eight arms.

This curious species of Medusa is very accurately described by Dr. Macri, nearly as follows, viz.

The whole is gelatinous, pellucid, crystalline, hard, tenacious, uniform, glossy, and blueish: the pileus or head is very large, hemispherically concave, and extended as it were to the extremity of the stem; it is smooth above, hollow beneath, and marked with numerous, concentric, approximated striæ, which are cut or traversed by sixteen distant ligaments, each emitting a very short branch on each side: the border is thin, fine, membranaceous, and r fimbriated with numerous roundish, smooth, approxi­mated, blue scallops: the head gradually thickens as it approaches toward the centre, where it is very thick: the body or stem, which descends from the head or pileus, is very large and thick, and is of a tetragonal form, smooth, attenuated towards the extremity, and furnished at its origin or upper part with four large, semi-oval, lateral windows or openings, each of which has a smooth and large lobe above, and a smaller opposite one below. From the lower part of the stem or body proceed eight large, equal, subcylindric, pendent branches or arms, which are smooth in front and on the sides, but are always crisped or wrinkled behind: there are also sixteen appendices, of a moderate size, and of a subtrigonal form, hanging loose, and constituting as it were a kind of crown round the extremity of the body: these parts are bifid in front, and terminated on the upper side by a flat, thickly-wrinkled surface; they arise from the beginning of each branch, one on each side.

The branches end in as many large, pendent, equal, subpyramidal branchiæ, with their two exterior sides very prominent, and terminating in a flat thickly-wrinkled surface: on their hinder or inner side less prominent, rugose, and continued into the plicæ of the branches: these branchiæ end in eight oblong, subtri­gonal, pendent, large, thick, smooth bodies, terminating in three flat, acute, membranaceous pieces, and hanging at small distances from each other. Within each of the windows or v openings is a kind of flexuous or serpentine, striated fascia, of a mixed blue and yellow tinge.

Dr. Macri concludes his description by observing that it is wonderful that an animal apparently destitute of mouth, arteries, veins, nerves, muscles, brain, spinal marrow, and heart, should live, move, increase, and multiply!

It inhabits the Tuscan sea.


Augusta Moth




Character Genericus.

Antennæ setaceæ, a basi ad apicem sensim attennatæ.

Alæ (sedentis) sæpius deflexæ. (Volatu nocturno.)

Lin. Syst. Nat. p. 808.

Character Specificus, &c.

PHALÆNA alis primoribus falcatis fuscis, striga sigmoidali pallida, posterioribus nigris macula magna rubra medio alba.

PHALÆNA Conspicillator.

Cram. 2. p. 1. t. 97. A. B.

In rarissimis phalænis exoticis numeratur ea quam in insula Amboyna generatam magni­tudine naturali ostendit tabula. Alarum anticarum superficies inferior striis aliquot seu nubeculis albidis, in longi­tudinem ductis notatur; habentque nonnulla specimina superficiem superiorem stria obliqua distinctam, quas ipsis alis pallidior prope apices eas utrinque fascia decorat.



Generic Character.

Antennæ setaceous, decreasing in size from the base to the point.

Wings, when at rest, generally deflected.

Flight mostly nocturnal.

Specific Character.

PHALÆNA with falcated brown upper wings, with a pale sigmoid streak, and black lower wings with a large red spot, white in the middle.

The elegant insect here represented in its natural size is considered as one of the rarest of the exotic Phalænæ. It is principally found in the island of Amboyna. The under surface of the superior wings is marked by a few whitish, longi­tudinal streaks; and in some specimens an oblique streak of a paler color than the rest of the wing is seen on the upper surface; forming a band towards the tip of each wing.



255. Anas lobata.
269. Alcedo cærulea.
272. Alcyonium arenosum.
268. Bulla virginea.
294. Bulla? Occidua.
256. Buprestis gigantea.
297. Casuarius galeatus.
282. Cancer brachiatus.
265. Caprimulgus longipennis.
280. Cerambyx giganteus.
284. Cerambyx cervicornis.
281. Certhia cyanea.
289. Certhia muraria.
257. Chiton squamosus.
275. Chætodon squamulosus.
266. Coluber fasciatus.
291. Coluber Russelii.
273. Coracias Indica.
277. Cuculus Sinensis.
262. Cyprinus buphthalmus.
298. Didelphis obesula.
292. Dytiscus piceus.
263. Gorgonia sanguinolenta.
260. Holothuria inhærens.
279. Lacerta palustris.
295. Lernææ.
259. Medusa Andromeda.
299. Medusa Pulmo.
261. Motacilla Sialis.
270. Nais serpentina.
285. Oriolus Galbula.
271. Papilio Hector.
296. Papilio Diomedes.
264. Phalæna Luna.
288. Phalæna Caja.
300. Phalæna Augusta.
258. Psittacus pallidus.
286. Scarus viridis.
283. Serpula vermicularis.
267. Squalus Zygæna.
274. Stylephorus chordatus.
293. Tantalus Gangeticus.
290. Terebella Madreporarum.
287. Testudo imbricata.
276. Trichechus Rosmarus.
278. Vorticella polypina.


272. Alcyonium sandy.
268. Bulla ribband.
294. Bulla Occidental.
271. Butterfly Hector.
296. Butterfly Diomedes.
256. Buprestis great.
280. Cerambyx great.
284. Cerambyx stag-horned.
262. Carp telescope.
281. Creeper cyanean.
289. Creeper wall.
275. Chætodon double-scaled.
257. Chiton scaly.
297. Cassowary galeated.
277. Cuckow Chinese.
292. Dytiscus great.
255. Duck lobated.
263. Gorgonia purple-sided.
265. Goatsucker long-shafted.
260. Holothuria brown.
269. Kingfisher white-collared.
293. Ibis Gangetic.
282. Lobster Bamffian.
295. Lernææ.
259. Medusa Egyptian.
299. Medusa pulmonic.
264. Moth Luna.
288. Moth Tiger.
300. Moth Augusta.
270. Nais serpentiform.
279. Newt warted.
285. Oriole golden.
298. Opossum porculine.
258. Parrakeet pale.
261. Redbreast blue.
273. Roller Indian.
286. Scarus green.
266. Snake fasciated.
291. Snake Russelian.
267. Shark hammer-headed.
274. Stylephorus chordated.
283. Serpula vermicular.
290. Terebella Madrepore.
287. Tortoise imbricated.
278. Vorticella arborescent.
276. Walrus Arctic.

Notes and Corrections: Volume 8

Volume 8 of the Naturalist’s Miscellany was published in twelve monthly installments, from September 1796 through—conjecturally—August 1797. It is “conjecturally” because after the fourth installment (December 1796) the plates no longer include a date, though the first plate in the following volume does have the expected “September 1797”.

Installments vary between one signature of 16 pages, or two of 8 + 4 pages, except as noted:

[A]; B (8 pages); C; D; E (?January 1797); F; G H (16 + 4 pages); I; K; L M (16 + 4 pages); N; O P (16 + 4 pages)

Beginning in the third installment (November 1796), the count jumps from three animals per installment to four. Or, at least, from three plates to four; in future volumes, Shaw will sometimes cheat by having two pictures of the same animal, most often a moth and its pupa. At the same time, the publisher’s address (engraved in the first plate of each installment) changed from “No. 15 Brewer Street” to “No. 92 Newman Street near Oxford Street”.

To make up for the previous volume’s lack of mammals, this volume has two—both of them in addition to, not instead of, the usual bird.

In the fourth installment, Plate 264 (Luna moth) comes before Plate 263 (gorgonia); in the eleventh, Plate 295 (five Lernææ) comes before Plate 294 (snail).

Anas Lobata, the Lobated Duck

is now Biziura lobata, the musk duck, with naming credit to Shaw. It lives in Australia.

lineated transversely with greyish
text has tranversely

marked with numerous transverse whitish lines
text has tranverse
[Shaw seems to have had trouble with this word. It tends to get misspelled at least once per volume.]

Buprestis Gigantea, the Great Buprestis

Shaw goofed; Linnaeus’s name is B. giganteum, now Euchroma giganteum. It lives in and around central America, including Jamaica. The binomial B. gigantea (Scopoli, not Linnaeus) belongs to a European beetle, now Dicerca berolinensis.

quasi metallicus splendor, qui in nonnullis speciebus
text has spciebus

Chiton Squamosus, the Scaly Chiton

is also known as the squamose chiton. It lives around the Caribbean.

Psittacus Pallidus, the Pale Parrakeet

There’s no such bird. In his appendix on Doubtful and Invalid Taxa, Hume cites two late-19th-century sources who both “believed that it repre­sented an ‘albino’ (or lutino—a yellow form) of some species of Neophema”. The entire genus—including N. pulchella, which we met as Psittacus pulchellus at Plate 96 of Volume 3—is Australian.

Medusa Andromeda, the Egyptian Medusa

is now Cassiopea andromeda, the sucker upsidedown jellyfish. It lives in most tropical oceans.

Holothuria Inhærens, the Brown Holothuria

is now Leptosynapta inhaerens. It is most common around Scandinavia and the British Isles. Forsskål’s Fistularia reciprocans is a different animal, now Synaptula reciprocans, living mainly in the Red Sea.

Motacilla Sialis, the Blue Redbreast

is now Sialia sialis, the eastern bluebird. It lives in North America, east of the Rockies.

Cyprinus Buphthalmus, the Telescope Carp

is probably not just an “ally” but a variant of the goldfish, then C. auratus, now Carassius auratus. It originated in China, though it has been intro­duced to ponds and aquariums all over the world.

Phalæna Luna, the Luna (moth)

is now Actias luna, the Luna moth. It lives in eastern North America.

Incidentally, GBIF forgot to list Phalaena luna by that name, leading me on a long exploration of:

. . . all of which can be summed up as Harengus ruber or, if you prefer, Clupea rufa.

many parts of the United British States
[The year is 1796. This is the first time our author has even hinted at the existence of the United States as a country. There will not be another until Volume 24 (1812-13), when he grits his teeth and says “the United States of North America”.]

Gorgonia Sanguinolenta, the Purple-Sided Gorgonia

is now Filigorgia sanguinolenta. It can’t be very common: GBIF’s map only marks four sightings, in and around the Atlantic and Caribbean; it has no English name; and its IUCN (conservation) status has never been evaluated.

Pallas in opere cui titulus Elenchus Zoophytorum
[Thank you, George. I’ve been wondering what “el.” stood for since, oh, Volume 1 or so.]

Caprimulgus Longipennis, the Leona Goatsucker

is now Macrodipteryx longipennis, the standard-winged nightjar, with naming credit to Shaw. It lives in central Africa.

Vertex capitis nigrior reliquo corpore.
text has copore

Pectus et abdomen ferrugineo-pallidas strias habent
text has ferrugineo-pallida

particulars so inexplicable as to baffle all attempts at pointing out the purposes for which Nature intended them
[Cursory research suggests that the term “sexual selection” didn’t show up until the 1860s.]

The general color of the bird is a blackish grey
text has is is a

Coluber Fasciatus, the Fasciated Snake

is now Nerodia fasciata, the southern water snake. It lives in the south­eastern United States.

[ABBYY FineReader wanted this to read “Fascinated Snake”. You can see their point.]

Squalus Zygæna, the Hammer-Headed Shark

is now Sphyrna zygaena, the common hammerhead. It lives in most oceans, especially near coasts.

Bulla Virginea, the Ribband Bulla

Search me. The only Bulla virginea listed at GBIF or WoRMS dates from 1835. Gmelin’s Buccinum virgineum, or rather virginicum, has been merged into Elimia virginica, the Piedmont elimia. It lives in the eastern United States—and it isn’t especially beautiful.

Alcedo Cærulea, the White-Collared Kingfisher

is now listed as “doubtful”. One early source equates it with Alcedo grandis, which gets us no further. Another equates it with Alcedo cristata, but it’s anyone’s guess whether they mean the malachite kingfisher which now carries that binomial, or the A. cristata Shaw described at Plate 13 of Volume 1. Brisson’s genus Ispida doesn’t seem to have caught on.

Today’s “collared” or “white-collared” kingfisher is Todiramphus chloris (originally Alcedo chloris). It lives in Australia and Southeast Asia, extending into India. But aside from the collar, it cannot be said to look much like Shaw’s picture.

[Plate 269]
[This is the first bird plate to lack a full caption. It would be expected to read “London, Published Janry 1st 1797 by F. P. Nodder & Co. No. 92 Newman Street near Oxford Street.”]

Nais Serpentina, the Serpentiform Nais

is now Ophidonais serpentina, the aquatic oligochaete worm. It lives in Europe and central Asia.

Papilio Hector, the Hector (butterfly)

is now Pachliopta hector, the crimson rose. It lives in south India.

Alæ (sedentis)
text has sedendis

Alcyonium Arenosum, the Sandy Alcyonium

Your guess is as good as mine, and none of the synonyms are any help. (There are fewer of them than it looks like, since genus Eschara was later moved en bloc into genus Flustra.) In fact there may not be any such animal. Already in 1823, John Hogg presented a paper on Flustra arenosa to the Linnean Society, concluding:

On comparing what has been said of this substance, with the character of the genus Flustra, or of any other genus belonging to the order Vermes Zoophyta, it will be evident that it cannot be referred to that genus; but is rather to be considered as the matrix of Nerita glaucina, in which the embryo shells are retained and preserved, until they have arrived at sufficient growth to obtain nourishment for themselves, and to support an independent existence.

And now the worse news: The name Nerita glaucina is itself now listed as “nomen dubium”. The genus as a whole is a kind of aquatic gastropod.

Coracias Indica, the Indian Roller

is now generally treated as a subspecies, Coracias benghalensis indicus. It lives in South and Southeast Asia.

Stylephorus Chordatus, the Chordated Stylephorus

is also known as the pillar-eyed threadtail. It lives in most tropical-to-temperate oceans. Shaw’s description and illustration originally appeared in the very first volume of Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, 1791, giving him naming credit not only for the species but the genus.

[Pinnæ . . .] caudalis brevis, radiato-spinosa.
[Word italicized to agree with English side, and with the rest of the Latin sentence.]

this fish constitutes a new genus, of which no other species has yet been discovered
[Stylephorus remains a monospecific genus to this day; in fact it is a family to itself.]

Chætodon Squamulosus, the Double-Scaled Chætodon

is now Holacanthus ciliaris (by way of Linnaeus’s Chaetodon ciliaris), another marine angelfish. You will find a lot of different “Angelfish” swimming around; there are at least five in the Miscellany. This one lives mainly along the Atlantic coast of the Americas, including the Caribbean. Shaw was right about Linnaeus’s C. triostegus: it’s a different fish, now Acanthurus triostegus.

Trichechus Rosmarus, the Arctic Walrus

is now Odobenus rosmarus, the walrus. In addition to the Arctic, it has been found all along the eastern seaboard of North America. This is our first mammal since the Grey Baboon in Volume 6, two years ago. It must be confessed that the illustration is not the single best picture Shaw’s Miscellany has ever presented.

Cuculus Sinensis, the Chinese Cuckow

There is probably no such bird. The description is quoted at second hand from Brisson, who admits that he has never personally seen the bird; the whole thing is based on a drawing.

How Brisson arrived at his exact measurements (“seven inches and nine lines”, “ten lines and a half”) is not explained. But Hume sheds light by mentioning that it was common to place a specimen directly on the paper, and trace around it. Provided the engraving (“Sculp.”) matches the size of the original (“Del.”), this should yield reasonably accurate measurements.

Vorticella Polypina, the Arborescent Vorticella

is now Carchesium polypinum, neither an animal nor a plant but a chromist. It is most often found in Europe.

Lacerta Palustris, the Warted Newt

is now Lissotriton vulgaris, the . . . smooth newt. It ranges from Europe through central Asia, though it doesn’t seem to like Iberia. The name mismatch is because Linnaeus had at least three concurrent binomials for this little amphibian: Lacerta aquatica, L. palustris and L. vulgaris. We will meet L. vulgaris by that name at Plate 318 of Volume 9, and L. aquatica at Plate 412 of Volume 11. With all those names, Linnaeus never did figure out that salamanders aren’t lizards.

Cerambyx Giganteus, the Great Cerambyx

is now Titanus giganteus. It lives in South America. To explain the name, GBIF has a photograph of one sitting atop a dollar bill . . . and covering most of it.

Certhia Cyanea, the Cyanean Creeper

is probably Cyanerpes cyaneus, the red-legged honeycreeper. It lives in South and Central America, including the Caribbean islands.

Cancer Brachiatus, the Bamffian Lobster

If it is the same as Cancer rugosus—which it probably is, based on its other synonyms—it is now Munida rugosa, the rugose squat lobster. It is most common around the British Isles, but is also found along other European coasts.

Serpula Vermicularis, the Vermicular Serpula

is also known as the calcareous tubeworm. It lives along many coasts, but is most common around Europe.

Cerambyx Cervicornis, the Stag-Horned Cerambyx

is now Macrodontia cervicornis. It lives in South America. In spite of the name, it isn’t a stag beetle as currently defined (family Lucanidae).

Oriolus Galbula, the Golden Oriole

I think Shaw has conflated two similar-looking—but not especially closely related—birds. One is Icterus galbula (originally Coracias galbula), the Baltimore oriole, which lives all over North America. The other is Oriolus oriolus (originally Coracias oriolus), the Eurasian oriole, which lives in Europe, Africa and western Asia.

The Eurasian oriole may once have had a still wider range. The 1875 Arran: Its Topography, Natural History, and Antiquities includes a compre­hensive list of birds. Under “Golden Oriole (Oriolus galbula)”, the book reports cheerfully “One shot in 1807”.

Scarus Viridis, the Green Scarus

is now Chlorurus japanensis, the Japanese parrotfish. It lives near the Pacific coasts of Asia and Australia. The naming mismatch is because Bloch didn’t realize his Scarus viridis, named in 1790, was the same fish as his S. japanensis, named in 1789.

Testudo Imbricata, the Imbricated Tortoise

is now Eretmochelys imbricata, the hawksbill turtle. It lives in almost all oceans. Linnaeus’s Testudo caretta is a different turtle, now Caretta caretta, the loggerhead, which may or may not be the one Ray was talking about. Testudo mydas is now Chelonia mydas, the green turtle.

Phalæna Caja, the Tiger Moth

is now Arctia caja, the garden tiger (moth). It lives in most of Eurasia and North America, but is most common in Europe.

Wings, when at rest, generally deflected.
text has genenerally

Certhia Muraria, the Wall Creeper

is now Tichodroma muraria. It lives in a narrow band of Eurasia, extending from southern Europe to China.

Terebella Madreporarum, the Madrepore Terebella

Who knows? One slightly later source thinks it is Serpula gigantea, now Spirobranchus giganteus, the Christmas tree worm. It is scattered along most tropical-to-subtropical coasts.

Coluber Russelii, the Russelian Snake

is now Daboia russelii, Russel’s viper, with naming credit to Shaw & Nodder. It lives in South and Southeast Asia.

Dytiscus Piceus, the Great Dytiscus

is now Hydrophilus piceus. It lives in western Europe.

This is the very last four-page Latin article in the Miscellany. There will be a four-page English article in Volume 10, but only because Shaw incor­porates a very long quoted passage.

Tantalus Gangeticus, the Gangetic Ibis

If it’s the same bird as Tantalus leucocephalus, it is probably Mycteria leucocephala, the painted stork. It lives in South and Southeast Asia.


Today, genus Lernaea is restricted to anchor worms—which, in spite of the name, are crustaceans. Parasitic copepods, to be more exact: order Cyclopoida in class Hexanauplia. None of Shaw’s five listed critters are in the Lernaeidae family, let alone genus Lernaea, though they are all in class Hexanauplia, and some even in order Cyclopoidea. All live in various northern oceans, mainly the north Atlantic.

Lernæa radiata, the Radiated Lernæa

is now Chondracanthodes radiatus.

Lernæa gobina, the Gobian Lernæa

is now Lernaeocera branchialis (by way of Lernaea branchialis), the throat-ogre.

Lernæa nodosa, the Knotty Lernæa

is now Chondracanthus nodosus.

Habitat in Percæ Norvegicæ rictu.
text has Norwegicæ

with two very short arms beneath on each side
text has short ams

Lernæa cornuta, the Horned Lernæa

is now Acanthochondria cornuta.

Lernæa pectoralis, the Pectoral Lernæa

is now Lepeophtheirus pectoralis.

Bulla? Occidua, the Occidental Bulla

I get the impression Shaw himself wasn’t sure what gastropod he was talking about. Helix oblonga is now Strophocheilus oblongus. It lives in South America.

Bulla achatina, already figured in the present work
[At Plate 248 of Volume 7.]

Papilio Diomedes, the Diomedes (butterfly)

The question marks are warranted, because it turned out to be the same butterfly as P. ulysses, the blue emperor, as seen at Plate 92 of Volume 3. It lives in New Guinea and northern Australia.

An Var. P. Ulyssis?

Casuarius Galeatus, the Galeated Cassowary

If it is the same bird as Struthio casuarius and Casuarius emeu, it is now Casuarius casuarius, the southern cassowary.

The Australasian or New Holland Cassowary has been already described in the present work, and from a collation of the figure of that bird with the present, it will readily appear that the two species are perfectly distinct from each other.
[In Shaw’s time, the names Emeu and Cassowary had not yet settled on their present meanings. This volume’s bird is a cassowary; the one described at Plate 99 of Volume 3 is an emu. It’s confusing.]

Didelphis Obesula, the Porculine Opossum

is now Isoodon obesulus, the southern brown bandicoot, with naming credit to Shaw. It lives in Australia and looks more like its picture than you might expect.

In reality it is more properly a species of Macropus than Didelphis.
[Genus Macropus—defined by Shaw in 1790—is kangaroos; genus Didelphis is opossums.]

Medusa Pulmo, the Pulmonic Medusa

is now Rhizostoma pulmo, the barrel jellyfish. It lives around the coasts of Europe.

“Corpus totum gelatinosum . . . . moveri, cresci, multiplicari!”
[All intermediary quotation marks—the ones at the beginning of successive paragraphs—were added by me for clarity.]

[From here to the end of the Miscellany, he will spell it that way.]

Dr. Macri concludes his description by observing
[Dr. Macri would have enjoyed the article on jellyfish that appeared in Discover magazine a few decades ago. The writer observes—as best I remember—that a jellyfish is “heartless, brainless and spineless, just like your ex”.]

Phalæna Augusta, the Augusta (moth)

Unknown. One 19th-century source equates it with Hypernaria augusta, which gets us no further, even if you spell it Hypenaria. Cramer used the binomial Ph. conspicillator twice. The first (1777) is listed as “doubtful”; the second (1779) is now Phyllodes conspicillator, which lives in Indonesia.

The original of this text is in the public domain—at least in the U.S.
My notes are copyright, as are all under-the-hood elements.
If in doubt, ask.